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Sample records for cancer co-operative group

  1. International co-operative group on cyclic crack growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Cyclic Crack Growth Group was formed in 1977 with the general objective to co-ordinate research and development efforts on corrosion fatigue on pressure boundary materials in light water reactor service environments. Three co-operative programs have been agreed. The first was on data reduction methods. The same raw data were given to the members and the derived curves of dα/dN, as a function of ΔK, obtained, were then compared. Many discrepancies were observed at the first attempt but comparison and discussion enabled the participants to reach a good agreement. The second was a Round-Robin experiment on pressure vessel steel in a water environment at 2880C. The results were most interesting and an understanding of the discrepancies observed was achieved. The third program is Round-Robin tests on pressure vessel steel specimens in simulated BWR and PWR environments at high R ratios. The aim of this co-operative work is to develop a sufficient understanding of the mechanisms controlling the rate of crack growth to enable all the data generated in different laboratories to be used by the international technical community with confidence as truly representative of typical LWR operational conditions. (author)

  2. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Kempel, Mette Moe; Düring, Maria;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised studies have shown that breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is associated with a prognosis similar to mastectomy alone. This formed the basis for recommending breast conserving surgery combined with radiotherapy as a standard treatment for suited breast cancer...... patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years of.......0, 19.9, and 6.0% respectively, when analysed in a competing risk setting. The risk of loco-regional recurrences was significantly decreased in patients aged 50 years or more and increased with increasing tumour size. There was a pronounced beneficial effect of adjuvant radiotherapy with those not...

  3. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin administration in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A Hellenic co-operative oncology group study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountzilas, G. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Skarlos, D. [`Agii Anargyri` Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kosmidis, P. [`METAXA` Cancer Hospital, Piraeous (Greece); Samantas, E. [`Agii Anargyri` Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kalogera-Fountzila, A. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papaspyrou, S. [`Evangelismos` Hospital, Athens (Greece); Tzitzikas, J. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sridhar, K.S. [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Makrantonakis, P. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Pantelakos, P. [`Agii Anargyri` Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Nikolaou, A. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Bacoyiannis, H. [`METAXA` Cancer Hospital, Piraeous (Greece); Sinodinou, M. [`METAXA` Cancer Hospital, Piraeous (Greece); Banis, C. [`METAXA` Cancer Hospital, Piraeous (Greece); Daniilidis, J. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    In an attempt to improve local control of locally advanced head and neck cancer, radiation therapy was combined with cisplatin. Forty-eight patients entered into this study. All patients were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co unit and according to the protocol they should receive 70 Gy in the tumor area and 45 Gy in the rest of neck. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m{sup 2} on days 2, 22 and 42. Thirty-seven (80%) patients received the total radiation dose as initially planned. Thirty-four (72%) patients achieved complete and 5 (10%) partial response. Grade 3-4 toxicities included vomiting (14%) stomatitis (4%), diarrhea (2%), myelotoxicity (14%), hoarseness (4%), dysphagia (30%), weight loss (32%), nephrotoxicity (4%) and dermatitis (2%). After a median follow-up of 26 (range, 18-33) months, 16 patients have died. Among the 35 complete responders 6 later on relapsed. Median relapse-free survival has not yet been reached. Combined radiation therapy and cisplatin appears to be a highly active treatment in patients with advanced head and neck cancer as far as primary locoregional response is concerned. (orig.).

  4. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin administration in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A Hellenic co-operative oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to improve local control of locally advanced head and neck cancer, radiation therapy was combined with cisplatin. Forty-eight patients entered into this study. All patients were irradiated with a 60Co unit and according to the protocol they should receive 70 Gy in the tumor area and 45 Gy in the rest of neck. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m2 on days 2, 22 and 42. Thirty-seven (80%) patients received the total radiation dose as initially planned. Thirty-four (72%) patients achieved complete and 5 (10%) partial response. Grade 3-4 toxicities included vomiting (14%) stomatitis (4%), diarrhea (2%), myelotoxicity (14%), hoarseness (4%), dysphagia (30%), weight loss (32%), nephrotoxicity (4%) and dermatitis (2%). After a median follow-up of 26 (range, 18-33) months, 16 patients have died. Among the 35 complete responders 6 later on relapsed. Median relapse-free survival has not yet been reached. Combined radiation therapy and cisplatin appears to be a highly active treatment in patients with advanced head and neck cancer as far as primary locoregional response is concerned. (orig.)

  5. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig MaClean

    Full Text Available Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves", this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTING OF THE CO-OPERATIVE GROUP FOOD RETAIL DIVISION

    OpenAIRE

    Rizo Patron Pinto, Cecilia Ursula

    2005-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reporting is now a critical element in communicating a company's social and environmental policies to the investment community and other stakeholder populations. CSR reporting refers to what is also known as triple bottom line reporting, by which companies report social, economic an environmental performance. This dissertation focuses on the evaluation of the CSR reporting of the Co-operative Group Food Retail division; through the analysis of...

  7. Co-operative Banking Groups in Europe: Comparative Analysis of the Structure and Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Palomo Zurdo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the situation of the main European co-operative banking groups (or systems) through the analysis of particular aspects of their structure and the activities and services they offer, in order to compare these groups with the Spanish case to check if the different ways of dealing with these aspects agree, and under what circumstances or how they are developed. This analysis is also intended to identify the decision-making and economic linking relations set up be...

  8. Spring migration of the Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus : results of a co-operative Wader Study Group project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dick, William J.A.; Piersma, Theunis; Prokosch, Peter

    1987-01-01

    In spring 1979 the Wader Study Group organised a co-operative project to study the spring migration of Siberian Knots Calidris c. canutus from their west and south African wintering grounds to the breeding grounds in central Siberia. S. African wintering birds migrate via the western seaboards of Af

  9. The Use of Relationship Marketing in Developing Network and Co-operative links within Tourism Product Marketing Groups (PMG’s

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Catherine, (Thesis)

    2006-01-01

    Co-operative marketing groups are common in tourism, particularly in the case of destination marketing. Destination tourism marketing groups offer a diverse range of tourism products and experiences which complement each other and are delineated by a specific geographical parameter. Tourism product marketing groups offer similar tourism products or services and through a co-operative approach focus on an identified target markets. Co-operative marketing can make greater impact in terms of...

  10. Computer-Supported Co-operative Learning Systems: Interactive Group Technologies and Open Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Dick

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of interactive technologies and open learning focuses on computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), especially computer based message systems, and their effects on open learning. Topics discussed include cooperative learning; distance learning; individualized instruction; local area networks; group communication; and design principles…

  11. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  12. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  13. Surrendering the environment for capital gain and Olson's group theory: A case study of the dissolution of housing co-operative societies in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, LWC; Chau, KW; Kwong, JWY

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the rise of the co-operative housing of civil servants and its fall during the transition of Hong Kong from a British colony to a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Olson's group theory was adopted to explain the timing of the dissolution in a context of uncertainty in the property rights of land; the terms of civil service appointments; and the housing market. The size of the ownership body and the value of the land were evaluated as factors...

  14. Monoclonal antibody panels for acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosis. Results of a co-operative quality control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, G; Bernasconi, P; Chianese, R; Crovetti, G; Garbaccio, G; Iavarone, A; Pautasso, M; Santagostino, A; Stacchini, A

    2001-01-01

    The need for standardization criteria and result reproducibility in immunophenotyping hematological diseases has increased along with their clinical importance. Our group "Policentric Study Group on Immunological Markers", is composed of 40 laboratories. Its aim, over recent years, has been to find a standardized way of immunophenotypic analysis applicable to various hematological diseases. The objective of this study is to contribute to the debate concerning standardization of monoclonal antibody panels and immunophenotypic analysis procedures in acute leukemia (AL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with the following targets: to improve interlaboratory reproducibility of the immunophenotyping data, and interpretative results; to study, with improved feasibility, correlation between immunophenotype and clinical or biological findings on a large number of AL and MDS cases; to verify the utility of the proposed monoclonal antibody panels for proper AL and MDS classification, and to detect minimal residual disease. In the field of AL and MDS our experience is based on about 1800 and 700 cases respectively analyzed over the last five years. Starting from these experiences and data of the literature we have elaborated the proposed panels of monoclonal antibodies and the methods of analysis. We have suggested a standardized immunophenotypic approach to study AL and MDS. In particular our work has focused on the gating strategy. This aims at drawing a gate of analysis having high purity and recovery, and on the choice of monoclonal antibody combinations for multiparametric analysis, particularly the normal antigen expression on each step of lineage differentiation or their clinically relevant aberrant expressions. A standardized criteria has become a necessary starting point in any kind of analytical process. In the field of acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes the work of this polycentric group has focused on the pre-analytical and analytical steps to be

  15. Epidemiological and immunological characteristics of childhood leukaemia in the Netherlands: population-based data from a nationwide co-operative group of paediatricians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reviewed from several population-based epidemiological and immunological studies of children with leukaemia in The Netherlands, who were diagnosed between 1973 and 1982 through a nationwide co-operative group of paediatricians. From 1973 till 1980 annual incidence rates appeared to be 3.1 per 105 person-yr. No significant trend was observed in this period. However a preliminary analysis of patients in the 1980-1982 period showed an increase. Mortality rates are decreasing since 1973, as expected. Incidence rates and proportions of different morphological and immunological subtypes reflect the pattern of occurrence in populations with a high standard of living. A relatively high incidence rate of acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is observed with a peak at the age of 3-5. The proportion of patients with T-cell phenotype among ALL-patients, immunologically typed between 1979 and 1982, appeared to increase with age, while the proportion of common ALL decreased. Statistical analysis of the data of patients with ALL in the Western part of the country including areas with nuclear plants, gave no indication for the presence of clustering. (author)

  16. Organisational models for agricultural co-operatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson Myrelid, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to study the effects that different financial solutions may have on the organisational mode of Irish dairy co-operatives. Membership, marketing and management are examined in four different enterprises. These areas are examined using the agency theory and property rights theory. Glanbia Group PLC, Golden Vale PLC and Kerry Group PLC were all former traditional co-operatives transformed into Public Limited Companies (PLCs) in the 1980s. Dairygold remained a traditional...

  17. Co-operative Bank System: The Spanish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Amparo Melian

    2005-01-01

    In practically all European countries, co-operative credit societies have evolved towards a system which is comparable to other financial groups. This paper explores the recent evolution of Spanish credit co-operatives and especially rural savings banks. The creation of "Group Caja Rural" in 1989, has meant the greatest commitment to the integration of Spanish credit co-operatives in the face of the challenges of economic globalisation and the great changes in the national and international f...

  18. Transnational Research Co-operation: Opportunities and Challenges for transnational research co-operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the NGOs have a lot of international experience (mainly in Denmark and Germany) as partners in different co-operation projects. Almost all the NGOs have recognized the important role of the scientific information in their activity. NGOs also feel the need for an easy access to required information...... for transnational co-operation like: an investigation/project concerning the driving forces behind urban development,or a co-operation in the field of wastewater reuse and minimization of wastewater loads and discharge, or a service page (internet) to search for potential partners. The governmental institutions...... in order to improve transnational cooperation are identified to be: • Search for national/international project partners • Access to existent co-operation projects or networks • Develop in common project proposals on themes requested by community groups • Exchange information/good operational practices...

  19. IAEA advisory group meeting on nuclear and atomic data for radiotherapy and related radiobiology in co-operation with the Radiobiological Institute of the Division for Health Research TNO, 16-20 September 1985, Rijswijk, the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ''Nuclear and Atomic Data for Radiotherapy and Related Radiobiology'' was held at Rijswijk, the Netherlands, from 16 to 20 September 1985, in co-operation with the Radiobiological Institute TNO. The meeting participants reviewed the current and future requirements on nuclear and atomic data for radiotherapy and radiobiology, identified data requirements and their priorities, and issued a number of specific recommendations for future technical work in nuclear and atomic data required to establish a more solid nuclear physics foundation of radiotherapy and related radiobiology. The recommendations in this report are directed to three areas, namely beam production and field description, dosimetry, and interpretation and optimization of biological effects. The final proceedings will be issued as an IAEA publication in 1986. (author)

  20. Chapter No.10. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given its international importance and a wide range of technical assistance possibilities, the co-operation with the IAEA in Vienna is the most important in this area. In co-operation with the Slovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Slovak Republic fulfilled its financial obligations toward this organisation in a full and timely manner. Contributions to the Technical Co-operation Fund were made up the sum 2616 thousand Slovak crowns. Eleven representatives of Slovakia worked for the IAEA in 2001. In 2001 the Slovak Republic contributed to four national and many regional and inter-regional projects. In 2001 as many as 83 participants from UJD took part in professional fellowships, short-term scientific visits and workshops in abroad. Under the regional projects, thirteen external experts were trained in the Slovak Republic, in particular from developing countries and from the former Soviet Union countries, on nuclear and radiation safety, radioactive waste processing and management, safety analyses and emergency management. Three seminars-workshops with broad international involvement took place in the Slovak Republic. These seminars have been focused on the problems of commissioning of NPPs, safety culture and physical protection of nuclear installations. There were six active scientific contracts in agriculture, nuclear power, nuclear installation safety and radioactive waste in 2001. Objectives were provided based on the Plenary sessions of the Preparatory Commission for the Treaty Organisation and from the meetings of their working groups in co-operation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defence and the Slovak Academy of Sciences. UJD organised an international 'OSI Field Experiment CTBTO' in the Slovak Republic at the end of September and start of October. This experiment was held in co-operation with Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission and other national agencies and organisations. The main goal of the experiment was

  1. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms and...... individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing the...... conditions necessary for normative control. This is illustrated by a case study of control in a Danish producers co-operative. The analysis of the case study leads to the hypothesis of a paradox of normative control in co-operatives: The need of information tends to be greater in co-operatives comparet to...

  2. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  3. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  4. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  5. Making Co-Operative Ideas Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…

  6. ANALYSIS OF CO-OPERATION OF PARTICIPANTS FINANCIAL TO CLUSTER

    OpenAIRE

    Yagolnitskiy, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the article certainly groups of organizations, among potential participants financial to the cluster, which must be a kernel. Basic financial institutions which it is expedient to unite in a financial cluster and the degree of co-operation is set between them are selected.

  7. Future perspectives on territorial cooperation in Europe [Electronic resource] : the EC regulation on a European grouping of territorial cooperation and the planned Council of Europe third protocol to the Madrid outline convention concerning euroregional co-operation groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Engl Alice

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe, analyze and compare the recent legal developments regarding territorial cooperation that can be observed on the international and supranational level in Europe: the EC Regulation on a European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation adopted in 2006, on the one hand, and the planned Third Protocol to the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co–operation between Territorial Communities and Authorities concerning Euroregional Co–operation Groupings of th...

  8. Italian Co-operative Law Reform and Co-operative Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Fici

    2009-01-01

    A reform of Italian co-operative law was passed in 2003 and came into force in 2004. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the new Italian co-operative law and seeks to evaluate the relationship of some of its main provisions to traditional co-operative principles. From this perspective, the paper deals in particular with the definition of the Italian co-operative as a company with a “mutual purpose”; the distinction between “mainly mutual” co-operatives and “other” co-operativ...

  9. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan. PMID:20670961

  10. Co-operative Marketing Structures in Rural Tourism: The Irish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    It is recognised that co-operative practises amongst tourism providers creates competitive advantage through utilising and sharing resources. This leads to efficiencies and more effective provision of a valued experience for the visitor. This chapter explores the co-operative practises being utilised by three groups operating within the rural tourism sector in Ireland. It identifies barriers to co-operation and summates that frequent communication and evident benefits are key considerations...

  11. Technical co-operation report for 2002. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    developmental impact. The development of Country Programme Frameworks (CPFs) progressed further in 2002, with new CPFs concluded or at an advanced stage of preparation for 29 more Member States. Thematic plans were prepared for food irradiation, river basin management and the role of isotopic techniques in the control of communicable diseases. The Agency increased its involvement in international efforts to promote development through intensified consultation and collaboration with the United Nations system, multilateral banks, regional organizations and other relevant bodies. As part of its activities to develop strategic partnerships, the Agency signed Memoranda of Understanding with the Common Fund for Commodities, the Transplant Procurement Management Project (University of Barcelona), the National Atomic Energy Agency of Argentina and the University of Buenos Aires. A new form of partnership was entered with the Nuclear Threat Initiative to support the decommissioning of a research reactor in Serbia and Montenegro. In addition, contacts were strengthened between the Agency and regional development organizations to ensure that policies for development programmes complement each other. During 2002, achievements were made in many areas of implementation of the technical co-operation programme. Training events, expert missions and equipment procurement supported national and regional efforts to initiate or improve cancer therapy facilities. Different government nutrition supplementation programmes benefited from Agency expertise to verify they had the impact expected. In the area of water resource management, an ongoing regional project brought together more than 30 water institutes to solve water shortage problems. And in several regions, plans to construct mass- rearing facilities for medfly and tsetse were a testament that national and regional authorities are committed to the sterile insect technique for the control of insect pests. In response to resolution GC(46)/RES/10

  12. International relations and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the international relations and co-operation of the UJD are presented. International community is aware of the fact that nuclear energy shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and on condition of high standard of nuclear safety. Therefore, the long-term aim of UJD in the area of international relations is to maintain and develop internationally recognised system of state supervision upon the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to reach internationally accepted level of nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic. There are many important international treaties (Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Convention on Nuclear Safety, etc.) to which slovakia is a party. In order to meet the obligations of these treaties UJD has the main aim for contribute to the process of international disarmament, and to a mutually advantageous co-operation. By means of the most important international organisations (e.g. International Atomic Energy Agency) the Slovak Republic actively participates in the international co-operation. Under the leadership of UJD, Slovak institutions participate in many projects and activities which have the aim to improve the safety of nuclear international obligations. In addition, UJD actively participates in the integration process of the Slovak Republic into European and Trans-Atlantic structures. Since 1993 the co-operation with the European Commission and the Nuclear Energy Agency of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD/NEA) has been successfully implemented. Besides multilateral co-operation UJD attaches extraordinary importance to bilateral co-operation, in particular with neighbouring countries. Regular meetings of senior Slovak experts with foreign experts are organised, with the aim to exchange the newest experiences and information on peaceful use of nuclear energy. Also in

  13. The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel

    New regional organisations are always interesting to follow as they will tell us more about the things that make or break this type of co-operation. Originally established as “The Shanghai Five” in 1996, The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) has been successful at reducing tension between...... the member states but it has since found it very hard to come up with a more ambitious agenda. Mutual suspicion and zero-sum thinking clearly run deep and the continued development of the organisation has suffered as a result of this. All told, the SCO is much more façade than real policy substance....

  14. Co-operatives as heating entrepreneurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of heating entrepreneurship functioning in the form of a co operative is to make the use of the wood chips competitive primarily through district heating of municipal centres. When compared with the conventional heating mode the reliability of chip delivery and the remuneration paid to the co-operative for attending to the running of the heating centres are considered to be the competitive advantages. The system has proven to be a working one; one indication of this is its growing application in the country. In the spring of the year 2000 there were 26 chip-based energy co-operative active in Finland. The first time that the use of bioenergy underwent a powerful rise was in the 1970s as a consequence of the oilcrises. Subsequently the enthusiasm shown to this energy form subsided. Then in the early 1990s, biofuels once again became a subject of interest mainly due to environmental issues, the restructuring of rural areas and silvicultural reasons. With the past decades' experiences forming the basis, the development needs associated with the use of bioenergy were in fresh memory and they were addressed on a wide font. Boiler technology related to solid fuels evolved rapidly and the least successful manufacturers had been eliminated by the recession. In the case of co-operative heating entrepreneurship, the commonest form neither the district heating centre nor the system of heat-transfer pipes belong to co-operative society. The co-operative is responsible only for the delivery of the fuel and for looking after the heating plant. Remuneration is generally based on the amount of energy leaving the district heating plant. Thus the heat dissipated at the heating plant is the co-operative's problem and the heat dissipated during transfer are the energy buyer's problem. The investor in the equipments usually the local municipality or an energy utility. In some cases the co-operative owns the equipments well, in which case it is correct to speak of

  15. Chapter 11. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the international co-operation of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) in 1999 is reviewed. The Director General of the IAEA, Mr. Mohamed ElBaradei by his deputy for nuclear safety, Mr. Zikmund Domaratsky, upon the invitation of Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic Mr. Eduard Kukan, on 29 and 30 April 1999. Since 1999 Slovakia is represented in the Board of Governors of the IAEA. The Chairman of UJD was delegated by the Government of Slovakia to take the function of the governor. Co-operation between Slovakia and the IAEA in the field of technical projects is very successful. In the past year Slovakia was involved in 6 national and 23 regional projects. Significant part of regional projects related to the nuclear safety. Overall UJD organized 6 seminars and training courses with a broad international participation. These focused on radiation protection, fuel cycle, emergency regulations and utilization of radiation methods in oncology. There were 15 active research contracts in the field of agriculture, nuclear energy, safety of nuclear installations, physics, chemistry and RAW in 1999. A medium-term goal of UJD in the field of technical co-operation is a gradual transition to active international assistance in providing assistance to less developed countries. Within the technical projects of the IAEA assistance has been provided mainly to the countries of former of former Soviet Union. Other international activities and co-operation of UJD in 1999 are presented

  16. Ethnic group and survival from childhood cancer: report from the UK Children's Cancer Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, C A; Bunch, K. J.; Lewis, I. J.

    2000-01-01

    Survival following cancer was analysed in relation to ethnic group among children diagnosed in Britain during 1981–1996 and treated at paediatric oncology centres by members of the UK Children's Cancer Study Group. Survival was analysed for 11 diagnostic groups: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, astrocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumour, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyos...

  17. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  18. Comparative study on membership legislation in Canadian and Chinese agricultural co-operative laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhihong; GUO Xiangyu

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, groups of people desiring to supply themselves with goods, to market their products, or to obtain services of various kinds on a co-operative basis, have made increasing use of co-operative associations to achieve these purposes. During the period, legislation designed especially for the incorporation and conduct of such associations has been enacted by different counties.Since a co-operative is established and carried on by and for the use of its members, this essay makes a comparison between Canadian and Chinese co-operative laws in terms of membership in the aspects of qualifications, rights and obligations and withdrawal of membership, so as to probe the function of co-operative legislation and find some enlightment from it.

  19. NEA international co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is consecrated at the international co-operative projects of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of reactor safety (Halden reactor project, Loft project, studies on the damaged Three Mile Island unit-2 reactor, inspection of reactor steel components, incident reporting system) and in the field of radioactive waste management (Stripa project, geochemical data bases, Alligator river project, seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, decommissioning of nuclear facilities)

  20. Quorum sensing protects bacterial co-operation from exploitation by cheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard C; McNally, Luke; Popat, Roman; Brown, Sam P

    2016-07-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication system found in many bacterial species, commonly controlling secreted co-operative traits, including extracellular digestive enzymes. We show that the canonical QS regulatory architecture allows bacteria to sense the genotypic composition of high-density populations, and limit co-operative investments to social environments enriched for co-operators. Using high-density populations of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa we map per-capita signal and co-operative enzyme investment in the wild type as a function of the frequency of non-responder cheats. We demonstrate mathematically and experimentally that the observed response rule of 'co-operate when surrounded by co-operators' allows bacteria to match their investment in co-operation to the composition of the group, therefore allowing the maintenance of co-operation at lower levels of population structuring (that is, lower relatedness). Similar behavioural responses have been described in vertebrates under the banner of 'generalised reciprocity'. Our results suggest that mechanisms of reciprocity are not confined to taxa with advanced cognition, and can be implemented at the cellular level via positive feedback circuits. PMID:26744811

  1. AFRA. African Regional Co-operative Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides an outline of the African Regional Co-operation Agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). The agreement stems from an initiative of several African member states of the IAEA to get the agency to help establish an African regional arrangement which would be similar to arrangements which were already in place in the Asian and Latin American regions. Through this regional approach to development, AFRA seeks to accelerate moves toward self-sufficiency in scientific disciplines and appropriate technologies by coordinating intellectual and physical resources and disseminating innovative methods and practices in a cost-effective manner

  2. Real-Time Co-Operative Decision Making & Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vlacic, Ljubo; Thomas, Daniel; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué

    2011-01-01

    International audience Learning and adaptability (and thus the ability of being co-operative) are important features of decision & control systems. This paper investigates decision making and control concepts that enable human beings and artificial beings to interact and co-operate in real time in a dynamic and reliable way. It examines the aspects of being co-operative and substitutable in the context of: (i) co-operative driving by driverless vehicles; and (ii) computer game play scenari...

  3. FairShares Co-operative - Model Articles of Association

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley-Duff, Rory; Southcombe, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    A new model for self-governing co-operatives and social enterprises operating under Co-operative Law. These Articles of Association implement the FairShares Brand Principles under Industrial and Provident Society Law (Co-operative Law), rather than Company Law.

  4. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  5. Sixteen Years of International Co-operation. The OECD/NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning under the administration of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has recently completed sixteen years of operation. The Programme, which is essentially an information exchange programme between decommissioning projects, came into being in 1985. It has grown from an initial 10 decommissioning projects from 7 countries to 39 projects from 14 countries today. From purely information exchange to start with, the Programme has, in later years, been functioning as a voice for the collective expression of views of the implementers of nuclear decommissioning. During the first sixteen years of the operation of the Co-operative Programme, nuclear decommissioning has grown from local specialist activities within projects to a competitive commercial industry. By the dismantling and release from regulatory control of over a dozen diverse nuclear facilities, the Programme has been able to demonstrate in practice, that nuclear decommissioning can be performed safely both for the workers and the public, and that this can be done at reasonable costs in an environmentally friendly fashion. During the recent years, discussions and work within the Co-operative Programme, specially within some of the Task Groups, have had/are having effects and repercussions not just in the field of nuclear decommissioning, but can possibly affect activities and regulations in other industries. This paper describes how the Programme and its activities and procedures have evolved over the years and indicate the directions of developments in the organization and execution of decommissioning projects. Finally, it gives a brief overview of the achievements of the Cooperative Programme and visualizes future developments in the field of nuclear decommissioning

  6. Romanian-Danish Environmental Co-operation. Co-operation development 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy has, since 1991, through the Danish Environmental Support Fund, contributed towards protecting the environment and nature in Central and Eastern European countries and has helped to limit regional as well as global pollution. The Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection and the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy initiated the co-operation in 1993 and an official Agreement was signed in 1994. This publication describes the co-operation between the two countries in the field of the environment in the hope that this will give both the general public of Romania and the international community a better understanding of the work being accomplished. It also gives an overview of the 19 projects developed within this framework, which has a total Danish grant of DKK 77.9 million. (au)

  7. IAEA Technical Co-operation activities: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1975 Tanzania became the newest African Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency, bringing the total African membership of the Agency up to 25 countries. The other African Member States are: Algeria; United Republic of Cameroon; Egypt; Ethiopia; Gabon; Ghana; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Liberia; Libyan Arab Republic; Madagascar; Mali; Mauritius; Morocco; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Africa; Sudan; Tunisia; Uganda; Zaire; Zambia. Membership of the Agency entitles these countries to receive assistance both from the Regular Programme of the Agency and from UNDP resources, while non-Member States in the region only receive Agency assistance financed from the latter source. Any attempt to look at the technical co-operation programme in Africa must start by stressing the wide differences between African countries in their level of scientific and technical development ranging from countries with advanced atomic energy programmes to countries just crossing the threshold towards the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Perhaps the most striking and marked difference is in the quality and number of nuclear energy scientists and technologists available. In view of this, the technical assistance programme in the African context has been a selective one, guided by considerations of pragmatism and responsiveness to particular requirements of the different individual countries and not by any doctrinaire or ready-made strategy for assistance. (author)

  8. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  9. The IAEA technical co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resources made available for the IAEA's technical co-operation programme have been increasing steadily, at a rate of about 18% per year over the last decade. Between 1980 and 1986, these resources increased from US $21 million to US $39 million. In human resources development, the IAEA organizes training courses, awards stipends for fellowship training and sends specialists in various fields of nuclear science and technology to developing countries. During 1981-1986, about US $38 million were disbursed on training courses and fellowships, and US $39 million on experts. In 1986 alone almost two thousand professionals benefited from the IAEA training courses and fellowship programmes, and almost two thousand expert assignments were undertaken. These activities were complemented by the provision of equipment, the total cost of which was US $77 million during 1981-1986 and US $19.5 million in 1986. An analysis of the distribution of disbursements by area of activity shows that the most IAEA suport has gone towards agricultural development, followed by nuclear engineering and technology, industrial applications and hydrology, and nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear engineering and technology, the IAEA is assisting its developing Member States in energy planning, research and power reactor design, operation and maintenance of reactors, reactor instrumentation and control, radiation engineering and quality assurance, fuel element fabrication and isotope production. With regard to research reactors, the IAEA is at present undertaking 58 projects in 28 developing Member States. The activities range from neutron scattering and neutron activation analysis to core conversion, thermohydraulic studies, reactor modernization and radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production. In addition, there are five projects on research reactor safety. 8 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Improving livestock production through co-operative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Umaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the positive role livestock Co-operatives can play in enhancing animal production. Livestock Co-operative Societies such as those for Artificial insemination, Dairy, Beef and Poultry production have been discussed. The paper also dwells on the benefits derivable from such organisations. The practice of Co-operative Societies in livestock production has been applied by different countries in different livestock sub-sectors. This paper concludes that establishing such Co-operatives will significantly improve livestock production in Nigeria.

  11. New Zealand signs up to co-operate with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    On 4 December 2003 a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN and the government of New Zealand was signed in the presence of Peter Hamilton, New Zealand's ambassador to Switzerland. This MoU concerns the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy particle physics between Ernest Rutherford's birthplace and CERN, which now hosts one of the world's most ambitious scientific endeavours, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).    In anticipation of the MoU, two New Zealand universities (the University of Auckland and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch) have already joined the CMS collaboration to work on pixel detectors, where they can benefit from the expertise of the pixel group at the Paul Scherrer Institute. These detectors are not only valuable in high-energy particle physics, but also serve medical applications.

  12. Using Peer Teaching to Support Co-Operative Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaz, Iris; Moni, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from the second phase of a study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students (n = 285) enrolled in the 2006 Bachelor of Science degree program completed a group-based assessment task (weighted 10% of their course). Blended teaching…

  13. Finnish experience on emergency preparedness co-operation work and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. According to the 'Security Strategy for Society' the responsibilities are shared across society and the normal division of duties shall be maintained unchanged as far as possible in all situations. While the competent authority is always in charge of making decisions other administrative sectors may be cooperation partners. This applies to the representatives of business community and organization as well. The first regional co-operation group for NPP emergency preparedness consisting of the representatives of regional rescue service, NPP licensee and STUK was established in 2008 to develop the external rescue plan, arrange training etc. Today co-operation groups are working for both Finnish emergency planning zones. Examples of the co-operation results are discussed in the presentation. (author)

  14. Success parameters for housing co-operatives in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimoh Richard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The roles of the various governments have been the driving force of the housing co-operatives in those countries due to the tremendous support received. The implication is that the housing co-operatives in any country cannot do it alone without the support of government in areas such as having legislation and policies, providing support services and embarking on regular education and training. The need to explore the housing co-operatives in South Africa with a view to determine the successes recorded over the years becomes imperative in order to advance strategies that will ensure virile and sustainable housing co-operatives. Results revealed that a lack of understanding exists as a result of inadequate information among government officials responsible for housing delivery and the public in the application of co-operative housing as a delivery approach. Also, inadequate training of co-operative members in leadership positions lead to a lack of administrative and management capabilities in the processes and operations of housing co-operatives. A pragmatic approach should be adopted so that legislation and policies that are beneficial to the housing co-operatives be enacted.

  15. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  16. Co-operation among like-minded sates in multilateral negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Like-minded co-operation has received relatively little attention in the literature of negotiation which traditionally has centered its focus on the study of coalition formation. Nevertheless, this concept of like-minded states is still referred to in various UN settings and often associated with the Nordic countries plus the Netherlands and in some cases Canada. Informal by nature and relatively small in size, this type of group may be defined as a subgroup of actors co-operating to achieve ...

  17. Regional co-operation in the nuclear field: The Nordic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience from 25 years of co-operation in the nuclear field between the Nordic countries is described. A pragmatic approach with a minimum of formalism is used. The co-operation takes place mainly through ''horizontal'' channels between corresponding bodies in the different countries - safety authorities, research institutions, electricity producers, etc. In addition, a ''vertical'' co-ordination between these different circles is accomplished through a Nordic Liaison Committee. The experience shows that valuable results can be obtained, mainly through rationalization and improved use of resources. Difficulties, which are inherent in international co-operation, can be reduced, provided that there is a strong political will, an efficient system to promote contacts, and a flexible financing scheme. Apart from the benefits obtained in each of the countries - whether or not it has its own nuclear power - particular advantages accrue when a ''Nordic group'' can present co-ordinated viewpoints on the international scene. (author)

  18. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  19. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk

  20. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-feng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype, led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. Methods DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022 suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. Results The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%, FYa + FYb- (33.2%, FYa-FYb + (45.6% and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001. Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%, FYa + FYb- (36.9%, FYa-FYb + (41.0% and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005. There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022 of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05, histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05 or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05 between every each DBGP group. Conclusions DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype

  1. Canadian Nurses’ Perspectives on Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Ko, Wellam F.; Oliffe, John L.; Han, Christina S.; Garrett, Bernie; Henwood, Tim; Tuckett, Anthony G.; Sohrevardi, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) are community-based organizations that offer information and psychosocial support to men who experience prostate cancer and their families. Nurses are well positioned to refer men to a range of psychosocial resources to help them adjust to prostate cancer; however, little is known about nurses’ perspectives on PCSGs. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ views about PCSGs as a means to making recommendations for advancing t...

  2. Significant association between ABO blood group and pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia; B; Greer; Mark; H; Yazer; Jay; S; Raval; M; Michael; Barmada; Randall; E; Brand; David; C; Whitcomb

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether the ABO blood group is related to pancreatic cancer risk in the general population of the United States.METHODS:Using the University of Pittsburgh's clinicalpancreatic cancer registry,the blood donor database from our local blood bank (Central Blood Bank),and the blood product recipient database from the regional transfusion service (Centralized Transfusion Service) in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,we identified 274 pancreatic cancer patients with previously determined serological ABO bloo...

  3. CO-OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT IN NETWORKING MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Kenjale

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation and Networking Marketing:Networking Marketing is a method of marketing that utilizes independent representatives to reach potential customers that a company otherwise would not reach with traditional online or offline marketing methods.

  4. SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSI's International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  5. Sustainable electricity policies. The role of international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis is an integral part of the policy process. The European Commission has prepared a 'green paper': Options on the Future Orientation of European Energy Policy, and has sent to the Council of Ministers its communication and work programme. Analysis, undertaken in co-operation with the Member States of the European Union (EU), the energy industry (particularly the electricity sector), users, other interested groups and international organizations, was part of this review. The scenario approach has been chosen in the economic analysis, which will be published soon. The principal findings of this analysis are as follows: (a) Energy consumption in the EU is expected to continue to grow moderately, at a rate of somewhat below 1% p.a., through the year 2020; (b) Electricity consumption is expected to grow strongly, increasingly its share in the final energy consumption; (c) Fuels with zero carbon content such as nuclear and renewables face certain difficulties regarding extended deployment, for reasons of public acceptance and on economic grounds. Certain renewables (e.g. biomass) are, however, moving towards mainstream acceptance and there appears to be scope for larger scale deployment; (d) There is room for more application of nuclear and renewables in case of a shift in the policy paradigm, i.e. if we move to a 'Forum' type world where globalization, a unity of purpose and restructuring of institutions foster a consensus on effective curbing of carbon. (author). 3 tabs

  6. Success and failure of firms' innovation co-operations: The role of intermediaries and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, U.; Meder, A.; Wolf, T.

    2011-01-01

    There is manifold literature dealing with co-operative activities of firms. However, no empirical study seems to have investigated the factors leading to malfunctions in co-operation projects in terms of a low likelihood of co-operation, low rate of success, and failed co-operation. Our paper att...... main determinant of failed co-operation projects....

  7. Co-operation - the key to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    several missions of these organizations while specialists form Cernavoda NPP participated in several events organized at nuclear plants in other countries. The Romania research institutes and design centers took active part in international programs organized and financed by different organizations as IAEA or CANDU Owners' Group. The Romanian nuclear fuel manufacturing units - FCN Pitesti - began a fruitful cooperation with companies form Canada and China. The heavy water production plant, ROMAG, at Drobeta-Tr. Severin exported heavy water to Korea. Representatives of Romanian specialists working in the nuclear power sector are regularly involved in the actions co-ordinated by the European non-governmental organizations, with prestigious positions in this field, as European Nuclear Society, FORATOM, EURELECTRIC, etc

  8. New co-operation agreement between CERN and JINR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer (left) and JINR Director Alexei Sissakian (right). On Thursday 28 January, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and JINR Director Alexei Sissakian signed a new enlarged co-operation agreement to continue and enhance the scientific and technical co-operation of the two institutes in the field of high-energy physics. CERN and JINR have a long and successful history of collaboration extending back to the earliest days of their existence. The first informal meeting on international co-operation in the field of high-energy accelerators took place at CERN in 1959. It was attended by senior scientists from the United States, the USSR (including JINR) and CERN. Both JINR and CERN have played the role of a bridge between East and West for decades, contributing to the development of international scientific co-operation. In 1992 JINR signed a co-operation agreement with CERN that included an important number of protocols covering JINR’s participation in the construction of th...

  9. China and CERN renew their Co-operation Agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Liu Yanhua, Chinese Vice Minister of Science and Technology, and Dr. Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, sign a new Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and CERN. During his visit to CERN on 17 February, Liu Yanhua, Vice Minister of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, signed a new Co-operation Agreement with the Laboratory. The Agreement, which is valid for a period of five years and renewable, lays down the framework for the development of scientific and technological co-operation between CERN and China. This includes China's participation, as a non-Member State, in CERN's research projects as well as its main programmes. Robert Aymar and Liu Yanhua underlined that this Agreement will provide an excellent framework for close co-operation on the LHC Programme and Grid and accelerator technologies. Scientific co-operation between China and CERN is nothing new, as Chinese physicists already took part in the LEP experiments. Today, CERN's C...

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation activities in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Co-operation Activities in 1992 contains an overview of the general issues involved, including both in-house and external developments, resources and delivery, and evaluation of programs; an overview by field of activity and by division within the Agency; an overview by geographic area, distinguishing (i) Africa, (ii) Asia and the Pacific, (iii) Latin America, (iv) and the Middle East and Europe; an overview by component (i.e., experts, equipment, fellowships, training courses, sub-contracts and miscellaneous); and an overview by fund technical assistance and co-operation fund, extrabudgetary resources, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), assistance in kind. It also contains a profile on technical co-operation activities in Latin America. Projects concluded during 1992 are listed together with a description of their achievements. It concludes with implementation summaries. 10 figs, 9 tabs

  11. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  12. A qualitative study of breast cancer self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R; Fitch, M; Davis, C; Phillips, C

    1997-12-01

    This study reports on the experience of women in four community breast cancer self-help groups in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women, asking them about benefits and limitations of their group involvement, and about their perspectives on group processes and structures. Overall, participants reported their group involvement to be extremely helpful for navigating the short and long-term impact of breast cancer. Emotional support benefits included connecting with other breast cancer survivors, feeling understood and sharing experiences, providing hope, and sharing healing laughter. Informational and practical support benefits included sharing of important information and learning how to get what you want. Even where there were concerns about limitations or tensions of group experience, these occurred against a backdrop of appreciation and commitment. From the discussion of group processes and structures, a number of issues were identified as problematic. Most notable were how to deal with deaths of group members and how to balance the group's primary purpose of providing mutual support with secondary goals of dealing with group business and engaging in meaningful advocacy. PMID:9451747

  13. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems. PMID:16137116

  14. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Pelzer, U.; Klein, F.(Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Bonn, 53115, Germany); M. Bahra; M. Sinn; Dörken, B.; Neuhaus, P.; Meyer, O; H. Riess

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown but actually under high exposure. Findings of correlations between the AB0 blood group system (Chromosome 9q34,1-q34,2) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients from Asia, America and south Europe have already been published. So far it is unclear, whether this correlation between blood group an PC incidence can be found in German patients as well. Methods: One hundred and sixty-six patients who under...

  15. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    UwePelzer; MarcusBahra; OliverMeyer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown but actually under high exposure. Findings of correlations between the AB0 blood group system (Chromosome 9q34,1 - q34,2) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients from Asia, America and south Europe have already been published. So far it is unclear, whether this correlation between blood group an PC incidence can be found in German patients as well. Methods: 166 patients who underwent a re...

  16. Military co-operation with South Caucasus countries / Rafal Seniuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seniuch, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Poola ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia vabariikide vahelisest sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  17. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  18. Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments

  19. Promoting regional energy co-operation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is a key ingredient of the socio-economic development of any region. South Asia is not only one of the fastest growing regions in the world; it is also one of the poorest, which thus puts energy at the very heart of the development process in the region. This paper looks at the challenges faced by the South Asia sub-region for economic co-operation (SASEC) comprised of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, and also at the role of greater regional energy co-operation therein. The region is characterized by pressures of growing economies and increasing population. While the per capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world, energy intensity continues to be very high. A large portion of the population lacks access to modern sources of energy and depends on traditional sources that are not only inefficient but also have severe health and environmental problems associated with them. Increasing oil import dependency and huge investment needs for energy market development pose a further challenge. The region has a good resource potential and tremendous scope for energy co-operation, which can play a key role in addressing many of these energy security concerns and in putting it on the path of sustainable development. It is ironic that the record in the area has been so limited and that too in the most basic form of co-operation, i.e. bilateral arrangements between countries. This paper puts forth a multi-pronged strategy for sub-regional energy co-operation encompassing softer options aimed at confidence building to more substantial and larger scale co-operation efforts. Delays in decision making to ensure stronger and mutually beneficial co-operation efforts are associated with high costs not only to the energy sector but also for the entire development agenda. With the precarious energy situation in the region and unprecedented increases in international oil prices seen in recent times, it is high time for policy makers, financing institutions, NGOs

  20. A support group for fathers whose partners died from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Justin Michael; Rosenstein, Donald Lee

    2013-04-01

    Men who are raising dependent children after their spouses or partners have died from cancer face unique challenges adjusting to single parenthood while managing their grief and the grief of their children. Unfortunately, the needs of those widowers have been overlooked in the clinical literature and no published interventions are designed specifically for that population. The current article details the creation and implementation of a peer support group for fathers recently widowed because of their wives' deaths from cancer. Initial observations and emergent themes from the group are described. Group members suggested that they benefited from participation in the support group and that this form of psychosocial support is a promising intervention for fathers in similar circumstances. PMID:23538252

  1. Vinorelbine as first-line or second-line therapy for advanced breast cancer: a Phase I-II trial by the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjer, S.T.; Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, H.;

    2008-01-01

    -five patients were included in the dose-escalation study, which defined 40 mg/m(2) as the MTD. Neutropenia of short duration and autonomic neuropathy causing constipation were the most common dose-limiting toxicities. At the 35 mg/m(2) dose-level 60 patients were included in total. Seven (12%; 95% CI 6 to 22...

  2. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  3. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...... practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North...... America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. RESULTS: A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy...

  4. Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Among Three Asian American Sub-Groups: A Focus Group Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Morgan M.; Erby, Lori A. H.; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans is higher than for any other ethnic group in the United States. Since more than 50% of liver cancer is hepatitis B related, the burden of morbidity and mortality is extremely high among Asian Americans, highlighting the need for culturally appropriate interventions. We conducted focus groups (n = 8) with a total of 58 Korean, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigrants in Maryland to explore knowledge, awareness and perceived barriers toward hepatitis B ...

  5. IAEA technical co-operation activities in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desire to extend the many benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology to all countries led as long ago as 1957 to the establishment of the IAEA and to immediate introduction of a technical co-operation programme. In the more than thirty years that have passed since that time, the potential applications of nuclear techniques have greatly expanded. Over the period, many of the applications have moved from research laboratories into hospitals, farms and industrial enterprises. The direct resources made available to the IAEA by its Member States to support technology transfer processes have grown rapidly since the late 1950s. The current trends in the technical co-operation activities of the IAEA and some examples of projects supported by the IAEA are briefly presented in this document

  6. BANKING SYSTEM STABILITY: COMMERCIAL AND CO-OPERATIVE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Cristian OANEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.

  7. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EMPLOYEES CO-OPERATIVE CREDIT SOCIETIES IN SOUTH GOA

    OpenAIRE

    Vikrant Vijay Mudliyar; Pooja Prabhu Dessai; Suraj Popekar

    2014-01-01

    In Goa, the formal institutionalized Co-operative movement in Goa began with the establishment of the first Co-operative on November 17, 1962. On the same day, post of the Registrar of Co-operative Societies was created and subsequently, the Co-operative Department was set up. The Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act of 1960 was modified to a certain extent and was made applicable to the Union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy: An interdisciplinary co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international (European) undertaking in BNCT in the Netherlands has required close scrutiny of the organisational structure required to establish BNCT facilities. The multidisciplinary co-operation and the tasks of the participants in the hospital (Radiation Oncologist, Medical Physicist, Pharmacist and other medical and paramedical staff) and those attached to the reactor) are described. The organisational structure and regulatory aspects required for the international functioning of the Petten treatment facility are provided for guidance to new projects in this field. (author)

  9. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  10. Assuring nuclear energy's future through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is invited lecture as the introduction to the sixt international meeting entitled Nuclear Energy in Central Europe. Good commercial operation, public information and education are needed to win the confidence of the public, and to attract young people to take over the industry's founding generation. Stimulating international co-operation and transfer of best practices can assure this happens across the whole of the Europian nuclear industry

  11. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  12. Outlook for the IAEA's technical co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the following subjects: - the IAEA's programmes; - the technical co-operation programme; - past trends in the TC programme; - new initiatives in TC; - TC programme profile; - perspectives for the future. The major programmes conducted by IAEA are concerning: - nuclear power and fuel cycle; - nuclear applications; - nuclear, radiation and waste safety, nuclear verification and security material; - management of technical co-operation; - policy making, coordination and support. In relation with the IAEA role in development process the author presents the legal framework for TC, the programme structure, and programme areas, resources, budgets, cycle, approval and implementation. Two plots regarding the recipients with and without NPP's are displayed for the period 1980-1994. Also, according to the status of the member states (without and with nuclear power programme) the programme priorities are presented. For the first case these are: radiation and waste safety, food and agriculture, water resources management human health and nutrition, human resources development, environmental protection and industrial applications. For the second case there are mentioned: radiation and nuclear safety, nuclear power operation and maintenance management, radioactive waste management, environment protection and sustainable energy options. Concerning the regional distribution the following figures are given for 1997: West Asia, 9%; Europe, 18%; Inter-regional, 11%; Africa, 24%; Latin America, 21%; East Asia and Pacific, 17%. In conclusion, the hope is expressed that the value of Technical Co-operation Programme would be seen not only in the successful transfer of technology but also, in the way that the nuclear technologies may satisfy demands for sustainable development by having a lasting impact on the life of the majority in a cost effective and environmentally sound manner

  13. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  14. The environment: IAEA co-operation with UNEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the International Atomic Energy Agency has intensified its programme relating to the protection of man and the environment. These activities are increasingly being carried out in co-operation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The two organizations share important common characteristics; each has a broad mandate crossing many lines of organized activity; and each has a predominant interest in matters of environmental protection. From the outset, it has been clear that the two bodies also share important areas of mutual interest, and both the Agency's statute and the UN Resolution creating UNEP provide the basis for close collaboration. (author)

  15. A co-operative mechanism of subthreshold pion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a statistical model to study the pion production at subthreshold beam energies (< 290 MeV/A). This model involves the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process. We also consider the formation of the fragments in the final channel along side the produced pion. Calculations performed within the model provide a good overall description of the experimental data over a wide range of beam energies and masses of the participating nuclei. Fragment formation in the final channel is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data. (orig.)

  16. CO2 for refrigeration. Co-operation with Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NTNU and SINTEF Energy Research, Norway, have co-operated closely with universities in Indonesia on the use of CO2 as a working fluid in refrigeration systems. The Asian market is the largest in the world and so it is very important to use environmentally friendly working fluids. In Indonesia, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) plays a leading role in the efforts to meet the national emission goals. For economical reasons, Indonesia considers natural working fluids such as CO2 rather than the new expensive synthetic ones

  17. Ignalina plant licensing process, international co-operation and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge for Lithuania as a country with regained independence was to perform a licensing review in a way never done before in the country and in a time schedule that was extremely short. The work included establishing of the licensing base, strengthening the regulatory authority and organising the technical support, establish and implement a safety improvement program, production of the safety case and review of the safety case, and to derive a conclusion regarding whether to issue a licence or not. This was to be done together with other tasks, such as implementation of modifications included in the safety improvement programme at Ignalina, implementation of a new storage for spent fuel and, most important of all, to manage the operational safety at the plant. The achievements are impressive seen in view of the point of start and in view of the time and resources that have been available. Lithuania has put forward a unique safety documentation of an RBMK reactor and presented an in-depth safety evaluation in full openness to Western experts, giving the unique possibility to compare the safety of the Ignalina reactors to Western standards. The co-operation that has been established between Lithuania and Western experts through different assistance programmes is of outmost value, for all involved parties. Co-operation should continue as one element of the challenges for the future

  18. HPC Co-operation between industry and university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of publication follows. Some years ago industry and university were using the same kind of high performance computers. Therefore it seemed appropriate to run the systems in common. Achieved synergies are larger systems to have better capabilities, to share skills in operating and using the system and to have less operating cost because of larger scale of operations. An example for a business model which allows that kind of co-operation would be demonstrated. Recently more and more simulations especially in the automotive industry are using PC clusters. A small number of PC's are used for one simulation, but the cluster is used for a large number of simulations as a throughput device. These devices are easily installed on the department level and it is difficult to achieve better cost on a central site, mainly because of the cost of the network. This is in contrast to the scientific need which still needs capability computing. In the presentation, strategies will be discussed for which cooperation potential in HPC (high performance computing) still exists. These are: to install heterogeneous computer farms, which allow to use the best computer for each application, to improve the quality of large scale simulation models to be used in design calculations or to form expert teams from industry and university to solve difficult problems in industry applications. Some examples of this co-operation are shown

  19. Rhadinovirus host entry by co-operative infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lawler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhadinoviruses establish chronic infections of clinical and economic importance. Several show respiratory transmission and cause lung pathologies. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 to understand how rhadinovirus lung infection might work. A primary epithelial or B cell infection often is assumed. MuHV-4 targeted instead alveolar macrophages, and their depletion reduced markedly host entry. While host entry was efficient, alveolar macrophages lacked heparan - an important rhadinovirus binding target - and were infected poorly ex vivo. In situ analysis revealed that virions bound initially not to macrophages but to heparan⁺ type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs. Although epithelial cell lines endocytose MuHV-4 readily in vitro, AECs did not. Rather bound virions were acquired by macrophages; epithelial infection occurred only later. Thus, host entry was co-operative - virion binding to epithelial cells licensed macrophage infection, and this in turn licensed AEC infection. An antibody block of epithelial cell binding failed to block host entry: opsonization provided merely another route to macrophages. By contrast an antibody block of membrane fusion was effective. Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding.

  20. CART - report of the Nordic co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the activities in the Nordic co-operation programme CART - computer-aided radiotherapy. The ultimate vision in the CART programme is an integrated information system in a radiotherapy clinic, where all the relevant data are easily transferred between the different functions (steps) in the radiotherapy procedure. Incorporated in this system are also the relevant tools for handling the data, which consist of both image- and non-image data. Especially noteworthy is that the requirements of these computer-aided tools are defined by the users. CART has been running for 2 years only, mid 1985 to mid 1987, and cannot solve all the problems. However, a sound foundation has been built for continued development of functional subsystems (nodes) of an integrated radiotherapy information system. The CART programme was initiated with the goal of enhancing the competence level in hospitals, research institutes and industry by developing functional prototypes for future radiotherapy systems. The CART co-operation model is different from other models, and both this model and the results achieved are evaluated. 18 refs

  1. International co-operation on decommissioning - Achievements of the NEA Co-operative programme 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is attracting a growing interest in all countries where an increasing number of plants are reaching the end of their operational life and will have to be decommissioned in the next few years. In response to this interest, the NEA set up in 1985 an international programme of technical co-operation between decommissioning projects in eight OECD countries. This report describes the programme and the participating projects, reviews the experiences accumulated during the first five-year term of this international undertaking, and discusses what remains to be done

  2. Co-operation and Competition in Regional Economic Development Associated with Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competition and co-operation appear in many different social venues. The author gives a variety of examples of co-operative behaviour in economics, politics, research, and everyday life activities such as sports. These four diverse examples illustrate the variety of forms that co-operation may take such as tacit co-operation, incremental co-operation, deep co-operation, etc. The links with the form of democracy (adversary democracy or consensual democracy) are also pointed. However, as with so many other things in life, the key is to the question of co-operation or competition is balance. Co-operation and competition are dialectical opposites. They create and maintain and define each other; they each are incomplete without the other

  3. Technical co-operation report for 2001. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the General Conference in resolution GC(45)/RES/11, the Secretariat has worked with Member States during the past year to update the Technical Cooperation Strategy, endorsed by the Board in 1997. Through implementation of the Strategy, the Agency has been successful in raising the quality of technical co-operation projects and increasing the impact of the programme on the development goals of its Member States. The Third Standing Advisory Group on Technical Assistance and Cooperation (SAGTAC III), which met in August 2001 and March 2002, examined the Strategy and advised the Director General on future objectives and the performance indicators with which to measure progress towards these objectives

  4. The Architecture of Co-operation: A Project for organizing collective creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Architecture of Co-operation investigates the relationship between the collective subject and urban form through co-operation as means of production. The point is how individuals can organize co-operation today for the city as a project and what could be the role of architects into this process.

  5. Self-reliance through regional co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article 52 of the Charter of the United Nations is concerned with the usefulness of Regional Arrangements which 'are appropriate for regional action'. Such arrangements need not be considered only with regard to their political aspects but also as organizational structures which can be helpful in the development of science and technology in less developed countries. The definition of a 'Region' can be difficult, but is easier if scientific rather than political co-operation is intended. The International Atomic Energy Agency has undertaken a first step in this direction through its Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology in South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific and the Far East (RCA) which has been signed by six countries so far. This Agreement leaves it to the Member States to initiate cooperative projects. The IAEA will take steps to establish the project if at least three Member States are willing to participate. The implementation of the project will be defined by negotiations with the Member States and the IAEA will only play the role of a co-ordinator. Annual meetings of representatives of those countries which are parties of the RCA and of others from the region which might be interested in joining the Agreement provide the possibility of a continuing exchange of new ideas. Regional activities are also undertaken by means of 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes', which mostly include some co-operation with LDCs. The RCA has initiated two new ideas, that of carrying out the projects exclusively by the countries of the region and that of taking the step from co-ordination to cooperation by means of continuous and intensive exchange of information as well as of personnel. Its main objective is to aim at a reasonable division of labour between the parties and to use expensive equipment jointly. It is to be hoped that this venture will lead to an increasing degree of self-reliance within the

  6. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  7. The Effects of Cognitive Behavorial Therapy Group and Social Support Group on the Self Esteem among Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namora Lumongga Lubis; Mohamad Hashim Bin Othman

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the main effects of CBT group, social support group (DS) and control group (KK) on the self esteem among breast cancer patients. Rosemberg self esteem scale (RSE) was used to measure self-esteem. The treatment group consisted of CBT and DS groups. Each treatment group received 12 counselling sessions within six weeks. Quantitative analysis general linear model (GLM) repeated measures was used to identify the groups’ (CBT, DS, and KK) main effect, the repeated...

  8. Health Services in Denmark: Co-operation between different sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    interventions and individual activities by the few health workers with a special interest in the migrant health. TTT is an illustration of providing psychosocial services to ethnic minority youth and their families based on combination of citizen volunteer work with partly state funding. This mental health NGO......COST Lisbon meeting on the 3rd & 4th June, 2009 The role of NGOs & CSOs in the health care for migrants and ethnic minorities Health Services in Denmark: Co-operation between different sectors? This paper proposes to throw light on some aspects of the NGOs providing health   services for the ethnic...... partly related to undermining of trust in the medical profession’s ability to effectively manage health related risks, e.g. immigrant psychiatric patients´ experience of more enforced admittance  than the native Danish patients. However, NGOs are in a very limited number and mainly part of the local...

  9. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  10. Protocol to co-operation agreement with Iran

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A Co-operation Agreement between CERN and Iran will be signed in the coming weeks within the framework of the decisions taken by the Committee of Council and Council in June 1989. In view of implementing this Agreement, a Protocol between CERN and the International Scientific Meetings Office of the Ministry of Science of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been drawn up. It concerns the participation of scientific Institutions of Iran in the CMS Collaboration where CERN is acting on behalf of this Collaboration. This Protocol incorporates the agreement between CMS and ISMO on the Iranese contribution. It does not involve any financial commitment for CERN. The Protocol mainly addresses the status of the Iranese scientists at CERN, the supply by ISMO of the support tables for CMS, as well as the usual provisions concerning delivery and customs, guarantees, responsibilities, intellectual property and disputes. This Protocol is submitted to the Finance Committee for information.

  11. Nuclear research centres' co-operation and the IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russian nuclear science and technology developed as per the 'Eastern School'. Similar development in OECD countries followed a 'Western School' but both schools have slowed down due to objective and subjective reasons. Economic crisis has been the main weakening element in Russia and COMECON Member States. In spite of that the ten nuclear science and technology centres in Russia have more than 100 000 scientists and engineers. The IAEA programme for the immediate future includes co-ordination of some key activities in nuclear science and technology. However, issues like disarmament, non-proliferation, advanced reactor concept are other areas of possible international co-operation in which the IAEA could play an important role. (author)

  12. An IT Governance in Co-operative Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Shahoo Gupta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology has turned into the vigor of the Indian co-operative banks since the past decade with the financial sector reforms providing the basis. The question of putting into practice the technology has now changed into 'how' from the former 'why'. It is a confirmed truth that technology lessens the cost of servicing. Furthermore, technology has resulted in enhanced quality of services, any time/anywhere banking, focused product delivery, cross selling opportunities, multi-channel touch points for using up of services, etc.As the triumph of the co-operative banks is more and more inclined on the proper adoption and utilization of technology, IT Governance has assumed immense importance. Merely, IT Governance is nothing but a division of Corporate Governance apprehensive about guaranteeing suitable track and management of IT activities to the advantage of a Bank. As the overseas banks operating in India made the start, the new banks assertively started offering services based on technology. Though, the public/cooperative sector banks had to move over from the load of the past inheritance. Nevertheless, the speedy walk made by the technology sector and their quick espousal by the competitors have enforced these banks also to get into the act by commencing to offer IT-oriented products and services. Today, nearly all commercial banks and some cooperatives are at some phase of technology embracement, be it Automated Ledger Posting Machines, Total Branch Automation or Core Banking solution (CBS. According to latest estimates, CBS covers around 40% of the bank branches accounting for nearly 70% of the business volume. ATMs (including shared ATMs aided further by the National Financial Switch initiative of RBI, internet banking, any branch banking, credit cards, debit cards, etc. are being increasingly offered. There are over 11,000 ATMs across the country and 11 million net connections with around 23 million users.

  13. IMPACT OF CO-OPERATION AND COMPETENCES ON THE INNOVATING BEHAVIOR: A MICRO-ECONOMETRIC STUDY OF THE FRENCH FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Karim Kefi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of innovative behavior is suited to several ways of comments. The economic literature emphasizes, in many cases, different effects of innovation in products and processes on international trade, growth, employment and the firms performance. However, little knowledge about the impacts of competence and inter-firms co-operation on the innovative behavior (products or/and processes. According to a more empirical approach, incorporating both the “cooperation’s effect” and “competence’s effect”, we have tried to explain such innovative behavior. The results which led this article can qualify some gains with regard to incentives for innovation on the one hand, and put into perspective a new approach to innovative behavior (cooperation / competence, which by joint analysis of co-operation agreements and skills can explain the development of these innovative behaviours, on the other. Based on our results and on limits and extensions associated with them, it appears that the innovative behavior of the firm (products, processes, or products & processes is not only a reflection of motivation strategic businesses, but also their types of skills underlying any engagement in a co-operation agreement. Thus, innovation policy unveils partly the interest shown by business groups (government, university with respect to the co-operation agreements in R & D.

  14. Clinical trials update of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present clinical trial update consists of a review of two of eight current studies (the 10981-22023 AMAROS trial and the 10994 p53 trial) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group, as well as a preview of the MIND-ACT trial. The AMAROS trial is designed to prove equivalent local/regional control for patients with proven axillary lymph node metastasis by sentinel node biopsy if treated with axillary radiotherapy instead of axillary lymph node dissection, with reduced morbidity. The p53 trial started to assess the potential predictive value of p53 using a functional assay in yeast in patients with locally advanced/inflammatory or large operable breast cancer prospectively randomised to a taxane regimen versus a nontaxane regimen

  15. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Zhenggang Zhu; Jun Zhang; Min Yan; Bingya Liu; Jianian Zhang; Jun Ji; Zhiwei Wang; Lei Liu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for m...

  16. Military Training and Education: an Opportunity for V4 Co-Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan ŠUPLATA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visegrad Group needs success stories if its defence co-operation is to develop. The recent differences between Poland and the rest of the region, as well as the closing window of opportunity to improve interoperability through the ISAF mission, make the hunger for concrete examples of co-operation even more urgent. Education and training projects are not only comparatively easily to implement in terms of time and money, but also represent a way of bringing the region’s civilian and military leaders closer together in terms of strategic thinking. Regional defence collaboration is also one of the ways to materialize NATO’s Smart Defence agenda. For the whole region, the way to keep Visegrad defence cooperation alive is not straightforward and certain, but it is likely to prove rewarding in the long term. It presents not only a chance to keep the whole region better prepared militarily, but also to build a more cohesive strategic awareness, thanks to intensive communication at all levels.

  17. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I; Bidstrup, P E; Frederiksen, K; Johansen, C

    2010-01-01

    participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...... use of Internet-based support groups in cancer patients still needs to confirm long-lasting psychological effects.......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...

  18. Efficacy of Group Logotherapy on Decreasing Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast ...

  19. Assessment of environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood cancers: the Childrens Cancer Group epidemiology program.

    OpenAIRE

    Robison, L L; Buckley, J. D.; Bunin, G

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer during childhood represents one of the leading causes of death within the pediatric and adolescent age group. It is estimated that approximately 8000 children will be diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Epidemiologic research addressing the etiology of childhood cancer has been limited because of the difficulties in identifying a sufficiently large study population. Moreover, the use of retrospectively ascertained childhood cancer cases in epidemiolog...

  20. Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation Through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    New technologies will be critical in addressing current global energy challenges such as energy security. More must be done, however, to push forward the development and deployment of the technologies we need today and will need in the future. Government leaders have repeatedly underlined the crucial role of industry and businesses in advancing energy technologies and the importance of strong collaboration among all stakeholders to accelerate technology advances. To attain these goals, increased co-operation between industries, businesses and government energy technology research is indispensable. The public and private sectors must work together, share burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. The 42 multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements) supported by the IEA are a flexible and effective framework for IEA member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to research breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants, to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes -- in short to encourage technology-related activities that support energy security, economic growth and environmental protection. This publication highlights the significant accomplishments of the IEA Implementing Agreements.

  1. Tomorrow’s Cancer Treatments Today: The First 50 Years of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Mark R.; George, Stephen L; Schilsky, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B have been striving to improve cancer therapies for more than 50 years. The organization began in the mid 1950s as a multi-institutional collaboration between investigators at the National Cancer Institute, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, and the Children’s Hospital in Buffalo New York. In 1956 it was officially designated as the Acute Leukemia Group B (ALGB) and for most of its first decade focused largely on leukemia research. Reflecting an expansi...

  2. Recommendations for Collection and Handling of Specimens From Group Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Enos, Rebecca A.; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Forbes, John F.; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exist...

  3. The effect of group cohesion on rehabilitation outcome in cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    May, Anne M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Den Borne, Bart; Mesters, Ilse; van der Schans, Cees P; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Group-based physical training interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing quality of life in cancer survivors. Until now, however, the impact of cohesion within the group on intervention outcome has not been investigated. Methods: We examined self-reported individual group cohesion ratings collected in the first half of a 12-week rehabilitation programme for cancer survivors (N = 132). Four dimensions of group cohesion were measured, i.e. the bond with the group as ...

  4. Overcoming decommissioning challenges through client/laboratory co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Accelerated decommissioning projects of the type underway at the former gaseous diffusion plant at BNG Capenhurst, UK, involve characterisation and radiochemical fingerprinting of a variety of unusual materials derived from legacy wastes. The project management and technical challenges that can occur during such a program can be successfully surmounted if a close working relationship between the client and the analytical laboratory is achieved. The Capenhurst Integrated Decommissioning Program (IDP) is an example of how such co-operation can reduce costs and time scales by providing the analytical laboratory with key sample and technical information prior to the shipping of the samples to the lab. This ensures that challenges associated with unusual sample matrices can be anticipated and dealt with at an early stage in the project. Gamma spectrometry is the most common analytical technique when analysing samples for radioactive content as it is non-destructive, relatively inexpensive and fast. However, accurate measurement generally requires samples of a known density to be counted in calibrated geometries. This becomes a challenge as many legacy wastes comprise materials of uneven geometry and/or varying density, as has been the case during the Capenhurst IDP. Liaising with the client to ensure a representative sub-sample of the material is taken on-site, and a series of additional checks when analysing the sample ensure that accurate results are obtained even for non-routine materials. Often it is only one or two radionuclides that dominate the radioactive inventory for legacy wastes. (authors)

  5. IAEA technical co-operation with least developed Member States. Special evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purposes of this evaluation were to: Review the overall situation with regard to IAEA technical co-operation with least developed Member States, including specific conditions in nuclear-related activities prevailing in these countries, approaches and practices used by the IAEA in providing assistance to LDCs, and the main results of the co-operation in question. Identify any adjustments to technical co-operation with LDC Member States that may strengthen this activity

  6. Enhancing nuclear emergency response through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    perspective however, there are probably substantial resources available for response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The problem is that during an emergency, these resources are not where they are needed. Most resources are under authority control in the respective countries, but if all countries would commit themselves to contribute to such assistance arrangements between countries and invoke all resources available and efficiently co-ordinate and route them to where they are mostly needed, the international community and individual States would achieve a better and more efficient response to emergencies. Resources could in this respect be everything that is needed to respond to an emergency, e.g. equipment, expertise, assessment capabilities or other services. These arrangements should be global arrangements as bi-lateral or regional arrangements are only adequate for some scenarios. The Convention an Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention an Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency established in 1986 are at present acceded by approx. 85 IAEA Member States. These conventions constitute the framework of international co-operation on response to nuclear and radiological emergencies between States and describe the obligations and mechanisms of international notification and assistance. The conventions recognize the need for a co-ordinating and facilitating body in this co-operation and the IAEA has been given this role. The conventions an Assistance and Early Notification provide a good framework for achieving international co-operation an nuclear emergency response. It has however been recognised that the implementation of these conventions needs to be improved. This is the responsibility of acceding states. To efficiently share information between many states, it is necessary to establish a standard international communication platform for information exchange with a communication strategy and standardization

  7. A review of IAEA's technical co-operation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Technical Co-operation (TC) Programme is part of the Agency's mandate 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' The IAEA's role under this Programme is that of a scientific and technical agency making a discrete but significant contribution to sustainable development goals through the transfer of nuclear science and technology. TC is a high impact programme focusing on development needs with about 800 active projects annually with a budget of over $70M, 30% of which is targeted on training and capacity building in over 100 Member States. Since 1970, over 80,000 scientists and specialists from developing countries have been trained in nuclear science and technology and in nuclear power and safety. A number of trends in the world at large will be likely to influence the Agency's TC programme in the next several years: The use of nuclear technologies in developing countries is growing as local infrastructures improve and technology transfer increases, especially among developing countries; Some countries and institutions are becoming more self-reliant as viable markets develop for nuclear technology, based on an increased awareness of their benefits; As facilities age, safe strategies for life extension and for decommissioning are assuming increasing importance, while there is some renewed positive attention to nuclear power in several parts of the world. Concern is increasing related to the potential for malicious acts involving nuclear facilities or unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material. As the nuclear workforce ages, the management of nuclear knowledge is gaining increasing importance, including the need to maintain the safety and security of nuclear installations and their continued reliable operation. It is difficult to forecast precisely how these trends will influence the assistance requested by Member States, but it is already clear that there will be increased

  8. The achievements of the IAEA's regional programmes of technical co-operation in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's regional technical co-operation programmes are rapidly expanding because of (i) the desire of Member States to increase the degree of regional self-sufficiency in a number of nuclear technologies which cannot currently be sustained nationally; (ii) the efficiency of co-ordinating the approach to problems in the agricultural, health, industrial and resources fields which are inherently regional because of similarities of climate, demographic factors and macro-economic conditions; (iii) the desirability of increasing intra-regional trade which may require a unified approach to the qualification and certification of key technical personnel; and (iv) the expressed desire of a number of countries to use technical co-operation to encourage wider interaction within the region. The approach to regional technical co-operation varies from region to region. Within Asia and the Pacific, virtually all the regional projects are administered within the framework of the intergovernmental Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA). In Latin America, the corresponding arrangement ARCAL is based on guidelines agreed between the IAEA and the National Atomic Energy authorities. The future arrangements for Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East are under active consideration. As major achievements of the programme reference may be made to the rapidly increasing investment in industrial radiation and radiation technology in Asia; to the improvements in liver diagnosis and cancer therapy in Asia; to the extensive NDT training programme in Latin America, to the successful programme of water resources evaluation in Africa and the introduction of reactor safety analysis methodology in the Middle East and Europe. These and other examples will be analysed and conclusions drawn concerning the likely trends within the regional programmes. (author)

  9. Inter-firm co-operation capability : a processual empirical study on networking family firms

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Tarja

    2003-01-01

    This study examines inter-firm co-operation capability both conceptually and empirically. The central questions to be examined in this study are as follows: 1) What is inter-firm co-operation capability?, 2) How can it be described by using the concepts of networking and inter-firm co-operation?, 3) What has been the role of learning, trust and commitment in the inter-firm co-operation and networking process? The conceptual analysis rests mainly on the theories of interorganisational studies ...

  10. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel; Ramesh Nagarajappa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. Oral cancer has multifactorial etiology and is significantly associated with risk factors of the individual′s lifestyle, particularly, chronic use of tobacco, spicy food, alcohol and smoking. Many studies have indicated that genetic factors also have an influence on the etiology of cancer. Aim: To evaluate if any of the A...

  11. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  12. Social Loafing in a Co-operative Classroom Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C.; Linley, P. Alex; Hargreaves, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether social loafing (the tendency for individuals to reduce their input when performing as part of a group) existed in a collaborative educational task employing groups of three and eight participants. Indicates that individuals working in smaller groups were more productive than those working in larger groups. (CMK)

  13. Regulator and industry Co-operation on safety research: challenges and opportunities. Final report and answers to questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Group has been set up by the CSNI to identify and review the issues which hinder closer co-operation on research between regulators and industry, and to propose possible ways for resolving such issues while maintaining regulatory independence in decision-making. The Group has analyzed the potential advantages and disadvantages of regulator-industry collaboration in safety research and has also provided indications on how to overcome possible difficulties that can arise from such collaboration. The Group focused in particular on the issue of regulator independence, on means to preserve it and ways to demonstrate it to the public while undertaking collaboration with industry

  14. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two

  15. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  16. Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors: selecting appropriate comparison groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M. van den; Dulmen-den Broeder, E. van; Overbeek, A.; Ronckers, C.; Dorp, W. van; Kremer, L.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M. van den; Huizinga, G.; Loonen, J.J.; Versluys, A.; Bresters, D.; Lambalk, C.; Kaspers, G.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison groups for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison groups in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood On

  17. Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors : selecting appropriate comparison groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M. H.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.; Overbeek, A.; Ronckers, C. M.; van Dorp, W.; Kremer, L. C.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.; Huizinga, G. A.; Loonen, J. J.; Versluys, A. B.; Bresters, D.; Lambalk, C. B.; Kaspers, G. J. L.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison groups for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison groups in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood On

  18. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein; Amundsen, Tore; Brunsvig, Paal Fr; Hjelde, Harald H; Kaasa, Stein; von Plessen, Christian; Stornes, Frøydis; Tollåli, Terje; Wammer, Finn; Aasebø, Ulf; Sundstrøm, Stein

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare pemetrexed/carboplatin with a standard regimen as first-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) plus carboplatin......, and fatigue reported on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and the lung cancer-specific module LC13 during the first 20 weeks. Secondary end points were overall survival and toxicity. Results Four hundred thirty-six eligible patients were...

  19. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that oc

  20. Assessment of environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood cancers: the Childrens Cancer Group epidemiology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, L L; Buckley, J D; Bunin, G

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer during childhood represents one of the leading causes of death within the pediatric and adolescent age group. It is estimated that approximately 8000 children will be diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Epidemiologic research addressing the etiology of childhood cancer has been limited because of the difficulties in identifying a sufficiently large study population. Moreover, the use of retrospectively ascertained childhood cancer cases in epidemiologic investigations has restricted the incorporation of biological and clinical parameters. The Childrens Cancer Group has developed an active program in epidemiologic research, with over a decade of experience demonstrating the feasibility and strengths of conducting analytic epidemiologic studies within a cooperative clinical trials network. The availability of detailed clinical and biologic data on cases diagnosed within the cooperative group facilitates the transfer of state-of-the-art technology to epidemiologic research. PMID:8549456

  1. Using Critical Problem Solving to Plan Inter-Organisational Co-operation in e-Customs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, M.L.; Eck, van P.A.T.; Riemens, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic approach to plan assessment of electronic co-operation between customs organisations of different countries (e-Customs). Thorough assessment is of paramount importance, as co-operation in electronic networks usually requires considerable up-front

  2. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both

  3. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a ''rebellious thrush'' and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babes'' Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 – 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas

  4. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  5. Evaluation of a ''no-cost'' Internet technology-based system for teleradiology and Co-operative Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a no-cost system based on standard Internet technology components for teleradiology. The system was composed of free software (communication, DICOM viewer, compression) and standard off-the-shelf hardware components. For different image (CR, CT, MR) and network types (LAN and ISDN) the File Transfer, Audio and Video Conference, and Co-operative Work properties were examined and compared with the literature referring to standard complete packages and dedicated teleradiology systems. The main advantages of the no-cost system are: price; ease of use; independence from specific hardware; and potential connection to any possible partner. The performance of the File Transfer and the Audio and Video Conference was comparable to the other system groups with slight disadvantages in the usability. For Co-operative Work the employed ''application sharing'' technology does not meet the clinical requirements, which applies identically to the standard complete packages. Here the specialized systems prove superior, although they are proprietary. With minimal restraints the evaluated no-cost solution can be used for File Transfer and Conference scenarios. The usage for Co-operative Work with ISDN is not recommended, unless for the purpose of gaining experience or when dealing with small amounts of cases or images. (orig.)

  6. The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning. A Decade of Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning (CPD) is a joint undertaking according to Article 5 of the Statute of the NEA. Concluded in 1985, the Agreement of the 23 participating organisations constituting the CPD has been continuously extended with the current programme period lasting until 2009. This report provides information about the participants, structure and achievements of the Co-operative Programme. The objective of the CPD is to acquire information and share operational experience from the conduct of 42 current decommissioning projects, such as project description and design, data resulting from the execution of decommissioning projects, and associated research and development results. The information generated in the project is protected by confidentiality provisions, which allow for a frank and open exchange of experiences, on a 'give and take' basis. The information exchange also ensures that the best internationally available experience is available and that safe, environmentally friendly and cost effective methods are employed in all decommissioning projects. The Co-operative Programme is implemented by a Management Board (MB) representing the participating organisations and a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for the information exchange between the individual decommissioning projects. The latter benefits from the support of a Programme Co-ordinator financed by the Programme. The projects in the Programme have a broad range of characteristics and cover various types of reactors and fuel facilities. The Programme now covers 26 reactors, 8 reprocessing plants and 8 fuel facility projects, representing a wide selection of facility types in each category. Also, all three stages of decommissioning - from active dismantling to safe-store and to completed decommissioning back to 'green field conditions' - are represented. Over the 20 years of experience of the Co-operative

  7. The Agency's technical co-operation activities in 1985. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    balance was a source of concern; this situation has now been brought under control. Expert component implementation increased further. With regard to the TACF, the expert component accounted for most of the year-end earmarkings in previous years, but in 1985 it accounted for only A3.8%, on a par with the percentage of the earmarkings for equipment. During the period 1981-85, there was a 93% increase in the number of purchase orders processed by the Field Procurement Section and a 63% increase in the volume of equipment purchased. During the same period, the number of experts recruited rose by 158% and that of expert assignments by 214%. The number of fellows increased by 7% and that of visiting scientists by 506%. Also, the number of training courses doubled, the number of participants increasing by 86%. From 1980 to 1985 the total volume of technical assistance delivered by the Agency increased by 79%; during the same period, expenditures under the Regular Budget for technical co-operation servicing grew by 18%. The Secretariat is examining how it can best handle the future increases which it expects in the total volume of Agency technical assistance within a frame of severe Regular Budget constraints. The Evaluation Section is playing an important role in Agency efforts to enhance the effectiveness of the technical co-operation programme. Over 500 interim implementation reports were completed in 1985, and 50 mid-project and end-of-project evaluations were conducted. Two evaluations of major processes (equipment provision and group training) were also carried out

  8. Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatakos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Safioleas, Constnatinos; Manti, Christina; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups. Material-methods In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece. Results The ductal type...

  9. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.;

    2008-01-01

    after breast cancer treatment. The present study is a ten-year update. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group has since 1977 collected population-based data on tumour characteristics, treatment regimes, and follow-up status on Danish women with breast cancer. Pregnancy history was...... added from the Danish Civil Registration System, the National Birth Registry, and the National Induced Abortion registry. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk ratio of dying among women with a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment compared with women without such experience. RESULTS: In all......, 10 236 women with primary breast cancer aged 45 years or less at the time of diagnosis were followed for 95 616 person years. Among these, 371 women experienced pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer. In a multivariate analysis that included age at diagnosis, stage of disease, and pregnancy...

  10. Technical co-operation report for 2000. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers three separate topics. Part one fulfills the Agency's obligation under the General Conference resolution GC(44)/RES/18 to report on the Strengthening of Technical Co-operation. It covers the period from 1 April 2000 to 31 March 2001. The report examines the finalization of the 2001-2002 technical co-operation programme and several key concepts of the Technical Co-operation Strategy such as Partners in Development, Technical Co-operation among Developing Countries, and the continuing evolution of Regional Resource Centres. Reflecting an important trend in the technical co-operation programme, which was mandated by the General Conference, the report describes the results achieved in several programmes in least developed countries. Part two reports on the major achievements of the technical co-operation programme in 2000 in the different regions of the world. Part three presents a summary of the financial and non-financial parameters of the technical co-operation programme. The supplement to the report provides a more detailed review of resources and contributions, disbursements and non-financial indicators

  11. Prognostic Impact of ABO Blood Group on the Survival in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Juan; Yang, Li-Chao; He, Zhen-Yu; Li, Fang-Yan; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of ABO blood group on the survival of patients with ovarian cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the ABO blood group in ovarian cancer patients. Methods: 256 ovarian cancer patients who received a cytoreductive surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic impact of the ABO blood group with respect to overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time was 57 months and the 5-year OS was 70.1%. T...

  12. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  13. Local climate activities in co-operation between municipality, civil society and science shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    The Science Shop at DTU co-operates with the local municipal administration and the local branch of an environmental NGO about climate change. The co-operation was initiated by a proposal to the Science Shop from the municipal administration. Since the Science Shop requests civil society involvem...... civil society has taken place in some projects. Results have been published locally and some nationally. Especially the food projects have got national interest. Co-operation about environmental impacts of municipal investments may be an up-coming activity....

  14. International co-operation in radiation protection practices in the mining and milling of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining industry has been associated with the history of excess lung cancer. Because of such epidemiological evidence, the subject of radiation protection in the nuclear mining industry has received increased attention in recent years both at national and international levels. The radiation hazards encountered in the uranium mining industry result primarily from the exposure to radon daughters. The exposure to external radiation in most mines is low; however, in the mining of high grade uranium ores external radiation exposure can be substantially higher. By adopting proper control measures, namely, regulatory control, appropriate safety standards, monitoring, engineering and other measures, medical surveillance, environmental protection and radioactive waste management, it is possible to minimize the health risk to a level deemed to be acceptable in the light of the benefit derived from the uranium mining industry. Recognizing the history of excess lung cancer among uranium miners and the nature of the associated radiation protection problems there have been considerable national and international efforts to develop safety standards, codes of practice and guides to improve the radiation protection practices for the protection of the workers and the general public. At the international level the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) has been to develop and provide guidance for improved radiation protection in the uranium mining industry. In the paper the radiological problems in this industry, the types of control measures and the international efforts in harmonizing radiation protection measures are discussed. (author). 27 refs

  15. Online interaction. Effects of storytelling in an internet breast cancer support group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Johansen, Christoffer; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2005-01-01

    The internet provides new ways of forming social relationships among people with breast cancer and is increasingly used for this purpose. This qualitative study, using ethnographic case-study method, aimed to explore how support groups on the internet can break the social isolation that follows...... cancer and chronic pain, by analysing the storytelling emerging on the Scandinavian Breast Cancer Mailing list. Using participant observation and face-to-face or online interviews of participants, we investigated the motivations of 15 women who chose the internet to counteract social isolation after...... breast cancer. The results showed that the women were empowered by the exchanges of knowledge and experience within the support group. The internet was considered a means for finding ways of living with breast cancer. Our study suggests that internet support groups have important potential...

  16. Oncogene amplification as tumor marker in a group of Colombian lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Carrillo; Yazmín Rocío Arias; Sandra J. Perdomo; Aristizábal, Fabio A; Paulina Ojeda; Diana M. Palacios

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of recent treatment advances, lung cancer continues to be the first world cancer related death cause; its mortality associated occupied the fifth place in Colombia in 2004. Complete surgical resection is the therapeutic option with the greatest cure probability, however it results frequently ineffective given the current incapacity in Colombia to an early detection of the disease. This study reports the characterization of a group of 30 lung cancer patients regarding th...

  17. Prognostic value of ABO blood group in patients with surgically resected colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    X. Cao; Wen, Z-S; Sun, Y-J; Li, Y.; Zhang, L.; Han, Y-J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies supported a link between the ABO blood type and survival for several types of malignancies. Nonetheless, the relationship between ABO blood type and survival in colon cancer patients has not been rigorously evaluated. The goal of this retrospective analysis was to discern the correlations between ABO blood group and colon cancer survival. Methods: A total of 1555 colon cancer patients that underwent curative-intent surgery between October 1995 and June 2002 were e...

  18. Japanese lunar robotics exploration by co-operation with lander and rover

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Takashi Kubota; Yasuharu Kunii; Yoji Kuroda

    2005-12-01

    Unmanned mobile robots for surface exploration of the Moon or planets have been extensively studied and developed.A lunar rover is expected to travel safely in a wide area and explore in detail. Japanese lunar robotics exploration is under study to conduct an unmanned geological survey in the vicinity of central peaks of impact craters for investigation of the sub-surface materials.This will give us the key information to study the lunar inner structure and understand the Moon ’s origin and evolution as well as to investigate the evolution of magma ocean and later igneous processes.To carry out the geological exploration in the central peak,lander and rover co-operative exploration is proposed.The working group has been conducting feasibility study of advance technologies.This paper addresses an overview of lunar exploration with lander and rover and also enumerates future technologies to be established. The rover R&D group has developed an innovative science micro rover with a new mobility system and a lightweight manipulator.The design and implementation of a science rover for the near future lunar missions requiring long traverses and scientific observations are described and some experimental results are presented.

  19. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  20. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  1. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MAC...

  2. Operations and co-operations in Morava $E$-theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hovey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Let $E=E_{n}$ denote the Morava $E$-theory spectrum, and let $\\Gamma$ be the Morava stabilizer group of ring spectrum isomorphisms of $E$. We revisit the isomorphism $\\pi_{*}L_{K(n)}(E\\smash E)\\cong C(\\Gamma, E_{*})$ of graded formal Hopf algebroids, and its dual isomorphism $E^{*}E\\cong E_{*}[[\\Gamma

  3. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  4. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...

  5. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 26 March 1969

  6. Co-operation in radioactive waste management: a winning option for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Principles of sustainable development proclaimed in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development enshrine statements about co-operation. The present paper illustrates how the International Atomic Energy Agency has been framing, in the light of the co-operation needs expressed in these principles, its efforts in the area of radioactive waste management. With co-operation in mind the main lines of its efforts are: 1/ promoting the use of sustainable technologies through different mechanisms such as information exchange, consensus building, capacity building, training courses, demonstrations, centers of excellence, networking, and training; 2/ promoting international standards for the safe management of radioactive waste and provide for their application (e.g. through international conventions) and, 3/ encouraging involvement of international stake holders. The paper presents salient and recent activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the area of radioactive waste management that strongly rely on and simultaneously promote international co-operation. (Author)

  7. A study of personality of leader and style of his co-operation in sporting command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolar I.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The personality features of leader of sporting command and style of his co-operation are considered. The problems of adjusting and optimization of co-operation of leader and other players of command are selected in achievement of the set team purpose. 37 skilled sportsmen-handballers took part in research. An informal structure is exposed in commands, leaders and followers are certain. The quantitative indexes of personality features of leader, follower of sporting command are certain. Style of co-operation of leader and follower (prevailing and goodwill and quality is exposed personalities which will be realized by them in a sporting command. It is set that in interpersonality co-operation a leader will realize dominant style, and follower equal will realize dominant and benevolent styles.

  8. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  9. Co-operative Workplaces – Workspaces of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Reinema, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    There currently exists a fairly well developed awareness that today's organizations are subject to increasingly rapid and significant processes of metamorphosis. The world today is in a transition phase whereby the models underlying business, communication, education, working, and everyday life are changing. Many organizations are no longer strictly hierarchically structured, but go more for vertical integration, networked clusters, project groups, and flattened hierarchies. Dramatic changes ...

  10. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin Wendy; Power Emily; Solarin Ijeoma; Robb Kathryn A; Wardle Jane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and...

  11. Assessing Stakeholder Opinion on Relations between Cancer Patient Groups and Pharmaceutical Companies in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Leto di Priolo; Andras Fehervary; Phil Riggins; Kathy Redmond

    2012-01-01

    Background:Background: The relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups has been the subject of much scrutiny and skepticism, and some high-profile negative media coverage has focused attention on some of the problematic aspects of the relationship. Both the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups have made an effort in recent years to improve the transparency and openness of their relations, specifically with regard to the financial support offered by ...

  12. Regional co-operation in radioactive waste management from an IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to be a lead in to a Round Table discussion on Regional Co-operation in Radioactive Waste Management at the International Conference on Nuclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids, which will be held from 19 to 22 June 2000 in Dubrovnik, Croatia. The Round Table discussion will focus on international co-operation in the Eastern European region

  13. The use of co-operative work and rubrics to develop competences

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Canto, Miguel Ángel; Fonseca Mora, María Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most important engineering skills required nowadays, such as the ability to co-operate to find appropriate information, to solve problems through critical and creative thinking, to make decisions and to communicate effectively, are dealt with in this study carried out with chemical engineering students. The study investigates how certain competences needed by students may be developed through co-operative learning. Learners were given clear evaluation rubrics to know w...

  14. Team Learning: Through the Relational Dynamics of Co-operation and Rivalry in Team Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lotz, Maja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore the constructive links between co-operation, rivalry, and learning within the structure of team communities. Drawing upon social learning theory, the main purpose of this paper is to argue that both co-operation and rivalry are important triggers for mobilizing learning processes within and between teams. However, social learning theory tends to disregard the positive aspects of rivalry. Consequently, this paper will argue for the need to extend social learning theory ...

  15. Local climate activities in co-operation between municipality, civil society and science shop

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2009-01-01

    The Science Shop at DTU co-operates with the local municipal administration and the local branch of an environmental NGO about climate change. The co-operation was initiated by a proposal to the Science Shop from the municipal administration. Since the Science Shop requests civil society involvement in projects it was proposed to involve the local branch of the environmental NGO. The starting point was topics developed by the administration and the NGO together and announced to students as pa...

  16. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustainable food systems and are thereby in a position to offer a specific contribution to market development. Two key research questions are proposed: Firstly, is there a pre-determination of co-operatives to issues of sustainable and local food sourcing given the historical and practical context of their ethical/socially responsible and stakeholder-based business model? Secondly, do co-ops express support for re-localising food systems and what contribution do they make concerning sustainable food and their relationships with local food suppliers? The method of investigation is through a two country retailer co-operative sector analysis and comparison (Finland and Italy. The enquiry is qualitative and exploratory in nature in the form of an embedded, multiple case design. The paper makes practical and theoretical contribution to knowledge concerning interpretation of ‘localness’ in food, the role of co-operatives and the co-operative ethos in sustainable food systems and the development of the local food economy. Results of the study show a positive relationship between co-operative ethos and (social sustainability in local food, but the de-centralised nature of retailer co-operation also provides a barrier to replication of good practice.

  17. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Hingley; Minna Mikkola; Maurizio Canavari; Daniele Asioli

    2012-01-01

     This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustai...

  18. Strategic development on generic anti-cancer drugs Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride for Harbin Pharmaceutical Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheung Fat Ping

    2011-01-01

    @@ With improved economy, changing life styles, aging population and health care reform, China had a very potential anti-cancer drug market.The patents of popular anti-cancer drugs Avastin and Tarceva would expire in few years.Generic versions of Avastin and Tarceva were Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride respectively.Harbin Pharmaceutical Group was proposed to develop strategically both generic medicines to enter the high-end anti-cancer drug market for targeted cancer therapies.The vital to success of developing the generic drugs were discussed.

  19. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golant Mitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174

  20. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the n...

  1. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UwePelzer

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of PC in the German cohort is highly associated with the AB0-system as well. More patients with blood group A suffer from PC (p<0.001 whereas blood group 0 was less frequent in patients with PC (p<0.001. Thus, our findings support the results from other non-German surveys. The causal trigger points of this carcinogenesis correlation are still not known.

  2. Impact of Cancer Support Groups on Childhood Cancer Treatment and Abandonment in a Private Pediatric Oncology Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Arathi Srinivasan; Khushboo Tiwari; Julius Xavier Scott; Priya Ramachandran; Mathangi Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed...

  3. International co-operation in the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, the Directors General of FAO, IAEA and WHO took the initiative in forming the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, as an independent body composed of government-designated experts (currently 37 member states). It is the successor of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (IFIP), Karlsruhe which terminated in 1983 after successful complation of its tasks. The major functions of ICGFI, as stated in Declaration, are: - To evaluate global developments; - to provide advice to Member States and the three organizations; - to furnish information through the organizations to the JECFI and CAC. ICGFI addresses matters such as safety assurance, legislation, public information, technical and economical feasibility, training and international trade. Under the Auspices of ICGFI Codes of Food Irradiation Practice for eight different food groups were published. ICGFI organizes workshops on different topics, harmonize legislation and regulation in the field of food irradiation, provides information to the general public, records the files on clearances of radiated food and market testing. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till James E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

  5. Engaging Students in Group-Based Co-Operative Learning--A Malaysian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Mai

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the information and communication technology (ICT) has created a significant impact on the methods of communicating information and knowledge to the learners and, consequently, innovative teaching techniques have evolved to change the way teachers teach and students learn. In this paper, the focus is on a study which was conducted…

  6. Blooming together or wilting alone? Network externalities and Mondragón and La Lega co-operative networks

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Stephen C

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines strategies developed by Mondragón Co-operative Corporation in the Basque Region of Spain, and La Lega co-operative network in Italy, to mitigate disadvantages of the typical co-operative organizational structure and market position but without losing its critical advantages and attractive features. A detailed institutional overview of these most prominent examples of successful co-operative clusters is presented. The paper argues that there are network externalities in co-...

  7. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way. PMID:15460809

  8. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, KM; Jun, J; Zhao, X.; Kreps, GL; Lee, EE

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer ...

  9. Illustrating the Multi-Faceted Dimensions of Group Therapy and Support for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Davis, Janine; Brandelli, Yvonne; Kronenwetter, Carol; Golant, Mitch; Cordova, Matthew; Twirbutt, Suzanne; Chang, Vickie; Kraemer, Helena C; Spiegel, David

    2016-01-01

    In cancer support groups, choice of therapy model, leadership style, and format can impact patients' experiences and outcomes. Methodologies that illustrate the complexity of patients' group experiences might aid in choosing group style, or testing therapeutic mechanisms. We used this naturalistic study as a beginning step to explore methods for comparing cancer group contexts by first modifying a group-experience survey to be cancer-specific (Group Experience Questionnaire (GEQ)). Hypothesizing that therapist-led (TL) would differ from non-therapist-led (NTL), we explored the GEQ's multiple dimensions. A total of 292 patients attending three types of groups completed it: 2 TL groups differing in therapy style ((1) Supportive-Expressive (SET); (2) The Wellness Community (TWC/CSC)); (3) a NTL group. Participants rated the importance of "Expressing True Feelings" and "Discussing Sexual Concerns" higher in TL than NTL groups and "Discussing Sexual Concerns" higher in SET than other groups. They rated "Developing a New Attitude" higher in TWC/CSC compared to NTL. In addition, we depict the constellation of group qualities using radar-charts to assist visualization. These charts facilitate a quick look at a therapy model's strengths and weaknesses. Using a measure like the GEQ and this visualization technique could enable health-service decision making about choice of therapy model to offer. PMID:27490581

  10. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  11. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  12. The Effects Of Teaching Photosynthesis Unit With Computer Simulation Supported Co-Operative Learning On Retention And Student Attitude To Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Rıfat EFE; Behçet ORAL; ASLAN EFE, Hülya; Meral Önder SÜNKÜR

    2011-01-01

    In this study, student achievement in and attitude toward subject was investigated by comparing computer simulation supported Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) of co-operative learning with traditional learning in biology classes. The study was carried out with the participation of 81 students in 10th grade at Diyarbakir Melik Ahmet Secondary School during autumn term of 2009- 2010 academic year. The control and experimental groups were randomly selected from equal groups. An achieve...

  13. Customer orientation and further development plans for saving and credit co-operatives of Nepal : Case: Real saving and credit co-operative limited

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bishal

    2013-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is customer orientation and development plans. The first objective of the research is to study the customer orientation of saving and credit co-operatives in Nepal. Secondly, this research aims to develop creative plans and ideas for increasing the number of customers in the case company through promotional activities. Lastly recommendations for the case company are generated for building up trust with the customers and for the company´s financial and organizational suc...

  14. International co-operation in the nuclear field - past, present and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of its creation, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD) held a symposium in Paris on 1 and 2 February 1978. Some 200 participants from the 23 Member countries of the NEA as well as representatives of the Commission of European Communities, FORATOM and the IAEA attended the symposium. At a panel discussion at the symposium, led by Dr. Sigvard Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, the future of international co-operation between advanced nations in the nuclear field was discussed. While recognizing that nuclear energy is at present going through a period of uncertainty pending resolution of the intertwined problems of gaining public confidence and of non-proliferation, the panel expressed its strong confidence in the future of nuclear power, and the vital contribution it would make, particularly between now and the end of the century. During the meeting, a critical review was made of the way in which international co-operation has evolved since the early stages of peaceful nuclear development, and of the influence on this co-operation of the changing relationship between government and industry. The contribution of international co-operation - and its limitations - was carefully scrutinized, notably in the crucial area of the nuclear fuel cycle

  15. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed

  16. Evolution of co-operation among mobile agents with different influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Xingpu; Jin, Jiuwu; Li, Mingchu

    2013-10-01

    Co-operation is a key factor in understanding the evolution of our society. Inspired by this issue, the individual mobility in game theory has been proved to be a very useful scenario. However, it is not realistic, as described in previous studies, that each agent has the same influence on its neighbour’s movement trait. In this work, we mainly focus on the weighted influence on the mobility of agents in the prisoner’s dilemma game. Here the weight is proportional to its degree with power exponent of λ, where λ is the adjustable parameter to control the level of heterogeneity among individuals in the network. Through numerous simulations we find that co-operation level is promoted when the heterogeneous influence factor is considered. In particular, there is an intermediate value λopt≈10 to guarantee the optimal evolution of co-operation. Moreover, we also prove that the effect of influence weight on the enhancement of co-operation is only valid when the agent’s interaction radius is within a threshold value. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous co-operative behaviour in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  17. Clinical use of cancer biomarkers in epithelial ovarian cancer: updated guidelines from the European Group on Tumor Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sölétormos, G.; Duffy, M.J.; Othman Abu Hassan, S.; Verheijen, RHM; Tholander, B.; Bast jr., R.C.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Sturgeon, C.M.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Petersen, P.H.; Troonen, H.; Carlo Torre, G.; Kanty Kulpa, J.; Tuxen, M.K.; Molina, R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present an update of the European Group on Tumor Markers guidelines for serum markers in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature survey from 2008 to 2013. The articles were evaluated by level of evidence and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: Because of its low sens

  18. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Binbing; Tiwari, Ram C.; Feuer, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients’ main concerns, is sometimes called the “personal cure” rate. Two approaches of modeling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connect...

  19. Introductory statement at the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Committee of the Board of Governors. Vienna, 17 November 2003 [As delivered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's technical co-operation (TC) programme is focused on putting advanced science to work to meet the economic and social needs of developing countries. The TC planning process is briefly discussed, including recent evaluation results; highlighting of a number of key activities; and reviewing the current status of TC implementation and funding. The areas of activity include: The use of radiotherapy in cancer treatment; isotope hydrology; monitoring coastal and marine environment; plant breeding applications. Program implementation as well as program funding is discussed. The Agency is also working to reinforce technical co-operation among developing countries (TCDC), that is, the pooling of resources and expertise in areas of mutual benefit. It is stated that the TC programme has become a powerful tool for transferring nuclear science and technology to developing countries. But only if we work together in partnership can we ensure the success of the programme. I look forward to the continuation and further development of that partnership

  20. Cancer-related electronic support groups as navigation-aids: Overcoming geographic barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Till, James E

    2004-01-01

    Cancer-related electronic support groups (ESGs) may be regarded as a complement to face-to-face groups when the latter are available, and as an alternative when they are not. Advantages over face-to-face groups include an absence of barriers imposed by geographic location, opportunities for anonymity that permit sensitive issues to be discussed, and opportunities to find peers online. ESGs can be especially valuable as navigation aids for those trying to find a way through the healthcare syst...

  1. O espaço da cooperativa "amigos do meio ambiente": cooperativa de trabalho ou cooperfraude? "Friends of the environment" co-operative: work co-operative or fraud co-operative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirla Patrícia Weber Sterchile

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é resultado de pesquisa acadêmica que tem como objeto de estudo-pesquisa "A forma de existir e de ser da Cooperativa dos Agentes Ambientais de Santa Helena 'Amigos do Meio Ambiente' e sua imbricação na Usina de Beneficiamento de Resíduos Sólidos do município de Santa Helena-PR". Verificando o cotidiano profissional, o descontentamento de trabalhadores catadores de matérias recicláveis, o incentivo do gestor municipal para a instalação da usina e a formação da cooperativa, aliado aos postulados do capitalismo, em sua fase tardia, propusemos desconstruir e reconstruir o movimento do objeto em questão a partir da pesquisa teórica e empírica. Para coletar os dados utilizando a técnica de gravação, recorremos à análise documental e à observação. Após esse processo descrevemos e analisamos os conteúdos presentes. Concluímos em nosso estudo-pesquisa, que a Cooperativa - "Amigos do Meio Ambiente", é uma "cooperfraude", legitimada pelo Estado, que suprime os princípios do cooperativismo e exime o capital da raiz da exploração da força de trabalhoThis article resulted from a research aiming at "The form of existence and being of the Co-operative of Environmental Agents from St. Helena - 'Friends of the Environment' - and its imbrication in the Processing Plant of Solid Waste in the city of Santa Helena-PR". Checking the professional practice, the dissatisfaction of workers who collect recycling materials and the City Hall's encouragement to install the plant and to form the Co-operative, together with the tenets of capitalism in its late stage, we proposed to deconstruct and reconstruct the motion of the object studied from the empirical research. After analyzing our data we concluded that the "Friends of the Environment" Co-operative is a "fraud co-operative" legitimized by the State, that suppressed the principles of co-operativism and exempted the capital from the root of exploitation of the workforce

  2. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-liang Shi; Ning Qu; Tian Liao; Wen-jun Wei; Yu-Long Wang; Qing-hai Ji

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox mod...

  3. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  4. BUDGETARY CONTROL SYSTEM IN BHARAT URBAN CO-OPERATIVE BANK LTD. JAYSINGPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIPTI RAVASAHEB KHOT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The budget is the most important factor in management accounting. It is for planning and its successful implementation. The budget refers to a statement showing the quantities and monetary values, and indicating the future policy to be perused by organization. In short, budget is an estimate of the future needs calculate for a definite period. It is also defined as “a blue-print of a projected plan of action of a business or Bank for a definite period of time.” It is considered as the management instrument of planning, organizing, Co-coordinating & control. Budgetary control is the requirement of Bharat co-operative urban bank Ltd. The study is mainly focused on the budgetary control of the co-operative bank. It overviewed the Receipts & Expenditure of Co-operative Bank. Budgetary control system is the very essence of financial control.

  5. A proposed new mechanism for research and development co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists in developing countries sometimes lack knowledge of recent developments, co-operation with advanced countries, and government appreciation of the importance and quality of their work. The present IAEA mechanisms like CRPs and TC projects are very helpful but do not fully meet R and D co-operation needs of these scientists. A new complementary mechanism of co-operation among the Member States is proposed that would utilize IAEA services through a suitable agreement. The IAEA could help to evaluate joint R and D proposals, to provide an example legal agreement, to monitor progress, to disseminate the results, and, in some cases, to administer joint funds. This new mechanism would be similar to ITER, but on a smaller scale, and applicable to all fields of nuclear R and D. (author)

  6. Adjustment to cancer: exploring patients' experiences of participating in a psychodramatic group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it. PMID:26515989

  7. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health. PMID:25153949

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Myanmar 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Myanmar carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. Revitalisert regionalisering : en analyse av det nye East African Co- operation (EAC)

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Revitalisert regionalisering; en analyse av det nye East African Co-operation. Temaet i denne oppgaven er regionalisering og East African Co-operation (EAC). Regionalisering er blitt fremmet som 90-årenes strategi, og vi har sett regionale samrbeidsarrangementer i nær sagt alle verdenshjørner. EU, NAFTA, og ASEAN er kanskje de mest kjente, men også i Afrika har regionalisering blitt fremmet som en politisk-økonomisk strategi. EAC, formelt dannet november 1993, er et slikt regionalt samarbe...

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with The Philippines 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in The Philippines carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Turkey 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Turkey carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  12. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Nicaragua 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Nicaragua carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Hungary 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Hungary carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Malaysia 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Malaysia carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Thailand 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Thailand carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Paraguay 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Paraguay carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bangladesh 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bangladesh carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bangladesh 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bangladesh carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Colombia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Colombia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  20. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Paraguay 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Paraguay carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Greece 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Greece carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Jamaica 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Jamaica carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Mexico 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Mexico carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  5. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Egypt 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Egypt carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  6. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Turkey 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Turkey carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  7. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Pakistan 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Pakistan carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Indonesia 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Indonesia carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Guatemala 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Guatemala carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Mongolia 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Mongolia carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  12. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Cyprus 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Cyprus carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Portugal 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Portugal carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Albania 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Albania carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Philippines 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Philippines carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Viet Nam 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Viet Nam carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Ecuador 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Ecuador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  20. SSI`s International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szendroe, G.; Grapengiesser, S.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1999-04-01

    SSI`s International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with El Salvador 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in El Salvador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Poland 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Poland carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. Second primary cancers after adjuvant radiotherapy in early breast cancer patients: A national population based study under the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To analyze the long-term risk of second primary solid non-breast cancer in a national population-based cohort of 46,176 patients treated for early breast cancer between 1982 and 2007. Patients and methods: All patients studied were treated according to the national guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. The risk of second primary cancers was estimated by Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among irradiated women compared to non-irradiated. All irradiated patients were treated on linear accelerators. Second cancers were a priori categorized into two groups; radiotherapy-associated- (oesophagus, lung, heart/mediastinum, pleura, bones, and connective tissue) and non-radiotherapy-associated sites (all other cancers). Results: 2358 second cancers had occurred during the follow-up. For the radiotherapy-associated sites the HR among irradiated women was 1.34 (95% CI 1.11–1.61) with significantly increased HRs for the time periods of 10–14 years (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.08–2.24) and ⩾15 years after treatment (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14–2.81). There was no increased risk for the non-radiotherapy-associated sites (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.94–1.1). The estimated attributable risk related to radiotherapy for the radiotherapy-associated sites translates into one radiation-induced second cancer in every 200 women treated with radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy treated breast cancer patients have a small but significantly excess risk of second cancers

  4. The Effects Of Teaching Photosynthesis Unit With Computer Simulation Supported Co-Operative Learning On Retention And Student Attitude To Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıfat EFE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, student achievement in and attitude toward subject was investigated by comparing computer simulation supported Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD of co-operative learning with traditional learning in biology classes. The study was carried out with the participation of 81 students in 10th grade at Diyarbakir Melik Ahmet Secondary School during autumn term of 2009- 2010 academic year. The control and experimental groups were randomly selected from equal groups. An achievement test consisted of 31 questions from photosynthesis unit and an attitude scale was used as the data collection instruments. The study revealed that teaching method that was supported by computer simulations had more effects on student achievement in comparison to the traditional teaching method. Differences between students’ attitude who were taught with computer simulation supported co-operative learning and students’ attitude who were instructed by traditional teaching did not emerge as statistically significant.Keywords:

  5. Enhancing a cancer prevention and control curriculum through interactive group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, L P; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B M; Kent, E E; Lai, G Y; Lin, S W; Luhn, P; Faupel-Badger, J M

    2012-06-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This 4-week postgraduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g., epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, cancer prevention fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking among the course participants and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current cancer prevention fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87 and 8/10, respectively) reported a high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in a greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated that they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses. PMID:22661264

  6. Impact of group psychotherapy in chemotherapy induced vomiting for treatment of advanced breast and lungs cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of group psychotherapy in the management of the side effects of chemotherapy treatment in advanced breast and lung cancer. One hundred patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced stage (IIIB and IV) breast and lung cancer were selected with ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. All patients received anti-emetic medications half an hour before chemotherapy. All those patients in this category who completed fist line chemotherapy with 6 cycles were included. Fifty were subjected to group discussions with other patients, family members and medical staff. This was labeled group A. The other 50 were not included in group discussion and were labeled group B. Both the group received similar standard chemotherapy and pre-medication for vomiting as per their disease and chemotherapy schedule. Breast and lung cancer patients were 29 and 21 in each arm respectively. At the end of the discharge, grade 2 and above of vomiting, according to common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) was counted for all patients in both the arms A and B, over full length of treatment for 6 cycles, and then were compared statistically. Mean with standard deviation for adverse event (vomiting) in group A and B was 6.2 + 2.6 and 13.4 + 3.8 respectively per cycle of treatment. It was observed that group psychotherapy had statistically significant effect (p-value <0.05) on the management of vomiting. Group psychotherapy can be used to reduce the incidence of vomiting in advanced breast and lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. (author)

  7. NEW GENERATION CO-OPERATIVES (NGC) AS A MODEL FOR VALUE-ADDED AGRICULTURAL PROCESSING IN ALBERTA: APPLICATIONS TO FACTORS AFFECTING CHOICE OF PRICING AND PAYMENT PRACTICES BY TRADITIONAL MARKETING AND NEW GENERATION CO-OPERATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.; Gurung, Rajendra Kumar

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the factors affecting choice of pricing and payment practices by traditional marketing and new generation co-operatives for commodities delivered by their members. These factors include the demographic variables related to type of co-operative organization, level of competition in commodity market, and risk-return perceptions of members and co-operatives. Data for the analysis were obtained through a mail survey. Questionnaires were send to one hundred and ninety five (195...

  8. Evaluation of Georgian military co-operation with partner countries and institutions / George Manjgaladze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manjgaladze, George

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Gruusia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõudude ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh NATO-ga 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  9. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Arthur Aghabekyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aghabekyan, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Armeenia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikidega ja osalemisest rahvusvahelistes sõjalistes koostööprogrammides 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  10. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Najaf Gambarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gambarov, Najaf

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Aserbaidžaani sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõududega ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  11. [SUPPORT, CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PRAGMATIC CODE OF ETHICS: A CLINICAL APPROACH OF EXECUTIVE TRAINING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at introducing an educational sequence completed at l'Institut de Formation des Cadres de Santé (IFCS) at the CHRU in Lille in France, entitled "training project and educational project" present in the "training duties" module whose goal is to generate students'knowledge through co-operative education programmes. By creating this innovative sequence, the educational aim is to use the Institut ground as a ground of learning, associated with the various internship grounds, in order to get the most of co-operative education programmes. Besides, in a pragmatic code of ethics in training, the teaching staff draw their inspiration from a clinical approach of executive training: they regard students as true protagonists in a co-operative plan created for them, wishing to design it with them using their words. Thus, students are brought to criticize the IFCS educational project and debate it with the trainers who have built it. Each partner tries to understand the Other, being aware of their being different. By contributing every year to rewriting the educational project which directly concerns them, students build their professional positions as health executives. They play an active role in co-operative education programmes just like IFCS outside partners. PMID:27305794

  12. Learner Oriented Co-Operative Learning: A Booster to Higher Educational Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study enlightens the impact of Learner-Oriented-Co-operative Learning in enriching knowledge in Environmental Education at Higher Education. To achieve the expected competency in Biodiversity, various approaches were adopted in the class room transaction which were not fruitful. Hence the researcher practiced the Learner-Oriented-Co…

  13. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  14. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency

  15. Incentives to strengthen international co-operation in R and D for advanced nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the need for International Co-operation in R and D for Advanced Reactors in order to maintain options for the future deployment of nuclear power against the current background of declining R and D capability in Europe

  16. Financial Instruments and Conflicts of Interest: Application to French Agricultural Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Declerck

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural co-operatives' governance and economic projects are often misunderstood by external financial investors. The risk of conflicts of interest plays a role in these misunderstandings in the way retained earnings, returns to agricultural products brought by co-op member and returns to equity capital. Such risks are identified and answers are proposed.

  17. The Case of the Missing Organizations: Co-operatives and the Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Roderick

    2000-01-01

    States that co-operative (co-op) economics organizations are ignored in economic introductory textbooks in North America and provides evidence for this assertion. Addresses how to deal with this form of economic organization. Argues that asking who makes the decisions in firms and why, using co-ops as an example, raises important questions. (CMK)

  18. Co-Operative Phenomena as a Physical Paradigm for Special Relativity, Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Buonomano, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    We take Co-Operative Phenomena as a common physical conceptual base to speculate on the existence of a medium and the properties that it must have to physically understand some of the problems in Special Relativity, Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

  19. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  20. Tianwan Nuclear Power Station. An Example for Chinese - Russian - German Co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tianwan NPS is the first NPP worldwide, equipped completely with digital control systems. The DCS platforms TELEPERM XS and TELEPERM XP fulfill all automation tasks from reactor protection to water treatment system. The screen-based OM690 system offers a modern HMI for NPP operation. The Tianwan NPS Main IC project is an example of successful multi-cultural co-operation

  1. The IAEA technical Co-operation a partner in development in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each country was to find means of achieving sustainable development, and for this, technology within a framework of regional and international co-operation are of utmost importance. The IAEA plays a major role in promoting nuclear technologies for development. Highlights of the IAEA's technical cooperation programme are given in this paper

  2. The Features of the New-type Co-operatives and its Legal Regulation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoletta Fáró

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture, a changing in the structure of ownership also appeared in parallel with the changing of the political system. As a result, this process led to the liquidation and reorganisation of the socialist type co-operatives. However, in many cases the cooperatives managed in the traditional way, could not keep up with the changing of the economic regulators, the reorganisation of the market relations and with the more and more oppressive agricultural gap. At the same time, individual farmers - mainly because of their poor material conditions - could not meet the market requirements either in the quantity or the quality of their products. As a consequence of all these factors, a different kind of co-operation was needed. The Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Development passed a decree on the support of new-type co-operatives, too, in 1999. The statement of costs supported the establishment of companies dealing with product purchasing, processing, marketing and service. In the following years the support of these co-operatives was sometimes terminated, sometimes preferred.

  3. The Need Of Students' Awareness About Co- Operative Principles During Written Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Dhananjay Shivaji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Today, with growing competition in educational field, the students have to be very particular regarding their studies as well as presentation of the studied matter in the perfect way. Many times, while going through the answer books of the students at different levels, it is frequently observed that students are not conscious regarding the matter which they write as the answers. There are certain drawbacks in their writings. This paper aims at high lighting those drawbacks with reference to the co operative principles of the well known pragmatician -H.Paul Grice. Co-operative principles play a vital role in pragmatics. Pragmatics is the study of meaning formation in communication, based on context.Initially, it is necessary to explain that Grice provides the co-operative principles with reference to communication which is generally oral and face to face. Here, with respect to written examinations, we need to consider the students as the senders who transmit their message in the form of the answers. On the other hand; the assessor will be the receiver. The written examination is the way to communication between the students and the assessors. In this sense, it's simple calculation that the score in the written examination depends upon the effectivity of communication between them. The violation of the co-operative maxims as stated by Grice will result in students' poor performance in the written examinations and obviously in poor score.

  4. NATO, Libya operations and intelligence co-operation – a step forward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    2011-01-01

    "With the ‘fall’ of Tripoli towards the end of August 2011, it has become increasingly apparent that the intelligence co-operation witnessed in Libya during the NATO campaign performed an increasingly important role in realizing operational and strategic ‘successes’. These recent intelligence...

  5. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin;

    2015-01-01

    of manual workers has been the driving force behind the dramatic increase in the Norwegian incidence of colon cancer. This development resulted in a reversal of the socio-economic gradient from the classic European pattern with the highest incidence in the upper socio-economic groups to an American pattern...... with the highest incidence in the lower socio-economic groups. This 'Americanization' of the disease pattern followed the rapid growth in the Norwegian gross domestic product....

  6. The selection and use of control groups in epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)

  7. Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Richard L.; Schag, Cyndie Coscarelli

    1985-01-01

    Studied 51 ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses to evaluate a group stress and activity management treatment program. Found support for unique effects of the treatment intervention, but also support for improvement in psychosocial adjustment for patients and spouses with the passage of time. (Author/MCF)

  8. Paclitaxel for malignant pleural mesothelioma : A phase II study of the EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanMeerbeeck, J; Debruyne, C; vanZandwijk, N; Postmus, PE; Pennucci, MC; vanBreukelen, F; Galdermans, D; Groen, H; Pinson, P; vanGlabbeke, M; vanMarck, E; Giaccone, G

    1996-01-01

    The EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group undertook a phase II study of paclitaxel in 25 chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Paclitaxel was given intravenously at a dose of 200 mg m(-2), as a 3 h infusion every 3 weeks, after standard premedication with corticosteroids and

  9. Polycomb group proteins: navigators of lineage pathways led astray in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate lineage choices during development and differentiation. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of how the PcG proteins regulate cell fate decisions and how their deregulation potentially contributes to cancer. ...

  10. Determinants of participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Visser, A.; Fischer, M.; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims at determining factors related to the intention to participate and actual participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients, using the framework of the theory of planned behavior. The factors studied are background variables, medical variables, psychosoci

  11. Co-operation Agreement between the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of the Republic of Cuba (CITMA) and CERN concerning The Further Development of Scientific and Technical Co-operation

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the CERN collaboration with Latin America, co-operation agreements have been established with Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. They have made possible a growing participation by Latin American particle physicists in the CERN programme, which has important potential for the future. The Cuban particle physics community is highly motivated and relatively advanced, both scientifically and technologically, since many of its members have been trained in installations of the former Soviet Union, many of which now participate in CERN's cooperation with Russia. In addition, Cuba has a good number of experienced computer scientists. A group from the Cuban Institute CEADEN (Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarollo Nuclear) has recently been accepted unanimously into the ALICE collaboration, with agreed contributions to off-line software and Grid middlewave. Additional Cuban contributions to show controls, data acquisition and testing electronics for the Silicon drift decte...

  12. The Agency's Technical Co-operation activities in 1984. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 1984 can be described as one during which efforts were made to increase momentum in the development co-operation between the Agency and its Member States while continuing to improve the quality of the technical assistance rendered. For the first time, the adjusted programme exceeded $50 million. During the year, changes were introduced in the administration of the programme in line with recommendations endorsed by the Board in 1983 at the end of its first technical co-operation policy review. In 1984, when the new technical co-operation policies were applied, there were three principal aims. First, the flow of Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund resources was to be improved; by decreasing accumulated unobligated balances, an optimum level of resource utilization was to be attained by 1986. Second, procedures for the procurement of goods and services were to be streamlined in order to permit substantial increases in programme delivery. Third, systematic project evaluation was to lead to a number of specific actions that would increase the effectiveness of the Agency's development assistance. With regard to the first aim, implementation increased by 44% over the 1983 level, passing the $30 million mark in October and reaching $36.6 million by the end of the year. Of this amount, $31.8 million related to the implementation of activities programmed for 1984. Therefore, an increase in total resources of only 4% was accompanied by an increase in current-year implementation of 34%. As a result, the upward trend in the unobligated balance was checked, and earmarkings against the TACF actually decreased. The implementation rate against the TACF rose from 58% in 1983 to 65% in 1984, reaching the level that had been set as a target. If this performance can be maintained in 1985, it will be possible to reach the optimum level of TACF resource utilization one year earlier than originally expected. As regards the second aim, streamlined procedures introduced in

  13. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  14. Co-operation and consumer politics in comparative perspective: Britain and Sweden during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Hilson, M.

    2003-01-01

    Why did the British Co-operative Movement suddenly abandon its historic commitment to political neutrality in 1917? Recent research suggests that the debate over co-operative political representation should be seen in the wider context of consumer politics, and conflicts over the supply and distribution of important commodities. The first part of this paper re-examines these debates in the context of the Plymouth Co-operative Society, one of the largest retail societies during this period, wh...

  15. Case report: diffuse splenic metastasis of occult breast cancer with incompatible blood group antigenic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyay, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells with immunogenic properties having altered protein glycosilation, modified blood group substances have been widely studied [Kannagi R, Miyake M, Zenita KM, Itai S, Hiraiwa N, Shigeta K, et al. Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens: modified blood group substances and oncodevelopmental antigens on tumor cells. Gann Monogr Cancer Res 1988; 34: p. 15-28; Hakomori S. Antigen structure and genetic basis of histo-blood groups A, B and O their changes associated with human cancer. Biochem Biophys Acta 1999; 1473: p. 247-266; Brooks SA, Carter TM, Royle L, Harvey DJ, Fry SA, Kinch C, et al. Altered glycosilation of proteins in cancer: what is the potential for new anti-tumour strategies. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2008; 8: p. 2-21]. In the study reported here, a 78-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital with circulatory failure. At autopsy, the spleen (weight: 420 g) was extremely firm with a diffusely blackberry-colored cut surface. There were no signs of carcinomatous process at autopsy. By histology, the spleen showed diffuse metastatic carcinomatous infiltration. Using immunohistochemistry, an antibody to breast carcinoma antigen (BioGenex) labelled metastatic cells of the spleen and bone marrow. The patient was blood group O. Labelling for binding of lectins with and without blood group antigen specificity and monoclonal antibodies was carried out. The B blood group specific Banderiaea simplicifolia agglutinin I and an anti-B blood group monoclonal antibody labelled all the metastatic cells of spleen and bone marrow intensely. There was no detection of blood group A antigen by either binding of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or anti-blood group A monoclonal antibodies. These observations raise the possibility that the detected incompatible B blood group antigen determinants on the metastatic cells were immunogenic. The surviving carcinoma cells may have found a place of refuge from immune surveillance in the spleen and in the bone marrow

  16. Evaluation of group genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Yolanda; Panabaker, Karen; McCullum, Mary; Portigal-Todd, Cheryl; Scott, Jenna; McGillivray, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    As demand for genetic counseling regarding hereditary cancer continues to grow, more efficient methods of providing this service must be explored. In this pilot study, group genetic counseling was offered to two different cohorts of women seeking genetic counseling for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Seven group sessions, designed to cover all aspects of an individual genetic counseling appointment, were conducted. Although patients were receptive to group genetic counseling, a significant proportion chose individual counseling when given the option. Advantages of group genetic counseling include shared experience and increased efficiency. Disadvantages include increased frustration at not being eligible for genetic testing, group influence on decision-making, privacy concerns, increased need for follow-up, and difficulty booking group appointments. Overall, the level of patient satisfaction with group genetic counseling was similar to that of individual counseling. The results of this pilot study suggest that further research is needed to determine whether group genetic counseling is an acceptable alternative to individual counseling. PMID:19127417

  17. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  18. A group cognitive behaviour therapy programme with metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, S; Bell, D R; Kidman, A D

    1999-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty-four patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomised to either a group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) intervention, or to a no-therapy control group condition. Both groups received standard oncological care; however, therapy recipients also attended eight weekly sessions of group CBT, followed by a family night, and three further monthly sessions. Patients completed the 'Profile of Mood States' (POMS) and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSI) before and after therapy, and at 3 and 6 month follow-up periods. Outcome data in the period following therapy showed reduced depression and total mood disturbance, as well as improved self-esteem amongst therapy participants, relative to a no-therapy control group. These improvements were no longer evident at the 3 or 6 month follow-up assessments. We also report on the difficulties associated with conducting a group intervention with this patient cohort. PMID:10474848

  19. Targeting the Psychosexual Challenges Faced by Couples with Breast Cancer: Can Couples Group Psychotherapy Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Fobair, Patricia; Spiegel, David

    2016-01-01

    The need for the psychosexual rehabilitation of breast cancer survivors and their intimate partners is underscored by the high prevalence of multiple psychosexual difficulties encountered by this patient population. Concerns about health, sexuality, and emotional distress are common among women with breast cancer and are often related to the side effects of cancer treatment. Additionally, both intimate relationship problems and partners’ distress are likely to influence patients’ psychosexual health. A clearer understanding of these complex clinical issues is needed in order to implement effective psychosexual rehabilitation interventions. In this article, we extended the use of the manualized and empirically validated Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy (SEGT) model to target the specific psychosexual needs of couples with breast (as well as other types of) cancer. In view of the pertinent literature in this area and based on our clinical experience utilizing this group therapy model with different patient populations, we have discussed how clinicians involved in the psychosexual care of oncology patients could apply such a model within a couples group therapy format. PMID:27239398

  20. The Agency's Technical Co-operation activities in 1987. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is part of a wide range of documentation which the Agency provides to Member States on its technical co-operation activities at various times during the year. It is, in particular, complemented by the achievement reporting submitted to the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Committee of the Board in the annual implementation reports that give the status of the technical co-operation programmes as at 30 September in each year. Following the 1986 Technical Co-operation Seminar and based on continuing consultations with Member States various steps to improve the quality of the programme were taken in 1987: for example, new project request forms and management plans were introduced and preparatory assistance was expanded. Office automation was intensified and the computerized data base covering technical co-operation was enhanced further. Work continues on the adaptation of data provided by the new Financial Information and Control System (FIGS) to the needs of the technical co-operation programmes and vice-versa. While several problems have still to be overcome, it has on the whole, been possible in this report to re-establish data comparability with previous years. Evaluation has become an integral part of the Agency's technical cooperation activities. In addition to on-going mid-project and end-of-project evaluations, expert services and fellowships were evaluated in 1987 and the first country programme evaluation was also undertaken. During 1987, a total of 962 projects were operational and 64 training courses were held. These activities involved 1808 expert assignments while 1975 persons received training abroad. Of the provisions in the 1987 total adjusted programme, one half was earmarked for equipment, while the other half was equally divided between ear markings for experts and for training. Of the Agency's technical co-operation resources in 1987, 72.5% came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, 13.7% from extra budgetary

  1. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwa...

  2. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  3. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning decontamination and demolition of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to growing interest in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency set up the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning in 1985. Its basic scope is to facilitate the exchange of scientific and technical information between major decommissioning projects. Participation in the Programme has expanded significantly over the years to include organisations from 13 countries. Currently, about 60 projects participate in the Programme. The Programme is executed under an agreement between the participating organisations and companies. A progress report is issued every five years on the CPD and includes a brief description of each project. The most recent report is entitled A Decade of Progress. The projects are divided into two groups: reactor projects (60%) and fuel facility projects (40%). A complete list of the different projects and their country of residence can be found in Annex 1. Many of the early projects in the Programme focused on experimental or prototype plants, however, a number of projects for the decommissioning of commercial facilities (power generation, fuel and reprocessing plants) have recently joined the Programme. Limited feedback on concrete clean-up operations has been available until now due to the lengthy time frame of decommissioning projects and the fact that building demolition occurs in the very late stages of the project. Some of the early projects in the Programme are now complete or nearing completion, making available significant data and experience. This experience and lessons learnt can be applied to the further development of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) clean-up processes. This report aims to supplement the previous NEA report dedicated to decontamination techniques and to provide project engineers and/or project leaders involved in concrete infrastructure clean-up with: - Guidelines for setting up appropriate and adequate strategies, taking into consideration the international

  4. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. T......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer.......The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. The...

  5. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. T......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer.......The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. The...

  6. Technical co-operation report for 1999. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) activities in 1999 and covers three separate topics. Part I reports on the Strengthening of TC and looks at the elements of the TC Strategy and how they contributed to the TC Programme. Part II reports on the major achievements of the TC Programme in 1999 in different regions of the world. In addition to reviewing some of the results of national and regional activities in each region - including activities under Regional Co-operation Agreements - this section looks at three interregional projects, and provides highlights of selected projects that were closed in 1999. Part III presents a technical discussion of the financial parameters of the TC Programme. A more detailed review of resources and contributions, disbursements, and non-financial indicators is provided in a Supplement to this report

  7. Subthreshold pion production: Nucleon-nucleon single collision vs. co-operative mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various reaction mechanisms proposed to explain the pion production at ''subthreshold'' energies (below 290 MeV/A) are examined. They range from the nucleon-nucleon single collision mechanism to a co-operative multi-nucleon process. With a shell model prescription for the initial state energies the single collision picture can not explain the data. The participation of many nucleons in the pion production process appears to be necessary. We present a statistical model where the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process is invoked. We also consider the formation of the fragments in the final channel alongside the produced pion. Calculations performed within the model provide a good overall description of the experimental data over a wide range of beam energies and masses of the participating nuclei. Fragment formation in the final channel is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data within our model. (orig.)

  8. The international co-operation, an important element in defining Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the co-operation among the Romania Ministry of Industry, the Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL), the Institute of Power Studies and Design (ISPE) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), US, will be presented. This co-operation allowed the implementation in Romania of the concept of integrated energy planning and of a methodology for undertaking this planning. This methodology is based upon the ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) software package, which allows the integrated consideration of all aspects of energy planning from the assessment of energy demand through the evaluation of the supply options, taking into account the environmental impact (emission), as well as the resource requirements, (capital, manpower, and materials) associated with each supply option. (Author)

  9. Fermi motion versus co-operative effects in subthreshold pion and energetic gamma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various reaction mechanisms proposed to explain the production of pions at 'sub-threshold' energies and of energetic gammas are examined. They range from the nucleon-nucleon single collision mechanism to a co-operative multi-nucleon process. With a shell model prescription for the initial state energies the single collision picture cannot explain the data. The participation of many nucleons in the pion production process appears to be necessary. We present a statistical model which demands the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process. The formation of composite fragments alongside with the produced pion is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data within this model. (orig.)

  10. Cancer pain management by radiotherapists: a survey of radiation therapy oncology group physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) physicians were surveyed to determine their approach to and attitudes toward cancer pain management. Methods and Materials: Physicians completed a questionnaire assessing their estimates of the magnitude of pain as a specific problem for cancer patients, their perceptions of the adequacy of pain management, and their report of how they manage pain in their own practice setting. Results: Eighty-three percent believed the majority of cancer patients with pain were undermedicated. Forty percent reported that pain relief in their own practice setting was poor or fair. Assessing a case scenario, 23% would wait until the patient's prognosis was 6 months or less before starting maximal analgesia. Adjuvants and prophylactic side effect management were underutilized in the treatment plan. Barriers to pain management included poor pain assessment (77%), patient reluctance to report pain (60%), patient reluctance to take analgesics (72%), and staff reluctance to prescribe opioids (41%). Conclusions: Physicians' perceptions of barriers to cancer pain management remain quite stable over time, and physicians continue to report inadequate pain treatment education. Future educational efforts should target radiation oncologists as an important resource for the treatment of cancer pain

  11. Some like to join, others to deliver. An econometric analysis of farmers’ relationships with agricultural co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    In many European countries, farmers are a member of a processing or marketing co-operative, and most of these farmers also deliver their products to that co-operative. However, an extensive dataset of Italian farmers shows that not all members deliver to their co-op, and that there are also non-memb

  12. Joint declaration on the fundamental aspects of UK-German co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Declaration records the intention of both Governments to increase their existing co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. This co-operation covers, inter alia, spent fuel reprocessing, nuclear safety technology, radiation production monitoring systems, waste management, etc

  13. Towards a division of labour in European development co-operation : operational options

    OpenAIRE

    Mürle, Holger

    2007-01-01

    "This study analyses options to improve the division of labour between the various donors of the European Union: the European Commission and the Member States. It was commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development (BMZ). However, it is the responsibility of the German Development Institute (DIE) alone and any conclusions should not be attributed to BMZ. The study is part of a research project on division of labour in EU development co-operati...

  14. ECR Demand Side Co-Operation In Italy: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cuomo, G.; Pastore, A.; Mattiacci, A

    1999-01-01

    The economic scenario in the grocery market has rapidly changed in the past few years carrying us to the actual iper-competition climate where producers and retailers are asked to abandon the conflictual approach, to develop a strategic co-operation in vertical relationships, in order to concentrate on the value creation process. Vertical collaboration can be more effective when managed in a many to many relationship, via multilateral solutions. This is the Efficicnt Consumer Response (ECR) p...

  15. The measurement and management of operational risk in South African co-operative banks / E. Swanepoel

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Ezelda

    2012-01-01

    Co-operative banks have proved to be of paramount importance to the South African banking sector. Although relatively new, these banks have proven that their existence, especially in South African, has encouraged millions of individuals to save, and in turn, enabled them to strive for a better standard of living. The proper measuring and managing of operational risk within these banks will ensure the optimal functioning of these banks. Without the appropriate operational risk measurement and ...

  16. The Management Contract As A Mode Of Industrial Co-operation

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, F N; Hammoutene, A

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores the notion, commonly expressed in the literature, that the management contract is, or is likely to become, an increasingly predominant form of industrial co-operation. It is argued that the emphasis which has been placed on the management function per se, and on the operational aspects of the 'pure' management contract, has distracted attention away from their primary purpose as a technology transfer mode.

  17. Pixels & partnerships: digital publishing and co-operative scholarship in Australian and Britsih imperial history

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Robin

    2008-01-01

    The efforts of libraries and archival institutions in collecting and curating dispersed collections of original letters, journals, pictorial sources, and realia/artefacts are essential contributions towards research and scholarship. Recent technological advances in digitization offer important new possibilities in the reproduction of documents and images as well as enhanced access to dispersed institutional holdings. The Lachlan & Elizabeth Macquarie Archive (LEMA) is a co-operative inter-...

  18. The SADC Groundwater Data and Information Archive, Knowledge Sharing and Co-operation Project. Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J.; Cobbing, J; Robins, N.S.; Talbot, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Groundwater Data and Information Archive, Knowledge Sharing and Co-operation Project, funded by the German Development Cooperation (GIZ) and Department for International Development, UK (DFID), was initiated in September 2009 to identify, catalogue and subsequently promote access to the large collection of reports held in the UK by the British Geological Survey (BGS). The work has focused on a wealth of unpublished so-called “gr...

  19. Emergent identity formation and the co-operative: Theory building in relation to alternative organizational forms

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Teresa; Nelson, Dylan; Huybrechts, Benjamin; Dufays, Frédéric; O'Shea, Noreen; Trasciani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    How are identities of alternative forms of organization constructed and how does this process differ relative to normative forms socially expected? In this research we consider identity formation in co-operatives, a population of organizations allied globally through values and practices such as democratic participation, voluntary and open membership, and limited return to capital investment. As an extension of current thinking on identity formation in entrepreneurship and organizational theo...

  20. Euro-Asian co-operation in rail education and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy TSYKHMISTRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rail education and research – focused initiatives, approaches, policies and practices are presented. Needs for integrating rail education and research in EU and Asia are identified and discussed. The SWOT-analysis conducted suggested that it would be of interest to set up a Euro-Asia cluster, which shall be focused on rail education and research to promote rail transport between both continents through co-operations, training and knowledge exchange.

  1. E-education: implications for knowledge transfer via global co-operative education

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Elaine; Szewcow, Ury; Navarro, Karla Felix

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on a radical and ongoing learning and teaching experiment in which a private multinational organization (Cisco) and traditional learning institutions (schools, colleges and universities) have combined to deliver a form of global co-operative education. From 1998, the Cisco Network Academy Program (CNAP) has been integrated into both undergraduate and postgraduate Internetworking courses in the Faculty of Information Technology at the University of Technology Syd...

  2. Developing Partnership Co-operation in Student Exchange with Italian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Koskelo, Mari

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor Thesis was to obtain different methods to develop international partnership co-operation in student exchange between Kajaani University of Applied Sciences and Italian universities. The thesis was commissioned by the International Office of Kajaani UAS which is responsible for internationality in education provided by Kajaani UAS. Theoretical framework of the thesis consisted of internationality in Finnish higher education institutions in general as well as on...

  3. PML-RARα co-operates with Sox4 in acute myeloid leukemia development in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Omidvar, Nader; Maunakea, Mei Lin; Jones, Letetia; Sevcikova, Sabina; Yin, Bin; Himmel, Karen L.; Tennant, Thelma R.; Le Beau, Michelle M; Largaespada, David A.; Kogan, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha gene. To identify co-operating pathways to leukemogenesis, we crossed MRP8-PML/RARA transgenic mice with BXH-2 mice which harbor an endogenous murine leukemia virus that causes acute myeloid leukemia. Approximately half of the leukemias that arose in this cross showed features of acute promyelocytic leukemia. We identified 22 proviral insertion sites in acute promyelocytic-l...

  4. Incentives for international environmental co-operation : the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Eirik

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis I have taken a broad view on international environmental co-operation; What are the incentives, obstacles and ways to enhance participation and compliance with international environmental agreements. I have also looked at a more specific issue; The implementation of the “flexible mechanisms” of the Kyoto Protocol, and particularly joint implementation projects between an investor in a developed country and a host in an economy in transition or developing country.

  5. Spelt - a pilot crop to strengthen co-operation between farmers, food processors, distributors and consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2001-01-01

    In the beginning of the 1990's, spelt cultivation in Finland was rather unknown. First cultivation experiments at the organic research farm of MTT/Agricultural Engineering Research (Vakola) were done in co-operation with some farmers since 1993. Many farmers showed interest in cultivating spelt because of curiosity about crops suitable for organic farming, competition leadership by marketing new niche products, and consumers demand for healthy and high quality food produced pro-environmentall...

  6. Co-operative inhibitory effects of hydrogen peroxide and iodine against bacterial and yeast species

    OpenAIRE

    Zubko, Elena I; Zubko, Mikhajlo K

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrogen peroxide and iodine are powerful antimicrobials widely used as antiseptics and disinfectants. Their antimicrobial properties are known to be enhanced by combining them with other compounds. We studied co-operative inhibitory activities (synergism, additive effects and modes of growth inhibition) of hydrogen peroxide and iodine used concurrently against 3 bacterial and 16 yeast species. Results Synergistic or additive inhibitory effects were shown for hydrogen peroxide and ...

  7. Asian regional co-operative project on food irradiation: Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Proceedings include the final reports of work performed by different institutions under the scope of Phase II of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation. The topics covered include the disinfestation and decontamination of stored products; improvements in the hygiene of processed seafood; insect disinfestation of fruits; and sprout inhibition of root crops. The individual presentations are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Repowering electricity? The political economy of co-operatives in a neoliberal Canada

    OpenAIRE

    MacArthur, Julie L.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governance is setting the context for a revitalization of co-operative development in Canada as provinces retreat from services provided and developed in the welfare-state era. Governments are opening provincial electricity markets to private actors, particularly for new generation from renewable sources: wind, solar and run-of-river hydro. This power sector restructuring has implications for democratic control, economic development, and environmental sustainability in Canada. Some...

  9. The VEL and VANLA environmental co-operatives as field laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    STUIVER, M.; Ploeg, van der, A.J.; Leeuwis, C.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Nutrient Management Project of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA as a field laboratory. A field laboratory is defined as a heterogeneous collection of inter-linked scientific studies performed by several actors within a specific field, but – as in normal laboratories – with some protection against outside interference and disturbance. The Nutrient Management Project of VEL and VANLA demonstrates several characteristics of field laboratories. Firstly, in ...

  10. Co-operative governance and management control systems: an agency costs theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sigismundo Bialoskorski Neto; Marcelo Francini Girão Barroso; Amaury José Rezende

    2012-01-01

    Co-operative organizations have a unique property and decision rights distribution system that involve management problems and transaction costs. Such structure creates equity rights and risk transfers that directly affect these organizations' self-management efficiency. This paper analyses those costs and sources of inefficiency to explain their problems in two complementary and different ways. First it discusses main governance aspects that generate agency conflicts; second it analyses the ...

  11. Economic co-operation of African countries and China: the case of Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vintar Mally

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the main characteristics and the latest trends in China’s economic co-operation with Africa, especially regarding the geographical implications of trade volume and structure, foreign direct investment, and development assistance. The second part of the paper presents key findings of empirical research in Angola, highlighting Angolan perception of economic ties to China as well as attitudes towards Chinese immigrants and their role in African society and economy.

  12. Psychosocial health care needs in a group of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ingrid Villadsen; Henriksen, Jette; Meldgaard, Anette;

    2015-01-01

    , networking and obtaining self-efficacy. Ruminations regarding the future included worries about “time left to live in” and self-contradictions as “I am fully recovered - right?”. The ruminations also led to acts and decisions without the women’s usual thoughtfulness and logic. Conclusion: Understanding the......Psychosocial Health Care Needs in a Group of Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Villadsen, Ingrid1, Henriksen, Jette1, Meldgaard, Anette1, Zerlang, Ida2, Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund1 1VIA University College, Holstebro, Denmark, 2Department on Oncology, Regional Hospital West Jutland...... diagnosis to early treatment. Aim: The aim of the study was to provide detailed insights into the physic and psychosocial health care needs in a group of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and in the midst of their primary treatment phase. Study design and methods: This study had a descriptive design...

  13. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.;

    2009-01-01

    .57 [10.13] Gy in a mean of 4.3 insertions), and 5 groups used low-dose-rate brachytherapy (41.45 [17.5] Gy). Nineteen of the 28 respondents measured the doses to the bladder and the rectum when performing VBT. For brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in the fraction of the vagina treated or the doses...

  14. How curable is relapsed Wilms' tumour? The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Groot-Loonen, J.J.; Pinkerton, C. R.; Morris-Jones, P H; Pritchard, J.

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and eighty one children with Wilms' tumour were treated on the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group WT1 Study (1980/6). Seventy one patients relapsed during or after treatment, which included surgery and chemotherapy, with irradiation depending on stage and histology. Despite treatment with various combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy there were only 17 survivors. For unfavourable histology, any stage, only two of 20 survive. We conclude that, after re...

  15. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  16. The role of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Süren, Dinç; Yıldırım, Mustafa; Demirpençe, Özlem; Kaya, Vildan; Alikanoğlu, Arsenal Sezgin; Bülbüller, Nurullah; Yıldız, Mustafa; Sezer, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Background HMGB1, the most important member of the high mobility group box protein family, is a nuclear protein with different functions in the cell; it has a role in cancer progression, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis development. We studied the expression of HMGB1 and whether it is a prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma. Material/Methods The study included 110 cases that were histopathologically diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma from the tissue samples acquired by surgical res...

  17. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  18. ITER and IAEA to enhance co-operation on fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Organization today signed an agreement that will enhance the research of fusion, a form of nuclear energy created by the merging of light atoms. The Co-operation Agreement is aimed at strengthening the working relationship between both organizations 'with a view to facilitating the effective attainment of the objectives set forth in the IAEA Statute and the ITER Agreement.' Yury Sokolov, Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Director General of the ITER Organization, Kaname Ikeda, signed the agreement on the opening day of the 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, being held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 13 to 18 October. The IAEA has been closely involved with ITER since its inception, as the previous ITER co-operation phases and the ITER negotiations were held under its auspices. The IAEA Director-General is also the Depository of the ITER Agreement. 'The IAEA has played a crucial role in the evolution of the ITER project,' said Mr. Ikeda. 'We look forward to continued, dynamic collaboration.' Mr. Sokolov added that the IAEA has helped the international fusion community to focus its plasma physics research on the ITER design. This has made fusion research more results-oriented and has encouraged greater global investment in fusion. 'ITER is a clear example of how a large international project can be successfully organized. We are proud of the IAEA's role in ITER's development,' he said. According to the Co-operation Agreement, both organizations will exchange information regarding the study and potential application of fusion energy and will participate in each other's meeting. These will include ITER Council meetings and Annual Conferences of the IAEA, as well as its scientific and technical committees. The IAEA and the ITER Organization will also co-operate on training, publications, organization of scientific conferences, plasma physics and

  19. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments. PMID:20962033

  20. Cancer mortality among a group of fluorspar miners exposed to radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1984) of 1,772 Newfoundland underground fluorspar miners occupationally exposed to high levels of radon daughters (mean dose = 382.8 working levels months) has been conducted. Observed numbers of cancers of the lung, salivary gland, and buccal cavity and pharynx were significantly elevated among these miners. A highly significant relation was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of salivary gland (n = 2) and buccal cavity and pharynx (n = 6) cancers precluded meaningful analysis of dose response. Attributable and relative risk coefficients for lung cancer were estimated as 6.3 deaths per working level month per million person-years and 0.9% per working level month, respectively. Relative risk coefficients were highest for those first exposed before age 20 years. Cigarette smokers had relative and attributable risk coefficients comparable to those of nonsmokers. Relative risks fell sharply with age, whereas attributable risks were lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups. The results suggest that efforts to raise existing occupational exposure standards may be inappropriate

  1. A mechanism for the promotion of technical co-operation among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day after day, in hospitals, industry, agricultural enterprises and universities all over the world, advantage is being taken of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. In recent years, the Agency's regional technical co-operation projects have acquired considerable importance in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly in such areas of common interest as nuclear information, radiation protection, human health, agriculture, hydrology, industry, and the maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments used for research purposes and related studies, to cite but a few examples. As a result, a group of Latin American countries decided to join forces to carry out specific technical co-operation projects aimed at raising the level of nuclear applications in the region. This effort culminated in the decision, made in 1984, to establish, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional co-operation programme called ARCAL. This document describes the ARCAL programme, participating countries and main results achieved

  2. Polycomb Group Proteins: Multi-Faceted Regulators of Somatic Stem Cells and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageau, Martin; Sauvageau, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that epigenetically modify chromatin and participate in the establishment and maintenance of cell fates. These proteins play important roles in both stem cell self-renewal and in cancer development. Our understanding of their mechanism of action has greatly advanced over the past 10 years, but many unanswered questions remain. In this review, we present the currently available experimental data that connect PcG protein function with some of the key processes which govern somatic stem cell activity. We also highlight recent studies suggesting that a delicate balance in PcG gene dosage is crucial for proper stem cell homeostasis and prevention of cancer stem cell development. PMID:20804967

  3. The Agency's Technical Co-operation activities in 1986. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1986, a total of 854 projects were operational and 71 training courses were held. These activities involved 1930 expert assignments. In addition, 937 persons received training under the fellowship programme. Performance indicators (non-financial) are given in Part II of this report (Sections B and C) in order to provide some impression of the increase in implementation actions related to the delivery of a growing programme. Although total resources were higher in 1986 than in previous years, the overall growth rate declined further while new obligations and disbursements increased steeply. The near-stagnation in the net expenditure rate for Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (TACF) resources which occurred in 1985 prompted close monitoring and follow-up measures in 1986. These actions led to an all-time high TACF net expenditure rate, namely 75.7%, in 1986. As the TACF represented 71% of all technical co-operation resources, overall programme performance in terms of net expenditure reached 67.6%, which is also the highest rate ever recorded. TACF resources increased by 11%. Pledges and miscellaneous income covered 92.7% of the target. The percentage attainment of the target has been declining since 1983. As actual disbursements against the TACF increased at a much higher rate than new resources, the unobligated balance decreased to the extent that striving for even higher net expenditure rates would no longer be consistent with judicious resource management. The share of extrabudgetary funds in the programme declined: they accounted for 14.5% of the resources and 12.6% of the disbursements in 1986. The Federal Republic of Germany became the largest contributor of extrabudgetary funds. Special attention will be given to the utilization of these resources so that delivery rates can be improved. As anticipated, UNDP's share in resources and disbursements increased and several new large-scale projects were approved. In-kind assistance continued to play a

  4. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard;

    2006-01-01

    A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study...... investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ...... that forms a valuable basis for a larger randomized controlled trial to conclude whether the observed changes are a result of this specific intervention....

  5. Co-operative or coyote? Producers' choice between intermediary purchasers and Fairtrade and organic cooperatives in Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Milford, Anna Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    This study of organic and Fairtrade co-operatives in Mexico aims to find out why many coffee producers prefer not to join the certified co-operatives, despite their higher price offer. A study of costs of production of organic coffee concludes that it implies more work, but not necessarily higher yields. A main conclusion of the investigation is that the compulsory organic production methods deters many producers from entering the co-operatives, and that it is more attractive for producers wi...

  6. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  7. Technical co-operation report for 1998. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) activities during 1998 and highlights most significant accomplishments. Part I of this report reviews the strengthening of TC, both in financial aspects and through implementation of the TC strategy. Part II reviews extensively the actual output of the TC programme; it looks at each geographic region, and reports on the results of national, regional and, where applicable, interregional activities in those regions. Part III presents a technical discussion of the financial parameters of the TC programme and ends with financial implementation summaries

  8. Regulatory and industry co-operation on nuclear safety research. Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulator-industry co-operation in nuclear safety research has potential advantages as well as disadvantages. This report provides research managers in industry, regulatory organisations and research centres with information on current practices in collaborative safety research in OECD member countries. It identifies means of establishing effective industry-regulator collaboration and provides indications on how to overcome difficulties that can arise. It also advises on possible areas of concern. The report addresses in particular the issue of regulator independence, means to preserve it and ways to demonstrate it to the public while undertaking collaboration with industry. (author)

  9. Nuclear data for improved LEU-LWR reactivity predictions - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with the goal of assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries, specifically the Russian BROND and Chinese CENDL projects, is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Subgroup 22 was conceived to investigate a systematic reactivity under-prediction of thermal LEU-LWR (low-enriched uranium, light water reactor). This keff discrepancy (∼ -500 pcm) was demonstrated with accurate Monte Carlo transport codes and the latest nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.0) available in 2002. This report presents the trends given by the analysis of relevant integral experiments as well as the evaluation work, mainly focused on 238U nuclear data. New evaluations of the 238U thermal capture cross-section, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters and inelastic scattering data were performed and provide a credible solution to the problem. Reduced capture in the resolved resonances and a softer secondary inelastic scattering spectrum contributed about equally to the increased reactivity of the new data set. The newer inelastic data are mainly the result of improved theoretical models and more accurate

  10. Technical co-operation report for 1997. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) activities during 1997, gives examples of the most significant accomplishments during the year and sets out the status of resources and delivery of the TC programme. The document outlines the steps taken to strengthen planning, design, monitoring and evaluation of TC projects. It also describes how the programme's operational base is being broadened to form new partnerships, using Country Programme Frameworks and Thematic Planning to meet the Member States' priority needs and expand project impact

  11. Celebrating Co-operation among Saskatchewan’s Libraries: The Multitype Library Board, 1996-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saskatchewan’s Multitype Library Board (MLB celebrates its 20th anniversary in 2016. It was established under the passage of the provincial government’s The Libraries Co- operation Act in 1996 to facilitate the co-operative development of the multitype library system in Saskatchewan. This legislation is unique in Canada. The MLB is a Minister of Education Advisory Board and it provides a forum to promote and facilitate co-operation among over 320 public libraries in 10 provincial systems, 25 post-secondary libraries, 755 school libraries, several special libraries, and other information providers. Major milestones of the MLB include helping to eliminate the Provincial Sales Tax on library subscriptions, establishing a provincial digitization plan, and creating a cross-sector database licensing program that has resulted in a projected value of 14.8 million dollars to Saskatchewan users in 2014. The development of the MLB and the impact of the programs it has initiated will be discussed, and recommendations for developing a collaborative initiative will be provided. Le Multitype Library Board (MLB de Saskatchewan fête son 20e anniversaire en 2016. Il était établi sous l’Acte The Libraries Co-operation du parti Libéral en 1996 pour faciliter le développement coopératif du système de bibliothèque Multitype en Saskatchewan. Cette législation est unique au Canada. Le MLB est un comité consultatif du ministère de l’Éducation et il fournit un forum pour promouvoir et faciliter la coopération entre plus de 320 bibliothèques publiques dans dix systèmes provinciaux, 25 bibliothèques postsecondaires, 755 bibliothèques scolaires, plusieurs bibliothèques spéciales, et d’autres fournisseurs d’informations. Les étapes importantes du MLB comprennent, à aider à éliminer les taxes de vente provinciale sur les abonnements aux bibliothèques, à établir un plan provincial de numérisation, et à créer un programme de licence

  12. Global co-operation in nuclear fusion: Record of steady progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on the design of an experimental fusion reactor has been moving ahead in recent years. This document briefly describes the motivation for this effort in terms of the global energy situation. Also, an historical account of the international co-operation in thermonuclear fusion research is provided. The origins of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) project as well as the IAEA fusion-related activities are summarized. Finally the status of the ITER engineering design to date and the prospects for future collaboration in fusion research are discussed

  13. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Jia

    Full Text Available It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  14. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls. PMID:23759189

  15. Center for Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe: a platform for co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a summary of the current status and the activities of the Centre of Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe (CENS). The CENS is a non-profit and independent association supported by the Swiss and Slovak Governments. The main mission of the CENS is to provide an independent platform for technical co-operation between the regulatory authorities of the Western and Eastern countries. The key partners of the CENS are the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the US Department of Energy (US DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD), the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Germany and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), France. The CENS programs for 2003-2004 are presented. It can be considered as a complement to the IAEA activities in the area of short-term and event urgent planning. CENS projects as an example are presented. CENS proposals for co-operation with the Bulgarian institutions are made in connection with the topics of the forum round table discussions

  16. Outcomes from the regional Co-operation in the Area of the Safety Analysis Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carried out the Co-ordinated Research Program (CRP) ON Validation of Accident and Safety Analysis Methodology'' in the period between 1995 and 1998. Three areas of interest identified by the participants referred to the pressurised water reactors of Western and Eastern type (PWR and WWER type). The specific areas of attention were: system behaviour of the primary and secondary loops (PS area), the containment response (CO area) and the severe accidents (SA area). During the CRP it became clear that the technology advancements, the available tools (i.e. codes) and the experimental databases in the above areas are quite different. At the conclusion of the CRP, all objectives of the program have been reached. This paper presents the summary of the regional co-operation in this framework. The CRP activities focused on the codes and expertise available at the participating organisations. This overview therefore summarises their experience related to the state-of-the-art in the field of computational accident analysis. In addition, the paper proposes the recommendations for future activities related to the code usage, the user effects and code development. In pursuing of these goals special attention is given to the importance of the international co-operation. (author)

  17. A voice from the high wire: Public involvement in a co-operative siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author is a public consultation and communications consultant to the Siting Task Force (STF), Low level Radioactive Waste Management. The STF is a Canadian government-appointed yet independent body implementing a voluntary, co-operative siting process for a long term storage or disposal facility for 1 million cubic metres of LLRW. The presentation will document the experiences of and lessons learned by the author during her role developing and implementing a public involvement program for the process. The Co-operative Siting Process is a new approach to siting controversial facilities. It is based on the belief that communities should accept such a facility in their backyard and not be forced against their will on technical or political grounds. A formal 'ground rules-up-front' process was developed and is now being carried out, with completion slated for April, 1995. Putting these rules and theories into practice has resulted in significant changes being made to the work plan for technical activities, and in a sober second look at the intricacies involved in planning and carrying out a thorough and efficient public involvement program that remain practical and cost-effective. There is a delicate balancing act between meaningful public participation that lays the foundation for trust, confidence and consensus, and public involvement that can result in the process being side-tracked and legitimate solutions and technical activities becoming mired in political and personal agendas

  18. Scientific co-operation with IAEA in the field of marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short presentation of the communication presented in the Seminar on public information on peaceful uses of nuclear energy, NUCInfo'98, is given. It is emphasized the formation of RMRI specialists, its scientific co-operations with IAEA between 1986-1998 and participations in related scientific events. In the domain of specialists' formation there are mentioned the participation of members of the Institute in the training courses on marine radioecology, in the regional course on strategies and methodologies for applied marine radioactivity and environmental isotope studies for the Black Sea, and in the inter-regional course devoted to determination of radionuclides in environmental samples, held in 1986, 1994 and 1997, respectively. In the field of research co-operation there are presented the achievements obtained in the framework of five programs dealing mainly with monitoring of marine water, sediment and biota radioactivity in Romanian sector of Black Sea. Also reported are the participations and the contributions in the international scientific events devoted to marine environmental studies and the contributions to international databases

  19. National system of accounting and control and co-operation with international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a description of the National System of Accounting and Control applied in Argentina. Besides, the importance of having a National System is also highlighted as a way of supplying effective and efficiency to assure reasonably that the nuclear materials, materials, equipment and installations of nuclear interest are used according to the stated in the licenses and authorisations emitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA), complying with the international compromises assumed by the country. The role of the National System referring to the co-operation with the International Agencies of safeguards applications, ABACC and IAEA, is also explained. This co-operation must be understood as the one tending to strengthen and improve safeguards. The existence of a National System of Accounting and Control contributes to widen guarantees on the compliment of compromises of non proliferation, facilitates the application of international safeguards by the agencies and improves the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards through the development of new techniques and methods. (author)

  20. Energy technology and opportunities for East-West co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The private sector is probably the principal Western actor in Central and Eastern Europe. The accelerated political reforms in the East have improved the prospects for Western partners to invest in the energy sector and collaborate on energy technology development and transfer while taking advantage of the specific local benefits offered. These benefits are primarily found on the energy production side where the specific knowledge of the Western partner may be employed for the development of energy markets in the East. Conversely, the Central and Eastern European countries appear to be looking to co-operation with Western partners to provide them with access to capital, technology and organizational know-how, as well as, to Western markets. The primary long-term economic aim of Central and Eastern European governments must be to promote a market based economy. This requires not merely the definition of an official energy price system, but also the presence of legal and other institutions to establish property rights, civil contractual laws, trade policy and framework conditions for the free development of market forces and private enterprise. The IEA, International Energy Agency, as an example of the effectiveness of international co-operation, may be in the position to provide some assistance on technical and policy matters

  1. General surgeons' views on Oncologic Multidisciplinary Group meetings as part of colorectal cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroci, Francesco; Lenzi, Elisa; Baraghini, Maddalena; Cantafio, Stefano; Scatizzi, Marco

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the current effectiveness of Oncologic Multidisciplinary Groups (OMGs) meetings across central Tuscany through surgeons' reports and their individual perceived benefits on colorectal cancer management. One hundred and sixty-seven general surgeons received a questionnaire with 21 questions covering organizational characteristics of OMGs and the individual perceived benefits of OMGs. The responses were analyzed by hospital setting (teaching vs. community hospital). The reply rate was 62.8 %, and 82 respondent surgeons (49.1 %) were involved in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. At community hospitals, there was a more frequent participation of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and pathologists; a less selection of discussed cases was performed; and almost all decisions were inserted into official patient charts (p OMGs ensure that all treatment options are considered and improve timeliness of care, patient outcomes, patient satisfaction and communication with patients (p OMGs offer a modest degree of protection from malpractice but improve communications between colleagues and are an opportunity for personal professional development. Professionals regularly participating in well-conducted and well-organized OMGs for colorectal cancer felt that the multidisciplinary strategy may be advantageous to both patients and caregivers. PMID:22987014

  2. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    : Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles. The...... not associated with increased toxicity. CONCLUSION: Continuation of trastuzumab plus capecitabine showed a significant improvement in overall response and time to progression compared with capecitabine alone in women with HER-2-positive breast cancer who experienced progression during trastuzumab......PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS...

  3. The effect of interviewer personality, skills and attitudes on respondent co-operation with face-to-face surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Jäckle, Annette; Lynn, Peter; Sinibaldi, Jennifer; Tipping, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of interviewers' experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation. We take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers‟ behaviour and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. We use a large sample of 842 face-to-face interviewers working for a major survey institute and analyse co-operation outcomes for over 100,000 cases contacted by those intervie...

  4. The role of clothing manufacturing co-operatives in job creation and poverty alleviation in Sharpeville / Mmapula Brendah Sekatane

    OpenAIRE

    Sekatane, Mmapula Brendah

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation studies the role of clothing manufacturing co-operatives in job creation and poverty alleviation in Sharpeville. Ttie study focuses on three areas, namely, the theories of unemployment, poverty and clothing manufacturing, the state of unemployment and poverty in Sharpeville and clothing manufacturing co-operatives as one of the contributors to the solution to unemployment and poverty. Unemployment is identified, among others, as a major determinant of poverty; therefore, the...

  5. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  6. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trial*

    OpenAIRE

    Tehrani, Afsaneh Malekpour; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Rajabi, Fariborz Mokarian; Zamani, Ahmad Reza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program) on quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in pee...

  7. Inter-Firm Co-Operative Strategies In The Context Of Discontinuous Technological Change. The Case Of The Uk Optical Communications Systems Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Spedale-Latimer, Simona

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt times of discontinuous technological change co-operation represents a viable strategy for both incumbents and new-entrants, provided that the choice of co-operation is consistent with the firm's business strategy (market-pull vs. technology-push) and with its degree of organizational and technological flexibility. Evidence from the UK fibre-optics industry identifies two ideal-types of co-operation, namely structured co-operation - associated with market-pull strategies and low...

  8. Screening of high-risk groups for breast and ovarian cancer in Europe: a focus on the Jewish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Belkic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low breast cancer screening rates are often found among ethnic minority groups and those born outside the host country. This is of particular concern for high-risk groups, who should benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for breast, as well as ovarian cancer. Both of these issues are germane for Jewish women in Europe. We systematically review the literature concerning breast cancer early detection practices (BCEDP among Jewish women, and examine European surveillance studies of high-risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer that had imaging in the surveillance protocol, in order to assess the likelihood of adequately including women from minority ethnic groups. No studies were found about BCEDP among Jewish women in Europe. Twenty-one research groups from Israel or the US addressed BCEDP among Jewish women. Some Jewish women in the US and Israel, including recent immigrants, are under-screened. Twenty-four research groups reported imaging surveillance of women at increased risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer in Europe. There was a clear benefit to magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening for women with increased breast cancer risk. Some of these surveillance studies considered ethnic minority groups at high risk, including Jewish women, but none provided adequate outreach to ensure that these groups were included in their programs. The specific screening needs of Jewish and other high-risk ethnic minority groups in Europe have not been met regarding breast and ovarian cancer. A European-wide, population-based approach is suggested, with cultural sensitivity being vital for these efforts.

  9. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. de; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Ares, L.P.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the Amst

  10. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. De; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Paz-Ares, L.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the

  11. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the A...

  12. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of ...

  13. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  14. Hepatitis C virus NS5A mediated STAT3 activation requires co-operation of Jak1 kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major etiologic agent for chronic hepatitis worldwide and often leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanism for development of chronic hepatitis or hepatocarcinogenesis by HCV remains unclear. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) family proteins function as the downstream effectors of cytokine signaling and play a critical role in cell growth regulation. In many cancers including liver, STAT3 is often constitutively activated, although the mechanism of persistent activation of STAT3 is unknown. The nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) encoded from the HCV genome has shown cell growth regulatory properties. In this study, we have observed that HCV NS5A activates STAT3 phosphorylation, which in turn translocates into the nucleus. In vivo activation of STAT3 was also observed in the liver of transgenic mice expressing HCV NS5A. Introduction of NS5A in hepatoma cells modulated STAT3 downstream molecules Bcl-xL and p21 expression. To determine if STAT3 activation by NS5A could induce STAT3 mediated gene expression, a luciferase reporter construct based on a synthetic promoter was used to transfect hepatoma cells. Activation of endogenous cellular STAT3 by HCV NS5A induced luciferase gene expression through STAT3 specific binding elements. Our subsequent studies suggested that NS5A forms a complex with Jak1 and recruits STAT3 for activation. Taken together, our results suggested that NS5A activates STAT3 through co-operation of Jak1 kinase and activated STAT3 may contribute to HCV-mediated pathogenesis

  15. Co-operative planning by utilities and local authorities. A solution to solve climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the deregulation of German energy markets 1998 we can observe diverging planning interests and priorities of the local communities on one side and the local energy utilities on the other side. This seriously endangers the consensus in local energy planning achieved in the past which will be crucial in order to identify and implement effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies. This paper presents a co-operative planning approach which embeds systems analysis into a well structured communication, mediation and learning process for decision making. This process is supported by the cooperative modeling system MESAP, a software for energy and environmental planning, which integrates different energy models with an energy information system. This allows to combine traditional local energy planning with the more business oriented view of the utilities. The specific design of MESAP allows for a continuous 'sustainable' planning and monitoring similar to business tools for accounting and controlling in companies. (author)

  16. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Ethiopia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With some $2.5 million of Agency support received, Ethiopia ranks 54th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), complemented by expert services (16%) and training (29%). The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (88%), the remainder was made available through assistance in kind (6%), UNDP and extrabudgetary contributions (3% each). During the past ten years, project disbursements went to four major areas: agriculture (45%), nuclear medicine (35%), nuclear safety (14%) and nuclear engineering and technology (6%)

  17. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zambia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)

  18. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zaire, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $3.9 million of Agency support received, Zaire ranks 38th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (60%), followed by training (24%) and expert services (16%). With a share of 76%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided more than three quarters of the total resources available, while only small shares were made available through UNDP (11%), extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (9%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest area has been general atomic energy development (26%), followed by agriculture (18%), nuclear safety (18%), nuclear techniques in industry and hydrology (13%), and nuclear physics and chemistry (11%)

  19. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Niger, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With some $1.5 million of Agency support received, Niger ranks 65th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. About two-thirds of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (62%), complemented by expert services (26%) and training (12%). Almost the entire resources utilized were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), with only a small share made available through assistance in kind (4%). With regard to project disbursements by sector, the four major areas have been agriculture (34%), general atomic energy development (31%), hydrology (18%) and nuclear safety (12%)

  20. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Kenya, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $3.9 million of Agency support received, Kenya ranks 39th among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958-1991. Almost half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of the equipment (44%), followed by training (33%) and expert services (23%). Two-thirds of the funds available were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (66%), while extra-budgetary contributions accounted for 18%, in-kind contributions for 14%, and UNDP for 2% of the resources. With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the four major areas have been general atomic energy development (30%), agriculture (22%), nuclear medicine and nuclear safety (13% each)

  1. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Senegal, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $2.2 million of Agency support received, Senegal ranks 56th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than one-third of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (67%), followed by expert services (21%) and training (12%). Eighty per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 16% were made available by UNDP and about 2% each through extrabudgetary contributions and assistance in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, by far the largest area has been agriculture (43%). Smaller shares have gone to general atomic energy development (15%), nuclear physics and chemistry (13%), nuclear medicine and hydrology (11% each), and nuclear safety (7%)

  2. Co-operation with Eastern Europe countries taking ENAC as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries ( Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between theses companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties. This presentation outlines the overall objectives of ENAC. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  3. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Uruguay, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $4.2 million of Agency support received, Uruguay ranks 37th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (67%), followed by expert services (19%) and training (14%). Seventy-three per cent of the resources were provided through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 24% were made available through extrabudgetary contributions. The remaining 3% were provided through assistance in kind, with only an insignificant contribution by UNDP. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear medicine (35%), agriculture (23%), general atomic energy development (17%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (11%) and industry and hydrology (7%)

  4. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sierra Leone, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.1 million of Agency support received, Sierra Leone ranks 70th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost equal shares of the assistance during the past ten years have been provided in the form of equipment (40%) and expert services (37%), while the share of the training component was 23%. The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), the remaining 4% was made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: nuclear medicine (52%), general atomic energy development (25%) and agriculture (23%)

  5. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Mexico, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $7.7 million of Agency support received, Mexico ranks 21st among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. The largest share of the assistance received during the past ten years has been in the form of expert services (36%), followed by equipment and training (27% each) and sub-contracts (10%). Almost two-thirds of the funds available were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (65%), the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (14%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector the five major areas have been nuclear safety (34%), nuclear engineering and technology (27%), agriculture (17%), nuclear physics and chemistry (9%), and nuclear techniques in industry and hydrology (9%)

  6. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Costa Rica, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $2.8 million of Agency support received, Costa Rica ranks 49th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958-1991. Over half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (52%), followed by expert services (37%) and training (11%). Sixty-two per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 37% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (5%) and through in-kind assistance (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear raw materials (36%), nuclear physics and chemistry (24%) and agriculture (20%). Smaller shares have gone to hydrology (11%) and nuclear medicine (8%)

  7. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Guatemala, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3 million of Agency support received, Guatemala ranks 46th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (72%), followed by training (15%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (37%), agriculture (28%), nuclear medicine (16%) and hydrology (8%). The remaining 11% were shared by general atomic energy development, nuclear raw materials, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear safety

  8. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Uganda, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $1.6 million of Agency support received, Uganda ranks 61st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (47%), complemented by a strong training component (37%), while expert services have received only a relatively small share (16%). Ninety-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the remaining two per cent were made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: agriculture (64%), nuclear medicine (24%) and nuclear safety (12%)

  9. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  10. Improving Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Education Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.; Eton, David T; Schulz, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Men who were recently treated for prostate cancer (N = 250) were randomly assigned to a control group, a group education intervention (GE), or a group education-plus-discussion intervention (GED). Both GE and GED increased prostate cancer knowledge. In the year postintervention, men in the GED condition were less bothered by sexual problems than men in the control condition, and they were more likely to remain steadily employed (93.0%) than men in the GE (75.6%) or control (72.5%) conditions....

  11. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased awareness of the transboundary pollution problems resulted in a number of international treaties, such as the Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances (1987), and the Basel Convention on hazardous waste (1989). Most authors writing on efficient environmental instruments make a sharp distinction between domestic and transboundary environmental problems. While the former should be abated by domestic environmental instruments, an efficient treatment of the latter requires international instruments. The underlying logic is that in case of non-transboundary pollution both the costs and benefits of environmental policies are strictly domestic, the trade-off between benefits and costs of abatement should also be a strictly domestic issue. In contrast, with transboundary pollution the trade-off between abatement costs and benefits becomes an international issue. In this paper we analyse four cases where international environmental co-ordination is required to achieve an efficient outcome, even though the environmental externality is non-transboundary in nature. Section two sketches the standard view on efficient intervention levels with regard to transborder and non-transborder pollution. In the third section we deal with cases where environmental policy is used in a trade-strategic way. The section pays attention to the motives for using domestic environmental policy as a disguise for trade policies. It will be argued that the resulting allocative efficiency can be improved upon by international co-operation. Sections 4-6 analyse three cases where international co-operation may improve the international outcome on the basis of non-coordinated domestic allocation decisions. These cases refer in particular to the situation of developing countries, when there is a high export dependency on the polluting good in combination with the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs of environment-friendly technologies, and the existence of increasing

  12. Sweden's Co-operation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented co-operation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Moldova, based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security, waste management, nonproliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host countries and the international community as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2011. The project managers from SSM are the cornerstones of our successful work, but all the efforts and dedication by staff members of the facilities and authorities in the mentioned countries are indispensable for the long-term positive outcomes. This report is meant to serve as a detailed account regarding SSM's efforts as part of the Swedish international activities, on which Sweden will report to the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. The parties to the G-8 Global Partnership have in June 2011 extended the Global Partnership for ten more years, till 2022. Other international frameworks, such as the UNSC Resolution 1540, remain a vibrant instrument by which UN Member States can exchange information on security concerns and request assistance from each other. The projects that SSM implements in Moldova and Georgia have a reference to the aims and purposes of the UNSC Resolution 1540. Much work has been done in the fields of nuclear security and safety, but there are still lots of issues that need to be taken care of. As such, SSM will continue to do its part for nuclear safety and security at the international level, along the lines and priorities set by our Government

  13. Co-operation - the way out (introducing the Natural Materials Radiation Control Initiative)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Materials Radiation Control Initiative (NMRCI), a forum of regulators, advisory bodies and operators in NORM industries from Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, Netherlands, Poland, South Africa and USA, reported on its activities that were aimed at addressing NORM regulatory issues through industry/regulatory co-operation. The objective was to generate comprehensive information on quantifying exposures to both workers and the general public, through the consolidation of existing data and the collection of data from new studies. In its interactions with the IAEA to date, the NMRCI had proposed that it assist in drafting a Safety Report identifying exposure sources and providing information on suggested methods for national regulatory bodies, advisory bodies and NORM industries to make quantitative assessments and to identify how best to meet the requirements of the BSS. It was envisaged that the Safety Report should reflect the principles contained in ICRP recommendations and IAEA Safety Standards, should make maximum use of measured data, and should deal separately with different industries such as phosphates, coal and niobium, taking account of the differences in chemical, physical and radiological properties of the materials as well as differences in work practices. It had been decided that occupational exposure issues should be addressed as a first priority, before moving on to the public exposure arena where waste management issues such as waste disposal and remediation of contaminated sites would be addressed. The NMRCI also aimed to promote co-operation between NORM industries and regulatory authorities on the matter of regulations and their impact on international trade in commodities containing NORM

  14. Sweden's Co-operation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Chirman, Inessa; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Karlberg, Olof; Klasen, Haakan; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Wickman, Barbro

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented co-operation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Moldova, based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security, waste management, nonproliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host countries and the international community as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2011. The project managers from SSM are the cornerstones of our successful work, but all the efforts and dedication by staff members of the facilities and authorities in the mentioned countries are indispensable for the long-term positive outcomes. This report is meant to serve as a detailed account regarding SSM's efforts as part of the Swedish international activities, on which Sweden will report to the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. The parties to the G-8 Global Partnership have in June 2011 extended the Global Partnership for ten more years, till 2022. Other international frameworks, such as the UNSC Resolution 1540, remain a vibrant instrument by which UN Member States can exchange information on security concerns and request assistance from each other. The projects that SSM implements in Moldova and Georgia have a reference to the aims and purposes of the UNSC Resolution 1540. Much work has been done in the fields of nuclear security and safety, but there are still lots of issues that need to be taken care of. As such, SSM will continue to do its part for nuclear safety and security at the international level, along the lines and priorities set by our Government.

  15. Effective adsorption of hexavalent chromium through a three center (3c) co-operative interaction with an ionic liquid and biopolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Tetraoctylammoniumbromide impregnated chitosan was prepared by ultrasonication. ► Physico-chemical characterization of the adsorbent was studied in detail. ► The sorbent has an adsorption capacity of 63.69 mg g−1 for chromium(VI). ► The mechanism involves a three center interaction with positive co-operative effect. ► Adsorbent is effectively regenerated with ammonium hydroxide. - Abstract: Biopolymers as well as ionic liquids are known for their potential applications. In this work, we report the utility of chitosan as an excellent platform for impregnating the ionic liquid, tetraoctylammonium bromide by ultrasonication and its subsequent adsorption for chromium(VI). The effective mass transfer due to sonication coupled with the hydrogen bonding interaction between chitosan-ionic liquid and the electrostatic interaction involving the amino groups in chitosan and hexavalent chromium governs this three center (3c) co-operative mechanism. The adsorption followed a pseudo second order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 63.69 mg g−1. Various isotherm models were used to correlate the experimental data and the adsorption process is exothermic with a decreased randomness at the solid–solution interface. The thermodynamics of the spontaneous adsorption process could be explained through a positive co-operative effect between the host (chitosan) and the guest (ionic liquid). The adsorbed chromium(VI) could be converted to ammonium chromate using ammonium hydroxide, thereby regenerating the adsorbent. The method could be translated into action in the form of practical application to a real sample containing chromium.

  16. Co-operation between Large Enterprises (LE’s and SME’s: an Approach to Overcome the Stage Internationalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Brilhante Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many companies are using their networks in order to overcome psychic distance – liability of foreignness – and liability of outsidership; and networks at domestic markets can be a base in which SMEs can find a lever to get a rapid internationalization process. Regarding this topic has been developed a case study in the Polish market, where a local retailer (“Biedronka” owned by a Portuguese group (“Jerónimo Martins” is offering Portuguese products. In order to apply a constructivist methodology, using the case study method, five SMEs where selected in order to understand if co-operation between these companies and a LE (Large Enterprise would be a way in order to overcome the liability of foreignness and the liability of outsidership. It was also our purpose the understanding of which are the main issues that promote insidership and also the promotion of a rapid internationalization. Our conclusions have shown a LE as a source of institutional and market-specific knowledge, and regarding this last type of knowledge, as source of opportunities, and also how a SME with internationalization knowledge, an international focus and adaptation skills (in order to adapt products and prices can introduce in a co-operative international venture, in far psychic markets, the ingredients needed to get a successful and rapid entry in a foreign market. Trust as a resource, accumulated during lasting relationships in the domestic market, has been shown as a basic requirement to develop these co-operative approaches in international markets.

  17. Extensive co-operation between the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA3 proteins in the manipulation of host gene expression and epigenetic chromatin modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E White

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is able to drive the transformation of B-cells, resulting in the generation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs in vitro. EBV nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C are necessary for efficient transformation, while EBNA3B is dispensable. We describe a transcriptome analysis of BL31 cells infected with a series of EBNA3-knockout EBVs, including one deleted for all three EBNA3 genes. Using Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST microarrays analysed with the MMBGX algorithm, we have identified over 1000 genes whose regulation by EBV requires one of the EBNA3s. Remarkably, a third of the genes identified require more than one EBNA3 for their regulation, predominantly EBNA3C co-operating with either EBNA3B, EBNA3A or both. The microarray was validated by real-time PCR, while ChIP analysis of a selection of co-operatively repressed promoters indicates a role for polycomb group complexes. Targets include genes involved in apoptosis, cell migration and B-cell differentiation, and show a highly significant but subtle alteration in genes involved in mitosis. In order to assess the relevance of the BL31 system to LCLs, we analysed the transcriptome of a set of EBNA3B knockout (3BKO LCLs. Around a third of the genes whose expression level in LCLs was altered in the absence of EBNA3B were also altered in 3BKO-BL31 cell lines.Among these are TERT and TCL1A, implying that EBV-induced changes in the expression of these genes are not required for B-cell transformation. We also identify 26 genes that require both EBNA3A and EBNA3B for their regulation in LCLs. Together, this shows the complexity of the interaction between EBV and its host, whereby multiple EBNA3 proteins co-operate to modulate the behaviour of the host cell.

  18. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227

  19. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  20. Patterns of failure in combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for limited small cell lung cancer: Southeastern Cancer Study Group experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this analysis, we compare the patterns of failure in the first 12 months for 660 eligible patients randomized to two Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) protocols for limited extent, small cell carcinoma of the lung between 1978 and 1985. In each protocol, a different schedule of radiotherapy was given in conjunction with combination chemotherapy and was compared with combination chemotherapy alone. In protocol 78 LUN 328, radiotherapy was given between courses of chemotherapy, and in protocol LUN 81343, it was given simultaneously. The rates of local failure, either as an initial or subsequent site, in the first 12 months were significantly lower when thoracic irradiation was given than when it was not (P less than .01). When the 2 radiotherapy arms were compared, there were no significant differences in the rates of local failure alone, but a smaller proportion of patients developed both local failure and distant metastases (P less than .01) when simultaneous radiotherapy was administered. Survival on all 4 arms was similar during the first 2 years of patient study. After 2 years, both radiotherapy regimens showed a trend toward improved survival compared with the combination drug alone (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine) arms. On both protocols, survival from 12 months was significantly longer for those with local control at 12 months than for those who did not show local control

  1. GENERATION OF COMPLEMENTARY CODES AND DOUBLY CO-OPERATIVE TERNARY SEQUENCES AND THEIR COMPARITIVE STUDY IN AMBIGUITY DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SRIHARI RAO,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulse coding and linear frequency modulation in analog or discrete form are widely used in radar systems for pulse compression to achieve high range resolution. Such coded waveforms are detected by a threshold detector after matched filtering. Complementary codes, which use multiple binary sequences exhibit the most desirable characteristics, so that they achieve perfect side lobe cancellation.Here generation of complementary codes is presented whose sum of autocorrelation functions is double the length of the sequence for zero shift and zero for other shifts and pairs of doubly co-operative ternary sequences which are co-operative not only in the utocorrelation domain but also in the signal domain is presented. Theenergy efficiency of the sequences is found as unity or 100%. The hoice of the selection of the sequence in the case of complementary sequences is restricted to a few number of sequences where as in doubly co-operative sequences, the choice is broader. This is due to the property of the co-operative sequence is slightly relaxedfrom complementary codes as side lobe is relaxed to ±1 from zero in the case of complementary codes. The radar ambiguity function epresents the output of the matched filter used by the radar esigners which provides information about how different waveforms may be suitable for various radar applications. The behaviour of complementary sequences and doubly co-operative sequences is studied in ambiguity domain.

  2. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tural Deniz; Selçukbiricik Fatih; Serdengeçti Süheyla; Büyükünal Evin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all...

  3. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D 751 polymorphism as a predictive factor in resected gastric cancer treated withchemo-radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zarate, R; F. Arias; Bandres, E; Cubedo, E.; Malumbres, R.; Garcia-Foncillas, J

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential association of xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) codon 751 variant with outcome after chemo-radiotherapy in patients with resected gastric cancer. METHODS: We used PCR-RFLP to evaluate the genetic XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms in 44 patients with stage III (48%) and IV (20%) gastric cancer treated with surgery following radiation therapy plus 5-fluorouracil/ leucovorin based chemotherapy. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that 75% (...

  4. Group component protein-derived macrophage activating factor stimulates macrophages that induce human breast cancer cell apoptosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggiero, M; L. Thyer; E. Wards; Smith, R; J.J.V. Branca; Gulisano, M; G.Morucci; S. Pacini

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The vitamin D axis is involved in various aspects of human breast cancer. It is composed by vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and group component (Gc) protein that is the precursor of the Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) (Eur Nephrol. 2011;5(1):15–9). It was demonstrated that administration of GcMAF to metastatic breast cancer patients yielded good clinical results (Int J Cancer. 2008 Jan 15;122(2):461-7). Here we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates ma...

  5. Late effects on the urinary bladder in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L

    2009-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-up (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  6. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of meaning-centered group psychotherapy in cancer survivors: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joël; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Breitbart, William; Cuijpers, Pim; Knipscheer-Kuipers, Kitty; Willemsen, Vincent; Tollenaar, Rob AEM; van Asperen, Christi J; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Meaning-focused coping may be at the core of adequate adjustment to life after cancer. Cancer survivors who experience their life as meaningful are better adjusted, have better quality of life and psychological functioning. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy for Cancer Survivors (MCGP-CS) was designed to help patients to sustain or enhance a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MCGP-C...

  7. Implementation and scientific evaluation of rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients: study protocol of the ProRehab Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zopf Eva M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although treatment regimen have improved in the last few years, prostate cancer patients following a radical prostatectomy still experience severe disease- and treatment-related side effects, including urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction and psychological issues. Despite high incidence rates and the common adverse effects there is a lack of supportive measures for male patients and specific physical exercise recommendations for prostate cancer patients during rehabilitation or in the aftercare are still missing. Methods/Design The ProRehab Project aims to establish rehabilitative sports groups particularly for prostate cancer patients and to evaluate the effects of the offered exercise program. Starting 8–12 weeks after prostatectomy or combination therapy, prostate cancer patients will exercise for 15 months within a patient preference randomized controlled trial. One exercise session will be conducted within a pre-established rehabilitative sports group, while the other will be completed independently. Patients in the control group will not participate in the intervention. The main outcomes of the study include aerobic fitness, quality of life, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Discussion By combining science, practice, and public relations the first rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients in Germany have been set up and thus contribute to the care structure for prostate cancer patients. By offering a 15-month physical exercise intervention that is conducted in supervised group sessions, long-term lifestyle changes and therefore improvements in quality of life in prostate cancer patients can be expected. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004184

  8. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion o...

  9. Effect of co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering on estimates of three parameters AVA inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh R Nair; Suresh Ch Kandpal

    2010-04-01

    We determine the degree of variation of model fitness,to a true model based on amplitude variation with angle (AVA)methodology for a synthetic gas hydrate model,using co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering,constrained to a rock physics model.When a homogeneous starting model is used,with only traditional least squares optimization scheme for inversion,the variance of the parameters is found to be comparatively high.In this co-operative methodology,the output from the least squares inversion is fed as an input to the fuzzy scheme.Tests with co-operative inversion using fuzzy c-means with damped least squares technique and constraints derived from empirical relationship based on rock properties model show improved stability,model fitness and variance for all the three parameters in comparison with the standard inversion alone.

  10. Cross Border Claims Handling Co-operation between Nuclear Insurance Pools in a Case of Transboundary Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper deals with matters concerning the core reason for insurance of nuclear third party liability - registration, handling, organizing and settling of claims in case of a major nuclear incident, underlining claims handling co-operation between national nuclear insurance pools when damage to health or property becomes international. Commercial insurance companies have gained extensive experience with handling large scale claims (e.g. after floods and other natural disasters) and are capable in gathering and organizing a high number of professional loss surveyors and adjusters in a very short period of time. In case of nuclear insurance pools co-operation between members (commercial insurance companies) is an added value and can be used practically all over the country bringing into action the network of branches and offices of all the pool members. This advantage is also used in case of cross border claims when it is necessary to gather information and claims advises from a large number of subjects and from many countries, sometimes very far apart. The international network of nuclear insurance pools is an ideal tool for this task and can be mobilized practically at once. Operators of nuclear installations, especially nuclear power plants, do not have the possibility to put aside hundreds of workers to handle claims and are also usually not sufficiently equipped with the necessary know-how. The same goes for governments and government agencies which in many countries guarantee the payments of claims to victims. Nuclear insurance pools are just the answer to these problems and considerations and co-operation agreements between the national insurance pool, operator of a nuclear installation and national government are strongly recommended. Such co-operation agreements should be prepared and signed beforehand as it will most probably be a problem to look for a solution when a major nuclear incident occurs. Similar agreements are the basis of international co-operation

  11. Overview on technical co-operation activities deployed between Romania and International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania became a Member State of the IAEA in 1957. From the mid 1960s to the mid 1970s Romania received assistance in the frame of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Program mainly in the following areas: research in nuclear physics, medical issues and some application of radiation and isotopes. In 1976 Romania decided to use CANDU type reactors for its NPPs. The construction of five units (of 660 MWe each) started in 1978 at Cernavoda. The orientation of Romania's Technical Co-operation projects was shifted towards the requirements raised by the national Nuclear Power Program and as such 18 projects of the IAEA and 3 projects of the UN development program (for which IAEA was a executive Agency) have been directly concerned with it. To develop scientific and technological support for nuclear power program a TRIGA 14 MW Materials Testing Reactor was commissioned at Pitesti in 1979. After 1989 the TC program was tailored to assist manpower training in areas related to nuclear power. In the period 1991 - 1995 a total of 33 TC projects were deployed. The largest part of researches were allotted to projects in nuclear engineering and technology field including also safety aspects (41%), followed by nuclear physics research (25%). During 1991 - 1994 Romania received 12% of the total funds allotted for TC program in Europe. In 1995 - 1996 cycle there were 24 on-going TC projects in Romania, implying the total resource allocation of USD 1,27 million. Diverse areas were covered by the program: 6 projects were related to Cernavoda NPP, followed by applications of nuclear techniques in medicine, agriculture and environment. A special attention was given to the following two projects: Industrial Radiation Sterilization and Decommissioning Plan for WWR-S research reactor. In the present cycle the first model project in Romania was started by the Agency based on initially approved financing of USA 1,6 million. The main area covered is still nuclear safety. For 1999 - 2000 biennial

  12. Serum high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is closely associated with the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jae

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is a newly recognized factor regulating cancer cell tumorigenesis, expansion and invasion. We investigated the correlation between the serum HMGB1 levels and the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer and evaluated the validity of HMGB1 as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 227 subjects were classified into 5 disease groups according to the 'gastritis-dysplasia-carcinoma' sequence of gastric carcinogenesis and their serum levels of HMGB1 were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Clinical parameters, International Union Against Cancer (UICC TNM stage, cancer size, differentiation or lymphatic invasion, vascular or perineural invasion and prognosis were used as analysis variables. Results The serum HMGB1 levels were significantly different among disease groups (ANOVA, p and HMGB1 levels tended to increase according to the progression of gastric carcinogenesis. Serum HMGB1 levels were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and poor prognosis (p . However, HMGB1 levels were not associated with patient gender or age, differentiation of tumor cells, or lymphatic, vascular and perineural invasion, or the existence of distant metastasis in advanced cancer (p > 0.05. The sensitivity and specificity of serum HMGB1 was 71% and 67% (cut-off value of 5 ng/ml for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer, and 70% and 64% (cut-off value of 4 ng/ml for the diagnosis of high-risk lesions, respectively. These values were greater than those for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA (30–40% of sensitivity. Conclusion HMGB1 appears to be a useful serological biomarker for early diagnosis as well as evaluating the tumorigenesis, stage, and prognosis of gastric cancer.

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Islamic Republic of Iran 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Islamic Republic of Iran 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the People's Republic of China 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the People's Republic of China carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Cote d'Ivoire 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Cote d'Ivoire carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the United Arab Emirates 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the United Arab Emirates carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Syrian Arab Republic 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Syrian Arab Republic carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. Managing technical-institutional design processes: some strategic lessons from environmental co-operatives in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Roep, D.; Ploeg, van der, J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the case of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA is reviewed in terms of coevolving technical and institutional change and the strategic lessons to be learned for a pro-active management of such complex technical-institutional design processes. Facing the many-sided crisis in agriculture the two co-operatives developed a radically different approach. The aim is to re-ground agriculture in local agro-ecological processes following the approach of lowering external inputs...

  20. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Republic of Korea 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Republic of Korea carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J. G.; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  3. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread. PMID:25415835

  4. The evolution of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) protocols for nonsmall cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 2 decades, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) has played a significant role in clarifying the role of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). RTOG lung cancer research has evolved over this time period through a systematic succession of investigations. For unresectable NSCLC, the dependence of local tumor control and survival on total dose of standard fractionation RT, as well as pretreatment performance characteristics, was demonstrated in initial RTOG trials. Subsequently, further radiation dose intensification was tested using altered fractionation RT to total doses up to 32% higher than standard RT to 60 Gy, given as either hyperfractionation or accelerated fractionation, while attempting to retain acceptable normal tissue toxicity. These higher doses required rethinking of established RT techniques and limitations, as well as careful surveillance of acute and late toxicity. A survival advantage was shown for hyperfractionation to 69.6 Gy, in favorable performance patients, compared to 60 Gy. Further testing of high dose standard RT will use three-dimensional, conformal techniques to minimize toxicity. RTOG further extended the theme of treatment intensification for unresectable NSCLC by evaluating combined chemotherapy (CT) and RT. Improved local control and survival was shown for induction CT followed by standard RT to 60 Gy, compared to standard RT (60 Gy) and altered fractionation RT (69.6 Gy). The intent of current studies is to optimize dose and scheduling of combined CT and standard RT, as well as combined CT and altered fractionation RT. Noncytotoxic RT adjuvants, such as hypoxic cell sensitizers, nonspecific immune stimulants, and biologic response modifiers have also been studied. Resectable NSCLC has also been an RTOG focus, with studies of preoperative and postoperative RT, CT, and CT/RT, including the prognostic value of serum and tissue factors. RTOG studies have yielded incremental

  5. Detection of Breast Cancer with Mammography in the First Screening Round in Relation to Expected Incidence in Different Age Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio (R) of prevalence of screening-detected breast cancer in the first screening round (P) was compared with the expected incidence rate (I) for different age groups in several screening programs. Published data on the first screening round from three Swedish randomized trials and six counties with service screening were used. The women invited to take part in the screening were aged 40-74 years. Not only P and I but also R increased with increasing age. With the youngest age group as reference, the increase was statistically significant for both invasive cancer and invasive cancer and carcinoma in situ together. The studied ratio (R) can be thought of as a measure of efficiency in detecting breast cancer cases in mammography screening. The reasons for the increase are probably that the breast tissue of younger women is denser, which makes the cancer more difficult to detect by mammography, and that slow-growing cancers tend to appear more frequently in older women

  6. International co-operation on environmental restoration: The role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management has a prominent status as an Agency activity and has to be dynamic in nature to keep pace with the changing needs of Member States. Meeting these needs is a challenge in itself considering the diverse nature of waste management activities that are planned or underway in our Member States. The main objective of the waste management programme is to ensure the safe management and disposal of radioactive waste in accordance with the IAEA's mandate to promote the safety and peaceful use of atomic energy. Although this project is named the Technical Co-operation Regional Project on Environmental Restoration in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), the need for environmental restoration is not confined to this region alone. There are sites all over the world that are in an unacceptable regional state due to bad practices in the handling of radioactive waste, nuclear accidents or weapons testing activities. The wastes stem from a wide range of activities and the nature and character of the radioactive materials may differ from country to country. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Project financing consequences on cogeneration: industrial plant and municipal utility co-operation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalisation of the European electricity market influences investment decisions in combined heat and power plants. Energy companies modify their business strategies and their criteria for investments in power generation capacity. In this paper, the gains from a co-operation between a paper mill and municipal utility are studied. We find that a widened system boundary, including both the industrial plant and the district heating company, increases cost-effectiveness by 7-11%, compared to a situation with two separately optimised systems. Furthermore, optimal investments are strongly influenced by the actors' different required returns. With a relatively low required rate of return on energy investments, typical for a municipally owned utility, the most profitable investment is a wood chips-fuelled cogeneration plant. With a higher rate of return on capital, typical for a competitive industry, the optimal investment is mainly a heat-only steam boiler. Finally, some general influences on required rate of return caused by electricity market deregulation are observed. Whilst tending to increase companies' required returns, deregulation may, besides extending the outlet for locally generated electricity, also obstruct long-term high-cost investments such as cogeneration based on conventional technology

  8. Prevention of Co-operative Black Hole attack in Manet on DSR protocol using Cryptographic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Vennila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile node in which each node can communicate with other node without use of predefined infrastructure. Currently, a lot of efficient protocols have been proposed for MANET. All of these efficient Routing protocols are depends only conviction and supportive environment. Conversely, the networks are more vulnerable to various kinds of routing attacks with the presence of malicious nodes. Black hole attack is one of network layer attack. In this attack, A malicious node make use of routing protocol to advertise itself that has a shortest path to reach destination, drops at the cost of original routing packets. In our work, the proposed algorithm is used to secure the DSR protocol. This will help to improve the performance of Mobile Ad hoc network due to the attack. There are several prevention mechanisms to eliminate the Black Hole attack in MANET. The aim of the paper is to provide better prevention of Co-operative Black hole attack in MANET and how it affects the performance metrics in terms of throughput and delay of the network by comparing the network performance with and without black hole nodes.

  9. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sudan, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $5.7 million of Agency support received, Sudan ranks 31st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Over the past ten years, almost equal shares of this assistance were provided in the form of equipment (46%) and training (42%), and only a small percentage was provided in the form of expert services (12%). The best part of the resources was made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (77%), while in-kind and extrabudgetary contributions account for 13% and 10% of the resources, respectively. With regard to project disbursement during the past ten years, by sector, the two largest areas have been general atomic energy development (37%) and agriculture (21%), followed by nuclear medicine (14%). Smaller shares (6% each) have gone to nuclear physics and chemistry, nuclear engineering and technology, hydrology, and nuclear safety

  10. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Brazil, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $17 million of Agency support received, Brazil ranks 2nd among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. Over half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (51%), complemented by expert services (34%) and training (15%). Almost two-thirds of the funds were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (63%), the rest was provided through extrabudgetary contributions (30%), assistance in kind (4%) and UNDP (3%). With regard to total disbursements - by sector - under those projects that were operational during the period 1982 through November 1992, the three major areas have been: general atomic energy development (47%), nuclear safety (22%) and agriculture (13%). During the same period, the country has provided experts and training course lectures for a total of 405 assignments, and has hosted 178 fellowships and scientific visits as well as 46 regional and interregional training events with a total of 603 participants

  11. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cuba, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $8.2 million of Agency support received, Cuba ranks 19th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 3rd in 1982 and 4th in 1984. Over three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (81%), followed by expert services (10%) and training (9%). Seventy-one per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 28% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The remaining 1% was made available through extrabudgetary and in-kind contributions. With regard to project disbursements by sector, the largest areas have been general atomic energy development (36%), agriculture (20%), nuclear physics and chemistry (10%) and nuclear safety (10%). Industry and hydrology, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear medicine have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  12. Co-operative Scheduled Energy Aware Load-Balancing technique for an Efficient Computational Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R V Anandharajan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing in the recent years has been taking its evolution from the scientific to the non scientific and commercial applications. Power consumption and Load balancing are very important and complex problem in computational Cloud. A computational Cloud differs from traditional high-performance computing systems in the heterogeneity of the computing nodes, as well as the communication links that connect the different nodes together. Load Balancing is a very important component in the commodity services based cloud computing. There is a need to develop algorithms that can capture this complexity yet can be easily implemented and used to solve a wide range of load-balancing scenarios in a Data and Computing intensive applications. In this paper, we propose to find the best EFFICIENT cloud resource by Co-operative Power aware Scheduled Load Balancing solution to the Cloud load-balancing problem. The algorithm developed combines the inherent efficiency of the centralized approach, energy efficient and the fault-tolerant nature of the distributed environment like Cloud.

  13. Co-operative Wireless Intrusion Detection System Using MIBs From SNMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Vyavhare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In emerging technology of Internet, security issues are becoming more challenging. In case of wired LAN it is somewhat in control, but in case of wireless networks due to exponential growth in attacks, it has made difficult to detect such security loopholes. Wireless network security is being addressed using firewalls, encryption techniques and wired IDS (Intrusion Detection System methods. But the approaches which were used in wired network were not successful in producing effective results for wireless networks. It is so because of features of wireless network such as open medium, dynamic changing topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring and management point, and lack of a clear line of defense etc. So, there is need for new approach which will efficiently detect intrusion in wireless network. Efficiency can be achieved by implementing distributive, co-operative based, multi-agent IDS. The proposed system supports all these three features. It includes mobile agents for intrusion detection which uses SNMP (Simple network Management Protocol and MIB (Management Information Base variables for mobile wireless networks

  14. VVER operational safety improvements: lessons learnt from European co-operation and future research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarises involvement of Nuclear Research Institute Rez (NRI) in the areas which are directly related to Reactor Operational Safety and Plant Life Management, it also gives an idea how results of the research projects can be used to enhance safety of VVER reactors. These issues are for many years subject of a wide international co-operation effort, covered by such programmes as PHARE, OECD/NEA TACIS, 5th Framework Programme. Nuclear Research Institute participated in the majority of these programmes and projects, which allowed us to evaluate benefits (especially for VVER reactors) of the projects already finalised or running, as well as to formulate so-called 'future research needs', which possibly may be pursued within 6th Framework Programme. The paper highlights the main features of some projects our Institute was and is involved in, emphasising the most important results, expectations and future needs. It also very briefly, deals with some general and particular lessons learnt within these projects and their application to VVER reactors, especially as to their safety improvement. The paper also mentions VVER-focused projects and activities, co-ordinated by the OECD, which should enable to extend multilateral contacts already existing between organisations of the EU countries to include organisations from Russia, USA, Japan and possibly some other countries

  15. A professional ethics learning module for use in co-operative education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Cheryl; Dansberry, Bryan

    2004-04-01

    The Professional Practice Program, also known as the co-operative education (co-op) program, at the University of Cincinnati (UC) is designed to provide eligible students with the most comprehensive and professional preparation available. Beginning with the Class of 2006, students in UC's Centennial Co-op Class will be following a new co-op curriculum centered around a set of learning outcomes Regardless of their particular discipline, students will pursue common learning outcomes by participating in the Professional Practice Program, which will cover issues of organizational culture, technology, professional ethics, and the integration of theory and practice. During their third co-op work term, students will complete a learning module on Professional Ethics. To complete the learning module students must familiarize themselves with the code of ethics for their profession, create a hypothetical scenario portraying an ethical dilemma that involves issues covered by the code, resolve the dilemma, and explain why their resolution is the best course of action based upon the code of ethics. A three-party assessment process including students, employers and faculty complete the module. PMID:15152866

  16. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Peru, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $12.6 million of Agency support received, Peru ranks 4th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 2nd in each of the four years 1982 through 1985. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (59%), followed by expert services (29%) and training (12%). Forty-five per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 29% of the resources were made available through extrabudgetary contributions, and 21% by UNDP. The remaining 5% were provided in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (27%), general atomic energy development (17%), nuclear raw materials (14%), nuclear medicine (12%) and industry and hydrology (11%). Nuclear safety, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear physics and chemistry have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  17. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Egypt, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $22.2 million of Agency support received, Egypt ranks first among all recipients of technical assistance, not only for the period 1958 - 1991, but also held this rank in each of the five years 1982 through 1986 and in 1988. More than half of this assistance has been provided in the form of equipment (57%), followed by expert services (19%), training (17%) and sub-contracts (7%). With 42% and 43%, respectively, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund and extrabudgetary contributions hold almost equal shares in the total resources available, while in-kind assistance accounts for 9% and UNDP for 6% of the resources. With regard to project disbursement during the past ten years, by sector, the two largest areas have been nuclear safety (34%) and agriculture (33%), followed by nuclear engineering and technology (11%). Smaller shares - from 4% to 7% each-- have gone to industry and hydrology, nuclear medicine, nuclear physics and chemistry, and general atomic energy development

  18. Adenosinergic Immunosuppression by Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Requires Co-Operation with T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkelä, Erja; Laitinen, Anita; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valkonen, Sami; Takatalo, Maarit; Larjo, Antti; Veijola, Johanna; Lampinen, Milla; Siljander, Pia; Lehenkari, Petri; Alfthan, Kaija; Laitinen, Saara

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to counteract excessive inflammatory responses. MSCs possess a range of immunomodulatory mechanisms, which can be deployed in response to signals in a particular environment and in concert with other immune cells. One immunosuppressive mechanism, not so well-known in MSCs, is mediated via adenosinergic pathway by ectonucleotidases CD73 and CD39. In this study, we demonstrate that adenosine is actively produced from adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) by CD73 on MSCs and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Our results indicate that although MSCs express CD39 at low level and it colocalizes with CD73 in bulge areas of membranes, the most efficient adenosine production from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires co-operation of MSCs and activated T cells. Highly CD39 expressing activated T cells produce AMP from ATP and MSCs produce adenosine from AMP via CD73 activity. Furthermore, adenosinergic signaling plays a role in suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows that adenosinergic signaling is an important immunoregulatory mechanism of MSCs, especially in situations where ATP is present in the extracellular environment, like in tissue injury. An efficient production of immunosuppressive adenosine is dependent on the concerted action of CD39-positive immune cells with CD73-positive cells such as MSCs or their EVs. Stem Cells 2016;34:781-790. PMID:26731338

  19. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Madagascar, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3.5 million of Agency support received, Madagascar ranks 42nd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), followed by expert services (32%) and training (13%). With a share of 69%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided more than two-thirds of the total resources available, while 29% were made available through UNDP and 2% through assistance in kind. Extrabudgetary contributions accounted for less than one per cent. With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, by far the largest area has been nuclear raw materials (66%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (18%). Only small shares have gone to nuclear safety (7%), agriculture (5%) and nuclear engineering and technology (4%)

  20. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  1. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers...... cancer incident cases are reported and registered in the national data base. Today, the data base includes approximately 80 000 incidents of primary breast cancer. Annually, the Secretariat receives roughly 1.5 million parameters to be entered into the data base. Over time DBCG has generated seven......DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration...

  2. Palliation of symptoms in non-small cell lung cancer: a study by the Yorkshire Regional Cancer Organisation Thoracic Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Muers, M. F.; Round, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although most treatment for non-small cell lung cancer is palliative, data on the adequacy of symptom control are scanty and there has been little discussion about the appropriate indices. METHODS--Two hundred and eighty nine unselected patients presenting sequentially to six specialists were studied; 242 cases were confirmed histologically and all were managed as non-small cell lung cancer. At presentation and two monthly for one year or until death each of 12 symptoms was graded...

  3. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  4. African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document informs that the second extension of the 'African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology' entered into force on 4 April 2000. In also includes the status list of the Agreement as of 29 April 2000

  5. Generation of covariance files for iron-56 and natural iron - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The following report was issued by a Subgroup investigating different methodologies to produce covariance data. These data are required to assess uncertainties in design parameters and to refine the use of nuclear data both in fission and fusion reactor applications. It was agreed to limit the scope to covariance data for Iron-56 and natural iron in view of their importance as structural materials in reactors and particularly for fusion reactor shielding applications

  6. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  7. Choice of the Models for the Co-operative Innovation of Industries, Universities and Research Institutes by Game Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyang Fan; Youhua Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper builds game model to analyze selection issues of IUR co-operation model through Nash bargaining theory. The result shows that, the stronger innovative capability, more economic benefits expected, less technical content of scientific research, companies more inclined to choose a higher degree of close model; otherwise, companies tend to choose more closely integrated degree lower mode.

  8. Strategy-Based Development of Teacher Educators' ICT Competence through a Co-operative Staff Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, Jari; Lattu, Matti; Juuti, Kalle; Meisalo, Veijo

    2006-01-01

    An ICT strategy and an implementation plan for teacher education were created in a co-operative process. Visions and expectations of staff members and students were registered by questionnaires and by making notes during sessions in which the strategy was created. Thereafter, an implementation document, where the staff development programme and…

  9. Environmental Co-Operatives as Instruments for Delivering Across-Farm Environmental and Rural Policy Objectives: Lessons for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, J. R.; Mc Gloin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of environmental co-operatives (EC) to deliver environmental benefits and an integrated and strengthened rural economy in the UK. It is based on research into Dutch EC, which have about 10,000 members, of which a quarter are non-farmers. The paper details the benefits EC have delivered to their members, the Dutch…

  10. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972 (the RCA Agreement for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1977 is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  11. Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Current treatment based on evidence (ONCOL Group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to perform a review of evidence about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Source of data: the information was obtained from searches conducted in Medline, CCTR, Biosis, Embase, Lilacs and CINHAL. We also collected the most representative references presented during the last five years at Asco, ESMO and IASLC. Data extraction: data were extracted by associate members to the ONCOL Group. The collection of information did not follow a uniform strategy. Results of data synthesis: therapy for NSCLC can prolong survival and improve quality of life, but the majority of advanced stage patients dies due to disease progression within 2 years, meaning that there is room for improvement. The standard chemotherapy for NSCLC involves one of a number of platinum-based doublets that have been shown to improve survival when compared with single agents or best supportive care. These doublets are generally comparable in terms of efficacy, differing primarily in their toxicity profiles. However, encouraging new options may be approaching, including therapies targeted to specific patient subpopulations, and the use of combinations of current and new drugs to produce synergistic effects. This review present a detailed analysis of current evidence regarding the treatment of NSCLC based on a representative case series. This review didn't conduct a systematic evaluation of the evidence. Conclusion: medical therapy for NSCLC produces positive changes in main outcomes, including quality of life

  12. Clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families and suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑛; 叶俊; 郑树

    2004-01-01

    Background Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPPC) is one of the most common genetic syndrome related with mutation of human mismatch repair genes. This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (sHNPCC) criteria I and the clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-HNPCC (ICG-HNPCC) and sHNPCC families.Methods Twenty-nine ICG-HNPCC families fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria and 34 sHNPCC families fulfilling the sHNPCC criteria I were collected. PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing analysis were employed to screen the germline mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in these families.Results The ICG group had more colorectal cancer (CRC) patients per family than did the suspected group (P0.05), mutation type, and mutation distribution. Comparison of the families with and without mutation showed no significant difference in CRC patients per family, Lynch classification, and tumor spectrum.Conclusions ICG-HNPCC and sHNPCC families that have similar clinical manifestations and genetic basis indicate a similar nature for cancer development. The application of sHNPCC criteria I will facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment of small families.

  13. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a consistent pre-occupation in the research literature on emissions trading with what configurations of trading arrangements are likely to be economically efficient both statically and dynamically, and - to a lesser extent - what is likely to be fair - who are the winners and the losers. Issues of environmental effectiveness are also addressed in this context. Conversely, amongst the policy practitioners, there is little overt interest in economic efficiency, and not much treatment of fairness. There is a strong interest in implementability, and in environmental effectiveness. The presentations at the workshops reflected these parallel pre-occupations, and attempts were made by some to make a bridge between them. In this paper we review some of the papers and associated other literature that address these issues in political economy, with a particular emphasis on insights emerging as regards competitiveness, co-operation and market power. Much of the relevant research emerging at the workshops was animated by either ex post analysis of existing programmes, or an ex ante analysis of 'new' emissions trading proposals, such as the proposal by the European Commission for a European Union (EU) wide scheme. At our first workshop in Venice, in December 2001, Zapfel and Vainio (2001) presented a paper - 'Pathways to European Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading' - which mapped the at times surprising evolution of the emissions trading idea in Europe, the misconceptions that in the past and still to this day complicate progress, and conclude with a presentation of a coherent case for the creation of an EU wide greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. They both work with the European Commission in DG Environment, and continue to be heavily involved in moving the emissions trading agenda forward. The Commission had released its proposals just two months earlier, in October 2001, following an intensive consultation process. This co-incidence of occurrence of the initiation

  14. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focu...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  15. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.;

    2008-01-01

    present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years......+/HER-2+, Rec-/HER-2- (triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. Results A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall...

  16. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming B; Knudsen, Helle;

    2008-01-01

    present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years......+/HER-2+, Rec-/HER-2-(triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. RESULTS: A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall...

  17. Radiation protection activities under a Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of a Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) project on 'strengthening of radiation protection' is described. All the RCA Member States, i.e. Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam are participating in the project and providing the financial and human resources necessary for its implementation. The objective of the project is to strengthen radiation protection capabilities in the RCA region with emphasis on the establishment and development of the infrastructure, in particular, manpower development in dosimetry, dose and risk assessment, protection practices, emergency countermeasures, regulatory provisions, and educational and training systems. The activities include practical training, the acquisition of fundamental knowledge and techniques; workshop and study tours at an advanced level; a co-ordinated research programme to obtain data essential for radiation protection measures in the region; assignment of experts to address specific problems; provision of long term fellowships to supplement short term training; provision of instruments and equipment; participation in the radiation protection advisory team (RAPAT) programme of the IAEA; and periodic evaluation of the project. These activities are applied in a concerted way to industrial applications, including nuclear energy and medical and biological applications. In the field of industrial applications, two training courses and two workshops including study tours were implemented in 1988 and 1989, and one training course and two workshops are envisaged for 1990. In the medical and biological field, efforts have been concentrated on the co-ordinated research programme which aims at compiling essential data of the region for setting Reference Asian Man. 1 tab

  18. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : implications for Northeast Asian regional security co-operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies opportunities for co-operation on regional development and security in the North Pacific region. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was created in 1993 during bilateral negotiations between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (US-DPRK) over North Korea's alleged nuclear weapons program. The negotiations resulted in an agreement to freeze North Korea's known nuclear weapons program in return for the construction of two proliferation-resistant 100 MWe light water reactors (LWR) in North Korea, and the provision of 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year until the completion of the LWR construction as compensation for lost energy production capacity resulting from the shutting down of North Korea's nuclear reactors. The author described the activities of KEDO and examined its internal dynamics. The unique circumstances that produced the Agreed Framework and KEDO in response to a major international crisis of the nuclear program in the DPRK were also highlighted along with the US-DPRK bilateral agreement and the multilateral institution involving the United States, South Korea, Japan and the European Union. Financial support from Australia and Canada was discussed along with the mechanism for engaging North Korea in regularized interaction and technical cooperation. It was concluded that KEDO's record of successes and failures is mixed. The energy security issue has been identified as an area that could result in conflict among Northeast Asian countries which are increasingly dependent on oil supplies from the Middle East. In response, numerous multilateral financing mechanisms have been developed to promote joint business opportunities that exploit natural gas resources in the Russian Far East to address Japanese, Korean and Chinese energy needs. 35 refs

  19. Man-machine co-operation in computerized systems: Feedback from ergonomic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation of a process is not just an allotment of certain control tasks to automatic systems but is a complex phenomenon involving interaction between operators and the control and monitoring system. As part of design work on future French NPPs, an experience feedback exercise in this area was carried out in a plant with a greater degree of automation than current PWR units. As a result, operators' activity was determined in relation to the work of automatic systems in various phases of operation. This study shows that the added value of this activity lies mainly in taking into account deviations of plant operation from a 'theoretical' situation (which is used as reference for the design of automatic systems). These deviations, which may be due to a change in operating conditions or to malfunctions, are either not treated by automatic systems or are treated in a manner that is not optimal with regard to the twin objectives of plant operation, namely power production and safety. This experience feedback exercise thus demonstrates the need for design approaches to take into account the interaction of automatic systems and operators in order to optimize co-operation between man and the control and monitoring system. The paper concludes by describing an ergonomic approach which was applied in another project and which made use of some results from this feedback of experience. This approach is based on the concept of probable future activity and comprises two steps: definition of possible activity of operators in the future system and its integration into the design process. (author). 4 figs

  20. IAEA Technical Co-operation activities: Asia and the Pacific. Workshop on training nuclear laboratory technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop was held to exchange information on existing facilities and programmes in Asia and the Pacific for training nuclear laboratory technicians, to identify future training needs and to assess the need for IAEA's involvement in this field. As the participants outlined the requirements for nuclear laboratory technician training and the facilities available in their respective countries, it became evident that, in addition to the training of radioisotope laboratory technicians, they also wished to review the need for technician training for the operation of nuclear power plants and industrial application of atomic energy. The terms of reference of the workshop were extended accordingly. The opening address by Chang Suk Lee, the Korean Vice Minister of Science and Technology, noted the valuable contribution to quality control and other industrial uses that nuclear techniques have made in his country. He also reviewed the application of nuclear techniques in Korean agriculture and medicine. The participants explored various forms of co-operation that could be established between countries of the region. Exchange programmes, not only for students but also for expert teachers, and the exchange or loan of equipment were suggested. It was felt that some generalized training courses could be organized on a regional basis, and two countries advocated the setting up of a regional training centre. One suggestion was to arrange regional training courses in special fields that would move from one country to another. The need was felt for periodic regional meetings on training methods, course content and other questions relating to training of laboratory technicians. The IAEA was requested to act as a clearinghouse for information on available training facilities in the region and to advise on the curricula for technician training courses. The Agency was also asked to organize short courses for the training of instructors of technicians in the various fields of atomic

  1. Co-operation for weapon technology transfers and technological/economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes the basic philosophy of security export controls and future directions thereof, taking into account global changes in the security environment. We hope that appropriate policies based on the proposals will be implemented expeditiously. When the government implements security export control policy, it is most essential to obtain the understanding and co-operation of the general public, as well as exporters. It is also important to closely co-ordinate efforts within the government, including information sharing among the ministries and agencies concerned. Moreover, the government should make efforts to raise the effectiveness of policy measures by fully explaining Japanese security export control policy to other countries, and taking a leading role in international efforts for co-ordination. The proposals in this report provide an overview of future security export controls. Needless to say, there is the need for further and more detailed consideration of individual policy measures. Especially in introducing new controls to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles, it is necessary to conduct deliberations taking into full consideration the actual situation surrounding transactions, and to provide a sufficient lead-time. Moreover, it is expected that there will be further, major changes in the international security environment, including the countries of concern. It will be necessary to reexamine security export control policy, recognizing that those changes will alter the premises of such policy. Finally, we wish to state the hope that this report, the first attempt, by the Industrial Structure Council, to focus Japanese thinking on security export controls will act as a catalyst in deepening public understanding of security export controls, and enhancing Japanese security export controls

  2. Co-operation between Gdańsk and Vilnius Universities in Pleistocene geochronology investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigalas, Algirdas; Fedorowicz, Stanisław

    2009-10-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) dating of aquatic sand'y sediments, carried out as a co-operation between Gdańsk and Vilnius Universities, provided a more accurate chronology of the Middle-Upper Pleistocene in Lithuania. Based on TL dating, Middle and Upper Pleistocene fine-grained sands of aquatic origin have been attributed to the Butėnai (Holsteinian) Interglacial (Tartokai outcrop), Snaigupėlė (Drenthe-Wartha) Interglacial (Tartokai and Valakampiai (Valakupiai) outcrops), Merkinė (Eemian) Interglacial (Tartokai and Netiesos outcrops) and Nemunas (Vistulian) Glacial (Tartokai, Netiesos and Rokai outcrops). The dating of samples from the outcrops studied show the age of the Butėnai Interglacial to be 430.2 to 280.3 ka years BP, of the Snaigupėlė Interglacial 239.4 to 179.3 ka years BP and the Merkinė Interglacial 135.9 to 103.2 ka years BP. The Early Nemunas and the Middle Nemunas non-glacial sediments accumulated between 67.2-30.6 ka years BP. Tills in the upper part of the Tartokai and Rokai outcrops are younger than 30,000 BP and belong to the Late Nemunas glacial maximum in Lithuania. Different dosimetric (TL, OSL) ages of granular fractions of the same sample indicate different parametres predetermined by the distribution of grain size fractions during aquatic sedimentation of quartz sand. The granulometry of sand or the grain size distribution of quartz particles in samples reflect the state of the hydrodynamic sedimentation space.

  3. The effect of trust on the performance and satisfaction of co-operative members at the 'Zöld-termék’ producer organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Gyula; Ferto, Imre

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS The paper investigates the effect of trust between members and between members and the management in an agricultural marketing co-operative in the Hungarian horticultural sector. More specifically, we looked at how trust affected the performance and satisfaction of members of the co-operative, as well as their intention to remain part of the co-operative. We analyzed the role of trust from two aspects: cognitive and affective. In line with our pr...

  4. Is screening for pancreatic cancer in high-risk groups cost-effective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maiken Thyregod; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sørensen, Jan;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, symptoms are few and diffuse, and when the diagnosis has been made only 10-15% would benefit from resection. Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for pancreatic cancer, and the prognosis seems to...... Hereditary pancreatitis or with a disposition of HP and 40 first-degree relatives of patients with Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) were screened for development of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with yearly endoscopic ultrasound. The cost-effectiveness of screening in comparison with no...

  5. Impact of two common xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD gene polymorphisms on risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Mi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA repair genes (EG: xeroderma pigmentosum group D, XPD may affect the capacity of encoded DNA repair enzymes to effectively remove DNA adducts or lesions, which may result in enhanced cancer risk. The association between XPD gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility of prostate cancer (PCa was inconsistent in previous studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A meta-analysis based on 9 independent case-control studies involving 3165 PCa patients and 3539 healthy controls for XPD Gln751Lys SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism and 2555 cases and 3182 controls for Asn312Asp SNP was performed to address this association. Meanwhile, odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate this relationship. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA10.0. No significant association was found between XPD Gln751Lys SNP and PCa risk. On the other hand, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, associations were observed in Asian (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.16-1.55; Asn/Asn+Asn/Asp vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.07-1.42 and African (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.01-1.70; Asn/Asn vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.03-7.10 populations for Asn312Asp SNP. Moreover, similar associations were detected in hospital-based controls studies; the frequency of Asn/Asn genotype in early stage of PCa men was poorly higher than those in advanced stage of PCa men (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.00-2.11. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations demonstrate that XPD Asn312Asp SNP not the Gln751Lys SNP, might poorly increase PCa risk in Asians and Africans, moreover, this SNPs may associate with the tumor stage of PCa. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should be conducted to determine the role of XPD gene polymorphisms in PCa risk.

  6. Expression of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 as Predictive Marker for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. The expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been reported to be associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We evaluated whether ERCC1 expression could predict the treatment response and survival outcome of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who were treated with cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of ERCC1 in nasopharyngeal tumor tissue. Patients were categorized into either a resistant or sensitive group depending on their treatment response outcome. A total of 77 patients were assessed in the present study. Results: The resistant and sensitive groups included 25 and 52 patients, respectively. ERCC1 expression was positive in the tumor tissue for 39 of the 77 patients (51%). Significantly more ERCC1-negative tumors were in the sensitive group than in the resistant group (p = .035). In terms of survival outcome, univariate analysis determined that patients with ERCC1-negative tumors had longer disease-free survival (p = .076) and overall survival (p = .013) than patients with ERCC1-positive tumors. Multivariate analysis determined that negative ERCC expression in tumors was an independent predictor for prolonged overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.71). Conclusion: These results suggest that ERCC1 expression might be a useful predictive marker in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who are under consideration for cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

  7. Nuclear Site Remediation and Restoration during Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. A Report by the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes. Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This report, prepared by the Task Group on Nuclear Site Restoration of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, highlights lessons learnt from remediation experiences of NEA member countries that may be particularly helpful to practitioners of nuclear site remediation, regulators and site operators. It provides observations and recommendations to consider in the development of strategies and plans for efficient nuclear site remediation that ensures protection of workers and the environment. (authors)

  8. Group II and IV phospholipase A2 are produced in human pancreatic cancer cells and influence prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwagi, M; Friess, H; Uhl, W.; Berberat, P; Abou-Shady, M; MARTIGNONI, M.; Anghelacopoulos, S; Zimmermann, A.; Buchler, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is involved in regulating biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and its metabolites. There are three major structurally different forms of PLA2: group I, also called pancreatic PLA2 (PLA2-I); group II, referred to as secretory non-pancreatic or synovial or platelet PLA2 (PLA2-II); group IV, referred to as cytosolic PLA2 (PLA2-IV).
AIMS—To examine PLA2-I, PLA2-II, and PLA2-IV in normal and pancreatic cancer tissues.
 Patients—PLA2 was studied in 58 pancreatic aden...

  9. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative.......13-2.82)), localization of cancer in the rectum and Dukes classification were independent risk factors. CONCLUSION: Blood transfusion per se may not be a risk factor for poor prognosis after colorectal cancer surgery. However, the combination of perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative...

  10. Prevalence of Types of Cancers in the Elderly Covered by Insurance of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company in 2015 - Comparison with Younger Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, Zahra; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Shati, Mohsen; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the world population of the elderly is growing. By improving health hygiene and welfare indicators, mortality and birth rates decrease and life expectancy increases, making the present century the century of elderly. Aging is one of the main risk factors for development of cancer, which itself is the second cause of death in old people. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cancer in the elderly covered by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) insurance program and to obtain suitable programs for cancer screening and early detection, increase patient survival, improve elderly care and to reclaim the cost of treatment in comparison to the national and international statistics. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all elderly patients diagnosed with malignancy based on their pathology reports. In this study, of the total 75,500 patients covered by IRIB insurance, 17.2% belonged to the elderly group, males accounting for 53.3%. The most common cancers in old men were prostatic cancer (61.3%), colon cancer (10.3%) cancer of the hematologic system, bladder cancer (9.6%), lung cancer (9.1%), thyroid cancer (3.9%) and brain tumors (1.3%). In the elderly women, the most common cancers were breast cancer (80.1%), colon cancer (5.1%), thyroid cancers (4.4%), bladder and hematologic system malignancies (3.6), lung cancer (2.9%) and brain tumors (0.7%). In addition, the prevalence of cancer was almost the same as national and international statistics. With the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer no difference was shown in prevalence of cancer between IRIB elderly patients and the other groups of cancer patients in Iran. PMID:27165237

  11. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival. PMID:26731659

  12. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen;

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer...... drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with...

  13. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. ► Inhibition of PKC-ζ leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. ► Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. ► Activation of PKC-ζ in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ, λ, and ι) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-ζ by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-ζ in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-ζ is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  14. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic......, Gunnarsdottir KA, Rasmussen BB, Moeller S, Lanng C. The prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. Breast 2004;13:188-193]....... factors. We found a small but significant influence on disease-free survival (HR=1.16 [1.03-1.31]) and a strong correlation between multifocality and known prognostic factors. This was in accordance with an earlier study done on a smaller population and in a different period of time [Pedersen L...

  15. Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients ≤50 years vs. ≥65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed

  16. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  17. Issue 4: Governance. Role of the international co-operation in regulatory efficiency in a small nuclear country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globalisation is one of the main characteristics of the 21st century. It is a challenge and a driving force for world economy and - within that - nuclear energy. Responsibility - on the other hand - lies on the national governments. This somewhat controversial situation is especially true for small countries with high share of nuclear production. Regulatory bodies in this countries are also small and cannot fulfil their task properly if do not utilise the advantages of international co-operation. This co-operation was very efficient in the last decades on several area: - Internationally accepted technical documents in nuclear safety have been worked out such as fundamental safety principles and IAEA Safety Standards, technical requirements issued by international and national standardisation organisations, operator associations etc. - International conventions on safety, emergency preparedness and security; - World-wide and regional, governmental and private organisations and, in the recent years, networks

  18. Press and Pulpit: Competition, Co-operation and the Growth of Religious Magazines in Antebellum America

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Adam; Haveman, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists have long been interested in how interactions among the diverse groups that constitute modern societies shape group mobilization efforts, including the use of group media. We advance research on this topic by analyzing the growth of magazines affiliated with religious groups in antebellum America, when the nation was becoming a modern society. We draw on the sociology of religion, organizations, and media to develop hypotheses linking the growth of denominational magazines to i...

  19. Inter-Firm Co-Operative Strategies In The Context Of Discontinuous Technological Change. The Case Of The Uk Optical Communications Systems Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt times of discontinuous technological change co-operation represents a viable strategy for both incumbents and new-entrants, provided that the choice of co-operation is consistent with the firm's business strategy (market-pull vs. technology-push) and with its degree of organizational

  20. The Text of the Agreement of 8 July Extending the Asian Regional Co-Operative Project on Food Irradiation. Extension Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement to Extend the Agreement of 23 May 1980 Establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation within the framework of the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972, as extended in 1977 and in 1982, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  1. Optimal number of users in Co-operative spectrum sensing in WRAN using Cyclo-Stationary Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Manish B

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio allows unlicensed users to access licensed frequency bands through dynamic spectrum access so as to reduce spectrum scarcity. This requires intelligent spectrum sensing techniques. This paper investigates the use of cyclo-stationary detector and performance evaluation for Digital Video Broadcast-Terrestrial (DVB-T) signals. Generally, DVB-T is specified in IEEE 802.22 standard in VHF and UHF TV broadcasting spectrum. Simulations results show that implementing co-operative spec...

  2. SAVING BEHAVIOUR AND DETERMINANTS OF SAVING MOBILIZATION BY RURAL FINANCIAL CO-OPERATORS IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-01-01

    This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. ...

  3. Long-term Financing in US and European Agricultural Co-operatives: Emerging Methods for Ameliorating Investment Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Iliopoulos, Constantine

    2003-01-01

    During recent years, dramatic changes in the world food system have led to unprecedented competition between agribusiness firms. To compete in this environment, agricultural cooperatives should invest substantially in long-term activities such as R&D and advertisement. Co-operatives have a difficult problem in acquiring equity capital because the residual claimant (benefactor) is the patron of the firm, not the investor. This organizational design poses to cooperatives three investment constr...

  4. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children’s Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Kaviani; Mina Shahtusi; Maryam Haj Norousali Tehrani; Sara Nazari

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. Materials and Method: In this prospective clini...

  5. An evaluation of the co-operative business model within the context of the global reporting initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Marné; 10127100 - Buys, Pieter Willem

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability reporting, renowned as an instrument for businesses to communicate how they function more efficiently and responsibly within the social and physical environment, while simultaneously remaining profitable, has evolved in an up-and-coming trend by businesses. In addition, this leads to integrated reporting, which implies that a business’ strategy, performance, risk and sustainability are inseparable from one another. The International Year of Co-operatives (2012), ...

  6. Alcohol consumption and colon cancer prognosis among participants in north central cancer treatment group phase III trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Limburg, Paul J; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Sinicrope, Frank A; Chan, Emily; Gill, Sharlene; Goldberg, Richard M; Kahlenberg, Morton; Nair, Suresh; Shields, Anthony F; Newcomb, Polly A; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a modest increased risk of colon cancer, but its relationship with colon cancer survival has not been elucidated. Using data from a phase III randomized adjuvant trial, we assessed the association of alcohol consumption with colon cancer outcomes. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire before randomization to FOLFOX or FOLFOX + cetuximab (N = 1984). Information was collected on lifestyle factors, including smoking, physical activity and consumption of different types of alcohol. Cox models assessed the association between alcohol consumption and outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS), time-to-recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for age, sex, study arm, body mass, smoking, physical activity and performance status. No statistically significant difference in outcomes between ever and never drinkers were noted [hazard ratio (HR)DFS  = 0.86, HRTTR  = 0.87, HROS  = 0.86, p-values = 0.11-0.17]. However, when considering alcohol type, ever consumers of red wine (n = 628) had significantly better outcomes than never consumers (HRDFS  = 0.80, HRTTR  = 0.81, HROS  = 0.78, p-values = 0.01-0.02). Favorable outcomes were confirmed in patients who consumed 1-30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 601, HR = 0.80-0.83, p-values = 0.03-0.049); there was a suggestion of more favorable outcomes in patients who consumed >30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 27, HR = 0.33-0.38, p-values = 0.05-0.06). Beer and liquor consumption were not associated with outcomes. Although alcohol consumption was not associated with colon cancer outcomes overall, mild to moderate red wine consumption was suggestively associated with longer OS, DFS and TTR in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:27060850

  7. Summary Record of the Twenty-Sixth Meeting of the Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA's nuclear data evaluation co-operation activities involve the following evaluation projects: ENDF (United States), JENDL (Japan), ROSFOND/BROND (Russia), JEFF (other Data Bank member countries) and CENDL (China) in close co-operation with the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The working party was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint evaluation and/or measurement efforts. This document is the executive summary of WPEC's 26. meeting held in 2014. It presents a brief review of the 2 days meeting in particular the Reports on experimental activities in Europe, Japan, USA and China, the Brief progress reports from the evaluation projects (ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, ROSFOND, CENDL, IAEA, TENDL) with the discussion of future plans, the Review of final or near-final subgroup reports, the Status of ongoing subgroups, the Proposals for new subgroups and some information about Conferences and meetings of interest to the nuclear data community. A list of participants and a list of reports presented at this meeting are attached in appendix

  8. The IAEA Technical Co-operation Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure: A proactive approach for improving safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unprecedented international co-operative effort has been launched to improve radiation and waste safety infrastructure in more than fifty IAEA Member States within the framework of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure. The objectives of the project are to establish an adequate radiation and waste safety infrastructure, compatible with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, in those Member States receiving IAEA assistance, including a system of notification, authorization and control of radiation sources, and an inventory of radiation sources and installations. These objectives are in line with the statutory mandate of the IAEA, which provides that safety standards are also to be applied to its own operations, including all technical co-operation activities. The paper describes the IAEA's proactive approach used to design, implement and assess the project. By the end of September 2001, about 77% of the participating countries had their laws promulgated and regulatory authorities established; more than 42% had their regulations adopted; about 50% had a system for the notification, authorization and control of radiation sources in place and operational; and about 80% had an inventory system of radiation sources and installations in place and operational. (author)

  9. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  10. Unmet Supportive Care Needs among Breast Cancer Survivors of Community-Based Support Group in Kuching, Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joseph Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34. All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64. Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old, had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups.

  11. Unmet Supportive Care Needs among Breast Cancer Survivors of Community-Based Support Group in Kuching, Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Emmanuel Joseph; Cheah, Whye Lian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34). All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64). Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old), had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups. PMID:27239346

  12. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Deniz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all, 151 patients over 70 years of age and 715 patients age 70 years or younger were analyzed. Categorical and continuous variables were summarized using descriptive statistics and compared using statistical software. Overall survival rates were estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range: 22 to 90 years. Between 1999 and 2002 the annual median age for patients aged older than70 years was 9.8%, which increased to 20% between 2007 and 2010. The one-year survival rate for patients with metastatic disease (stage IV was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9% to 12.9% and 27.8% (95% CI: 17.3% to 38.2% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.015. The five-year survival rate for patients with non-metastatic disease (in whom curative surgery was performed was 15.5% (95% CI = 12% to 19% and 26.9% (95% CI = 25.9% to 27.9% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.03. There were no significant differences in gender, tumor localization in the stomach, tumor histology, perineural invasion (PNI, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, tumor stage, or type of surgery between the two groups. However, fewer of the patients in group 1 underwent adjuvant treatment (P = 0.02 and palliative chemotherapy (P = 0.007 than group 2 patients that were non-metastatic and metastatic at presentation, respectively. Conclusions Groups 1 and 2 were similar in terms of histopathological features and surgical modality; however, the survival rate was lower in group 1 than in group 2

  13. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Bulgaria Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and

  14. Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer: a European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) status report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In non-jaundiced patients, however, CA 19-9 may complement other diagnostic procedures. In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, presurgical and postresection CA 19-9 levels correlate with overall survival. In advanced disease, elevated pretreatment levels of CA 19-9 are associated with adverse patient outcome and thus may be combined with other factors for risk stratification. Most, but not all, reports indicate that serial levels of CA 19-9 correlate with response to systemic therapy. Use of CA 19-9 kinetics in conjunction with imaging is therefore recommended in monitoring therapy. Although several potential serum and tissue markers for pancreatic cancer are currently undergoing evaluation, none are sufficiently validated for routine clinical use. CA 19-9 thus remains the serum pancreatic cancer marker against which new markers for this malignancy should be judged.

  15. Patch depletion, niche structuring and the evolution of co-operative foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Post Daniel J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many animals live in groups. One proposed reason is that grouping allows cooperative food finding. Group foraging models suggest that grouping could increase food finding rates, but that such group processes could be evolutionarily unstable. These models assume discrete food patches which are fully detectable. However, often animals may only be able to perceive local parts of larger-scale environmental patterns. We therefore use a spatial individual-based model where food patches are aggregates of food items beyond the scale of individual perception. We then study the evolution of foraging and grouping behavior in environments with different resource distributions. Results Our results show that grouping can evolve to increase food intake rates. Two kinds of grouping evolve: traveling pairs and opportunistic grouping, where individuals only aggregate when feeding. Grouping evolves because it allows individuals to better sense and deplete patches. Such enhanced patch depletion is particularly apparent on fragmented and partially depleted patches, which are especially difficult for solitary foragers to deplete. Solitary foragers often leave a patch prematurely because a whole patch cannot be observed directly. In groups, individuals that are still eating allow other individuals that inadvertently leave the patch, to return and continue feeding. For this information sharing a grouping tendency is sufficient and observing whether a neighbor is eating is not necessary. Grouping therefore leads to a release from individual sensing constraints and a shift in niche specialization, allowing individuals to better exploit partially depleted patches. Conclusions The evolved group foraging can be seen as cooperative in the sense that it leads to a mutually-beneficial synergy: together individuals can achieve more than on their own. This cooperation exists as a group-level process generated by the interaction between grouping and the

  16. The Contribution Of Co-Operative Education In The Growing Of Talent In South Africa: A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisational talent is internationally regarded a key success factor in a competitive world and is continuously challenged. In South Africa, the Apartheid heritage further presents major challenges regarding developmental opportunities of talented people. Co-operative education presents, as structured educational strategy that progressively integrates academic study with learning through productive work experiences, itself as a means to grow the talent of the South African people. As result of the inadequate practice of co-operative education and a fair amount of associated resistance, ‘classical’ literature is reviewed. The literature review further identifies the core properties of co-operative education and the study has attempted to distil the core principles of a phenomenological research design. The specific ‘phenomena’ which the research focused on are existing joint ventures between Higher Education institutions and business enterprises aimed at educating people and growing talent. Selections of the voices of the research participants are presented in this article. Although the present study identifies several shortcomings regarding the practice of co-operative education, it pioneers the notion that the growing of talent can be enhanced through a co-operative education strategy. OpsommingOrganisatoriese talent word internasionaal beskou as ’n sleutelfaktor in ’n kompeterende wêreld en word dus voortdurend aan uitdagings onderwerp. In Suid Afrika stel die nagevolge van Apartheid grootskaalse uitdagings ten opsigte van die ontwikkelings moontlikhede van talentvolle mense. Koöperatiewe onderwys bied, as gestruktureerde opvoedkundige strategie wat progressief akademiese leer met produktiewe werkservaring integreer, ’n geleentheid om die talent van Suid-Afrikaners op te bou. ‘Klasieke’ literatuur word weegegee ten einde die ontoereikende beoefening van koöperatiewe onderwys en ’n gepaartgaande redelike mate van

  17. Spinal high-mobility group box 1 contributes to mechanical allodynia in a rat model of bone cancer pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms underlying bone cancer-induced pain are largely unknown. Previous studies indicate that neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn is especially involved. Being first reported as a nonhistone chromosomal protein, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is now implicated as a mediator of inflammation. We hypothesized that HMGB1 could trigger the release of cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn and contribute to bone cancer pain. To test this hypothesis, we first built a bone cancer pain model induced by intratibal injection of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The structural damage to the tibia was monitored by radiological analysis. The mechanical allodynia was measured and the expression of spinal HMGB1 and IL-1β was evaluated. We observed that inoculation of cancer cells, but not heat-killed cells, induced progressive bone destruction from 9 d to 21 d post inoculation. Behavioral tests demonstrated that the significant nociceptive response in the cancer cells-injected rats emerged on day 9 and this kind of mechanical allodynia lasted at least 21 d following inoculation. Tumor cells inoculation significantly increased HMGB1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn, while intrathecal injecting a neutralizing antibody against HMGB1 showed an effective and reliable anti-allodynia effect with a dose-dependent manner. IL-1β was significantly increased in caner pain rats while intrathecally administration of anti-HMGB1 could decrease IL-1β. Together with previous reports, we predict that bone cancer induces HMGB1 production, enhancing spinal IL-1β expression and thus modulating spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and pain response.

  18. Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathewos Tessema

    Full Text Available Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190 and 23% breast (n = 80 tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05. These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43% than lung (5% cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58% than breast (30% tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment.

  19. Tumor markers in breast cancer - European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie; Duffy, Michael J.; Einarsson, Roland; Gion, Massimo; Goike, Helena; Lamerz, Rolf; Nap, Marius; Sölétormos, György; Stieber, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations are presented for the routine clinical use of serum and tissue-based markers in the diagnosis and management of patients with breast cancer. Their low sensitivity and specificity preclude the use of serum markers such as the MUC-1 mucin glycoproteins ( CA 15.3, BR 27.29) and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. However, serial measurement of these markers can result in the early detection of recurrent disease as well as indicate the efficacy of the...

  20. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2000-01-01

    = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative......BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...

  1. Evidence-based recommendations of postoperative radiotherapy in lung cancer from Oncologic Group for the Study of Lung Cancer (Spanish Radiation Oncology Society).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; González, J A; Couñago, F; Vallejo, C; Casas, F; de Dios, N Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a diversified illness in which postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for complete resection with positive hiliar (pN1) and/or mediastinal (pN2) lymph nodes is controversial. Although several studies have shown that PORT has beneficial effects, randomized trials are needed to demonstrate its impact on overall survival. In this review, the Spanish Radiation Oncology Group for Lung Cancer describes the most relevant literature on PORT in NSCLC patients stage pN1-2. In addition, we have outlined the current recommendations of different national and international clinical guidelines and have also specified practical issues regarding treatment volume definition, doses and fractionation. PMID:26280402

  2. Polyurethane dispersion containing quaternized ammonium groups: An efficient nanosize gene delivery carrier for A549 cancer cell line transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour Marzbali, Mahsa; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Movassaghpour, AliAkbar; Yeganeh, Hamid

    2016-01-25

    A novel polyurethane containing cationic ammonium groups (QPU) was synthesized and used as vector for gene therapy and cancer gene targeting. The synthesized QPU was characterized by Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods. An agarose gel retardation electrophoresis assay was conducted to verify the complete complex formation between QPU and pDNA. The particles size and zeta potential of neat polymers, plasmid DNA, polymers/DNA polyplexes were determined by the dynamic light scattering technique. The polyplexes cytotoxicity was determined using [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and its transfection efficiency was examined qualitatively by fluorescent microscopy and quantitatively by flow cytometery methods. The gel retardation assay, particle size and zeta potential measurements were confirmed that the synthesized cationic polymer could condense DNA efficiently in the physiologic condition. QPU polyplexes showed a significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to Polyfect polyplexes in the examined human cancerous (A549) or normal cells (KDR). Based on our findings, the transfection efficiency by QPU was 2.2 fold higher than Polyfect in the A549 cells whereas in the KDR cells, the cell transfection by Polyfect was 18.1 fold higher than QPU. Due to low cytotoxicity for normal cells and high transfection efficiency in cancer cells, the potential applicability of designed QPU as a non-viral gene carrier for targeting of cancer gene therapy was confirmed. PMID:26658031

  3. The Largest Known Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis from Thyroid Cancer Based on Prognostic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyun Choi

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients with a very rare occurrence of brain metastasis (BM from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.A total of 37 patients with DTC who were diagnosed with BM between 1995 and 2014 were included. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and image findings of BM. Factors associated with survival were evaluated, and the patients were divided into three prognostic groups (Groups A, B, and C for comparative analysis.The median age at BM was 63 years, and the median time from initial thyroid cancer diagnosis to BM was 3.8 years. The median survival and the 1-year actuarial survival rate after BM were 8.8 months and 47%, respectively. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, four good prognostic factors (GPFs were identified including age ≤ 60 years, PS ≤ ECOG 2, ≤ 3 BM sites, and without extracranial metastasis prior to BM. Three prognostic groups were designed based on age and number of remaining GPFs: patients ≤ 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group A had the most favorable prognosis with a median survival of 32.8 months; patients ≤ 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs and those > 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group B had an intermediate prognosis with a median survival of 9.4 months; and patients > 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs (Group C had the least favorable prognosis with a median survival of 1.5 months.The survival of patients with BM form DTC differed among the prognostic groups based on the total number of good prognostic factors.

  4. The Largest Known Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis from Thyroid Cancer Based on Prognostic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinhyun; Kim, Jun Won; Keum, Yo Sup; Lee, Ik Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients with a very rare occurrence of brain metastasis (BM) from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods and Materials A total of 37 patients with DTC who were diagnosed with BM between 1995 and 2014 were included. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and image findings of BM. Factors associated with survival were evaluated, and the patients were divided into three prognostic groups (Groups A, B, and C) for comparative analysis. Results The median age at BM was 63 years, and the median time from initial thyroid cancer diagnosis to BM was 3.8 years. The median survival and the 1-year actuarial survival rate after BM were 8.8 months and 47%, respectively. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, four good prognostic factors (GPFs) were identified including age ≤ 60 years, PS ≤ ECOG 2, ≤ 3 BM sites, and without extracranial metastasis prior to BM. Three prognostic groups were designed based on age and number of remaining GPFs: patients ≤ 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group A) had the most favorable prognosis with a median survival of 32.8 months; patients ≤ 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs and those > 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group B) had an intermediate prognosis with a median survival of 9.4 months; and patients > 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs (Group C) had the least favorable prognosis with a median survival of 1.5 months. Conclusions The survival of patients with BM form DTC differed among the prognostic groups based on the total number of good prognostic factors. PMID:27128487

  5. Research and development of the system for group examination of lung cancer by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the ultimate purpose of heavy particle therapy of lung cancer at an early stage, the system in the title with low dose radiation has been investigated by cooperation of NIRS (as a leading part) and medical/industrial facilities all over the country. The project started essentially in 1984 and has been continuing at 2003. This book described Results hitherto and Materials for application to medical care at disaster (Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster in 1995) together with reference materials. Results contain all fields of nuclear medicine and of imaging involved in examination/diagnosis of lung cancer, achieved by NIRS, by Health management center and Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University and Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association in Chiba, by the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Fac. Med., Chiba Univ., by Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, by Nippon Med. School, Arakawa-ku cancer protection center and Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences, by Hitachi health management center, by Fukui Med. College, by Hitachi Medical Corp., by NTT research laboratories, and by Toyohashi Univ. of Technology. The Materials involve Process and summary of conducting the medical care activities, Improvement of the examination automobile, Supplementary equipments and measures for legal problems, System for the medical care activities, Record of the examination automobile activities, Problems in future, and Completion of the medical activities. Reference materials are related with the Materials above. (N.I.)

  6. Cancer patients’ experiences with and perceived outcomes of yoga: results from focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van C.F.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Drossaert, C.H.C.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Buffart, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Yoga is a “mind–body” exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients’ motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and

  7. EORTC-GU group expert opinion on metastatic renal cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Reijke; J. Bellmunt; H. van Poppel; S. Marreaud; M. Aapro

    2009-01-01

    There is no consensus on the detailed surveillance of renal cell cancer (RCC) patients after radical resection of the kidney. Where relapse is unlikely, one reasonable option would be to confine investigations to chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound-carried out at 3-month intervals during the first

  8. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Stevens; J. Hansen; G. Costa; E. Haus; T. Kauppinen; K.J. Aronson; G. Castaño-Vinyals; S. Davis; M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; L. Fritschi; M. Kogevinas; K. Kogi; J.A. Lie; A. Lowden; B. Peplonska; B. Pesch; E. Pukkala; E. Schernhammer; R.C. Travis; R. Vermeulen; T. Zheng; V. Cogliano; K. Straif

    2011-01-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to

  9. A Phase I study of olaparib and irinotecan in patients with colorectal cancer: Canadian Cancer Trials Group IND 187.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric X; Jonker, Derek J; Siu, Lillian L; McKeever, Karyn; Keller, Deborah; Wells, Julie; Hagerman, Linda; Seymour, Lesley

    2016-08-01

    Background Olaparib is an orally available inhibitor of PARP-1. In pre-clinical studies, olaparib was shown to potentiate anti-tumor effects of irinotecan in colon cancer cell lines. This phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of olaparib in combination with irinotecan. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced colorectal cancer whose disease progressed after at least one systemic therapy regimen were enrolled. Dose escalation and de-escalation were based on toxicity assessment. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected in Cycle 1 for olaparib, irinotecan and SN-38. Results Twenty-five patients were enrolled, 11 patients on a schedule of continuous olaparib and irinotecan every 3 weeks (Part A) and 14 patients on a schedule of intermittent olaparib and irinotecan every 2 weeks (Part B). Continuous olaparib administration was associated with higher than expected toxicities and was not considered to be tolerable. Intermittent olaparib administration was better tolerated, and the recommended phase 2 doses were olaparib 50 mg p.o twice daily days 1-5 and irinotecan 125 mg/m(2) i.v. every 2 weeks. Common toxicities included fatigue, anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and abdominal pain. Nine patients had stable disease as the best response, 2 from Part A (3 and 9 months respectively), and 7 from Part B (median duration: 7.4 months; range: 4 to 13 months). There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between olaparib and irinotecan. Conclusions Olaparib can be combined with irinotecan if administered intermittently. Both olaparib and irinotecan required significant dose reductions. The lack of anti-tumor efficacy observed in this trial makes this combination of little interest for further clinical development. Trial Registration ID NCT00535353. PMID:27075016

  10. Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We fit phenomenological tumor control probability (TCP) models to biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer patients to quantify the local dose-response of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the outcome after photon beam 3D-CRT of 103 patients with stage T1c-T3 prostate cancer treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (prescribed target doses between 64.8 and 81 Gy) who had a prostate biopsy performed ≥2.5 years after end of treatment. A univariate logistic regression model based on Dmean (mean dose in the planning target volume of each patient) was fit to the whole data set and separately to subgroups characterized by low and high values of tumor-related prognostic factors T-stage (6), and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (≤10 ng/ml vs. >10 ng/ml). In addition, we evaluated five different classifications of the patients into three risk groups, based on all possible combinations of two or three prognostic factors, and fit bivariate logistic regression models with Dmean and the risk group category to all patients. Dose-response curves were characterized by TCD50, the dose to control 50% of the tumors, and γ50, the normalized slope of the dose-response curve at TCD50. Results: Dmean correlates significantly with biopsy outcome in all patient subgroups and larger values of TCD50 are observed for patients with unfavorable compared to favorable prognostic factors. For example, TCD50 for high T-stage patients is 7 Gy higher than for low T-stage patients. For all evaluated risk group definitions, Dmean and the risk group category are independent predictors of biopsy outcome in bivariate analysis. The fit values of TCD50 show a clear separation of 9-10.6 Gy between low and high risk patients. The corresponding dose-response curves are steeper (γ50=3.4-5.2) than those obtained when all patients are analyzed together (γ50=2.9). Conclusions: Dose

  11. Development of renewable energetics needs knowledge, skills and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    develop tight co-operation with all the interested institutions and people. We hope that for th

  12. The SSAC (State System of Accounting and Control) of Argentina: possible areas to increase co-operation with ABACC and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with one of the measures identified in the program 93+2 to enhance international safeguards effectiveness and efficiency. This measure is related to increase co-operation between the IAEA and the SSAC in the implementation of safeguards. It is recognized that an effective SSAC could contribute to better safeguards. During the discussion to strengthen the safeguards system different levels of co-operation between the IAEA and SSAC were identified, depending on their features and capabilities. To start assessing the possibility of increasing this co-operation, a 'SSAC Questionnaire' was submitted by the IAEA to Member States, EURATOM and ABACC. At present, those questionnaires are being assessed by the IAEA in order to identify areas for further co-operation. One important aspect is the increased co-operation level that might be achieved when the Additional Protocol becomes an integral part of the safeguard agreements. Another one refers to the methodology that IAEA might employ to audit the quality and performance of the SSAC regarding the different levels of such co-operation. This paper will also describe the features of the SSAC of Argentina emphasizing its capabilities and the various areas that might be considered to increase further co-operation with ABACC and the IAEA. (author)

  13. Improvement of the technical co-operation system through the IAEA advisory committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates seventeen(17) Standing Advisory Groups (SAG) and nine(9) International Working Groups (IWG). Korean experts are currently participating in most of these advisory groups, but there is something yet to improve especially in faithfull reflection of Korean nuclear policy as well as a systematic and effective utilization of technical information received in the committee meetings. Therefore, it is necessary firstly to analyze results and systematic follow-up of technology developments for each IAEA committee group to solidate activities of Korean members. Based on these analyses, we can hence support adminstratively Korean members to do faithfull reflection of Korean nuclear policy. In addition, a scheme for systematic management of the information should be drawn up for use of these information effectively for nuclear power projects, R and D, safety regulation, and establishment of nuclear policy in Korea

  14. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting:Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary...... care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods: Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results: Three main categories of experience were identified: 1) The health professionals' management, where a...... need to optimize was found. 2) Shared care, which was lacking. 3) The relatives' role, which needs an extra focus. Conclusion: Relatives experience insufficient palliative care mainly due to organizational and cultural problems among professionals. Palliative care in primary care in general needs...

  15. The Adherence to Physical Exercise in a Group of Prostate Cancer: an Integrated Model to Improve the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat-Carles Serdà i Ferrer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a model of adherence integrated into an exercise program in men with prostate cancer to get the autonomous practice at home. The study design is qualitative following Grounded Theory principles. The sample of 33 participants and it has been built through an intensive sampling by theoretical representativeness. The analytical procedure corresponds to the Method of Constants Comparisons. The design of simple and flexible program with a modular structure allows the user to adapt the exercise to his health, his symptoms resulting from the disease and his everyday life situation. The figure of professional trainer is essential in the process of achieving the autonomy. Working adherence as a process empowers the participant to maintain the autonomous activity at home. The adherence model integrated to a group exercise program is effective for improving the quality of life of older people affected by prostate cancer.

  16. Protocol and Recruitment Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Group Phone-Based versus Newsletter Interventions for Weight Loss Maintenance among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Befort, Christie A; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G; Sullivan, Debra K.; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Diaz, Francisco J.; Shireman, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than indivi...

  17. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  18. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted

  19. The sense of well-being in a group of patients with gastro-intestinal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Christina

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to describe patients with gastro-intestinal cancer and their general health and well-being during different stages of the disease. Questionnaires concerning coping ability, general health, well-being and the frequencies and occurrences of symptoms were used to collect data about the patient's pre- and post-surgical situation. Two of these questionnaires, the Health Index (Hl) and the General Health Rating Index (GHRI), were addressed to a ...

  20. Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By Act No. 3258 of 11 February 1986 the Turkish National Assembly approved ratification of the Agreement of 18 June 1985 between the Government of Turkey and the Government of Canada for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The Agreement covers nuclear co-operation in industry agriculture, electricity generation, etc, and provides the legal framework for such co-operation. It lays down the general provisions for transfer of nuclear facilities, materials and technology between the two Parties and specifies the areas concerned. The Agreement provides that all the activities within its scope shall be carried out for exclusively peaceful purposes. (NEA)