WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer co-operative group

  1. Co-operative groups in their environments : a population-ecological model for co-operative membership and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lasowski, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an alternative evolutionary approach to assessing the performance of co-operative organizations. The focus of investigation is turned to the co-operative organization as a group of members in a market environment containing non-members. Significant unique features of the co-operative organization is illustrated at first. After reviewing historical aspects of evolution theories and their positioning in biology, economic and social sciences, alternative notion...

  2. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig MaClean

    Full Text Available Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves", this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  3. An analysis of educators' views on their effectiveness to use group work as a co-operative learning strategy / Mary M. Seshabela

    OpenAIRE

    Seshabela, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to analyse educator's views on their effectiveness in using group work as a co-operative learning strategy. Specifically the study aims to: To determine through literature the nature of group work as a co-operative learning strategy. To find out views of educators in their effectiveness of using group work as a teaching strategy. The investigation involved 208 educators from middle and secondary schools in Themba District. Close and open ended que...

  4. How to create more supportive supervision for primary healthcare: lessons from Ngamiland district of Botswana: co-operative inquiry group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supportive supervision is a way to foster performance, productivity, motivation, and retention of health workforce. Nevertheless there is a dearth of evidence of the impact and acceptability of supportive supervision in low- and middle-income countries. This article describes a participatory process of transforming the supervisory practice of district health managers to create a supportive environment for primary healthcare workers. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore how district health managers can change their practice to create a more supportive environment for primary healthcare providers. Design: A facilitated co-operative inquiry group (CIG was formed with Ngamiland health district managers. CIG belongs to the participatory action research paradigm and is characterised by a cyclic process of observation, reflection, planning, and action. The CIG went through three cycles between March 2013 and March 2014. Results: Twelve district health managers participated in the inquiry group. The major insights and learning that emerged from the inquiry process included inadequate supervisory practice, perceptions of healthcare workers’ experiences, change in the managers’ supervision paradigm, recognition of the supervisors’ inadequate supervisory skills, and barriers to supportive supervision. Finally, the group developed a 10-point consensus on what they had learnt regarding supportive supervision. Conclusion: Ngamiland health district managers have come to appreciate the value of supportive supervision and changed their management style to be more supportive of their subordinates. They also developed a consensus on supportive supervision that could be adapted for use nationally. Supportive supervision should be prioritised at all levels of the health system, and it should be adequately resourced.

  5. ON THE PRO-METASTATIC STRESS RESPONSE TO CANCER THERAPIES: EVIDENCE FOR A POSITIVE CO-OPERATION BETWEEN TIMP-1, HIF-1α, AND miR-210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haissi eCui

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to expectations in the past that tumor starvation or unselective inhibition of proteolytic activity would cure cancer, there is accumulating evidence that microenvironmental stress, such as hypoxia or broad spectrum inhibition of metalloproteinases can promote metastasis. In fact, malignant tumor cells, due to their genetic and epigenetic instability, are predisposed to react to stress by adaptation and, if the stress persists, by escape and formation of metastasis. Recent recognition of the concepts of dynamic evolution as well as population and systems biology is extremely helpful to understand the disappointments of clinical trials with new drugs and may lead to paradigm-shifts in therapy strategies. This must be complemented by an increased understanding of molecular mechanism involved in stress response. Here, we review new roles of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1, one transcription factor regulating stress response-related gene expression: HIF-1 is crucial for invasion and metastasis, independent from its pro-survival function. In addition, HIF-1 mediates pro-metastatic microenvironmental changes of the proteolytic balance as triggered by high systemic levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1, typical for many aggressive cancers, and regulates the metabolic switch to glycolysis, notably via activation of the microRNA miR-210. There is preliminary evidence that TIMP-1 also induces miR-210. Such positive-regulatory co-operation of HIF-1α, miR-210, and TIMP-1, all described to correlate with bad prognosis of cancer patients, opens new perspectives of gaining insight into molecular mechanisms of metastasis-inducing evasion of tumor cells from stress.

  6. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    , and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal......-term survivals since it started in 2001 for both patients with colon and rectal cancers.......AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed...

  7. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  8. The effect of social group size on feather corticosterone in the co-operatively breeding Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani): An assay validation and analysis of extreme social living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Joshua K.; Muir, Cameron; Hurd, Conner S.; Hing, Jing S.; Quinn, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Living closely with others can provide a myriad of fitness benefits, from shared territory defense to co-operative resource acquisition. Costs of social aggregation are not absent, however, and likely influence optimal and observed groups’ sizes in a social species. Here, we explored optimal group size in a joint-nesting cuckoo species (the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani) using endocrine markers of stress physiology (corticosterone, or CORT). Smooth-billed Anis exhibit intense reproductive competition that is exacerbated in atypically large groups. We therefore hypothesized that intra-group competition (measured by social group size) mediates the desirability and physiological cost of social group membership in this species. To test this hypothesis, we captured 47 adult Smooth-billed Anis (31 males, 16 females) during the breeding seasons of 2012-2014 in south-western Puerto Rico, and documented social group sizes. Tail feathers were sampled and used to quantify CORT (pg/mg) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (n = 50). Our analyses show significant differences in feather-CORT of adults between categorical group sizes, with individuals from atypically large social groups (≥ x + 1SD) having highest mean concentrations (33.319 pg/mg), and individuals from atypically small social groups (≤ x − 1SD) having lowest mean concentrations (8.969 pg/mg). Whether reproductive competition or effort is responsible for elevated CORT in atypically large social groups, however, remains unclear. Our results suggest that living in atypically large groups is physiologically expensive and may represent an evolutionarily unstable strategy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore a correlation between stress physiology and group size in a joint-nesting species. PMID:28355280

  9. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  10. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeholm P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peter Ingeholm,1,2 Ismail Gögenur,1,3 Lene H Iversen1,4 1Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database, Copenhagen, 2Department of Pathology, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, 3Department of Surgery, Roskilde University Hospital, Roskilde, 4Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables: The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion: The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period

  11. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing......This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... the conditions necessary for normative control. This is illustrated by a case study of control in a Danish producers co-operative. The analysis of the case study leads to the hypothesis of a paradox of normative control in co-operatives: The need of information tends to be greater in co-operatives comparet...

  12. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  13. The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel

    New regional organisations are always interesting to follow as they will tell us more about the things that make or break this type of co-operation. Originally established as “The Shanghai Five” in 1996, The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) has been successful at reducing tension between ...

  14. International co-operation in astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, Marcel Gilles Jozef

    1955-01-01

    Scientific co-operation between the nations is found already in Antiquity and the Middle Ages and has proved a strong stimulus to the development of astronomy. Different forms of modern international co-operation in astronomy may be distinguished: (1) co-ordinated observations at widely separated st

  15. Making Co-Operative Ideas Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…

  16. List of co-operating Herbaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1949-01-01

    As was pointed out in the first instalment, the management of Flora Malesiana acknowledge collaborating and co-operating institutions; for this purpose a distinction was made between collaborators and co-operators. The former take an active part in the composition of the work (by revising certain fa

  17. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  18. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  19. Signal co-operation between integrins and other receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Charles H; Akhtar, Nasreen

    2009-03-15

    The multicellular nature of metazoans means that all cellular processes need to be tuned by adhesive interactions between cells and their local microenvironment. The spatial organization of cells within tissues requires sophisticated networks of extracellular signals to control their survival and proliferation, movements and positioning, and differentiated function. These cellular characteristics are mediated by multiple inputs from adhesion systems in combination with soluble and developmental signals. In the present review we explore how one class of adhesion receptor, the integrins, co-operate with other types of receptor to control diverse aspects of cell fate. In particular we discuss: (i) how beta3 and beta1 integrins work together with growth factors to control angiogenesis; (ii) how alpha6beta4 integrin co-operates with receptor tyrosine kinases in normal epithelial function and cancer; (iii) the interplay between beta1 integrins and EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor; (iv) signal integration connecting integrins and cytokine receptors for interleukins, prolactin and interferons; and (v) how integrins and syndecans co-operate in cell migration.

  20. “Co-operative identity†: A theoretical concept for economic analysis of practical co-operation dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Gabor G.

    2007-01-01

    Farmers’ problems and co-ordination of agricultural activities cannot be solved simply by EU and/or government support, or by private market co-ordination institutions. Emerging producer groups and co-operatives seem vital in achieving bargaining power. Theoretically, and according to Western European (Dutch, Danish etc.) and US practical experience, one of the major important private institutions that can strengthen producers and help co-ordinate (agricultural) chains is the co-operative e...

  1. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  2. Comparative study on membership legislation in Canadian and Chinese agricultural co-operative laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhihong; GUO Xiangyu

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, groups of people desiring to supply themselves with goods, to market their products, or to obtain services of various kinds on a co-operative basis, have made increasing use of co-operative associations to achieve these purposes. During the period, legislation designed especially for the incorporation and conduct of such associations has been enacted by different counties.Since a co-operative is established and carried on by and for the use of its members, this essay makes a comparison between Canadian and Chinese co-operative laws in terms of membership in the aspects of qualifications, rights and obligations and withdrawal of membership, so as to probe the function of co-operative legislation and find some enlightment from it.

  3. Transnational Research Co-operation: Opportunities and Challenges for transnational research co-operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    participated this workpackage. The objectives of this workpackage relates to the facilitation of transnational research co-operation among Science Shops and development of concepts and procedures for co-operation between the International Science Shop Network Living Knowledge’s members, on community based...... for transnational co-operation like: an investigation/project concerning the driving forces behind urban development,or a co-operation in the field of wastewater reuse and minimization of wastewater loads and discharge, or a service page (internet) to search for potential partners. The governmental institutions...... of pollution • Dioxin leakage from incinerators • Nuclear power • Transport • Energy and climate • GMO • Environmental conditions in communities • Cleaner production • Environmental impact of human activities • Common international Science Shop database • Comparative studies of Science Shop projects...

  4. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  5. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, M.; Kempel, M.M.; During, M.;

    2008-01-01

    of follow-up, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival was 69% among 3 758 patients who received the recommended treatment. Within the first 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences of loco-regional recurrences, distant metastases or other malignant disease, or death as a first event were 9.......0, 19.9, and 6.0% respectively, when analysed in a competing risk setting. The risk of loco-regional recurrences was significantly decreased in patients aged 50 years or more and increased with increasing tumour size. There was a pronounced beneficial effect of adjuvant radiotherapy with those...... not receiving radiotherapy having a hazard ratio of 3.52 (95% CI 2.21-5.61). The effect of resection margins was significant for loco-regional recurrences only in node negative patients. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study shows that results similar to those from randomised clinical trials can...

  6. Internet cancer support groups: a feminist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2005-01-01

    Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) are an emerging form of support group on Internet specifically for cancer patients. Previous studies have indicated the effectiveness of ICSGs as a research setting or a data-collection method. Yet recent studies have also indicated that ICSGs tend to serve highly educated, high-income White males who tend to be at an early stage of cancer. In this article, a total of 317 general ICSGs and 229 ethnic-specific ICSGs searched through Google.com, Yahoo.com, Msn.com, AOL.com, and ACOR.org are analyzed from a feminist perspective. The written records of group discussions and written memos by the research staff members were also analyzed using content analysis. The idea categories that emerged about these groups include (a) authenticity issues; (b) ethnicity and gender issues; (c) intersubjectivity issues; and (d) potential ethical issues. The findings suggest that (a) researchers adopt multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet sites and/or real settings; (b) researchers raise their own awareness of the potential influences of the health-related resources provided by ICSGs and regularly update their knowledge related to the federal and state standards and/or policies related to ICSGs; and (c) researchers consider adopting a quota-sampling method.

  7. Sixteen Years of International Co-operation. The OECD/NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, S.; Valencia, L.

    2002-02-25

    The Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning under the administration of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has recently completed sixteen years of operation. The Programme, which is essentially an information exchange programme between decommissioning projects, came into being in 1985. It has grown from an initial 10 decommissioning projects from 7 countries to 39 projects from 14 countries today. From purely information exchange to start with, the Programme has, in later years, been functioning as a voice for the collective expression of views of the implementers of nuclear decommissioning. During the first sixteen years of the operation of the Co-operative Programme, nuclear decommissioning has grown from local specialist activities within projects to a competitive commercial industry. By the dismantling and release from regulatory control of over a dozen diverse nuclear facilities, the Programme has been able to demonstrate in practice, that nuclear decommissioning can be performed safely both for the workers and the public, and that this can be done at reasonable costs in an environmentally friendly fashion. During the recent years, discussions and work within the Co-operative Programme, specially within some of the Task Groups, have had/are having effects and repercussions not just in the field of nuclear decommissioning, but can possibly affect activities and regulations in other industries. This paper describes how the Programme and its activities and procedures have evolved over the years and indicate the directions of developments in the organization and execution of decommissioning projects. Finally, it gives a brief overview of the achievements of the Cooperative Programme and visualizes future developments in the field of nuclear decommissioning.

  8. Romanian-Danish Environmental Co-operation. Co-operation development 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy has, since 1991, through the Danish Environmental Support Fund, contributed towards protecting the environment and nature in Central and Eastern European countries and has helped to limit regional as well as global pollution. The Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection and the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy initiated the co-operation in 1993 and an official Agreement was signed in 1994. This publication describes the co-operation between the two countries in the field of the environment in the hope that this will give both the general public of Romania and the international community a better understanding of the work being accomplished. It also gives an overview of the 19 projects developed within this framework, which has a total Danish grant of DKK 77.9 million. (au)

  9. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  10. Improving livestock production through co-operative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Umaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the positive role livestock Co-operatives can play in enhancing animal production. Livestock Co-operative Societies such as those for Artificial insemination, Dairy, Beef and Poultry production have been discussed. The paper also dwells on the benefits derivable from such organisations. The practice of Co-operative Societies in livestock production has been applied by different countries in different livestock sub-sectors. This paper concludes that establishing such Co-operatives will significantly improve livestock production in Nigeria.

  11. Strategic Stakeholder Communication and Co-operation in Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of the first major Danish environmental protection law in 1974, environmental regulation has been instrumental in pushing industry towards adopting environmentally less harmful behaviour. However, since the early 1990s, pressure from a growing number of other stakehold......Ever since the introduction of the first major Danish environmental protection law in 1974, environmental regulation has been instrumental in pushing industry towards adopting environmentally less harmful behaviour. However, since the early 1990s, pressure from a growing number of other...... in this process is strategic stakeholder relationships like communication and co-operation. The paper addresses this topic based on a proposed approach for identifying and evaluating the influence from various groups of stakeholders as well as the findings from recent surveys of environmental management...

  12. New Zealand signs up to co-operate with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    On 4 December 2003 a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN and the government of New Zealand was signed in the presence of Peter Hamilton, New Zealand's ambassador to Switzerland. This MoU concerns the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy particle physics between Ernest Rutherford's birthplace and CERN, which now hosts one of the world's most ambitious scientific endeavours, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).    In anticipation of the MoU, two New Zealand universities (the University of Auckland and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch) have already joined the CMS collaboration to work on pixel detectors, where they can benefit from the expertise of the pixel group at the Paul Scherrer Institute. These detectors are not only valuable in high-energy particle physics, but also serve medical applications.

  13. Using Peer Teaching to Support Co-Operative Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaz, Iris; Moni, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from the second phase of a study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students (n = 285) enrolled in the 2006 Bachelor of Science degree program completed a group-based assessment task (weighted 10% of their course). Blended teaching…

  14. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  15. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  16. Success parameters for housing co-operatives in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimoh Richard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The roles of the various governments have been the driving force of the housing co-operatives in those countries due to the tremendous support received. The implication is that the housing co-operatives in any country cannot do it alone without the support of government in areas such as having legislation and policies, providing support services and embarking on regular education and training. The need to explore the housing co-operatives in South Africa with a view to determine the successes recorded over the years becomes imperative in order to advance strategies that will ensure virile and sustainable housing co-operatives. Results revealed that a lack of understanding exists as a result of inadequate information among government officials responsible for housing delivery and the public in the application of co-operative housing as a delivery approach. Also, inadequate training of co-operative members in leadership positions lead to a lack of administrative and management capabilities in the processes and operations of housing co-operatives. A pragmatic approach should be adopted so that legislation and policies that are beneficial to the housing co-operatives be enacted.

  17. Co-operative learning and adaptive instruction in a mathematics curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, J.; Herfs, P.G.P.; Mertens, E.H.M.; Perrenet, J.Chr.

    1994-01-01

    The AGO 12 to 16 Project (the acronym AGO stands for the Dutch equivalent of 'Adaptive Instruction and Co-operative Learning') seeks to develop and evaluate a mathematics curriculum which is suitable for mixed-ability groups in secondary education. The research questions we will address here are, fi

  18. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  19. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  20. New co-operation agreement between CERN and JINR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer (left) and JINR Director Alexei Sissakian (right). On Thursday 28 January, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and JINR Director Alexei Sissakian signed a new enlarged co-operation agreement to continue and enhance the scientific and technical co-operation of the two institutes in the field of high-energy physics. CERN and JINR have a long and successful history of collaboration extending back to the earliest days of their existence. The first informal meeting on international co-operation in the field of high-energy accelerators took place at CERN in 1959. It was attended by senior scientists from the United States, the USSR (including JINR) and CERN. Both JINR and CERN have played the role of a bridge between East and West for decades, contributing to the development of international scientific co-operation. In 1992 JINR signed a co-operation agreement with CERN that included an important number of protocols covering JINR’s participation in the construction of th...

  1. China and CERN renew their Co-operation Agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Liu Yanhua, Chinese Vice Minister of Science and Technology, and Dr. Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, sign a new Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and CERN. During his visit to CERN on 17 February, Liu Yanhua, Vice Minister of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, signed a new Co-operation Agreement with the Laboratory. The Agreement, which is valid for a period of five years and renewable, lays down the framework for the development of scientific and technological co-operation between CERN and China. This includes China's participation, as a non-Member State, in CERN's research projects as well as its main programmes. Robert Aymar and Liu Yanhua underlined that this Agreement will provide an excellent framework for close co-operation on the LHC Programme and Grid and accelerator technologies. Scientific co-operation between China and CERN is nothing new, as Chinese physicists already took part in the LEP experiments. Today, CERN's C...

  2. Educación sin Fronteras: Proyecto Internacional de Cooperación Académica entre las Escuelas de Enfermería del Grupo Tordesillas Education without frontiers: An international co-operation Project between Schools of Nursing belonging to the Tordesillas Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gerbassi Costa Aguiar

    2007-09-01

    University of Navarra, Spain and Escuela Universitaria de Enfermería (University of Valladolid, Spain. Expositions of every experience have been used as methodology, taking into account the related current guidelines of participating countries. Preliminary results point at possiblity of educational and nursing research innovations, to give rise to knowledge for international nursing actions and build a co-operation net between institutions.We conclude that differences between the Tordesillas Group countries, instead of obstacles to science development, are a great oportunity to prepare profesional nurses tunning the needs of the world running these days.

  3. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  4. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  5. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations.

  6. Cyberethics and co-operation in the information society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Christian; Bichler, Robert M; Raffl, Celina

    2009-12-01

    The task of this paper is to ground the notion of cyberethics of co-operation. The evolution of modern society has resulted in a shift from industrial society towards informational capitalism. This transformation is a multidimensional shift that affects all aspects of society. Hence also the ethical system of society is penetrated by the emergence of the knowledge society and ethical guidelines for the information age are needed. Ethical issues and conflicts in the knowledge society are connected to topics of ecological and social sustainability. For information ethics and cyberethics, the sustainable design of society, social, and socio-technological systems is important. In this context the notions of sustainability and co-operation are discussed. Based on these categories, the approach of cyberethics of co-operation can be theoretically grounded.

  7. Significant association between ABO blood group and pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia; B; Greer; Mark; H; Yazer; Jay; S; Raval; M; Michael; Barmada; Randall; E; Brand; David; C; Whitcomb

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether the ABO blood group is related to pancreatic cancer risk in the general population of the United States.METHODS:Using the University of Pittsburgh's clinicalpancreatic cancer registry,the blood donor database from our local blood bank (Central Blood Bank),and the blood product recipient database from the regional transfusion service (Centralized Transfusion Service) in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,we identified 274 pancreatic cancer patients with previously determined serological ABO bloo...

  8. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems.

  9. Civil-military relations and co-operation in Kosovo 1999 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Co-operation between civil society actors and military personnel is increasingly common in humanitarian missions since the early 1990s. However the interaction has led to varying degrees of friction between both groups, at times lessening the coordination and efficiency of the civil-military relationship. Existing theories of civilmilitary relations are largely based upon the relationship between the military and their civilian government, and have not been tested within the relationships exp...

  10. International technical co-operation for a safer world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez Ocon, C. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria)

    1982-01-01

    Among the various technologies available today, those related to energy and energy production are of paramount importance since, without energy, all programmes and models for development, regardless of their scope or soundness, represent only exercises in wishful thinking. Efforts to promote international technical co-operation in the field of energy seldom make headlines in the world. Typically, such co-operation - in which the provision of assistance plays a fundamental role - proceeds slowly, and its results only become manifest many years later. It is, however, an indispensable part of the global effort to narrow the technological gap. For the International Atomic Energy Agency, the furtherance of technical co-operation in the nuclear field is a primary objective, and this role is clearly defined in the organization's statute. The Agency contributes to the transfer of nuclear technology in many ways. It plays the important role of an intermediary between Member States in the transfer of experience, information, materials and equipment. The Agency's activity in the fields of technical co-operation and technical assistance is described in this article.

  11. Military co-operation with South Caucasus countries / Rafal Seniuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seniuch, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Poola ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia vabariikide vahelisest sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  12. Aid Distribution and Co-operation in Unequal Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exelle, D' B.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the influence of economic inequality on co-operation and aid distribution in community-based development schemes. For this, we organized a field experiment in which community members contributed to a collective effort to attract aid. We find that devolving aid distribution to community repr

  13. Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilskog, Elisabeth E-mail: elisabeth.ilskog@af.se; Kjellstroem, B. E-mail: bjorn@kjellstrom.se; Gullberg, Monica E-mail: monica.gullberg@af.se; Katyega, Maneno E-mail: mkatyega@tanesco.co.tz; Chambala, William E-mail: uecco@bushlink.co.tz

    2005-07-01

    One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments.

  14. Impact of Co-Operative Learning Strategies in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study illuminates the effectiveness of Co-operative Learning Strategies in learning English Grammar for the learners at secondary level. Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning as a second language. It promotes peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts with content.…

  15. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.

  16. Vinorelbine as first-line or second-line therapy for advanced breast cancer: a Phase I-II trial by the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjer, S.T.; Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, H.;

    2008-01-01

    ) had a partial response and 16 additional patients had stable disease. 27% had stable disease (clinical benefit rate 38%, 95% CI 27 to 51). The median overall survival was 45 weeks and 39% of the patients were alive after one year. DISCUSSION: The clinical benefit rate was 38% with an overall intention...

  17. Wound care in primary health care: district nurses' needs for co-operation and well-functioning organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Anne; Klang, Birgitta; Ebbeskog, Britt

    2010-01-01

    Most patients with leg- and foot ulcers are managed within non-institutional care. The aim of this study was to investigate the district nurses' wound management, including wound appearance, assignment of responsibility, guidelines for wound treatment and co-operation with other professional groups. The study has a descriptive quantitative approach. Data was collected using a wound registration form and a questionnaire. The selection of participants was made by random sampling. District nurses (n = 26) in five health-care centers situated in central Stockholm and two of its suburbs, participated in the study. The results show that the wound appearance is dominated by traumatic wounds. Approximately 40% of the wounds were not medically diagnosed. The area of responsibility of different professional groups was not defined and guidelines for wound treatment were mostly lacking. The decision about wound management was generally made by the district nurse. Co-operation with the general practitioner was lacking and when a consultation with dermatologist was required, the routines concerning referral were undefined. Co-operation with the assistant nurses consisted of redressing the wounds in home care. Interprofessional co-operation was regarded as important for wound healing. The paper provides insights into the district nurses' wound management and co-operation in wound care.

  18. The database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid Christine; Søgaard, Mette; Mehnert, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE DATABASE: The main purpose of the database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DaRenCaData) is to improve the quality of renal cancer treatment in Denmark and secondarily to conduct observational research. STUDY POPULATION: DaRenCaData includes all Danish patients with a first......-time diagnosis of renal cancer in the Danish National Pathology Registry since August 1, 2010. MAIN VARIABLES: DaRenCaData holds data on demographic characteristics, treatments, and pathology collected through linkage to central registries and online registration of a few clinical key variables. Eight quality...... indicators have been selected for monitoring treatment quality and outcome after renal cancer. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The incidence of renal cancer in Denmark has increased from 12.7 per 100,000 population-years in 2010-2011 to 15.9 per 100,000 population-years in 2014-2015. A total of 3,977 Danish patients...

  19. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  20. Job Opening for Medical Officer in DCP’s Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG), Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), National Cancer Institute (NCI), has an opening for an experienced Medical Officer. BGCRG focuses on fostering the development and conduct of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. Learn more about BGCRG. |

  1. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  2. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  3. Healthcare technology co-operatives: Innovative about innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Nicola M; Tindale, Wendy B

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction to the National Institute for Health Research Devices for Dignity Healthcare Technology Co-operative. Embedded within the NHS, Devices for Dignity identifies areas of unmet clinical need and translates these into research and development projects to develop new medical technologies. It addresses the needs of people living with long-term conditions, helping them to live more dignified and independent lives. Through partnerships with patients, universities, the NHS and industry, Devices for Dignity has developed an innovation methodology for successful medical technology innovation.

  4. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...

  5. Colorectal cancer screening brochure for Latinos: focus group evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Julia L; Efuni, Elizaveta; Villagra, Cristina; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be effectively prevented via screening colonoscopy, yet adherence rates remain low among Latinos. Interventions targeting individual and cultural barriers to screening are needed. We developed an educational brochure to target these barriers faced by a diverse Latino population. The objective was to evaluate the responses of the target population to the culturally and theoretically informed brochure through community member focus groups. Facilitators conducted six focus groups, stratified by gender, language, and prior colonoscopy experience. Topics included: brochure content and layout, cancer knowledge, and CRC screening determinants. Focus groups documented community members' responses to the brochure's overall message and its informational and visual components. Changes to wording, visual aids, and content were suggested to make the brochure culturally more acceptable. Results indicated relevance of the theoretically and culturally guided approach to the development of the brochure leading to refinement of its content and design.

  6. Rhadinovirus host entry by co-operative infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lawler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhadinoviruses establish chronic infections of clinical and economic importance. Several show respiratory transmission and cause lung pathologies. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 to understand how rhadinovirus lung infection might work. A primary epithelial or B cell infection often is assumed. MuHV-4 targeted instead alveolar macrophages, and their depletion reduced markedly host entry. While host entry was efficient, alveolar macrophages lacked heparan - an important rhadinovirus binding target - and were infected poorly ex vivo. In situ analysis revealed that virions bound initially not to macrophages but to heparan⁺ type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs. Although epithelial cell lines endocytose MuHV-4 readily in vitro, AECs did not. Rather bound virions were acquired by macrophages; epithelial infection occurred only later. Thus, host entry was co-operative - virion binding to epithelial cells licensed macrophage infection, and this in turn licensed AEC infection. An antibody block of epithelial cell binding failed to block host entry: opsonization provided merely another route to macrophages. By contrast an antibody block of membrane fusion was effective. Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding.

  7. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of endometrial cancer in members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG. The GCIG is a global association of cooperative groups involved in the research...... and treatment of gynecologic neoplasms. RESULTS: Thirty-four surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of endometrial cancer after hysterectomy, mean (SD) pelvic dose was 47.37 (2.32) Gy. The upper border of the pelvic field was L4/5 in 14 respondents, L5/S1 in 13 respondents...

  8. The Architecture of Co-operation: A Project for organizing collective creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Architecture of Co-operation investigates the relationship between the collective subject and urban form through co-operation as means of production. The point is how individuals can organize co-operation today for the city as a project and what could be the role of architects into this process.

  9. -SH groups and glutathione in cancer patient's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Rovere, F; Granata, A; Saija, A; Broccio, M; Tomaino, A; Zirilli, A; De Caridi, G; Broccio, G

    2000-01-01

    As reported in previous investigations, erythrocytes are the elements of peripheral blood most affected by free radical activity in the pathogenesis of cancer. In these studies, the level of sulphydrilic groups and reduced glutathione were assayed in the erythrocytes and plasma, while their successful scavenger activity against cell membrane oxidation and peroxidation has already been established. In subjects with cancer, the levels of -SH groups (p < 0.002) and reduced glutathione in both plasma and erythrocytes (p < 0.0001) were shown be a statistically significantly decreased compared to healthy controls. These differences were related to the defence of the hematic tissue against free radical activity. A similar pattern has also been reported when studying vitamin A and E content in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. The role of oxido-reduction phenomena in this disease is discussed, as well as the importance of reducing the oxido-peroxidation involvement of tissues and cell elements. The study of the GSH/GSSG ratio in order to determine the stage of the disease would be useful and might represent a systemic marker for cancerous lesions.

  10. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  11. Co-operating for gold open access without APCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Eve

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While article processing charges (APCs are emerging as a key way in which existing publishers can adapt to gold open access (OA, this mode is problematic in many ways. Considering the existing subscription publication ecosystem as a risk/cost-pooling mechanism leads to the conclusion that APCs are a concentration of risk that may come with damaging institutional consequences, particularly in the humanities disciplines. Consortial and co-operative modes of funding gold OA, however, do not come with these drawbacks but are susceptible to ‘free riders’. In this article, the theoretical backdrop to these models is addressed and the range of current offerings evaluated. Noting that classical economic incentives do not seem to operate in a world of inter-library loans, the article ends with a description of the model that is being implemented for the 'Open Library of Humanities' initiative, funded by the Andrew W Mellon Foundation.

  12. Protocol to co-operation agreement with Iran

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A Co-operation Agreement between CERN and Iran will be signed in the coming weeks within the framework of the decisions taken by the Committee of Council and Council in June 1989. In view of implementing this Agreement, a Protocol between CERN and the International Scientific Meetings Office of the Ministry of Science of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been drawn up. It concerns the participation of scientific Institutions of Iran in the CMS Collaboration where CERN is acting on behalf of this Collaboration. This Protocol incorporates the agreement between CMS and ISMO on the Iranese contribution. It does not involve any financial commitment for CERN. The Protocol mainly addresses the status of the Iranese scientists at CERN, the supply by ISMO of the support tables for CMS, as well as the usual provisions concerning delivery and customs, guarantees, responsibilities, intellectual property and disputes. This Protocol is submitted to the Finance Committee for information.

  13. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  14. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders’ targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates. PMID:23160813

  15. Military Training and Education: an Opportunity for V4 Co-Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan ŠUPLATA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visegrad Group needs success stories if its defence co-operation is to develop. The recent differences between Poland and the rest of the region, as well as the closing window of opportunity to improve interoperability through the ISAF mission, make the hunger for concrete examples of co-operation even more urgent. Education and training projects are not only comparatively easily to implement in terms of time and money, but also represent a way of bringing the region’s civilian and military leaders closer together in terms of strategic thinking. Regional defence collaboration is also one of the ways to materialize NATO’s Smart Defence agenda. For the whole region, the way to keep Visegrad defence cooperation alive is not straightforward and certain, but it is likely to prove rewarding in the long term. It presents not only a chance to keep the whole region better prepared militarily, but also to build a more cohesive strategic awareness, thanks to intensive communication at all levels.

  16. Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation Through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    New technologies will be critical in addressing current global energy challenges such as energy security. More must be done, however, to push forward the development and deployment of the technologies we need today and will need in the future. Government leaders have repeatedly underlined the crucial role of industry and businesses in advancing energy technologies and the importance of strong collaboration among all stakeholders to accelerate technology advances. To attain these goals, increased co-operation between industries, businesses and government energy technology research is indispensable. The public and private sectors must work together, share burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. The 42 multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements) supported by the IEA are a flexible and effective framework for IEA member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to research breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants, to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes -- in short to encourage technology-related activities that support energy security, economic growth and environmental protection. This publication highlights the significant accomplishments of the IEA Implementing Agreements.

  17. Maternal-fetal resource allocation: co-operation and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Moore, T

    2012-11-01

    Pregnancy is generally a co-operative interaction between mother and fetus in which the evolutionary genetic interests of both benefit from production of healthy offspring. While this view is largely supported by empirical data, Kinship Theory predicts that mother and fetus will disagree over the optimum level of maternal investment that maximises their respective fitnesses. This conflict will be more evident with polyandrous than monogamous mating systems, when resources are scarce and in late gestation when the fetus is growing maximally, particularly if conceptus mass is large relative to maternal mass. As the site of nutrient transfer, the placenta is pivotal in the tug-of-war between mother and fetus over resource allocation. It responds to both fetal signals of nutrient demand and maternal signals of nutrient availability and, by adapting its phenotype, regulates the distribution of available resources. These adaptations involve changes in placental size, morphology, transport characteristics, metabolism and hormone bioavailability. They are mediated by key growth regulatory, endocrine and nutrient supply genes responsive to mismatches between nutrient availability and the fetal genetic drive for growth. Indeed, evolution of genomic imprinting and placental secretion of hormones are believed to have been driven by maternal-fetal conflict over resource allocation. Although many of the specific mechanisms involved still have to be identified, the placenta confers optimal fitness on the offspring for its developmental environment by balancing conflict and cooperation in the allocation of resources through generation of nutrient transport phenotypes specific to the prevailing nutritional conditions and/or fetal genotype.

  18. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  19. Intervention to Enhance Empowerment in Breast Cancer Self-Help Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2010-01-01

    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately four months. Each group of...

  20. Using Critical Problem Solving to Plan Inter-Organisational Co-operation in e-Customs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, M.L.; Eck, van P.A.T.; Riemens, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic approach to plan assessment of electronic co-operation between customs organisations of different countries (e-Customs). Thorough assessment is of paramount importance, as co-operation in electronic networks usually requires considerable up-front

  1. Food intake in three groups of cancer patients. A prospective study during cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, K F; Gooskens, A C; Wedel, M; Bruning, P F

    1987-02-01

    The dietary intake of 105 adult Dutch Caucasian patients (28 women with endometrial or cervical cancer, 50 men with bladder or prostate cancer and 14 men and 13 women with malignant lymphoma) was studied for 19 weeks. Energy and nutrient intakes of all patients were assessed by a dietary history with cross-check over 2 months prior to treatment and by seven 48-h dietary records filled in just before, during and after cancer therapy. No differences were observed between the results obtained with the dietary history and the first 48-h diary. In females treated with abdominal irradiation the mean daily intake of fat, dietary fibre, iron and thiamin decreased during therapy. In men treated with radiotherapy the intake of vegetable protein, polysaccharides, dietary fibre and thiamin also decreased during treatment. This may be partly explained by the observation that many of these patients had spontaneously chosen a 'constipating diet' because of diarrhoea. As compared with the Dutch Recommended Dietary Allowance only the iron intake of the women gave rise to some concern. In our study we did not observe marked changes in dietary intake and nutritional status. In females who underwent irradiation therapy especially, the dietary intake increased after a period of intensive treatment. This demonstrates that food intake of these groups of cancer patients is not consistently reduced by chemotherapy or even abdominal radiotherapy.

  2. The questions on the use of internet cancer support groups: instrument development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Bokim; Chee, Wonshik

    2011-06-01

    Recently, with advances in computer technologies, Internet cancer support groups became more popular than ever among people living with cancer. However, there is little information available on cancer patients' use of Internet cancer support groups, which may be partially due to a lack of instruments measuring cancer patients' use of Internet cancer support groups. Indeed, virtually no instrument measuring cancer patients' use of Internet cancer support groups can be identified through searches using multiple databases. In this study, a new instrument measuring the use of Internet cancer support groups was developed, and its psychometric properties were tested among 117 people living with cancer recruited through the Internet using a convenience sampling method. First, the development process of the new instrument, the Questions on the Use of Internet Cancer Support Groups, is described. Then, the pilot study on psychometric properties of the instrument is presented. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency reliability testing, split-half reliability testing, and item analysis. Validity was assessed by using criterion validity, convergent validity, and face validity. The findings of the pilot study supported the reliability and validity of this new instrument. Based on the findings, some implications for future research are proposed.

  3. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months....... The objective response to therapy was better in the Zoladex plus flutamide group, but no differences in subjective response, time to disease progression, or survival have been demonstrated between the 2 groups. Adverse effects were more common in the Zoladex plus flutamide group. Thus, 'total androgen blockade......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer....

  4. Success and failure of firms' innovation co-operations: The role of intermediaries and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, U.; Meder, A.; Wolf, T.

    2011-01-01

    attempts to fill this gap by investigating the possible presence of two problems in co-operation: the lack of intermediation and of reciprocity. Based on data gathered for firms in two German regions and one French region, we find that the success of co-operation projects depends on the perceived...... importance, rather than on the perceived quality, of intermediate actors. Hence, the major problem for intermediating suitable partners is more related to communication than it is a programmatic issue. Trust and reciprocity in co-operation between firms is found to be relevant ex-post in the sense of being...

  5. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  6. Developing Cultural Tourism Through Cross-Sector Co-operation: Evidence from the West of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mottiar, Ziene; Quinn, Bernadette; Ryan, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Studies of co-operative activity in the tourism literature focus largely on linkages between tourism firms and little has been done to examine co-operation between tourism firms and those in other sectors. Yet the inter-dependency that exits between tourism and other sectors in product development is clearly apparent. One such example is in the production of cultural tourism where co-operation between the cultural and tourism sectors is a necessity. This paper reports on the findings of a pro...

  7. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  8. Cancer and the experience of meaning: a group psychotherapy program for people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, M; Breitbart, W

    2000-01-01

    Cancer illness affects people in many ways, physical, financial, and existential. In this paper, we describe a proposed group intervention for individuals with advanced disease who want help finding a sense of meaning at this critical juncture in their lives. This intervention has a brief, semi-structured format, and is informed by the work of Viktor Frankl, empirical findings in the area of meaning and trauma, and the empirical findings of other group interventions for cancer patients. Individual sessions focus on different aspects of meaning, including responsibility to others, creativity, transcendence, and ascertaining one's values and priorities. Having goals on which to focus and feeling like part of a larger whole are critically important to the ability to find meaning and cope with terminal illness. Such goals may be generated by a number of sources, including connectedness with others, or a sense of the temporal continuity of one's own life despite the disruption posed by severe illness. Didactic discussions and experiential exercises help to facilitate exploration of these various elements in group members' lives. The finite structure of the intervention may also highlight these issues, as people who are faced with similar issues work together in a limited time frame in order to accomplish the goals they set out for themselves.

  9. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  10. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  11. Japanese lunar robotics exploration by co-operation with lander and rover

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Takashi Kubota; Yasuharu Kunii; Yoji Kuroda

    2005-12-01

    Unmanned mobile robots for surface exploration of the Moon or planets have been extensively studied and developed.A lunar rover is expected to travel safely in a wide area and explore in detail. Japanese lunar robotics exploration is under study to conduct an unmanned geological survey in the vicinity of central peaks of impact craters for investigation of the sub-surface materials.This will give us the key information to study the lunar inner structure and understand the Moon ’s origin and evolution as well as to investigate the evolution of magma ocean and later igneous processes.To carry out the geological exploration in the central peak,lander and rover co-operative exploration is proposed.The working group has been conducting feasibility study of advance technologies.This paper addresses an overview of lunar exploration with lander and rover and also enumerates future technologies to be established. The rover R&D group has developed an innovative science micro rover with a new mobility system and a lightweight manipulator.The design and implementation of a science rover for the near future lunar missions requiring long traverses and scientific observations are described and some experimental results are presented.

  12. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  13. A study of personality of leader and style of his co-operation in sporting command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolar I.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The personality features of leader of sporting command and style of his co-operation are considered. The problems of adjusting and optimization of co-operation of leader and other players of command are selected in achievement of the set team purpose. 37 skilled sportsmen-handballers took part in research. An informal structure is exposed in commands, leaders and followers are certain. The quantitative indexes of personality features of leader, follower of sporting command are certain. Style of co-operation of leader and follower (prevailing and goodwill and quality is exposed personalities which will be realized by them in a sporting command. It is set that in interpersonality co-operation a leader will realize dominant style, and follower equal will realize dominant and benevolent styles.

  14. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare pemetrexed/carboplatin with a standard regimen as first-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) plus carboplatin......, and fatigue reported on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and the lung cancer-specific module LC13 during the first 20 weeks. Secondary end points were overall survival and toxicity. Results Four hundred thirty-six eligible patients were enrolled...

  15. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer. Experience of the Rome Breast Cancer Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Lucio; Drago, Stefano; Vitelli, Carlo Eugenio; Santoni, Marcello; Gucciardo, Giacomo; Cabassi, Alessandro; Farina, Massimo; La Pinta, Massimo; Remedi, Massimiliano; Pagano, Giovanni; Silipod, Teresa; Terribile, Daniela; Stagnitto, Daniela; Grassi, Giovanni Battista

    2006-01-01

    We report our multicentric experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer operated on from January 1999 to March 2005 in 6 different institutions in the Rome area were retrospectively reviewed. All patients gave written informed consent. 1440 consecutive patients were analysed, with a median age of 59 years (range: 33-81) and a median tumour diameter of 1.3 cm (range: 0.1-5). Patients underwent lymphatic mapping with Tc99 nanocolloid (N = 701; 49%), with Evans Blue (N = 70; 5%), or with a combined injection (N = 669, 46%). The majority of patients were mapped with an intradermal or subdermal injection (N = 1193; 84%), while an intraparenchymal or peritumoral injection was used in 41 (3%) and 206 patients (13%), respectively. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 1374/1440 cases (95.4%), and 2075 sentinel lymph nodes were analysed (average 1.5/patient). A total of 9305 additional non-sentinel lymph-nodes were removed (median 6/patient). Correlations between sentinel lymph nodes and final lymph node status were found in 1355/1374 cases (98.6%). There were 19 false-negative cases (5%). Lymph node metastases were diagnosed in 325 patients (24%). In this group, micrometastases (< 2 mm in diameter) were diagnosed in 103 cases (7.6%). Additionally, isolated tumour cells were reported in 61 patients (4,5%). In positive cases, additional metastases in non-sentinel lymph-nodes were identified in 117/325 cases after axillary dissection (36%). Axillary dissection was avoided in 745/1440 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 36 months, only 1 axillary recurrence has been reported. Sentinel lymph node biopsy improves staging in women with breast cancer because it is accurate and reproducible, and allows detection of micrometastases and isolated tumour cells that would otherwise be missed. Our multicentric study confirms that this is the preferred axillary staging procedure in women with breast cancer.

  16. Diagnostic procedures for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): recommendations of the European Expert Group

    OpenAIRE

    Dietel, Manfred; Bubendorf, Lukas; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Dooms, Christophe; Elmberger, Göran; García, Rosa Calero; Keith M Kerr; Lim, Eric; López-Ríos, Fernando; Thunnissen, Erik; Van Schil, Paul E.; von Laffert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Background There is currently no Europe-wide consensus on the appropriate preanalytical measures and workflow to optimise procedures for tissue-based molecular testing of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To address this, a group of lung cancer experts (see list of authors) convened to discuss and propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for NSCLC. Methods Based on earlier meetings and scientific expertise on lung cancer, a multidisciplinary group meeting was aligned. The aim was to inc...

  17. Competition and Co-operation between Stock Exchanges in Europe - Legal Aspects and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Clausen, Nis Jul

    2002-01-01

    The article analysis why and how European Stock Exchanges enters into alliances. On the background of alliances as Norex, Euronext and the planned iX the different areas and types of co-operation is discussed.......The article analysis why and how European Stock Exchanges enters into alliances. On the background of alliances as Norex, Euronext and the planned iX the different areas and types of co-operation is discussed....

  18. Structural changes in the development of European co-operative societes

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina FERNÁNDEZ GUADAÑO

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of experience which co-operative societies now have behind them, they have not gained uniform recognition across Europe. Supranational authorities such as the European Commission, the UN and the ILO have highlighted the important contribution made by co-operative societies in the creation of employment and in the mobilization of resources particularly at the local level. For several years now, however, two different tendencies in the development of the European...

  19. Shariah Governance Framework For Islamic Co-Operatives As An Integral Social Insitution In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Issyam Itam; Rusni bt Hasan; Syed Musa Alhabshi

    2017-01-01

    In Malaysia, Islamic cooperatives are recognized as providers of some form of Islamic financial service similar to Islamic Banks and Takaful Operators. An Islamic Co-operative refers to a co-operative conducting activities and businesses based on Shariah principles. Being a non-banking financial institution, its main objective is to enhance social economic welfare of its members. As a form of captive social institution, it enables the less economically privileged members of society to pool re...

  20. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  1. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both

  2. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that oc

  3. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way.

  4. The Skills of Facilitator Nurses in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to provide cancer patients with a psychosocial group intervention consisting of 3 parts, i.e., education on how to cope with stress and solve problems, group discussions, and progressive muscle relaxation, and to investigate the intervention techniques of Japanese facilitators. Methods Group interventions for breast cancer patients performed by 3 facilitators were analyzed qualitatively and inductively using a phenomenological approach. Results The s...

  5. Addressee co-operation and request reformulation in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, H; Bernicot, J

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to show that children under age 3;0 are capable of reformulating requests in different ways depending on how their addressee responds to the request. This adaptive ability is considered to be an indication of the use of both communicative and conversational skills. Children from French-speaking families were observed at two developmental thresholds: the end of the prelinguistic period (1;6) and the start of the linguistic period (2;6). The verbal and nonverbal outputs of the two groups of 12 children (1;6 and 2;6) were compared in three object request situations: the adult immediately complies with the request (satisfaction), the adult asks a clarification question (clarification), and the adult refuses to comply with the request (refusal). The ways in which the children adapted to each situation were found to be similar at the two ages considered. In the clarification situation, vocal productions and their repairs were more numerous, whereas in the refusal situation, non-reformulations and gazes to and from the requested object and addressee predominated. The discussion deals with the significance of these results in the development of communicative and conversational skills in children.

  6. The implication and potential applications of high-mobility group box 1 protein in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohun, Moonindranath; Shen, Huiling

    2016-06-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, non-histone and ubiquitous chromosomal protein found enriched in active chromatin forming part of the high mobility group family of proteins and is encoded by the HMGB1 gene (13q12) in human beings. It has various intranuclear and extracellular functions. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. In 2012, there was approximately 1.67 million new breast cancer cases diagnosed which makes it the second most frequent cancer in the world after lung cancer (25% of all cancers) and the commonest cancer among women. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have suggested that HMGB1 might be a useful target in the management of breast cancer. This review summarises the structure and functions of HMGB1 and its dual role in carcinogenesis both as a pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic factor. It also sums up evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies using breast cancer cell lines and samples which demonstrate its influence in radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy in breast cancer. It may have particular importance in HER2 positive and metastatic breast cancer. It might pave the way for new breast cancer treatments through development of novel drugs, use of microRNAs (miRNAs), targeting breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and breast cancer immunotherapy. It may also play a role in determining breast cancer prognosis. Thus HMGB1 may open up novel avenues in breast cancer management.

  7. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...... rehabilitation centre in Denmark. A total of 58 rehabilitation course weeks including 921 survivors of various cancers were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group by cluster randomisation. The intervention was a lecture on the use of the Internet for support and information followed...... by participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...

  8. Co-operation between patient organisations and the drug industry in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Elina; Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry in Finland prior to critical discussions on the topic. The data were gathered by a questionnaire survey of 85 patient organisations (response rate 65%, n = 55) and 20 drug firms (response rate 100%) in 2003, and by interviewing 13 organisations and surveying their web-pages and other documents in 2004. In the surveys, half of the patient organisations and 80% of the drug firms considered co-operation important. Most (71%) organisations reported financial support from the drug industry. Most organisations and drug firms had experienced problems. Common problems for organisations were too little or too unpredictable support from industry, and threats to independence and objectivity. Drug firms frequently mentioned unclear rules of co-operation. The patient organisation interviews exhibited similar themes and findings to those found in the surveys, revealing the complexity and importance of co-operation in organisation activities, and the variation between organisations. This case study from Finland showed that co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry was common, many-sided and not usually transparent. The close connections between patient organizations and commercial companies, particularly drug firms, raise several policy issues and the need for action.

  9. Three Common TP53 Polymorphisms and the Risk of Breast Cancer among Groups of Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Ahangar Oskouee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TP53 gene is the most important tumor suppressor gene in humans. The aim of our study was to determine the genotype frequency of three common TP53 polymorphisms (codon 72 BstUI and intron 6 MspI, as well as the intron 3 in a group of Iranian women with and without breast cancer. Methods: Paraffin-embedded specimens of 65 malignant breast cancer cases and 65 cases with benign breast lesions were investigated for the presence of three common TP53 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction. Samples were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction followed by variant specific restriction enzyme digestion. Results: In our study, age grouping as >50 and ≤50 showed that the highest number of cancerous and non-cancerous patients was in the age group under 50; according to statistical tests, the difference was significant and recessive alleles of all three hot spots of TP53 had the highest frequency in the cancerous group. The majority of the cases with recessive alleles of all three hot spots of TP53 were in the age group ≤ 50. The difference between cancerous and noncancerous groups was statistically significant. Conclusions: Our results indicate that recessive alleles in three hot spots of TP53 gene might play a role in the breast cancer development, especially in women younger than 50 years.

  10. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary artery stenting within 6 months of enrollment, or a history of venous thrombosis ...of the promoter and the transcription factor of the ETS fusion is more effective than targeting a single aspect of the fusion. The TMPRSS2-ETS gene...Phase I and biomarker study of Everolimus combined with hormonal and radiation therapy for high risk prostate cancer introduced to the PCCTC by Dr

  11. O espaço da cooperativa "amigos do meio ambiente": cooperativa de trabalho ou cooperfraude? "Friends of the environment" co-operative: work co-operative or fraud co-operative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirla Patrícia Weber Sterchile

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é resultado de pesquisa acadêmica que tem como objeto de estudo-pesquisa "A forma de existir e de ser da Cooperativa dos Agentes Ambientais de Santa Helena 'Amigos do Meio Ambiente' e sua imbricação na Usina de Beneficiamento de Resíduos Sólidos do município de Santa Helena-PR". Verificando o cotidiano profissional, o descontentamento de trabalhadores catadores de matérias recicláveis, o incentivo do gestor municipal para a instalação da usina e a formação da cooperativa, aliado aos postulados do capitalismo, em sua fase tardia, propusemos desconstruir e reconstruir o movimento do objeto em questão a partir da pesquisa teórica e empírica. Para coletar os dados utilizando a técnica de gravação, recorremos à análise documental e à observação. Após esse processo descrevemos e analisamos os conteúdos presentes. Concluímos em nosso estudo-pesquisa, que a Cooperativa - "Amigos do Meio Ambiente", é uma "cooperfraude", legitimada pelo Estado, que suprime os princípios do cooperativismo e exime o capital da raiz da exploração da força de trabalhoThis article resulted from a research aiming at "The form of existence and being of the Co-operative of Environmental Agents from St. Helena - 'Friends of the Environment' - and its imbrication in the Processing Plant of Solid Waste in the city of Santa Helena-PR". Checking the professional practice, the dissatisfaction of workers who collect recycling materials and the City Hall's encouragement to install the plant and to form the Co-operative, together with the tenets of capitalism in its late stage, we proposed to deconstruct and reconstruct the motion of the object studied from the empirical research. After analyzing our data we concluded that the "Friends of the Environment" Co-operative is a "fraud co-operative" legitimized by the State, that suppressed the principles of co-operativism and exempted the capital from the root of exploitation of the workforce

  12. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  13. Classical pathological variables recorded in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register 1978-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Henrik W; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Nielsen, Bernt B

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register containing data from about 75 000 patients undergoing surgery for primary invasive breast cancer from 1978-2006 has been examined for classical pathological variables. During that period the diagnostic approach of malignant breast tumours...

  14. Factors influencing work functioning after cancer diagnosis : a focus group study with cancer survivors and occupational health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorland, H. F.; Abma, F. I.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Smink, J. G.; Ranchor, A. V.; Bultmann, U.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors (CSs) frequently return to work, but little is known about work functioning after return to work (RTW). We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators of work functioning among CSs. Three focus groups were conducted with CSs (n = 6, n = 8 and n = 8) and one focus group with occupati

  15. SSI`s International Development Co-operation (SIUS). Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szendroe, G.; Grapengiesser, S.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1999-04-01

    SSI`s International Development Co-operation (SIUS), the Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe, has since its start in 1992 been granted SEK 109 million by the Swedish government. The projects are accessed, planned and performed in close co-operation with partner organisations in Eastern Europe. This report presents the financial status and a summary of the projects, their status and distribution over the countries and project areas. The presentation is updated as of December 1998

  16. Strategic development on generic anti-cancer drugs Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride for Harbin Pharmaceutical Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheung Fat Ping

    2011-01-01

    @@ With improved economy, changing life styles, aging population and health care reform, China had a very potential anti-cancer drug market.The patents of popular anti-cancer drugs Avastin and Tarceva would expire in few years.Generic versions of Avastin and Tarceva were Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride respectively.Harbin Pharmaceutical Group was proposed to develop strategically both generic medicines to enter the high-end anti-cancer drug market for targeted cancer therapies.The vital to success of developing the generic drugs were discussed.

  17. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golant Mitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174

  18. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    . Nineteen persons either did not return the questionnaire or had missing values in confounding variables. RESULTS: Cancer patients who were motivated to participate in internet support groups belong to higher socioeconomic groups (based on household income and employment) compared to non-participants. We...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...

  19. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...

  20. ABO Blood Group Alleles and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C.; Shui, Irene M.; Unger, Robert H.; Urun, Yuksel; Berg, Christine D.; Black, Amanda; Brennan, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Canzian, Federico; Larranga, Nerea; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Naccarati, Alessio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stattin, Par; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ziegler, Regina G.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). Results We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.87-1.08; Type B: OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between ‘dose’ of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Conclusions ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:26268879

  1. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MAC...... and marital relationship measured by BLRI in women with primary breast cancer conducted 10 weeks after surgery. A secondary outcome was 4-year survival. Patients and methods: We randomly assigned 210 patients with primary breast cancer to a control or an intervention group. Patients in the intervention group......: No statistically significant effects of the intervention were found on any of the psychosocial questionnaire outcomes. There were not enough cases of death to analyse overall survival. The only statistically significant result was for patients who used anti depressive medication, for whom almost all measures...

  2. Cartalk 2000: development of a co-operative ADAS based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P.L.J.; Hallouzi, R.; Dagli, I.; Cseh, C.; Schäfers, L.; Nelisse, M.W.; Bruin, D. de

    2003-01-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) benefit from using vehicle-to-vehicle communication. In the 5th framework EC project CarTALK2000 co-operative ADAS are designed, tested and evaluated with respect to increasing traffic safety, efficiency and driving comfort. Communication based longitudinal

  3. [SUPPORT, CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PRAGMATIC CODE OF ETHICS: A CLINICAL APPROACH OF EXECUTIVE TRAINING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at introducing an educational sequence completed at l'Institut de Formation des Cadres de Santé (IFCS) at the CHRU in Lille in France, entitled "training project and educational project" present in the "training duties" module whose goal is to generate students'knowledge through co-operative education programmes. By creating this innovative sequence, the educational aim is to use the Institut ground as a ground of learning, associated with the various internship grounds, in order to get the most of co-operative education programmes. Besides, in a pragmatic code of ethics in training, the teaching staff draw their inspiration from a clinical approach of executive training: they regard students as true protagonists in a co-operative plan created for them, wishing to design it with them using their words. Thus, students are brought to criticize the IFCS educational project and debate it with the trainers who have built it. Each partner tries to understand the Other, being aware of their being different. By contributing every year to rewriting the educational project which directly concerns them, students build their professional positions as health executives. They play an active role in co-operative education programmes just like IFCS outside partners.

  4. Evaluation of Georgian military co-operation with partner countries and institutions / George Manjgaladze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manjgaladze, George

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Gruusia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõudude ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh NATO-ga 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  5. Jamming Transition of Point-To Traffic Through Co-Operative Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xiqun; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-11-01

    We study the jamming transition of two-dimensional point-to-point traffic through co-operative mechanisms (DCM) using computer simulation. We propose two decentralized co-operative mechanisms CM which are incorporated into the point-to-point traffic models: stepping aside (CM-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CM-CAR). Incorporating CM-SA is to prevent a type of ping-pong jumps from happening when two objects standing face-to-face want to move in opposite directions. Incorporating CM-CAR is to handle the conflict when more than one object competes for the same point in parallel update. We investigate and compare four models mainly from fundamental diagrams, jam patterns and the distribution of co-operation probability. It is found that although it decreases the average velocity a little, the CM-SA increases the critical density and the average flow. Despite increasing the average velocity, the CM-CAR decreases the average flow by creating substantially vacant areas inside jam clusters. We investigate the jam patterns of four models carefully and explain this result qualitatively. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized co-operation modeling.

  6. Socialité et co-operation dans l'oeuvre de Charles Goodwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    2016-01-01

    As a linguistic anthropologist, Goodwin elaborates a conceptual and methodological framework to describe the organization of human activities and conducts. The central notion of « co-operation » accounts for what is at stake in ordinary conversation as well as in professional practices, cultural ...

  7. Shariah Governance Framework For Islamic Co-Operatives As An Integral Social Insitution In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Issyam Itam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Islamic cooperatives are recognized as providers of some form of Islamic financial service similar to Islamic Banks and Takaful Operators. An Islamic Co-operative refers to a co-operative conducting activities and businesses based on Shariah principles. Being a non-banking financial institution, its main objective is to enhance social economic welfare of its members. As a form of captive social institution, it enables the less economically privileged members of society to pool resources as a cooperative. Malaysia is spearheading the Islamic banking and finance industry globally by having in place a proper and well-designed legal and regulatory framework for Islamic Financial Institutions, which includes the area of Shariah governance. However, the Shariah governance framework for the Islamic Co-operative in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage. In this paper, this area will be given focus and properly highlighted. Later, comparison will be made with the Shariah governance framework for the Islamic financial institutions. This paper will conclude that the requirements with regard to Shariah governance for the Islamic Co-operative are flexible and not as strict as required for the Islamic financial institutions.

  8. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Najaf Gambarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gambarov, Najaf

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Aserbaidžaani sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõududega ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  9. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Arthur Aghabekyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aghabekyan, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Armeenia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikidega ja osalemisest rahvusvahelistes sõjalistes koostööprogrammides 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  10. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  11. The VEL and VANLA environmental co-operatives as field laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, M.; Ploeg, van der J.D.; Leeuwis, C.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Nutrient Management Project of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA as a field laboratory. A field laboratory is defined as a heterogeneous collection of inter-linked scientific studies performed by several actors within a specific field, but – as in normal labora

  12. Microcredit management in Ghana : development of co-operative credit unions among the Dagaaba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheneti, Yeshanew

    2007-01-01

    "This thesis focuses on the historical development, the organizational management and the role of credit unions among the Dagaaba in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Co-operative credit unions are well-established financial institutions, with a capacity to mobilize local savings and provide microcred

  13. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  14. Co-operation Agreement between the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of the Republic of Cuba (CITMA) and CERN concerning The Further Development of Scientific and Technical Co-operation

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the CERN collaboration with Latin America, co-operation agreements have been established with Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. They have made possible a growing participation by Latin American particle physicists in the CERN programme, which has important potential for the future. The Cuban particle physics community is highly motivated and relatively advanced, both scientifically and technologically, since many of its members have been trained in installations of the former Soviet Union, many of which now participate in CERN's cooperation with Russia. In addition, Cuba has a good number of experienced computer scientists. A group from the Cuban Institute CEADEN (Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarollo Nuclear) has recently been accepted unanimously into the ALICE collaboration, with agreed contributions to off-line software and Grid middlewave. Additional Cuban contributions to show controls, data acquisition and testing electronics for the Silicon drift decte...

  15. Understanding mechanisms of enzyme co-operativity: The importance of not being at equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Cárdenas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery at the end of the 1950s and the beginning of the 1960s that there were enzymes like threonine deaminase and aspartate transcarbamoylase that failed to follow the expected hyperbolic behaviour predicted by the Michaelis–Menten equation, raised several questions and induced the development of mechanisms to explain this peculiar behaviour. At that time it was already known that the binding of oxygen to haemoglobin did not follow a hyperbolic curve, but a sigmoidal one, and it was thought that a similar situation probably existed for enzymes with sigmoidal kinetics. In other words, the observed kinetic behaviour was a consequence of co-operativity in the substrate binding. Two main models were postulated: those of Monod, Wyman and Changeux in 1965 and of Koshland, Némethy and Filmer in 1966. Both consider that the different conformations are in equilibrium and that there is a rapid equilibrium in the binding, which implies that co-operativity could only exist if there is more than one substrate binding site per enzyme molecule, that is, if the enzyme is an oligomer. What about monomeric enzymes, could they show kinetic co-operativity? Yes, but only through mechanisms that imply the existence of enzyme conformations that are not in equilibrium, and have different kinetic parameters. There are, in fact, very few examples of monomeric enzymes showing kinetic co-operativity with a natural substrate. The case of “glucokinase” (hexokinase D or hexokinase IV, a monomeric enzyme with co-operativity with respect to glucose, will be discussed.

  16. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  17. Recommendations for collection and handling of specimens from group breast cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J C; Enos, Rebecca A; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M; Forbes, John F; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten; Jewell, Scott D

    2008-12-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exists is minimized and specimen condition and quality are enhanced, thereby maximizing results from specimen-based diagnostic testing and research. Three working groups were formed from the Cooperative Group Banking Committee, BIG groups, and North American breast cancer cooperative groups to identify standards for collection and handling of (1) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue; (2) blood and its components; and (3) fresh/frozen tissue from breast cancer trials. The working groups collected standard operating procedures from multiple group specimen banks, administered a survey on banking practices to those banks, and engaged in a series of discussions from 2005 to 2007. Their contributions were synthesized into this document, which focuses primarily on collection and handling of specimens to the point of shipment to the central bank, although also offers some guidance to central banks. Major recommendations include submission of an FFPE block, whole blood, and serial serum or plasma from breast cancer clinical trials, and use of one fixative and buffer type (10% neutral phosphate-buffered formalin, pH 7) for FFPE tissue across trials. Recommendations for proper handling and shipping were developed for blood, serum, plasma, FFPE, and fresh/frozen tissue.

  18. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  19. Organometallic nucleoside analogues with ferrocenyl linker groups: synthesis and cancer cell line studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy V; Sallustrau, Antoine; Balzarini, Jan; Bedford, Matthew R; Eden, John C; Georgousi, Niki; Hodges, Nikolas J; Kedge, Jonathan; Mehellou, Youcef; Tselepis, Chris; Tucker, James H R

    2014-07-10

    Examples of organometallic compounds as nucleoside analogues are rare within the field of medicinal bioorganometallic chemistry. We report on the synthesis and properties of two chiral ferrocene derivatives containing a nucleobase and a hydroxyalkyl group. These so-called ferronucleosides show promising anticancer activity, with cytostatic studies on five different cancer cell lines indicating that both functional groups are required for optimal activity.

  20. Intervention to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2010-03-01

    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately 4 months. Each group of five to seven participants met weekly. Several empowerment strategies were initiated by two professional facilitators, aiming to promote empowerment processes and to manage stress. The participants experienced group participation as both empowering and as a valuable source of support, and although the group processes developed very differently, a strong sense of fellowship developed in all three groups. The discussion highlights the findings in relation to several theoretical perspectives including social capital, social cohesion, risky agreements, helper-therapy and power/empowerment. We conclude that empowerment strategies that are implemented in professionally led breast cancer self-help groups can contribute to participant empowerment and function as an important source of re-discovery and confirmation of the participants' strengths and abilities.

  1. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  2. Group Medical Visits to Provide Gynecologic Care for Women Affected by Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally R. Greenwald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women with breast cancer have complex and unique gynecologic needs that are challenging to effectively and comprehensively meet in a traditional gynecology visit format. Group medical visits are an effective and well-received model of care in other disease settings and can provide comprehensive health education as an adjunct to one-on-one evaluation and treatment. There are limited data regarding the use of this type of health care delivery in providing gynecology-focused care to women affected by breast cancer. Methods: A group medical visit model was created for gynecology providers to see new breast cancer patient consults. From May 2012 to February 2014, 148 patients (3–6 per group participated in a 1-hour informational session followed by a 15- to 30-minute individual visit with a physician that included history, physical examination and evaluation. We surveyed 101 women who attended these visits to evaluate a group model for providing gynecologic care and educational support to women with breast cancer. Results: Of those who responded to the survey question, 100% agreed or somewhat agreed that their expectations for an initial intake visit were met during the group visit; 81% agreed or somewhat agreed that they felt a group visit was preferable to an individual introductory visit. More than 95% agreed or somewhat agreed that the information was understandable and their questions were answered during the visit. Only 5 respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the additional time commitment for this type of visit. Conclusions: The majority of women surveyed expressed satisfaction with their experience with a group visit format. The women who participated preferred this format compared to an individual intake appointment when establishing gynecology care after breast cancer diagnosis/treatment, regardless of age, menopausal status, cancer stage or hormone receptor status. While further studies are warranted to directly compare and

  3. The Effects of Cognitive Behavorial Therapy Group and Social Support Group on the Self Esteem among Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namora Lumongga Lubis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine the main effects of CBT group, social support group (DS and control group (KK on the self esteem among breast cancer patients. Rosemberg self esteem scale (RSE was used to measure self-esteem. The treatment group consisted of CBT and DS groups. Each treatment group received 12 counselling sessions within six weeks. Quantitative analysis general linear model (GLM repeated measures was used to identify the groups’ (CBT, DS, and KK main effect, the repeated test RSE scale (pre test, post test 1, post test 2, and post test 3 main effect and the interaction effect (CBT, DS, and KK, and repeated tests RSE scale (pre test, post test 1,post test 2, post test 3. There was no significant difference in the groups (CBT, DS, and KK main effect on the Rosenberg Self Esteem (RSE scores. There was a significant difference (F (3.10 = 66.823,p = 0.0001 (Wilk's Lambda on the repeated test RSE scale (pre test, post test 1, post test 2, and post test 3 main effects on self esteemscore. Overall findings showed an increase in RSE scores between the pre test, post test 1, post test 2 and post test 3.

  4. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  5. Social support sources, types, and generativity: a focus group study of cancer survivors and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alison G; Ki, Ppudah; Maharaj, Artie; Brown, Edna; Davis, Cindy; Apolinsky, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Various research studies have identified the sources and types of support that people with cancer receive; however, few have focused on identifying the specific characteristics of emotional, instrumental, and informational support. In this study, focus groups consisting of Gilda's Club members explored the types of support that people with cancer and their caregivers experienced and valued. Results showed that although men and women with cancer and caregivers identify similar sources of support, they experience different types of support. Results also indicated a desire among participants to help and support others, a concept referred to as generativity. Implications for social workers and health care providers are explored.

  6. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in prostate cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, P; Jobim, L F; Salim, P H; Koff, W J; Wilson, T J; Jobim, M R; Schwartsmann, G; Roesler, R; Jobim, M

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with a significant increase in incidence and mortality in men over 50 years of age. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study is to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with prostate cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred patients with prostate cancer and 185 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSP. When both groups were compared, no significant differences were found for HLA-C group 1 and group 2, HLA-Bw4, HLA-A3 and A11. No difference was seen either in KIR frequency between patients with prostate cancer and controls. In conclusion, our data suggest no potential role for the KIR gene system in prostate cancer.

  7. Adjustment to cancer: exploring patients' experiences of participating in a psychodramatic group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it.

  8. Scope definition and resection significance of No. 12a group lymph nodes in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongjian; Zhu, Guangwei; Zheng, Wei; Hua, Jin; Yang, Shugang; Zhuang, Jinfu; Wang, Jinzhou; Ye, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    A discrepancy exists between the 7th edition guidelines of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the 3rd edition Japanese treatment guidelines in terms of the classification of No. 12a lymph nodes as regional or distant lymph nodes in D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. The scope definition of No. 12a lymph nodes has yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to assess the appropriateness of reclassifying No. 12a lymph node metastasis as distant metastasis according to the survival rate outcome, and to provide a clear and practical definition of the No. 12a group lymph nodes of gastric cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with gastric cancer who underwent standard or greater lymphadenectomy between January 2000 and December 2009 to find an association between No. 12a node metastasis and survival outcome. The present study first presented a clear and practical scope definition of the No. 12a group lymph nodes of gastric cancer, according to our clinical experiences and practices (Table I and Fig. 1). The survival outcome of patients with gastric cancer and No. 12a lymph node metastasis was poorer compared with that of patients with no No. 12a lymph node metastasis (P=0.0003). The results were similar in stage III patients with gastric cancer (Pcancer (P=0.1968). Cox regression analysis revealed that the AJCC stage was independently associated with an unfavorable cumulative survival rate. Logistic regression analysis revealed that tumor location, AJCC stage, intravascular cancer emboli and nerve invasion were associated with No. 12a lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, the data in the present study suggested that No. 12a lymph node metastasis is associated with distant metastasis, and therefore they concur with the 7th edition AJCC gastric cancer guidelines, which appear to be correct in terms of considering No. 12a lymph node metastasis as distant metastasis.

  9. Institutional and scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food safety and quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Meerdink, G.; Banati, D.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Kuiper, H.A.; Houtman, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explains the situation in Hungary and The Netherlands regarding scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food quality and safety. Specific details are given about institutional co-operation including exchanges between staff and students, collaborative proj

  10. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health.

  11. NATO, Libya operations and intelligence co-operation – a step forward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    2011-01-01

    "With the ‘fall’ of Tripoli towards the end of August 2011, it has become increasingly apparent that the intelligence co-operation witnessed in Libya during the NATO campaign performed an increasingly important role in realizing operational and strategic ‘successes’. These recent intelligence...... developments can be opened up for some further analysis, forming the main focus of this article. Ultimately, this article concludes that, over time and albeit while gradual, we have seen what can be regarded as ‘a step forward’ in co-operative intelligence activities in Libya. Although several pressing...... difficulties have been present, and have had various impacts at different junctures of interactivity, the ‘problems’ encountered have not completely overwhelmed either operationally or strategically all of the diverse participants involved in Libya." - Abstract from journal....

  12. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within......This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross-border...... West Africa to develop cross-border initiatives in a number of ways. Combining these two analyses with the perceptions of regional policy makers as to which border areas they consider as priorities for regional integration, the publication concludes with the analytical foundations for more effective...

  13. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  14. Reactions of Spanish Agricultural Co-operatives to Collective Globalization: Ideal Discourse Types

    OpenAIRE

    Entrena Durán, Francisco; Moyano Estrada, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to build up a typology of the ideological discourses which guide and legitimize the different, and often mutually contradictory, reactions of Spanish agricultural co-operatives to the process of ever-increasing socio-economical globalization in which they are immersed. In accordance with this typology, in which we have followed a criterion similar to Max Weber's, we distinguish four ideal ideological discourse types. These go along a continuum from those ...

  15. Co-operative versus independent transport of different cargoes by Kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jennetta W; Griffin, Kelly; Jih, Gloria T; Stuckey, Jeanne; Verhey, Kristen J

    2008-05-01

    Kinesin motors drive the intracellular transport of multiple cargoes along microtubule tracks; yet, how kinesins discriminate among their many potential cargoes is unknown. We tested whether Kinesin-1 cargoes compete, co-operate or are transported independently of each other. We focused on Kinesin-1 cargoes that bind directly to the kinesin light chain (KLC) subunit, namely the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-interacting proteins (JIPs) 1 and 3, Kidins220/ARMS and PAT1. Overexpression of individual cargo proteins in differentiated CAD cells resulted in mislocalization of the endogenous protein but had no effect on localization of other cargo proteins to neurite tips. Thus, while transport of distinct cargoes is saturable, they do not compete with each other. Interestingly, we found that low expression of JIP1 or JIP3 enhanced the transport of the other JIP to neurite tips. Moreover, JIP1 and JIP3 require each other for transport. Co-operative transport is due to an interaction between JIP1 and JIP3 as well as distinct binding sites on the KLC tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) bundle: the TPR groove binds to C-terminal residues of JIP1, whereas the TPR surface binds to internal residues in JIP3. Formation of a JIP1/JIP3/KLC complex is necessary for efficient JIP1 or JIP3 transport in neuronal cells. Thus, JIP scaffolding proteins are transported in a co-operative manner, despite the independent transport of other Kinesin-1 cargoes.

  16. A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE BOER Sirp J.; QIU Ji-zhen(邱济真)

    2004-01-01

    In September 1994 the University of Twente, the Netherlands, and Zhejiang University, China, decided to cooperate in the field of science, education and management. After several visits of delegations from both sides it was considered worthwhile to explore further opportunities for mutual cooperation. The directors of international cooperation on each side jointly commissioned a project to investigate the potential in a systematic way and to establish further contacts where appropriate. This paper reports on the results of the research cum matching project.To reveal promising matches between multiple departments of both academic institutions a matching model for universities was designed. The study was carried out along two parallel lines. In the research line the theoretical framework was developed into a model for international university co-operation. Moreover, an analysis was carried out on internal, external and cultural aspects resulting in a set of thirty four influencing factors.In the matching line a total of seventy interviews were held in order to identify promising matches between units at both universities. This line resulted in eleven promising matches for further co-operation.The novel model appeared useful in analyzing the variety of factors and in developing matches between both universities. In the further implementation of the model the issues of "level of co-operation" and "top-down versus bottom-up" need to be addressed in more detail.

  17. Distance art groups for women with breast cancer: guidelines and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Kate; Bottorff, Joan L; Long, Bonita C; Conati, Cristina

    2006-08-01

    To overcome barriers that prevent women with breast cancer from attending support groups, innovative formats and modes of delivery both need to be considered. The present study was part of an interdisciplinary program of research in which researchers from counseling psychology, psycho-oncology, nursing, computer science, and fine arts have explored art making as an innovative format and telehealth as a mode of delivery. For this study, we conducted focus groups and interviews with 25 people with expertise about breast cancer, art, art therapy, and distance delivery of mental health services to generate guidelines for distance art-based psychosocial support services to women with breast cancer. A qualitative analysis of the focus group and interview data yielded guidelines for developers and facilitators of distance art groups for women with breast cancer pertaining to (a) emotional expression, (b) emotional support, (c) emotional safety, and (d) accommodating individual differences, plus special considerations for art therapy groups. Further research is needed pertaining to the use of computers, involvement of art therapists, and screening out vulnerable clients.

  18. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in breast cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobim, Maria Regina; Jobim, Mariana; Salim, Patrícia H; Portela, Pâmela; Jobim, Luiz Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Bittelbrunn, Ana Cristina; Menke, Carlos Henrique; Biazús, Jorge Villanova; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer-related death among women, with a 0.5% increase in incidence per year. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred thirty patients with breast cancer and 272 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSO. When both groups were compared, the presence of inhibitory KIR2DL2 receptors was significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy controls. No significant differences were found for HLA-C2 and HLA-Bw4. However, a higher frequency of HLA-C1 in breast cancer patients was observed. These findings suggest a potential role for the KIR gene system in breast cancer. Further studies to confirm this observation are warranted.

  19. CLINICAL VALUE OF SERUM TUMOR SUPPLIED GROUP OF FACTOR IN DIAGNOSIS OF EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程琪辉; 张喜平; 曾小澜

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of serum tumor supplied group of factor (TSGF) in diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: The serum TSGF was tested in 69 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, 28 patients with benign ovarian lesion and 61 healthy women. The serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CA125 were determined in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and in those with benign ovarian lesion. The correlations of TSGF with VEGF and CA125 were investigated. Results: The serum level of TSGF in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer was obviously higher than in patients with benign ovarian lesion and in healthy women (P0.05). The serum level of TSGF and VEGF and CA125 in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer showed positive correlation (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively). Conclusion: There is no marked difference in diagnostic value among TSGF, VEGF and CA125. TSGF has a certain value in diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer, and is helpful to distinguish epithelial ovarian cancer from benign ovarian lesion.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors Attending Support Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gonzalez, Patricia; Rodríguez, Bárbara; Buelna, Christina; West, Demy; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    There is limited research on the relationship between Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and socioeconomic status (SES) among long-term cancer survivors. The goal of this study was to assess Global HRQoL among 102 adult cancer survivors attending support groups in San Diego County and to examine differences by SES and acculturation. Community-based participatory research methods were followed to recruit a purposive sample of English and Spanish-speaking adult cancer survivors attending cancer support groups. Self-report questionnaires assessing age, acculturation (i.e., language), SES (i.e., income and education), cancer history, and Global HRQoL measured by the FACT-G were administered. Multivariate regression examined the relationship between SES and acculturation with HRQoL, adjusting for covariates. Participants were 58.8 years on average (SD = 10.06) and varied in terms of SES. Most participants (91.5 %) were women, 51.7 % were non-Hispanic white, and 48.3 % were Hispanic/Latino. Global HRQoL scores in the study sample were lower compared to previously reported studies. After adjusting for covariates, SES and acculturation were not significantly related to HRQoL. Stage at diagnosis was significantly related to HRQoL measures in adjusted analyses. HRQoL did not vary by SES or acculturation. There is a need to increase access to linguistically and culturally appropriate cancer care and supportive care services. Future studies may find existing support group settings useful for targeting psychosocial issues for more advanced stage cancer survivors.

  1. Thyroid Cancer in Ukrainian Population Groups Affected by the Chernobyl Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Prysyazhnyuk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study goal was to investigate thyroid cancer morbidity in population groups affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The study period comprised 1994-2006 for clean-up workers and 1990-2006 for Chernobyl evacuees and residents of contaminated territories. A significant increase of thyroid cancer incidence was registered in all observed population groups. The most significant excess over the national level was identified in clean-up workers. This amounted to a factor of 5.9, while it was 5.5 for the evacuees and 1.7 for the residents. The highest thyroid cancer risk was observed in persons exposed to radioiodine in childhood and adolescence.

  2. Cancer patients' perspectives on multidisciplinary team working: an exploratory focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Shah, Sujay; Brown, Katrina; Allchorne, Paula; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, focus-group study explores what patients understand about the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in cancer care. Participants were positive towards MDT working, and by strengthening the role of nurses in MDT decision-making, the representation of patients' interests can be improved.

  3. Online interaction. Effects of storytelling in an internet breast cancer support group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Johansen, Christoffer; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2005-01-01

    The internet provides new ways of forming social relationships among people with breast cancer and is increasingly used for this purpose. This qualitative study, using ethnographic case-study method, aimed to explore how support groups on the internet can break the social isolation that follows...

  4. Use of Focus Group Data to Develop Recommendations for Demographically Segmented Colorectal Cancer Educational Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Shipp, Michele; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Clay, Kimberly S.; Smith-Janas, Mary Ann; Janas, Michael John; Britt, Kristi; Norena, Maria; Fouad, Mona N.

    2009-01-01

    Screening is available and effective in colorectal cancer (CRC) control, but underutilized. The purpose of this study was to use focus group data to develop recommendations for the development of educational interventions to increase CRC screening, using an audience segmentation strategy. Demographic segments were based on urban-rural residence,…

  5. Polycomb group proteins: navigators of lineage pathways led astray in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate lineage choices during development and differentiation. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of how the PcG proteins regulate cell fate decisions and how their deregulation potentially contributes to cancer. ...

  6. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer....

  7. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  8. Hepato-biliary late effects in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Sharon; Muir, Andrew; Shah, Ami; Shope, Sheila; McMullen, Kevin; Ruble, Kathy; Barber, Ashley; Davidoff, Andrew; Hudson, Melissa M

    2010-05-01

    Curative therapy for childhood and adolescent cancer translates to 1 in 640 young adults being a survivor of cancer. Although acute hepato-biliary toxicity occurs commonly during pediatric cancer therapy, the impact of antineoplastic therapy on long-term liver health in childhood/adolescent cancer survivors is unknown. This article reviews the medical literature on late liver dysfunction following treatment for childhood/adolescent cancer. We also outline the Children's Oncology Group (COG) guidelines for screening and follow-up of hepato-biliary sequelae. As the population of survivors grow and age, vigilance for risks to hepatic health needs to continue based on specific exposures during curative cancer therapy.

  9. Selecting a comparison group for 5-year oral and pharyngeal cancer survivors: Two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Henrietta L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess potential long-term consequences of cancer treatment, studies that include comparison groups are needed. These comparison groups should be selected in a way that allows the subtle long-range effects of cancer therapy to be detected and distinguishes them from the effects of aging and other risk factors. The purpose of this investigation was to test two methods of recruiting a comparison group for 5-year oral and pharyngeal cancer survivors (peer-nominated and listed sample with emphasis on feasibility and the quality of the match. Methods Participants were drawn from a pool of 5-year survivors treated at a large Southeastern hospital. A peer-nominated sample was solicited from the survivors. A listed sample matched on sex, age, and zip code was purchased. Telephone interviews were conducted by a professional call center. Results The following represent our key findings: The quality of matching between survivors and listed sample was better than that between survivors and peer-nominated group in age and sex. The quality of matching between the two methods on other key variables did not differ except for education, with the peer method providing a better match for the survivors than the listed sample. The yield for the listed sample method was greater than for the peer-nominated method. The cost per completed interview was greater for the peer-nominated method than the listed sample. Conclusion This study not only documents the methodological challenges in selecting a comparison group for studies examining the late effects of cancer treatment among older individuals but also documents challenges in matching groups that potentially have disproportionate levels of comorbidities and at-risk health behaviors.

  10. Celebrating Co-operation among Saskatchewan’s Libraries: The Multitype Library Board, 1996-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saskatchewan’s Multitype Library Board (MLB celebrates its 20th anniversary in 2016. It was established under the passage of the provincial government’s The Libraries Co- operation Act in 1996 to facilitate the co-operative development of the multitype library system in Saskatchewan. This legislation is unique in Canada. The MLB is a Minister of Education Advisory Board and it provides a forum to promote and facilitate co-operation among over 320 public libraries in 10 provincial systems, 25 post-secondary libraries, 755 school libraries, several special libraries, and other information providers. Major milestones of the MLB include helping to eliminate the Provincial Sales Tax on library subscriptions, establishing a provincial digitization plan, and creating a cross-sector database licensing program that has resulted in a projected value of 14.8 million dollars to Saskatchewan users in 2014. The development of the MLB and the impact of the programs it has initiated will be discussed, and recommendations for developing a collaborative initiative will be provided. Le Multitype Library Board (MLB de Saskatchewan fête son 20e anniversaire en 2016. Il était établi sous l’Acte The Libraries Co-operation du parti Libéral en 1996 pour faciliter le développement coopératif du système de bibliothèque Multitype en Saskatchewan. Cette législation est unique au Canada. Le MLB est un comité consultatif du ministère de l’Éducation et il fournit un forum pour promouvoir et faciliter la coopération entre plus de 320 bibliothèques publiques dans dix systèmes provinciaux, 25 bibliothèques postsecondaires, 755 bibliothèques scolaires, plusieurs bibliothèques spéciales, et d’autres fournisseurs d’informations. Les étapes importantes du MLB comprennent, à aider à éliminer les taxes de vente provinciale sur les abonnements aux bibliothèques, à établir un plan provincial de numérisation, et à créer un programme de licence

  11. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  12. Risk group, skin lesion history, and sun sensitivity reliability in squamous cell skin cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Mary C; Harris, Robin B; Roe, Denise J; Saboda, Kathylynn; Ranger-Moore, James; Duckett, Laura; Alberts, David S

    2006-11-01

    In studies of skin cancer, participants are often classified into risk groups based on self-reported history of sun exposure or skin characteristics. We sought to determine the reliability of self-reported skin characteristics among participants of a study to evaluate markers for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Multiple questionnaires and screening protocols were administered over a 3-month period to individuals from three risk groups: existing sun damage on forearms but no visible actinic keratoses (n = 91), visible actinic keratoses (n = 38), and history of resected squamous cell skin cancer in the last 12 months (n = 35). We assessed consistency of risk group assignment between telephone screen and study dermatologist assignment, self-reported sun sensitivity (telephone recruitment form versus participant completed profile), and self-reported history of NMSC skin lesions (telephone recruitment form versus health history). There was substantial agreement between probable risk group and final assignment (kappa = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.85) and agreement did not differ by gender. Agreement for self-reported sun sensitivity was moderate (kappa weighted = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.56) with higher agreement for women. For self-reported NMSC lesion history between two interviews, 24 days apart, kappa estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.78 and were higher for women than men. Overall, there was evidence for substantial reproducibility related to risk group assignment and self-reported history of NMSC, with self-reported sun sensitivity being less reliable. In all comparisons, women had higher kappa values than men. These results suggest that self-reported measures of skin cancer risk are reasonably reliable for use in screening subjects into studies.

  13. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea practice guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC.

  14. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormo

  15. Co-operation and conflict in a hospital: interprofessional differences in perception and management of conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjørshammer, M

    2001-02-01

    This article presents a case study of a Norwegian hospital, analysing how health professionals manage conflicts related to work co-operation. Altogether, 29 health professionals working in the hospital were interviewed, and data was analysed according to a grounded theory approach. When in conflict, health professionals seem to use three major approaches to handling the situation: avoidance, forcing and negotiation, and usually in that order. Avoidance behaviour or suppression is the most common reaction to an emerging conflict. If the use of power does not re-establish a balance between the participants, one negotiates. These conflict styles seem to be determined by two major factors: the perceived interdependence between parties and the perceived urgency of doing something about the situation. Nurses and physicians in particular seem to differ considerably in their perception of what is a conflict and when to do something about it. Such differences in perceptions and the extensive use of avoidance represent important challenges to managers and clinical leaders when it comes to advancing interprofessional co-operation.

  16. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  17. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children’s Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Kaviani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. Materials and Method: In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events.

  18. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  19. Excision repair cross complementation group 1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chao; DENG Zai-chun; ZHANG Yan-mei; WANG Ran; SUN Shi-fang; CHEN Zhong-bo; MA Hong-ying; YU Yi-ming; DING Qun-li; SHU Li-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the association between polymorphisms of encoding excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) enzyme and lung cancer risk in diverse populations but with conflicting results.By pooling the relatively small samples in each study, it is possible to perform a meta-analysis of the evidence by rigorous methods.Methods Embase, Ovid, Medline and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched. Additional studies were identified from references in original studies or review articles. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically, and the reported data were aggregated using the statistical techniques of meta-analysis.Results We found 3810 cases with lung cancer and 4332 controls from seven eligible studies. T19007C polymorphism showed no significant effect on lung cancer risk (C allele vs. T allele: odds ratio (OR)=0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.80-1.04; CC vs. TT: OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.56-1.02; CC vs. (CT+TT): OR=0.96, 95% CI=-0.84-1.10). Similarly,there was no significant main effects for T19007C polymorphism on lung cancer risk when stratified analyses by ethnicity (Chinese or Caucasian). No significant association was found between C8092A polymorphism (3060 patients and 2729 controls) and the risk of lung cancer (A allele vs. C allele: OR=1.03, 95% CI=0.95-1.11; AA vs. CC: OR=1.08, 95% CI=-0.88-1.33; AA vs. (AC+CC): OR=1.08, 95% CI=-0.88-1.31).Conclusion We found little evidence of an association between the T1900C or C8092A polymorphisms of ERCC 1 and the risk of lung cancer in Caucasian or Han Chinese people.

  20. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  1. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments.

  2. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    . The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion......A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study...... investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ...

  3. High Mobility Group B Proteins, Their Partners, and Other Redox Sensors in Ovarian and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Barreiro-Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells try to avoid the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by metabolic rearrangements. These cells also develop specific strategies to increase ROS resistance and to express the enzymatic activities necessary for ROS detoxification. Oxidative stress produces DNA damage and also induces responses, which could help the cell to restore the initial equilibrium. But if this is not possible, oxidative stress finally activates signals that will lead to cell death. High mobility group B (HMGB proteins have been previously related to the onset and progressions of cancers of different origins. The protein HMGB1 behaves as a redox sensor and its structural changes, which are conditioned by the oxidative environment, are associated with different functions of the protein. This review describes recent advances in the role of human HMGB proteins and other proteins interacting with them, in cancerous processes related to oxidative stress, with special reference to ovarian and prostate cancer. Their participation in the molecular mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin, a drug commonly used in chemotherapy, is also revised.

  4. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gpHAE3, was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  5. Local climate activities in co-operation between municipality, civil society and science shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    involvement in projects it was proposed to involve the local branch of the environmental NGO. The starting point was topics developed by the administration and the NGO together and announced to students as part of the Science Shop project supply. The focus is climate impact of local activities and strategies...... in canteens and to elderly citizens, municipal employees’ transportation habits, a municipal energy saving campaign, local businesses’ climate impact, and energy refurbishment of private houses. The knowledge production has in some projects mainly been academic, but joint knowledge production with civil...... society has taken place in some projects. Results have been published locally and some nationally. Especially the food projects have got national interest. Co-operation about environmental impacts of municipal investments may be an up-coming activity....

  6. Twenty Years of Co-operation between Spain and France: Friends, Partners or Allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Mestres i Camps

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in the relations between France and Spain at the 18th Spanish- French Summit, held in Paris on 10 November 2005, demonstrate that relations between France and Spain are passing through a good moment, and at the same time it allows us to go deeper into the analysis of the co-operation between these two neighbours over the past twenty years. This article aims to examine the evolution of relations between Spain and France, which must administer a dense bilateral agenda as neighbours and anothermultilateral agenda as European partners. In other words, it will analyse the extent to which French-Spanish relations can become a balanced, stable alliance.

  7. Caffeinated coffee enhances co-operative behavior in the Mixed Motive Game in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Chan, Chi Choi S; Shiu, Shun Yan K; Chung, Pik Yee A; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-02-01

    Caffeinated drinks are commonly consumed in social gatherings. However, their effects on social behavior remain unclear. The present study examined the effects of caffeinated coffee on antidepressant-related co-operative behavior. Seventy-seven low-caffeine users took part in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of single dose of caffeinated coffee (150 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee (9 mg caffeine) with at least a 3-day washout period. In each session, participants were asked to imagine a fictitious person and play the Mixed Motive Game with that person 45 min after coffee consumption. Heart rate, blood pressure, and state moods were measured at baseline and at 45 min post-coffee consumption. After caffeinated coffee, participants exhibited significantly higher blood pressure. They also allocated significantly fewer scores to themselves and sent significantly more sadness message during the game. These results suggest that caffeinated coffee may help to improve social support and depressive symptoms.

  8. Sweden's Co-operation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Chirman, Inessa; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Karlberg, Olof; Klasen, Haakan; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Wickman, Barbro

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented co-operation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Moldova, based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security, waste management, nonproliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host countries and the international community as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2011. The project managers from SSM are the cornerstones of our successful work, but all the efforts and dedication by staff members of the facilities and authorities in the mentioned countries are indispensable for the long-term positive outcomes. This report is meant to serve as a detailed account regarding SSM's efforts as part of the Swedish international activities, on which Sweden will report to the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. The parties to the G-8 Global Partnership have in June 2011 extended the Global Partnership for ten more years, till 2022. Other international frameworks, such as the UNSC Resolution 1540, remain a vibrant instrument by which UN Member States can exchange information on security concerns and request assistance from each other. The projects that SSM implements in Moldova and Georgia have a reference to the aims and purposes of the UNSC Resolution 1540. Much work has been done in the fields of nuclear security and safety, but there are still lots of issues that need to be taken care of. As such, SSM will continue to do its part for nuclear safety and security at the international level, along the lines and priorities set by our Government.

  9. Co-operation between Large Enterprises (LE’s and SME’s: an Approach to Overcome the Stage Internationalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Brilhante Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many companies are using their networks in order to overcome psychic distance – liability of foreignness – and liability of outsidership; and networks at domestic markets can be a base in which SMEs can find a lever to get a rapid internationalization process. Regarding this topic has been developed a case study in the Polish market, where a local retailer (“Biedronka” owned by a Portuguese group (“Jerónimo Martins” is offering Portuguese products. In order to apply a constructivist methodology, using the case study method, five SMEs where selected in order to understand if co-operation between these companies and a LE (Large Enterprise would be a way in order to overcome the liability of foreignness and the liability of outsidership. It was also our purpose the understanding of which are the main issues that promote insidership and also the promotion of a rapid internationalization. Our conclusions have shown a LE as a source of institutional and market-specific knowledge, and regarding this last type of knowledge, as source of opportunities, and also how a SME with internationalization knowledge, an international focus and adaptation skills (in order to adapt products and prices can introduce in a co-operative international venture, in far psychic markets, the ingredients needed to get a successful and rapid entry in a foreign market. Trust as a resource, accumulated during lasting relationships in the domestic market, has been shown as a basic requirement to develop these co-operative approaches in international markets.

  10. Extensive co-operation between the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA3 proteins in the manipulation of host gene expression and epigenetic chromatin modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E White

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is able to drive the transformation of B-cells, resulting in the generation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs in vitro. EBV nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C are necessary for efficient transformation, while EBNA3B is dispensable. We describe a transcriptome analysis of BL31 cells infected with a series of EBNA3-knockout EBVs, including one deleted for all three EBNA3 genes. Using Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST microarrays analysed with the MMBGX algorithm, we have identified over 1000 genes whose regulation by EBV requires one of the EBNA3s. Remarkably, a third of the genes identified require more than one EBNA3 for their regulation, predominantly EBNA3C co-operating with either EBNA3B, EBNA3A or both. The microarray was validated by real-time PCR, while ChIP analysis of a selection of co-operatively repressed promoters indicates a role for polycomb group complexes. Targets include genes involved in apoptosis, cell migration and B-cell differentiation, and show a highly significant but subtle alteration in genes involved in mitosis. In order to assess the relevance of the BL31 system to LCLs, we analysed the transcriptome of a set of EBNA3B knockout (3BKO LCLs. Around a third of the genes whose expression level in LCLs was altered in the absence of EBNA3B were also altered in 3BKO-BL31 cell lines.Among these are TERT and TCL1A, implying that EBV-induced changes in the expression of these genes are not required for B-cell transformation. We also identify 26 genes that require both EBNA3A and EBNA3B for their regulation in LCLs. Together, this shows the complexity of the interaction between EBV and its host, whereby multiple EBNA3 proteins co-operate to modulate the behaviour of the host cell.

  11. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries.

  12. GENERATION OF COMPLEMENTARY CODES AND DOUBLY CO-OPERATIVE TERNARY SEQUENCES AND THEIR COMPARITIVE STUDY IN AMBIGUITY DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SRIHARI RAO,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulse coding and linear frequency modulation in analog or discrete form are widely used in radar systems for pulse compression to achieve high range resolution. Such coded waveforms are detected by a threshold detector after matched filtering. Complementary codes, which use multiple binary sequences exhibit the most desirable characteristics, so that they achieve perfect side lobe cancellation.Here generation of complementary codes is presented whose sum of autocorrelation functions is double the length of the sequence for zero shift and zero for other shifts and pairs of doubly co-operative ternary sequences which are co-operative not only in the utocorrelation domain but also in the signal domain is presented. Theenergy efficiency of the sequences is found as unity or 100%. The hoice of the selection of the sequence in the case of complementary sequences is restricted to a few number of sequences where as in doubly co-operative sequences, the choice is broader. This is due to the property of the co-operative sequence is slightly relaxedfrom complementary codes as side lobe is relaxed to ±1 from zero in the case of complementary codes. The radar ambiguity function epresents the output of the matched filter used by the radar esigners which provides information about how different waveforms may be suitable for various radar applications. The behaviour of complementary sequences and doubly co-operative sequences is studied in ambiguity domain.

  13. Information contracting tools in a cancer specialist unit:the role of Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Marlow

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for high quality management information within the contracting process has driven many of the major developments in health service computing. These have often merged clinical and financial requirements, usually along patient-centred lines. In order to identify a common currency for a range of clinical activities that are inherently variable, price tariffs have been drawn up on the basis of 'episodes of care' within specialties. Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs were designed to meet the need for a common information currency. However, they were designed for acute care. The study on which this paper is based aims to examine their applicability to chronic care in a cancer specialist unit. The data were drawn from the patient information system within a major cancer unit. The focus of the investigation is encapsulated in the following questions: a Do HRGs really work as a grouping and costing methodology? b How relevant are HRG classifications for long-term patient care? The investigation demonstrated that not all HRGs are iso-resource within this environment. The findings from the data analysis are echoed by the NHS Executive's own evaluation . This does not negate advantages in their use. Furthermore, the development of Health Benefit Groups as information management tools, through a focus on health conditions and interventions rather than on purely on treatments, offers potential for greater validity within a chronic care situation.

  14. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen;

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti...... with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier...

  15. 租税行政の国際的動向 : 協力的コンプライアンス(Co-operative Compliance)の意義と課題

    OpenAIRE

    宮崎, 綾望

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the Co-operative Compliance approach under Japanese tax law. OECD published "Co-operative Compliance : A FRAMEWORK - FROM ENHANCED RELATIONSHIP TO CO-OPERATIVE COMPLIANCE 2013." Within the Co-operative Compliance approach, large taxpayers and revenue bodies base their relationship on mutual understanding and trust. This report suggests that many countries have developed Co-operative Compliance. But, some commentators have questioned Co-operative Compliance and equality b...

  16. Long-term results of Danish Prostatic Cancer Group trial 86. Goserelin acetate plus flutamide versus orchiectomy in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Klarskov, Peter;

    1993-01-01

    In a multicenter trial conducted by the Danish Prostatic Cancer Group, 264 patients with advanced prostate cancer were randomized either to undergo bilateral orchiectomy or to receive combination treatment with goserelin acetate and flutamide. This report is an update of that study, covering...... of goserelin and flutamide was not clinically superior to bilateral orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer....... a median follow-up for survival of 57 months. Of 262 patients who were evaluated, 208 have died. As noted in earlier analyses of this study, no differences in time to progression and cause-specific and overall survival could be identified between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, the combination...

  17. Effect of co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering on estimates of three parameters AVA inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh R Nair; Suresh Ch Kandpal

    2010-04-01

    We determine the degree of variation of model fitness,to a true model based on amplitude variation with angle (AVA)methodology for a synthetic gas hydrate model,using co-operative fuzzy c-means clustering,constrained to a rock physics model.When a homogeneous starting model is used,with only traditional least squares optimization scheme for inversion,the variance of the parameters is found to be comparatively high.In this co-operative methodology,the output from the least squares inversion is fed as an input to the fuzzy scheme.Tests with co-operative inversion using fuzzy c-means with damped least squares technique and constraints derived from empirical relationship based on rock properties model show improved stability,model fitness and variance for all the three parameters in comparison with the standard inversion alone.

  18. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  19. Effectiveness of Spiritual Group Therapy on Quality of Life and Spiritual Well-Being among Patients with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaniyan, Sakineh; Bolhari, Jafar; Naziri, Ghasem; Akrami, Majid; Hosseini, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Cancer is deemed the century's major health problem, and its increasing growth during the last decades has made experts concerned more than ever. Of all types of cancer, breast cancer is regarded as the second most common disease among women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of spiritual group therapy on quality of life and spiritual well-being among patients suffering from breast cancer. The present research was carried out between March and June 2011. The sample consisted of 24 participants randomly assigned to 2 groups: an experimental group (n, 12) and a control group (n, 12). All the subjects completed questionnaires on quality of life and spiritual well-being in pretest and posttest. The experimental group received 12 sessions of spiritual group therapy. The results demonstrated improvement in quality of life and spiritual well-being in the experimental group. In conclusion, spiritual group therapy can be used to improve quality of life and spiritual well-being (religious health and existential health) among patients with breast cancer.

  20. Informative value of some endocrine homeostatic parameters in the formation of endometrial cancer risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Sidorenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH and 90 patients with Stages I-II endometrial cancer (EC were followed up. The patients’ mean age was 44.3±2.1 years. A control group consisted of 20 healthy women matched for age. Before treatment, the authors determined the blood levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol by radiometric assay and the content of daily excreted cortisol, cortisone, tetrahydrocortisol, tetrahydrocortisone, 11-hydroxy-17-ketosteroids, estrone, estradiol, and pregnanediol by the conventional classical studies.The nature of the impaired synthesis and metabolism of sex and adrenocorticoid hormones and their degree have been found to coincide, which suggest that it is expedient to use these findings to form EC risk groups in patients with AEH in the late reproductive period.

  1. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  2. Co-operation at work: a process-oriented perspective on joint activity in inter-organizational relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, T; Clases, C; Bachmann, R

    2000-07-01

    In this paper the authors present a conceptual framework for analysing co-operation between organizations as a situated process, highlighting co-operation, co-ordination and co-construction as different modes of joint activity. Within this framework, the analysis of unexpected events becomes a crucial issue. The analytic power of reconstructing the (psycho-) logics of unexpected events in inter-organizational relations will be demonstrated in the presentation of selected outcomes of a research project on the dynamics of producer-supplier relationships in the German automobile industry. Also in this empirical part, the significance of trust and confidence in inter-organizational relations will be reflected.

  3. Co-operation in Collection Development : Summary of the Meeting of the Division of Collection Development, Prague, July 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wade

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Bernard Naylor gave a summary of some important milestones leading up to the present situation in library co-operation in the UK. From 1979 to 1986 three reports from the UK Library and Information Services Council on the future development of libraries had been published. The reports had argued for a cross sectoral approach to any attempts at co-operation, for a regional focus, and for local information plans. The reports also emphasized that all planning involved participation both from the top/down and from the bottom/up. All reports had made clear that only limited funds would be available for future planning.

  4. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  5. Amino acid catalyzed bulk-phase gelation of organoalkoxysilanes via a transient co-operative self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shukun; Hu, Daodao; Sun, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaoru; Parikh, Atul N

    2009-10-15

    We report acceleration in the rate of bulk phase gelation of an organoalkoxysilane, 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS), in the presence of an amphiphilic additive, N-phenyl glycine (NPG). The MAPTMS gelation occurs within 30 min in the presence of 0.5 wt % NPG, which took several months in the absence of NPG. Using a combination of ATR-FT IR, (29)Si NMR, (1)H NMR, viscosity analysis, SEM, UV-vis, and pi-A isotherm measurements, we elucidate the molecular-level details of the structural changes during NPG-catalyzed MPTMS gelation rate. On the basis of these results, we propose a gelation mechanism in which a transient cooperative self-assembly process fosters hydrolysis and retards early condensation thereby promoting the formation of extended three-dimensionally cross-linked gels. Specifically, the amphiphilic character of the hydrolysis product of MAPTMS, consisting of a hydrophobic tail R = -CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)O(CO)C(CH(3)) horizontal lineCH(2) and a hydrophilic Si-OH headgroup, promotes micelle formation at high MAPTMS/water ratio. NPG readily inserts within these micelles thus retarding the topotactic condensation of silanols at the micellar surface. This in turn allows for a more complete hydrolysis of Si-OCH(3) groups prior to condensation in MAPTMS. With increased silanol concentration at the micellar periphery, a delayed condensation phase initiates. This formation of a covalently bonded Si-O-Si framework (and possibly also the formation of the methanol byproduct) likely destabilizes the micellar motif thus promoting its transformation into condensed mesophases (e.g., lamellar microstructure) upon gelation. Because of the generality of this transient and co-operative organic-inorganic self-assembly between hydrolyzed amphiphilic organoalkoxysilanes and surfactant-like amino acid additives, we envisage applications in controlling bulk phase gelation of many chain-substituted organoalkoxysilanes.

  6. A Distributed and Co-Operative Approach To Botnet Detection Using Gossip Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Rameshchandra Thakur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bots, in recent times, have posed a major threat to enterprise networks. With the distributed nature of the way in which botnets operate, the problems faced by enterprises have become acute. A bot is a programme that operates as an agent for a user and runs automated tasks over the internet, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human alone. A collection of bots in a network, used for malicious purposes, is referred to as a botnet. In this paper we suggested a distributed, co-operative approach towards detecting botnets is a given network which is inspired by the gossip protocol. Each node in a given network runs a standalone agent that computes a suspicion value for that node after regular intervals. Each node in the network exchanges its suspicion values with every other node in the network at regular intervals. The use of gossip protocol ensures that if a node in the network is compromised, all other nodes in the network are informed about it as soon as possible. Each node also ensures that at any instance, by means of the gossip protocol, it maintains the latest suspicion values of all the other nodes in the network.

  7. Co-operative Scheduled Energy Aware Load-Balancing technique for an Efficient Computational Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R V Anandharajan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing in the recent years has been taking its evolution from the scientific to the non scientific and commercial applications. Power consumption and Load balancing are very important and complex problem in computational Cloud. A computational Cloud differs from traditional high-performance computing systems in the heterogeneity of the computing nodes, as well as the communication links that connect the different nodes together. Load Balancing is a very important component in the commodity services based cloud computing. There is a need to develop algorithms that can capture this complexity yet can be easily implemented and used to solve a wide range of load-balancing scenarios in a Data and Computing intensive applications. In this paper, we propose to find the best EFFICIENT cloud resource by Co-operative Power aware Scheduled Load Balancing solution to the Cloud load-balancing problem. The algorithm developed combines the inherent efficiency of the centralized approach, energy efficient and the fault-tolerant nature of the distributed environment like Cloud.

  8. Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.

    2004-12-01

    Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

  9. UEFA and the European Union: From Confrontation to Co-operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja García

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between UEFA, as European football’s governing body, and the EU. It assesses the evolution of UEFA as a football governing body since the Bosman ruling (1995 until current initiatives such as the rules on locally-trained players (2005-2006. The paper traces the evolution of UEFA’s reactions to the increasing involvement of EU institutions in football matters, with special focus on the regulation of the players’ market. It is argued that UEFA’s attitude towards the EU has changed in the last ten years. Whilst the EU was seen as a threat for UEFA in 1995, it is now considered a ‘long term strategic partner’. Two main reasons can be identified for UEFA’s evolution. First and foremost, UEFA has been forced to accept the primacy of European law and its application to the activities of football organisations. UEFA has had no option but to adapt to the impact of European law and policies on its activities. This has lead to a relationship of ‘supervised’ autonomy between UEFA and the EU institutions. Second, UEFA’s strategic vision to preserve its own position within the governance structures of football. UEFA has tried to enhance its legitimacy within football’s governing structures by engaging in policy co-operation with EU authorities. This paper draws almost entirely on empirical research conducted through elite interviews and the review of official documents.

  10. Co-operative Wireless Intrusion Detection System Using MIBs From SNMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Vyavhare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In emerging technology of Internet, security issues are becoming more challenging. In case of wired LAN it is somewhat in control, but in case of wireless networks due to exponential growth in attacks, it has made difficult to detect such security loopholes. Wireless network security is being addressed using firewalls, encryption techniques and wired IDS (Intrusion Detection System methods. But the approaches which were used in wired network were not successful in producing effective results for wireless networks. It is so because of features of wireless network such as open medium, dynamic changing topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring and management point, and lack of a clear line of defense etc. So, there is need for new approach which will efficiently detect intrusion in wireless network. Efficiency can be achieved by implementing distributive, co-operative based, multi-agent IDS. The proposed system supports all these three features. It includes mobile agents for intrusion detection which uses SNMP (Simple network Management Protocol and MIB (Management Information Base variables for mobile wireless networks

  11. SECURITY CO-OPERATION IN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW INSTITUTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoni Van Nieuwkerk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the institutional dimensions of security cooperationas it manifests in the Southern African Development Community(SADC. As the quotations above suggest, security co-operation, as part of a biggerproject of regional integration, is not obvious. Indeed, should southern Africansbelieve their politicians when the latter claim that SADC is ‘forging ahead’ on theroad to formal integration? Slabbert is not convinced. Not only academics, but civilsociety increasingly question its raison d’ etre. For many, it is unclear whether orhow SADC provides human security to the people of the region. Instead, SADCmembers’ positions on the key regional challenges (trade, growth and development,security and stability are driven by national interest rather than regional interest – asrealists argue, national interests (a must-have are hard and measurable; regional cooperation(often a nice-to-have is hard to measure. Or should we accept a regionalconsciousness shaped by a shared historical experience – a problematic assumption?

  12. Prevention of Co-operative Black Hole attack in Manet on DSR protocol using Cryptographic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Vennila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile node in which each node can communicate with other node without use of predefined infrastructure. Currently, a lot of efficient protocols have been proposed for MANET. All of these efficient Routing protocols are depends only conviction and supportive environment. Conversely, the networks are more vulnerable to various kinds of routing attacks with the presence of malicious nodes. Black hole attack is one of network layer attack. In this attack, A malicious node make use of routing protocol to advertise itself that has a shortest path to reach destination, drops at the cost of original routing packets. In our work, the proposed algorithm is used to secure the DSR protocol. This will help to improve the performance of Mobile Ad hoc network due to the attack. There are several prevention mechanisms to eliminate the Black Hole attack in MANET. The aim of the paper is to provide better prevention of Co-operative Black hole attack in MANET and how it affects the performance metrics in terms of throughput and delay of the network by comparing the network performance with and without black hole nodes.

  13. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. de; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Ares, L.P.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the Amst

  14. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. De; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Paz-Ares, L.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the

  15. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of ...

  16. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the A...

  17. Environmental exposure to trace elements and prostate cancer in three New Zealand ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Marion A; Centeno, Jose A; Slaney, David P; Ejnik, John W; Todorov, Todor; Nacey, John N

    2005-12-01

    A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and possible associations of blood levels of Cd, Se and Zn with the prevalence of elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA); a marker of prostate cancer. Maori and Pacific Islands men were found likely to have higher Cd exposure than New Zealand Europeans through diet, occupation and smoking. However, there was no significant difference between ethnic groups in mean blood Cd levels. Pacific Islands men had significantly higher levels of blood Se than both New Zealand European men and Maori men. Maori men had significantly higher levels of blood Zn than both New Zealand European men and Pacific Islands men. A positive association was found between blood Cd and total serum PSA. Se and Zn levels were not associated with elevated PSA. Maori and Pacific Islands men have higher prostate cancer mortality rates than New Zealand European men. Ethnic differences in mortality could be contributed to by differences in rates of disease progression, influenced by exposure and/or deficiency to trace elements. However, results did not reflect a consistent ethnic trend and highlight the complexity of the risk/protective mechanisms conferred by exposure factors. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the associations found between Cd and PSA levels are biologically important or are merely factors to be considered when interpreting PSA results clinically.

  18. Environmental Exposure to Trace Elements and Prostate Cancer in Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Nacey

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se and zinc (Zn and possible associations of blood levels of Cd, Se and Zn with the prevalence of elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA; a marker of prostate cancer. Maori and Pacific Islands men were found likely to have higher Cd exposure than New Zealand Europeans through diet, occupation and smoking. However, there was no significant difference between ethnic groups in mean blood Cd levels. Pacific Islands men had significantly higher levels of blood Se than both New Zealand European men and Maori men. Maori men had significantly higher levels of blood Zn than both New Zealand European men and Pacific Islands men. A positive association was found between blood Cd and total serum PSA. Se and Zn levels were not associated with elevated PSA. Maori and Pacific Islands men have higher prostate cancer mortality rates than New Zealand European men. Ethnic differences in mortality could be contributed to by differences in rates of disease progression, influenced by exposure and/or deficiency to trace elements. However, results did not reflect a consistent ethnic trend and highlight the complexity of the risk/protective mechanisms conferred by exposure factors. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the associations found between Cd and PSA levels are biologically important or are merely factors to be considered when interpreting PSA results clinically.

  19. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.;

    2008-01-01

    at diagnosis, tumour size, nodal status, or pregnancy history before diagnosis of breast cancer. Neither spontaneous abortions nor induced abortions subsequent to breast cancer treatment had a negative impact on prognosis. CONCLUSION: In line with our previous study, but based on more than twice the patient...... material, we found no evidence that a pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer has a negative influence the prognosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008......BACKGROUND: Estrogen is an established growth factor in breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that pregnancy associated estrogens may increase the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. In 1997 we published a population-based Danish study indicating no negative prognostic effect of pregnancy...

  20. Manual of electric power conservation. Residential co-operatives buildings; Manual de conservacao de energia eletrica. Condominios residenciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    Procedures to electric power consumption optimization, and energy conservation on residential co-operative buildings are presented. Lighting consumption profiles, lamps and its lighting characteristic table, internal program to energy conservation, some information about energy consumption optimization, water consumption, energy costs, performance evaluation and safety patterns on electric plants are discussed. 25 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Managing technical-institutional design processes: some strategic lessons from environmental co-operatives in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roep, D.; Ploeg, van der J.D.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the case of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA is reviewed in terms of coevolving technical and institutional change and the strategic lessons to be learned for a pro-active management of such complex technical-institutional design processes. Facing the many-sided crisis in

  2. Is the Ownership Structure Model a Decisive Determinant of Co-Operatives' Financial Success? A Financial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Kuikman, J.; Doumpos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper, the financial/ownership structures of agribusiness co-operatives (co-ops) are analyzed in order to examine whether new co-op models perform better than the more traditional ones. The assessment procedure introduces a new financial decision-aid approach, which is based on dat

  3. Investigating the Influence of Group Therapy with Logo Therapy Approach in Reducing Depression in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Sharifi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to investigate the Influence of group therapy with logo therapy approach in reducing depression in patients with colorectal cancer in Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital. The research method was quasiexperimental design with pre-test, post-test, control group and follow-up (2 months. The study population included all patients with colorectal cancer in Tehran and referred samples to Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital in the second 6 months of the year 2015. The sample consisted of 30 patients with colorectal cancer (45 to 65 years old who were selected for sampling and randomly divided into two Control and Experimental groups (15 people. The tool was Beck Depression questionnaire that consists of 21 questions that was conducted in three stages. The intervention included logo therapy package in group method that it was in held in 10 sessions of 2 hours, 2 sessions per a week for experimental group and there was no intervention in the control group. To analyze the data, and inferential findings, descriptive statistic and the one-way ANCOVA, two-way and repeated measures test was used, respectively. The results of investigating data showed that intervention with logo therapy approach was effective on reducing depression in patients with colorectal cancer and the results of follow-up analysis showed effect lasting over time. So, this method can be used to reduce depression in patients with colorectal cancer.

  4. The efficacy of the inhalation of an aerosolized Group A streptococcal preparation in the treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Xiang Liu; Fei Cui; Guoqin Chen; Yubao Guan; Jianxing He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of the inhalation of an aerosolized group A streptococcal (GAS) preparation in treating orthotopic lung cancer in mouse models and assess the feasibility,safety,and effectiveness of this administration mode for lung cancer.Methods:Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell strains were administered via intrathoracic injection to establish orthotopic lung cancer mouse models.After the tumor-bearing models were successfully established,as confirmed by computed tomography,the mice were administered by inhalation with an aerosolized GAS preparation (GAS group) or aerosolized normal saline (control group).The anti-tumor effect of the aerosolized GAS preparation was evaluated histologically; meanwhile,the survival and quality of life were compared between these two groups.Results:The aerosolized GAS preparation showed remarkably anti-tumor effect,causing the necrosis of the orthotopic lung cancer cells in tumor-bearing mice.Furthermore,mice in the GAS group had significantly better quality of life and longer survival than those in control group.conclusions:The inhalation of aerosolized GAS preparation may be a feasible,safe and effective solution for lung cancer.

  5. Gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Tarsitani, G

    2004-01-01

    Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate

  6. HLA-Cw group 1 ligands for KIR increase susceptibility to invasive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maureen P; Borecki, Ingrid B; Zhang, Zhengyan; Nguyen, Loan; Ma, Duanduan; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Carrington, Mary; Rader, Janet S

    2010-12-01

    Inherited genetic polymorphisms within immune response genes have been shown to associate with risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and its immediate precursor, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3. Here, we used the transmission/disequilibrium test to detect disease-liability alleles and investigate haplotype transmission of KIR and HLA class I polymorphisms in a large family-based population of women with cervical cancer and their biological parents (359 trios). The effect of distinct human papillomavirus types was also explored. HLA-Cw group 1 (HLA-Cw alleles with asparagine at position 80), which serves as ligand for certain killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), was significantly overtransmitted in women with ICC (P = 0.04), and particularly in the subgroup of women infected with high risk HPV16 or 18 subtypes (P = 0.008). These data support the involvement of the HLA-C locus in modulating the risk of cervical neoplasia perhaps through its function as ligands for KIR, but functional studies are essential to confirm this hypothesis.

  7. Prostate cancer support groups, health literacy and consumerism: are community-based volunteers re-defining older men's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; McKenzie, Michael M; Hislop, T Gregory; Gerbrandt, Julieta S; Oglov, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    In this article we describe the connections between prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) and men's health literacy and consumer orientation to health care services. The study findings are drawn from participant observations conducted at 16 PCSGs in British Columbia, Canada and 54 individual interviews that focused on men's experiences of attending group meetings. Men's communication and interactions at PCSGs provide important insights for how men talk about and conceptualize health and illness. For example, biomedical language often predominated at group meetings, and men used numbers and measures to engage with risk discourses in linking prostate cancer markers to various treatment options and morbidity and mortality rates. Many groups afforded opportunities for men to interact with health care providers as a means to better understand the language and logic of prostate cancer management. The health literacy skills fostered at PCSGs along with specific group-informed strategies could be mobilized in the men's subsequent clinical consultations. Consumer discourses and strategies to contest power relations with health care professionals underpinned many men's search for prostate cancer information and their commitment to assisting other men. Key were patients' rights, and perhaps responsibility, to compare diverse health products and services in making decisions across the entire trajectory of their prostate cancer. Overall, the study findings reveal PCSGs as having the capacity to contest as well as align with medical expertise and services facilitating men's transition from patient to informed health care consumers. The processes through which this occurs may direct the design of older men's health promotion programs.

  8. Implementation and scientific evaluation of rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients: study protocol of the ProRehab Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zopf Eva M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although treatment regimen have improved in the last few years, prostate cancer patients following a radical prostatectomy still experience severe disease- and treatment-related side effects, including urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction and psychological issues. Despite high incidence rates and the common adverse effects there is a lack of supportive measures for male patients and specific physical exercise recommendations for prostate cancer patients during rehabilitation or in the aftercare are still missing. Methods/Design The ProRehab Project aims to establish rehabilitative sports groups particularly for prostate cancer patients and to evaluate the effects of the offered exercise program. Starting 8–12 weeks after prostatectomy or combination therapy, prostate cancer patients will exercise for 15 months within a patient preference randomized controlled trial. One exercise session will be conducted within a pre-established rehabilitative sports group, while the other will be completed independently. Patients in the control group will not participate in the intervention. The main outcomes of the study include aerobic fitness, quality of life, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Discussion By combining science, practice, and public relations the first rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients in Germany have been set up and thus contribute to the care structure for prostate cancer patients. By offering a 15-month physical exercise intervention that is conducted in supervised group sessions, long-term lifestyle changes and therefore improvements in quality of life in prostate cancer patients can be expected. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004184

  9. Breast cancer in ethnic minority groups in developed nations: Case studies of the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meagan

    2017-05-01

    Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies.

  10. Design and implementation of co-operative control strategy for hybrid AC/DC microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Rasel

    This thesis is mainly divided in two major sections: 1) Modeling and control of AC microgrid, DC microgrid, Hybrid AC/DC microgrid using distributed co-operative control, and 2) Development of a four bus laboratory prototype of an AC microgrid system. At first, a distributed cooperative control (DCC) for a DC microgrid considering the state-of-charge (SoC) of the batteries in a typical plug-in-electric-vehicle (PEV) is developed. In DC microgrids, this methodology is developed to assist the load sharing amongst the distributed generation units (DGs), according to their ratings with improved voltage regulation. Subsequently, a DCC based control algorithm for AC microgrid is also investigated to improve the performance of AC microgrid in terms of power sharing among the DGs, voltage regulation and frequency deviation. The results validate the advantages of the proposed methodology as compared to traditional droop control of AC microgrid. The DCC-based control methodology for AC microgrid and DC microgrid are further expanded to develop a DCC-based power management algorithm for hybrid AC/DC microgrid. The developed algorithm for hybrid microgrid controls the power flow through the interfacing converter (IC) between the AC and DC microgrids. This will facilitate the power sharing between the DGs according to their power ratings. Moreover, it enables the fixed scheduled power delivery at different operating conditions, while maintaining good voltage regulation and improved frequency profile. The second section provides a detailed explanation and step-by-step design and development of an AC/DC microgrid testbed. Controllers for the three-phase inverters are designed and tested on different generation units along with their corresponding inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filters to eliminate the switching frequency harmonics. Electric power distribution line models are developed to form the microgrid network topology. Voltage and current sensors are placed in the proper

  11. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  12. Inter-Firm Co-Operative Strategies In The Context Of Discontinuous Technological Change. The Case Of The Uk Optical Communications Systems Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt times of discontinuous technological change co-operation represents a viable strategy for both incumbents and new-entrants, provided that the choice of co-operation is consistent with the firm's business strategy (market-pull vs. technology-push) and with its degree of organizational

  13. Regional higher education co-operation: a research proposal to compare the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ewert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the Baltic Sea Region is considered to be a pioneer region in the development of regional integration and identity, the Black Sea Region is regarded to be a laggard in terms of regionali¬zation and region building. My paper summarizes the role of regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea regionalization process in theory and analyzes the empirical background of these assumptions. Yet, inasmuch an evaluation of the regions` status as a pioneer is possible only in a comparative perspective, I propose to compare the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea Region regarding their higher education networks systematically. My paper asks for the transferability of arguments in favor of a strong regional higher education co-operation in the Baltic Sea Region since the 1990s to today’s situation of the Black Sea Region. It concludes with some fundamental considerations on a comparative research project.

  14. Expression of group IIA phospholipase A2 is an independent predictor of favorable outcome for patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Huang, Chun-Jin; Yu, Guan-Zhen; Wang, Jie-Jun; Wang, Rui; Li, Yu-Mei; Wu, Qiong

    2013-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis in human gastrointestinal cancer. One of the well-studied isoforms of PLA2, group IIA PLA2 (PLA2G2A), appears to exert its protumorigenic or antitumorigenic effects in a tissue-specific manner. The present study was designed to determine the expression profile and prognostic value of PLA2G2A in gastric cancer in a large Chinese cohort. By using real-time polymerase chain reaction, the amount of PLA2G2A messenger RNA in 60 pairs of fresh gastric tumors and adjacent noncancerous mucosa was measured. The immunostaining of PLA2G2A in 866 gastric cancers with paired noncancerous tissues was assayed. No expression of PLA2G2A was found in normal gastric mucosa, and focal expression of PLA2G2A was noticed in intestinal metaplasia, whereas significantly increased expression of PLA2G2A was observed in the cytoplasm of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, the extent of PLA2G2A expression was associated with tumor size (P gastric cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that PLA2G2A expression was an independent predictor of survival for patients with gastric cancer (P = .024). Expression of PLA2G2A seems to be protective for patients with gastric cancer (hazard ratio, 1.423; 95% confidence interval, 1.047-1.935), and it may be a target for achieving better treatment outcomes.

  15. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well.

  16. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  17. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends in mor...... on cancer-specific mortality relative to the total general population may be misleading when interpreted in the context of outcomes and quality of care....

  18. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic......, Gunnarsdottir KA, Rasmussen BB, Moeller S, Lanng C. The prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. Breast 2004;13:188-193]....

  19. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  20. Incidence rates of specific histological types of lung cancer in Singapore Chinese dialect groups, and their aetiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C H; Day, N E; Shanmugaratnam, K

    1976-03-15

    Significant differences in the incidence levels of lung cancer have been observed among major Chinese dialect groups or communities (Kokkien, Teochew and Cantonese) in Singapore. Among males, the incidence rate is highest in the Hokkiens (age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 persons per year in Hokkien 67.8, Teochew 55.3, Cantonese 54.0) and among females, it is highest in the Cantonese (Hokkien 12.4, Teochew 12.8, Cantonese 27.2). The present investigation was undertaken to determine the incidence rates of each of the main histological types of lung cancer in the Chinese population and to determine whether there are any correlations between histological patterns and the dialect group differentials that may be of aetiological significance. During the period 1968-1972, a total of 1,747 cases of lung cancer (1,285 males and 462 females) were reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry. It proved possible to type the neoplasms histologically in 476 males (37.0%) and 154 females (33.3%). Age-standardized rates by histological type were computed on the assumption that those histologically typed were a representative sample of all lung cancers. This study shows that Hokkien males have a significantly higher incidence rate of epidermoid carcinoma than the other dialect groups (Hokkien 36.1, Teochew 21.1, Cantonese 17.3). The Cantonese females have significantly higher incidence rates of both epidermoid carcinoma (Hokkien 3.7, Teochew 2.3, Cantonese 5.9) and adenocarcinoma (Hokkien 4.6, Teochew 3.6, Cantonese 11.9). Various sources of bias in studied of this type were examined; it is concluded that the differences in the histologic-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the various Chinese dialect groups in Singapore are real and not artefactual. The significance of these findings in relation to possible aetiological factors is discussed.

  1. The Contribution Of Co-Operative Education In The Growing Of Talent In South Africa: A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Organisational talent is internationally regarded a key success factor in a competitive world and is continuously challenged. In South Africa, the Apartheid heritage further presents major challenges regarding developmental opportunities of talented people. Co-operative education presents, as structured educational strategy that progressively integrates academic study with learning through productive work experiences, itself as a means to grow the talent of the South African people. As result of the inadequate practice of co-operative education and a fair amount of associated resistance, ‘classical’ literature is reviewed. The literature review further identifies the core properties of co-operative education and the study has attempted to distil the core principles of a phenomenological research design. The specific ‘phenomena’ which the research focused on are existing joint ventures between Higher Education institutions and business enterprises aimed at educating people and growing talent. Selections of the voices of the research participants are presented in this article. Although the present study identifies several shortcomings regarding the practice of co-operative education, it pioneers the notion that the growing of talent can be enhanced through a co-operative education strategy. OpsommingOrganisatoriese talent word internasionaal beskou as ’n sleutelfaktor in ’n kompeterende wêreld en word dus voortdurend aan uitdagings onderwerp. In Suid Afrika stel die nagevolge van Apartheid grootskaalse uitdagings ten opsigte van die ontwikkelings moontlikhede van talentvolle mense. Koöperatiewe onderwys bied, as gestruktureerde opvoedkundige strategie wat progressief akademiese leer met produktiewe werkservaring integreer, ’n geleentheid om die talent van Suid-Afrikaners op te bou. ‘Klasieke’ literatuur word weegegee ten einde die ontoereikende beoefening van koöperatiewe onderwys en ’n gepaartgaande redelike mate van

  2. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in minority groups in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D B

    1979-11-01

    Of 13 cancers that tend to occur at lower rates in aboriginal Americans or in the native lands of Japanese, Chinese, and Spanish-speaking persons than in United States whites, rates for all but one (laryngeal) have increased in migrants to the United States. In addition to leukemia, these 13 cancers include neoplasms that have been related, at least in part, to a diet high in animal fats or proteins (colon and rectum cancer); reproductive and endocrinologic factors and a diet high in animal fats or protein (prostate, ovary, corpus uteri, breast, and testis cancer); chemical carcinogens (lung, larynx, bladder, and pancreas cancer); and a common infectious agent that, like polio viruses, causes clinically overt disease with a frequency directly related to age of patient at initial infection (Hodgkin's disease). Of 9 cancers that occur at higher rates in aboriginal Americans or in one or more of the native lands of migrants than in United States whites, the rates of 5 tend to decrease in migrants. These include cancers that may be related to food preservation (stomach cancer); products of microorganisms that may contaminate foods (esophagus and liver cancer); and infectious agents (nasopharynx, cervix uteri, and liver cancer). In addition, rates of cancer of the thyroid are high in aboriginal Americans; those of the gallbladder are high in individuals of native American ancestry and in Japanese; incidence of salivary gland tumors is high in Alaskan natives and Colombians; and rates of kidney cancer are high in Alaskan natives. Five types of epidemiologic studies are described that should be conducted in the migrants and in their countries of origin and adoption to elucidate further the etiology of various neoplasms.

  3. Is screening for pancreatic cancer in high-risk groups cost-effective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maiken Thyregod; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sørensen, Jan;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, symptoms are few and diffuse, and when the diagnosis has been made only 10-15% would benefit from resection. Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for pancreatic cancer, and the prognosis seems...... with Hereditary pancreatitis or with a disposition of HP and 40 first-degree relatives of patients with Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) were screened for development of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with yearly endoscopic ultrasound. The cost-effectiveness of screening in comparison with no...

  4. Clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families and suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑛; 叶俊; 郑树

    2004-01-01

    Background Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPPC) is one of the most common genetic syndrome related with mutation of human mismatch repair genes. This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (sHNPCC) criteria I and the clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-HNPCC (ICG-HNPCC) and sHNPCC families.Methods Twenty-nine ICG-HNPCC families fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria and 34 sHNPCC families fulfilling the sHNPCC criteria I were collected. PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing analysis were employed to screen the germline mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in these families.Results The ICG group had more colorectal cancer (CRC) patients per family than did the suspected group (P0.05), mutation type, and mutation distribution. Comparison of the families with and without mutation showed no significant difference in CRC patients per family, Lynch classification, and tumor spectrum.Conclusions ICG-HNPCC and sHNPCC families that have similar clinical manifestations and genetic basis indicate a similar nature for cancer development. The application of sHNPCC criteria I will facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment of small families.

  5. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  6. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  7. Disparities in survival of stomach cancer among different socioeconomic groups in North-East Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, Ester J. M.; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Mulder, Nanno H.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Survival differences in stomach cancer are depended on patient, tumour and treatment factors. Some populations are more prone to develop stomach cancer, such as people with low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this population based study was to assess whether differences in socioec

  8. [Skin cancer: use of preventive measures and demographic profile of a risk group in the city of Botucatu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popim, Regina Célia; Corrente, José Eduardo; Marino, Jaqueline Aparecida Geromel; de Souza, Carolina Arantes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish the demographic profile of an at-risk group for skin cancer and to assess the preventive measures taken by the studied individuals and by the employer. The methods chosen was a quantitative study with a sample of 33 mail carriers from the Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos in Botucatu, Brazil. Information regarding the demographic profile, how long the individual had been working for the company, hours of sun exposure, history of sunburns, family cancer history and skin cancer prevention strategies used by the company was collected by means of a questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Fisher's Exact Test at a 5% probability. The predominant age groups were 26-30 and 31-35 years corresponding to 42,42%. The predominant skin color was white (93,94%) and 81,82% of the studied individuals were working in the company for over five years. 63,63% of the interviewees use sunscreen habitually; those who do not explain this with a lack of habit (in 75% of the cases). As refers to supply of protective equipment by the company, 100% of the subjects answered positively. These findings allow characterizing the studied population as a skin cancer risk group. Prophylactic measures in form of educational actions for awareness building should be adopted and stimulated.

  9. Success and risk factors for multi-national CIIP co-operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    During the Swiss-German organised EAPC/PfP/NATO Workshop on Cyber Security and Contingency Planning, held from 25 to 27 September 2003 in Zurich, Switzerland, three working groups were formed. One of the working groups with delegates of over twenty EAPC, PfP, and NATO countries undertook the task to

  10. The polycomb group protein EZH2 is a novel therapeutic target in tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Wang, Yanling; Qiu, Jing; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Chunping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Dongmiao; Ye, Jinhai; Jiang, Hongbin; Yang, Jianrong; Cheng, Jie

    2013-12-01

    EZH2, a core member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2), mediates transcriptional silencing by catalyzing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27), which plays key roles in cancer initiation and progression. Here, we investigated the expression pattern and biological roles of EZH2 in tongue tumorigenesis by loss-of-function assays using small interference RNA and EZH2 inhibitor DZNep. Also we determined the therapeutic efficiency of DZNep against tongue cancer in vivo. We found that aberrantly overexpressed EZH2 was associated with pathological grade, cervical nodes metastasis and Ki-67 expression in tongue cancers. Elevated EZH2 correlated with shorter overall survival and showed significant and independent prognostic importance in patients with tongue cancer. Both genetic and pharmacological depletion of EZH2 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation and decreased CD44+ subpopulation probably in part through modulating p16, p21 and E-caherin. Moreover, DZNep enhanced the anticancer effects of 5-Fluorouracil. Furthermore, intratumoral EZH2 inhibition induced by DZNep intraperitoneal administration significantly attenuated tumor growth in a tongue cancer xenograft model. Taken together, our results indicate that EZH2 serves as a key driver with multiple oncogenic functions during tongue tumorigenesis and a new biomarker for tongue cancer diagnosis and prognostic prediction. These findings open up possibilities for therapeutic intervention against EZH2 in tongue cancer.

  11. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer...... drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms...

  12. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  13. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  14. Use of KPIs to Regulate Co-operation and to Improve Intercompany Benchmarking in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to investigate whether it can fairly be assumed that the prequalification and selection of co-operators via Key Performance Indicators (KPI) provide increased odds in favour of success, a study on contractors consisting of benchmark results from The Benchmark Centre for the Danish...... Construction Sector and financial statements has been accomplished. Through a comparative analysis based on detected correlations between economy and KPIs, it is explained how these factors are linked. The research showed that the use of KPIs has motivated companies to improve their competitive ability, thus...... with the company's financial stability and customer satisfaction....

  15. LTI system order reduction approach based on asymptotical equivalence and the Co-operation of biology-related algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, I. S.; Semenkin, E. S.; Akhmedova, Sh A.

    2017-02-01

    A novel order reduction method for linear time invariant systems is described. The method is based on reducing the initial problem to an optimization one, using the proposed model representation, and solving the problem with an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method of determining the model allows all the parameters of the model with lower order to be identified and by definition, provides the model with the required steady-state. As a powerful optimization tool, the meta-heuristic Co-Operation of Biology-Related Algorithms was used. Experimental results proved that the proposed approach outperforms other approaches and that the reduced order model achieves a high level of accuracy.

  16. Success and risk factors for multi-national CIIP co-operation

    OpenAIRE

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    During the Swiss-German organised EAPC/PfP/NATO Workshop on Cyber Security and Contingency Planning, held from 25 to 27 September 2003 in Zurich, Switzerland, three working groups were formed. One of the working groups with delegates of over twenty EAPC, PfP, and NATO countries undertook the task to discuss issues related to critical information infrastructure protection (CIIP) and civil emergency planning (CEP

  17. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    OpenAIRE

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  18. Information transfer to out-of-hours co-operatives: a survey of general practitioners' views in relation to palliative patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    In Ireland, weekend and night medical cover for community based patients is largely provided by general practice co-operatives. Doctors working in this service do not have direct access to patients\\' medical records which challenges continuity of care.

  19. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend < 0.001), milk·dairy product (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.10-5.31, p for trend = 0.071) and beverage (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.35-7.48, p for trend = 0.002) intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high

  20. Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer: a European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) status report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In non-jaundiced patients, however, CA 19-9 may complement other diagnostic procedures. In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, presurgical and postresection CA 19-9 levels correlate with overall survival. In advanced disease, elevated pretreatment levels of CA 19-9 are associated with adverse patient outcome and thus may be combined with other factors for risk stratification. Most, but not all, reports indicate that serial levels of CA 19-9 correlate with response to systemic therapy. Use of CA 19-9 kinetics in conjunction with imaging is therefore recommended in monitoring therapy. Although several potential serum and tissue markers for pancreatic cancer are currently undergoing evaluation, none are sufficiently validated for routine clinical use. CA 19-9 thus remains the serum pancreatic cancer marker against which new markers for this malignancy should be judged.

  1. International Civil Aviation Co-operation Reinforced Wu Nianzu attends Asia Aviation Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Wu Nianzu, chairman and president of the Shanghai Airport (Group) Company, was invited by Huang Wenliang, director of Singapore Civil Aviation Administration, to attend 2004 Asia Aviation Exhibition held in Singapore on February 22 to 28. His party included Wang Guangdi, vice president of the company.They attended the opening ceremony, visited the

  2. Effect of Assessment on Co-Operation among Vietnamese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    This research study investigated the behaviour and interactions of university students as they engaged with ill-structured and well-structured assessment tasks. Twenty students participated in a one-semester intensive design study in a course on "Vietnamese traditional culture". The students worked in five-person groups that were…

  3. 1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

  4. 3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.

  5. A new co-operative inversion strategy via fuzzy clustering technique applied to seismic and magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong Kieu, Duy; Kepic, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical inversion produces very useful images of earth parameters; however, inversion results usually suffer from inherent non-uniqueness: many subsurface models with different structures and parameters can explain the measurements. To reduce the ambiguity, extra information about the earth's structure and physical properties is needed. This prior information can be extracted from geological principles, prior petrophysical information from well logs, and complementary information from other geophysical methods. Any technique used to constrain inversion should be able to integrate the prior information and to guide updating inversion process in terms of the geological model. In this research, we have adopted fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique for this purpose. FCM is a clustering method that allows us to divide the model of physical parameters into a few clusters of representative values that also may relate to geological units based on the similarity of the geophysical properties. This exploits the fact that in many geological environments the earth is comprised of a few distinctive rock units with different physical properties. Therefore FCM can provide a platform to constrain geophysical inversion, and should tend to produce models that are geologically meaningful. FCM was incorporated in both separate and co-operative inversion processing of seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data with petrophysical constraints. Using petrophysical information through FCM assists the inversion to build a reliable earth model. In this algorithm, FCM plays a role of guider; it uses the prior information to drive the model update process, and also forming an earth model filled with rocks units rather than smooth transitions when the boundary is in doubt. Where petrophysical information from well logs or core measurement is not locally available the cluster petrophysics may be solved for in inversion as well if some knowledge of how many distinctive geological exist. A

  6. Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathewos Tessema

    Full Text Available Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190 and 23% breast (n = 80 tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05. These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43% than lung (5% cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58% than breast (30% tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment.

  7. Spinal high-mobility group box 1 contributes to mechanical allodynia in a rat model of bone cancer pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wei [Department of Out-Patient, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang, Wei; Huang, Jing [Department of Anatomy and K. K. Leung Brain Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Ren, Ning [Comprehensive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wu, Sheng-Xi, E-mail: shengxi@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and K. K. Leung Brain Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Li, Yong-Qi, E-mail: devneuro@fmmu.edu.cn [Comprehensive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2010-05-14

    Mechanisms underlying bone cancer-induced pain are largely unknown. Previous studies indicate that neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn is especially involved. Being first reported as a nonhistone chromosomal protein, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is now implicated as a mediator of inflammation. We hypothesized that HMGB1 could trigger the release of cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn and contribute to bone cancer pain. To test this hypothesis, we first built a bone cancer pain model induced by intratibal injection of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The structural damage to the tibia was monitored by radiological analysis. The mechanical allodynia was measured and the expression of spinal HMGB1 and IL-1{beta} was evaluated. We observed that inoculation of cancer cells, but not heat-killed cells, induced progressive bone destruction from 9 d to 21 d post inoculation. Behavioral tests demonstrated that the significant nociceptive response in the cancer cells-injected rats emerged on day 9 and this kind of mechanical allodynia lasted at least 21 d following inoculation. Tumor cells inoculation significantly increased HMGB1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn, while intrathecal injecting a neutralizing antibody against HMGB1 showed an effective and reliable anti-allodynia effect with a dose-dependent manner. IL-1{beta} was significantly increased in caner pain rats while intrathecally administration of anti-HMGB1 could decrease IL-1{beta}. Together with previous reports, we predict that bone cancer induces HMGB1 production, enhancing spinal IL-1{beta} expression and thus modulating spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and pain response.

  8. Male reproductive health after childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Lisa B; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-09-20

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors.

  9. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for renal cell cancer and pancreatic cancer. Literature review and practice recommendations of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panje, Cedric; Andratschke, Nikolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias [Zurich University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Brunner, Thomas B. [Freiburg University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Niyazi, Maximilian [University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a literature review and practice recommendations for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of primary renal cell cancer and primary pancreatic cancer. A literature search on SBRT for both renal cancer and pancreatic cancer was performed with focus on prospective trials and technical aspects for clinical implementation. Data on renal and pancreatic SBRT are limited, but show promising rates of local control for both treatment sites. For pancreatic cancer, fractionated SBRT should be preferred to single-dose treatment to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal toxicity. Motion-compensation strategies and image guidance are paramount for safe SBRT delivery in both tumor entities. SBRT for renal cancer and pancreatic cancer have been successfully evaluated in phase I and phase II trials. Pancreatic SBRT should be practiced carefully and only within prospective protocols due to the risk of severe gastrointestinal toxicity. SBRT for primary renal cell cancer appears a viable option for medically inoperable patients but future research needs to better define patient selection criteria and the detailed practice of SBRT. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe ''Stereotaktische Radiotherapie'' der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie (DEGRO) legt eine Zusammenfassung der aktuellen Literatur und daraus resultierende Empfehlungen zur Durchfuehrung der stereotaktischen Strahlentherapie (SBRT) beim Nierenzellkarzinom und beim Pankreaskarzinom vor. Es erfolgte eine Literaturrecherche zur Evidenz der SBRT beim Nierenzell- und Pankreaskarzinom, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf prospektive Studien und technische Aspekte fuer die klinische Umsetzung gelegt wurde. Fuer die SBRT beim Pankreaskarzinom und Nierenzellkarzinom sind bisher nur wenige Studien veroeffentlicht worden, die jedoch konsistent eine hohe Rate an lokaler Tumorkontrolle

  10. Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) Contouring Atlas and Planning Guidelines for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Michael, E-mail: mng@radoncvic.com.au [Radiation Oncology Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); Kneebone, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney (Australia); Carroll, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney (Australia); Wiltshire, Kirsty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne (Australia); Kachnic, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a high-resolution target volume atlas with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning guidelines for the conformal treatment of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: A draft contouring atlas and planning guidelines for anal cancer IMRT were prepared at the Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) annual meeting in September 2010. An expert panel of radiation oncologists contoured an anal cancer case to generate discussion on recommendations regarding target definition for gross disease, elective nodal volumes, and organs at risk (OARs). Clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) margins, dose fractionation, and other IMRT-specific issues were also addressed. A steering committee produced the final consensus guidelines. Results: Detailed contouring and planning guidelines and a high-resolution atlas are provided. Gross tumor and elective target volumes are described and pictorially depicted. All elective regions should be routinely contoured for all disease stages, with the possible exception of the inguinal and high pelvic nodes for select, early-stage T1N0. A 20-mm CTV margin for the primary, 10- to 20-mm CTV margin for involved nodes and a 7-mm CTV margin for the elective pelvic nodal groups are recommended, while respecting anatomical boundaries. A 5- to 10-mm PTV margin is suggested. When using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions to gross disease and 45 Gy to elective nodes with chemotherapy is appropriate. Guidelines are provided for OAR delineation. Conclusion: These consensus planning guidelines and high-resolution atlas complement the existing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) elective nodal ano-rectal atlas and provide additional anatomic, clinical, and technical instructions to guide radiation oncologists in the planning and delivery of IMRT for anal cancer.

  11. Tumor markers in breast cancer- European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie

    2005-01-01

    in the selection of patients for treatment with hormone therapy, while HER-2 is essential in selecting patients with advanced breast cancer for treatment with Herceptin (trastuzumab). Urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are recently validated prognostic markers for lymph node...

  12. Barrett's esophagus : high cancer-risk groups, cardiovascular co-morbidity and interaction with Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Gudlaugsdottir (Sunna)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBarrett's esophagus (BE) has come to be regarded as an impOliant premalignant condition. In recent years the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and of the gastric cardia has risen dramatically. Analyses of cancer incidence data fi'om nine areas of the United States revealed ste

  13. Differences in cancer incidence and mortality among socio-economic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Brug, J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: In this article studies on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk for cancer at different sites are reviewed. Methods: The review is restricted to studies conducted in affluent societies, after 1970. Only studies using income, education and/or occupation as SES indic

  14. Cancer patients’ experiences with and perceived outcomes of yoga: results from focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van C.F.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Drossaert, C.H.C.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Buffart, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Yoga is a “mind–body” exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients’ motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and

  15. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Stevens; J. Hansen; G. Costa; E. Haus; T. Kauppinen; K.J. Aronson; G. Castaño-Vinyals; S. Davis; M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; L. Fritschi; M. Kogevinas; K. Kogi; J.A. Lie; A. Lowden; B. Peplonska; B. Pesch; E. Pukkala; E. Schernhammer; R.C. Travis; R. Vermeulen; T. Zheng; V. Cogliano; K. Straif

    2011-01-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to

  16. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  17. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting:Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primar...... improvement and attention should be drawn to the "professionalization" of the relatives and the need to strike a balance between their needs, wishes and resources in end-of-life care and bereavement.......Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary...... care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods: Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results: Three main categories of experience were identified: 1) The health professionals' management, where...

  18. Polyurethane dispersion containing quaternized ammonium groups: An efficient nanosize gene delivery carrier for A549 cancer cell line transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour Marzbali, Mahsa; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Movassaghpour, AliAkbar; Yeganeh, Hamid

    2016-01-25

    A novel polyurethane containing cationic ammonium groups (QPU) was synthesized and used as vector for gene therapy and cancer gene targeting. The synthesized QPU was characterized by Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods. An agarose gel retardation electrophoresis assay was conducted to verify the complete complex formation between QPU and pDNA. The particles size and zeta potential of neat polymers, plasmid DNA, polymers/DNA polyplexes were determined by the dynamic light scattering technique. The polyplexes cytotoxicity was determined using [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and its transfection efficiency was examined qualitatively by fluorescent microscopy and quantitatively by flow cytometery methods. The gel retardation assay, particle size and zeta potential measurements were confirmed that the synthesized cationic polymer could condense DNA efficiently in the physiologic condition. QPU polyplexes showed a significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to Polyfect polyplexes in the examined human cancerous (A549) or normal cells (KDR). Based on our findings, the transfection efficiency by QPU was 2.2 fold higher than Polyfect in the A549 cells whereas in the KDR cells, the cell transfection by Polyfect was 18.1 fold higher than QPU. Due to low cytotoxicity for normal cells and high transfection efficiency in cancer cells, the potential applicability of designed QPU as a non-viral gene carrier for targeting of cancer gene therapy was confirmed.

  19. Effective optimization of medical exposure: co-operation between radiation users and authorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkkinen, R.; Jarvinen, H. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    For the optimization of medical exposure in special radiological practices like in paediatric radiology, orthopaedics and cardiology, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (S.T.U.K.) in Finland has used a six step model to achieve the aims of the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/EURATOM). The basis is to introduce the regulation and to meet the needs of the users for education and training. The aim is to educate some specialists to distribute information and good practices among their own professional groups. S.T.U.K. makes continuous verification on site visits and improves the process. (authors)

  20. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2000-01-01

    = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative......BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...

  1. Barriers to a Career Focus in Cancer Prevention: A Report and Initial Recommendations From the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyskens, Frank L.; Bajorin, Dean F.; George, Thomas J.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Khan, Shakila; Tyne, Courtney A.; William, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assist in determining barriers to an oncology career incorporating cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group sponsored surveys of training program directors and oncology fellows. Methods Separate surveys with parallel questions were administered to training program directors at their fall 2013 retreat and to oncology fellows as part of their February 2014 in-training examination survey. Forty-seven (67%) of 70 training directors and 1,306 (80%) of 1,634 oncology fellows taking the in-training examination survey answered questions. Results Training directors estimated that ≤ 10% of fellows starting an academic career or entering private practice would have a career focus in cancer prevention. Only 15% of fellows indicated they would likely be interested in cancer prevention as a career focus, although only 12% thought prevention was unimportant relative to treatment. Top fellow-listed barriers to an academic career were difficulty in obtaining funding and lower compensation. Additional barriers to an academic career with a prevention focus included unclear career model, lack of clinical mentors, lack of clinical training opportunities, and concerns about reimbursement. Conclusion Reluctance to incorporate cancer prevention into an oncology career seems to stem from lack of mentors and exposure during training, unclear career path, and uncertainty regarding reimbursement. Suggested approaches to begin to remedy this problem include: 1) more ASCO-led and other prevention educational resources for fellows, training directors, and practicing oncologists; 2) an increase in funded training and clinical research opportunities, including reintroduction of the R25T award; 3) an increase in the prevention content of accrediting examinations for clinical oncologists; and 4) interaction with policymakers to broaden the scope and depth of reimbursement for prevention counseling and

  2. Employing Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Co-Operative Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdana Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we work to develop a path planning solution for a group of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs using a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP approach. Co‐operation among team members not only helps reduce mission time, it makes the execution more robust in dynamic environments. However, the problem becomes more challenging as it requires optimal resource allocation and is NP‐hard. Since UAVs may be lost or may suffer significant damage during the course of the mission, plans may need to be modified in real‐time as the mission proceeds. Therefore, multiple UAVs have a better chance of completing a mission in the face of failures. Such military operations can be treated as a variant of the Multiple Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP. The proposed solution must be such that m UAVs start from multiple source locations to visit n targets and return to a set of destination locations such that (1 each target is visited exactly by one of the chosen UAVs (2 the total distance travelled by the group is minimized and (3 the number of targets that each UAV visits may not be less than K or greater than L.

  3. Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Silvia

    2014-03-04

    The family's role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members.

  4. Dignity and Deferral Narratives as Strategies in Facilitated Technology-Based Support Groups for People with Advanced Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette F. Street

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value of facilitated telephone and online support groups for palliative care. Telephone interviews were conducted with twenty people living with advanced cancer who had participated in either a telephone or online support group facilitated by the Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Two dominant participant narratives emerged: a focus on dying with dignity or an interest in deferring discussion of death and dying to focus on the present. Despite the different approaches, participants found the technology-based support groups to be accessible and safe environments in which to discuss difficult topics in privacy. Technology-based strategies provide opportunities for health professionals to provide social and emotional care to more people by moving beyond individualised care and facilitate peer-to-peer support at the end of life, especially to those with specific needs. Such options are feasible for palliative care services to set up and acceptable to a group of clients, especially for younger clients or those socially or geographically isolated.

  5. The Largest Known Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis from Thyroid Cancer Based on Prognostic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyun Choi

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients with a very rare occurrence of brain metastasis (BM from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.A total of 37 patients with DTC who were diagnosed with BM between 1995 and 2014 were included. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and image findings of BM. Factors associated with survival were evaluated, and the patients were divided into three prognostic groups (Groups A, B, and C for comparative analysis.The median age at BM was 63 years, and the median time from initial thyroid cancer diagnosis to BM was 3.8 years. The median survival and the 1-year actuarial survival rate after BM were 8.8 months and 47%, respectively. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, four good prognostic factors (GPFs were identified including age ≤ 60 years, PS ≤ ECOG 2, ≤ 3 BM sites, and without extracranial metastasis prior to BM. Three prognostic groups were designed based on age and number of remaining GPFs: patients ≤ 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group A had the most favorable prognosis with a median survival of 32.8 months; patients ≤ 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs and those > 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group B had an intermediate prognosis with a median survival of 9.4 months; and patients > 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs (Group C had the least favorable prognosis with a median survival of 1.5 months.The survival of patients with BM form DTC differed among the prognostic groups based on the total number of good prognostic factors.

  6. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart T.; Baker, Ruth E.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population. PMID:28195135

  7. Co-operation, Competition and Crowding: A Discrete Framework Linking Allee Kinetics, Nonlinear Diffusion, Shocks and Sharp-Fronted Travelling Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart T.; Baker, Ruth E.; McElwain, D. L. Sean; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively. The mean-field approximation of the discrete process gives rise to 22 different classes of partial differential equation, which can include Allee kinetics and nonlinear diffusion. Here we examine the ability of each class of partial differential equation to support travelling wave solutions and interpret the long time behaviour in terms of the individual-level parameters. For the first time we show that the strong Allee effect and nonlinear diffusion can result in shock-fronted travelling waves. We also demonstrate how differences in group and individual motility rates can influence the persistence of a population and provide conditions for the successful invasion of a population.

  8. The Adherence to Physical Exercise in a Group of Prostate Cancer: an Integrated Model to Improve the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat-Carles Serdà i Ferrer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a model of adherence integrated into an exercise program in men with prostate cancer to get the autonomous practice at home. The study design is qualitative following Grounded Theory principles. The sample of 33 participants and it has been built through an intensive sampling by theoretical representativeness. The analytical procedure corresponds to the Method of Constants Comparisons. The design of simple and flexible program with a modular structure allows the user to adapt the exercise to his health, his symptoms resulting from the disease and his everyday life situation. The figure of professional trainer is essential in the process of achieving the autonomy. Working adherence as a process empowers the participant to maintain the autonomous activity at home. The adherence model integrated to a group exercise program is effective for improving the quality of life of older people affected by prostate cancer.

  9. [Cutaneous melanomas, a spectrum of emerging cancers in women of Wallonia. Outlook by the Mosan Study Group of Pigmented Neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Arrese, J E; Cornil, F; Damseaux, M; Darcis, J M; Deleixhe-Mauhin, F; Delvoye, P; Fraiture, A L; Gerardy-Goffin, F; Giet-Lesuisse, M; Goffin, V; Henry, F; Hermanne-Wolff, P; Hermanns, J F; Hermanns-Lê, T; Heymans, O; Letawe, C; Nikkels, A; Nikkels-Tassoudji, N; d'Hauterive-Willemaers, V P; Rakic, L; Soyeur-Broux, M; Sproten, G; Uhoda, I; Piérard, G E

    1999-05-01

    The Mosan Study Group of Pigmented Neoplasms was founded about 15 years ago. It has collected more than 20,000 cutaneous malignancies including melanomas and basal and squamous cell carcinomas. The incidence of these cancers is on the rise in Wallonia. In particular, malignant melanomas represent a spectrum of emerging cancers characterized by a proteiform biological outcome. They mostly affect young women. The major risk factor appears to be iterative and unwise ultraviolet exposures. The prevention of melanomas is basically founded on such a dogma and accordingly relies on sunscreens. However, controversies about their beneficial effects are rife and fueled by axiomas and contradictory sophisms. At the exception of surgery, the therapeutic options for the diverse types of melanomas do not yet fulfill the scope of evidence-based medicine.

  10. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  11. Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duell, Eric J; Bonet, Catalina; Muñoz, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related...... the role of ABO and FUT alleles in H. pylori infection and subtype-specific gastric carcinogenesis. What's New? Blood type A indicates a higher risk of gastric cancer, but why? This study examined the relationship between blood group genes and cancer. The authors investigated 32 variants among not only...... the ABO alleles, but also including the genes involved in producing the Lewis blood group antigens. They confirmed blood group A as a risk factor for diffuse-type gastric cancer, and also detected an association between certain Lewis antigen alleles and intestinal-type gastric cancer. Interestingly...

  12. Microprocessor, Setx, Xrn2, and Rrp6 co-operate to induce premature termination of transcription by RNAPII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagschal, Alexandre; Rousset, Emilie; Basavarajaiah, Poornima; Contreras, Xavier; Harwig, Alex; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Nakamura, Mirai; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke; Meziane, Oussama; Boyer, Frédéric; Parrinello, Hugues; Berkhout, Ben; Terzian, Christophe; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

    2012-09-14

    Transcription elongation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we show that microprocessor controls gene expression in an RNAi-independent manner. Microprocessor orchestrates the recruitment of termination factors Setx and Xrn2, and the 3'-5' exoribonuclease, Rrp6, to initiate RNAPII pausing and premature termination at the HIV-1 promoter through cleavage of the stem-loop RNA, TAR. Rrp6 further processes the cleavage product, which generates a small RNA that is required to mediate potent transcriptional repression and chromatin remodeling at the HIV-1 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified cellular gene targets whose transcription is modulated by microprocessor. Our study reveals RNAPII pausing and premature termination mediated by the co-operative activity of ribonucleases, Drosha/Dgcr8, Xrn2, and Rrp6, as a regulatory mechanism of RNAPII-dependent transcription elongation.

  13. The Relationship between journalists and PR practitioners in Romania – Somewhere in between co-operation and conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina COMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One constant idea emerges from all of the studies regarding the relationship between journalists and PR practitioners: this relationship is a complex and ambiguous one. It is quite obvious that both participants aim at holding control over the production and distribution of information; despite this aim, it is certain that none of the two can develop a monopoly over such a process. The inter-dependency between the actors involved in this game is based on the interest in mutual co-operation showed by each of the participants. This very study stands for the fact that by means of the values they referred to, the Romanian journalists and PR professionals express attitudes that are similar to those of their colleagues from other countries where these two professions have a longer tradition behind.

  14. Investigation of the Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation by the Use of Knowledge-based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Szeghegyi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Each problem always originates from constraints. The decision is a response tothe challenges by the environment. In order to chose appropriate decision supporttechniques the structural complexity of the problem has to be determined. The aim of theapplication of knowledge based systems is to obtain decision support. In this paper theapplication of the system ‘Doctus’ is illustrated and exemplified in connection withprocessing the problem of the potential co-operation between the industrial companies andinstitutes of higher education. The analysis was carried out by the application of inductiveand deductive inference procedures taking into account the requirements of the companiesand the abilities and skills of the higher educational institutions. The assessment of theresults obtained may generate further dilemmas for the solution of which appropriateknowledge bases can be brought about or the already existing ones have to be refined.

  15. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs.

  16. The Prognostic Value of Polycomb Group Protein BMI1 in Stage II Colon Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Linnemann, Dorte; Christensen, Ib J.;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of B-cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (BMI1) protein expression in primary tumors of stage II colon cancer patients. BMI1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a retrospective patient...... cohort consisting of 144 stage II colon cancer patients. BMI1 expression at the invasive front of the primary tumors correlated with mismatch repair status of the tumors. Furthermore, BMI1 expression at the luminal surface correlated with T-stage, tumor location, and the histological subtypes....... Likewise, there was no association between 5-year overall survival and BMI1 expression at the invasive front (HR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.80-1.56; p = 0.46) or at the luminal surface of the tumor (HR: 1.16; 95% CI 0.86-1.60; p = 0.33). In conclusion, BMI1 expression in primary tumors of stage II colon cancer...

  17. Efforts to promote scientific co-operation in South-East Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    On 13 and 14 May this year CERN hosted a meeting of a task force entrusted with the task of making recommendations for the reconstruction of scientific collaboration in the countries of South-East Europe (1). This meeting follows a conference attended by delegates from the countries of South-East Europe and international experts which was held in Venice between 24 and 27 March this year. The conference was organised under the aegis of UNESCO's Regional Office for Science and Technology for Europe (ROSTE), attended by representatives of the European Science Foundation (ESF), the European Union and the Academia Europaea as well as by observers from CERN. The aim of the conference was to seek resources and assess the prospects for integration of R&D facilities in the countries of South-East Europe into the networks of European countries. Les membres du groupe de Reconstruction d'une coopération scientifique dans l'Europe du sud-est, réunis au CERN, le 14 mai dernier, dé...

  18. The Metal Detecting Forum - an online community. Resource, education and co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Redmayne

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the potential of the internet-based, metal detecting forum for interaction and dialogue between the profession of archaeology and the hobby of metal detecting. It also discusses its role as a focal point for those interested in, and requiring information and guidance on, all aspects of metal detecting and its associated disciplines, with particular reference to the United Kingdom Detector Net (UKDN forum. Since its inception in 2002, UKDN has grown from being a small group of like-minded enthusiasts discussing their hobby into an online community of over 5800 people from all walks of life, with a great variety of professions and interests represented. Members have a wealth of knowledge and information to draw on, such as: ◦Finds identification, including non-metallic finds ◦The law relating to metal detecting, including the Treasure Act ◦Political issues affecting the hobby and associated disciplines ◦Different machines available and how to get the most from them and ◦How best to record and report finds. Best practice is promoted at all times in recording finds with the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS and encouraging dialogue with the profession of archaeology. Many members have assisted on both professional and amateur digs both with, and without, their detectors. Forum members have also assisted in campaigns that they feel strongly about, such as the threat of PAS funding cuts in 2008.

  19. Systematic reviews of oral complications from cancer therapies, Oral Care Study Group, MASCC/ISOO : methodology and quality of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate Osteonecrosi

  20. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie;

    2012-01-01

    for ALND. 1577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008, were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological...

  1. Delivering a very brief psychoeducational program to cancer patients and family members in a large group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A J; Edmonds, C V; Williams, D

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that brief psychoeducational programs for cancer patients will significantly improve mean quality of life. As this kind of adjunctive treatment becomes integrated into general cancer management, it will be necessary to devise cost-effective and efficacious programs that can be offered to relatively large numbers of patients. We have developed a very brief 4-session program that provides this service to 40-80 patients and family members per month (and seems capable of serving much larger numbers, depending on the capacity of the facility in which they assemble). Patients meet in a hospital auditorium for a large group, lecture-style program that offers training in basic coping skills: stress management, relaxation training, thought monitoring and changing, mental imagery and goal setting. Over the first year we have treated 363 patients and 150 family members. Improvements were assessed by changes in the POMS-Short Form, and both patients and family members were found to improve significantly over the course of the program. While this is not a randomized comparison, it suggests that the benefits gained from a large group in a classroom are not substantially less than the improvements that have been documented in the usual small group format, where more interactive discussions are possible.

  2. When a business isn’t a business: law and the political in the history of the United Kingdom’s co-operative movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Mulqueen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary efforts to develop and promote co-operatives and the social economy confront a tension in the competing and often conflicting aims to achieve commercial sustainability in a capitalist market while also promoting social transformation. Through a review of the historical experience of institutionalization in the Co-operative Movement in the United Kingdom, this article attempts to generate insights into these tensions. Despite being seen as unpolitical, co-operatives can be understood as political at the level of re-shaping sociality through co-operative practice. Although the similarity between co-operatives and joint-stock companies produces ambiguities within the movement, this does not in itself detract from the co-operative project. It is argued that the codification of co-operatives in law as bodies corporate constitutes the closure of the political aspect of co-operation and reinforces and gives consequence to the misconception of co-operatives as primarily commercial entities. Los esfuerzos por desarrollar y promover las cooperativas y la economía social se enfrentan a un conflicto entre los objetivos contrapuestos de lograr la sostenibilidad comercial en un mercado capitalista, a la vez que se promueve una transformación de la sociedad. Realizando una revisión de la experiencia histórica de la institucionalización del movimiento cooperativista en el Reino Unido, este artículo pretende analizar estas tensiones. A pesar de ser apolíticas, las cooperativas se pueden entender como un elemento político por su intento de reformular la sociedad. Aunque la similitud entre cooperativas y sociedades anónimas produce ambigüedades dentro del movimiento cooperativista, esto no va, por sí mismo, en detrimento del proyecto de cooperación. Se argumenta que, al contemplar en la legislación a las cooperativas como personas jurídicas, se acaba con el aspecto político de las cooperativas. A su vez, esto refuerza y termina con la

  3. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers...... treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis...

  4. Family history of cancer and seizures in young children with brain tumors: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group (United States and Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, R R; Strom, S S; Rorke, L B; Boesel, C P; Buckley, J D; Meadows, A T; Bunin, G R

    1993-09-01

    The occurrence of cancer and neurological disorders in first- and second-degree relatives of children in the United States and Canada diagnosed with brain tumor before age six was investigated. A pair-matched case-control study with 155 astrocytoma and 166 primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) cases was performed. Cases were identified through the Childrens Cancer Group. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and matched to cases on age, race, and telephone area code and exchange. Childhood cancers were more common in PNET relatives compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 2.5, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.8, P = 0.02) and with control relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, CI = 0.5-30, P = 0.29). For astrocytoma, nonsignificant excesses of brain tumor, leukemia/lymphoma, and childhood cancer occurred among case relatives compared with control relatives, but not compared with the general population. Astrocytoma cases were significantly more likely than controls to have a relative with seizures (OR = 2.5, CI = 1.2-4.9, P = 0.009), especially childhood seizures (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.2-12, P = 0.02), epilepsy (OR = 3.0, CI = 0.9-13, P = 0.08), and febrile convulsions (OR = 4.5, CI = 0.9-43, P = 0.07). A family history of stroke was not a risk factor for either type of brain tumor. These results suggest that some childhood brain tumors may result from a genetic susceptibility and that some risk factors may affect childhood astrocytoma and PNET differently.

  5. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Mette H. [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)], E-mail: mette.m.nielsen@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk; Berg, Martin [Dept. of Medical Physics, Hospital of Vejle, Vejle (Denmark); Pedersen, Anders N. [Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-05-15

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials.

  6. Safety and efficacy of gefitinib treatment in elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Katsuyuki; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Ogino, Atsuko; Umemura, Shigeki; Harita, Shingo; Gemba, Kenichi; Yonei, Toshiro; Bessho, Akihiro; Maeda, Tadashi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of gefitinib treatment in elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively compared toxicity, response and survival outcomes for gefitinib in patients aged 75 years or older (elderly group) with the same outcomes in patients aged younger than 75 years. In total, 350 patients were eligible for this analysis, of whom 92 were in the elderly group and 258 in the non-elderly group. In the elderly group, adverse events were generally mild to moderate and grade 3-4 adverse events were observed in 8 (9%) patients. The objective response rate (17 vs. 21% for elderly vs. non-elderly, respectively) and median survival time (7.6 vs. 9.3 months) were also similar in the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed elderly patients with lower Brinkman index tended to be more sensitive to gefitinib (odds ratio: 4.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-22.72, p = 0.0642). In this study, treatment with gefitinib appeared to be as safe and effective in elderly patients (aged 75 or older) with NSCLC as in non-elderly patients.

  7. Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely believed that corporate actors exert substantial influence on the making of public health policy, including in the alcohol field. However, the industry is far from being monolithic, comprising a range of producers and retailers with varying and diverse interests. With a focus on contemporary debates concerning the minimum pricing of alcohol in the UK, this study examined the differing interests of actors within the alcohol industry, the cleavages which emerged between them on this issue and how this impacted on their ability to organise themselves collectively to influence the policy process. We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews between June and November 2010 with respondents from all sectors of the industry as well as a range of non-industry actors who had knowledge of the alcohol policy process, including former Ministers, Members of the UK Parliament and the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professionals. Methods The paper draws on an analysis of publicly available documents and 35 semi-structured interviews with respondents from the alcohol industry (on- and off-trade including retailers, producers of wines, spirits and beers and trade associations and a range of non-industry actors with knowledge of the alcohol policy process (including former Ministers, Members of Parliament and of the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professional groups. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software. Processes of triangulation between data sources and different types of respondent sought to ensure we gained as accurate a picture as possible of industry participation in the policy process. Results Divergences of interest were evident between producers and retailers and within the retail sector between the on and off trade. Divisions within the alcohol industry, however, existed

  8. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D 751 polymorphism as a predictive factor in resected gastric cancer treated with chemo-radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RN Zárate R; F Arias; E Bandres; E Cubedo; R Malumbres; J García-Foncillas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential association of xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) codon 751 variant with outcome after chemo-radiotherapy in patients with resected gastric cancer.METHODS: We used PCR-RFLP to evaluate the genetic XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms in 44 patients with stage Ⅲ (48%) and Ⅳ (20%) gastric cancer treated with surgery following radiation therapy plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin based chemotherapy.RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that 75% (12 of 16) of relapse patients showed Lys/Lys genotype more frequently (P = 0.042). The Lys polymorphism was an independent predictor of high-risk relapse-free survival from Cox analysis (HR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.07-8.78, P =0.036) and Kaplan-Meir test (P = 0.027, log-rank test).CONCLUSION: XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism may be an important marker in the prediction of clinical outcome to chemo-radiotherapy in resected gastric cancer patients.

  9. Reconsidering Physical Activity Restrictions for Mononephric Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Koh, Chester J; Meeske, Kathleen A; Rangan, Kasey E; Rodgers, Cheryl; Rosenthal, Yael; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Freyer, David R

    2016-07-01

    Although traditional recommendations for mononephric childhood cancer survivors are to avoid contact sports in order to protect the remaining kidney, review of available evidence suggests that the majority of renal loss is caused by accidents not involving sports. An interdisciplinary team performed a review of the English literature published from 1999 to 2012 within the PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and National Guidelines Clearinghouse databases. The level of evidence and proposed recommendations were graded according to an established rubric and GRADE criteria. Our review found that kidney loss is most commonly caused by nonsports activities such as motor vehicle accidents and falls, implying that restrictions on sports-related activity in mononephric pediatric survivors are not well supported. This favors encouraging ordinary sports and related activities without restriction in mononephric childhood cancer survivors because the known benefits of exercise outweigh the exceedingly low risk of renal loss. Accordingly, activity recommendations for mononephric patients have been revised in the most current version of the Children's Oncology Group Long-term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers. This has important implications for this and similar populations who may now undertake individual and organized sports without undue regard for their mononephric status.

  10. Carotenoid derivatives inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activity in bone and cancer cells by targeting key thiol groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnewiel-Hermoni, Karin; Motro, Yair; Miller, Yifat; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) transcription system contributes to cancer progression, and has a harmful effect on bone health. Several major components of the NFkB pathway such as IkB Kinase (IKK) and the NFkB subunits contain cysteine residues that are critical for their activity. The interaction of electrophiles with these cysteine residues results in NFkB inhibition. Carotenoids, hydrophobic plant pigments, are devoid of electrophilic groups, and we have previously demonstrated that carotenoid derivatives, but not the native compounds activate the Nrf2 transcription system. The aim of the current study was to examine whether carotenoid derivatives inhibit NFkB, and, if so, to determine the molecular mechanism underpinning the inhibitory action. We report in the present study that a mixture of oxidized derivatives, prepared by ethanol extraction from partially oxidized lycopene preparation, inhibited NFkB reporter gene activity. In contrast, the intact carotenoid was inactive. A series of synthetic dialdehyde carotenoid derivatives inhibited reporter activity as well as several stages of the NFkB pathway in both cancer and bone cells. The activity of the carotenoid derivatives depended on the reactivity of the electrophilic groups in reactions such as Michael addition to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Specifically, carotenoid derivatives directly interacted with two key proteins of the NFkB pathway: the IKKβ and the p65 subunit. Direct interaction with IKKβ was found in an in vitro kinase assay with a recombinant enzyme. The inhibition by carotenoid derivatives of p65 transcriptional activity was observed in a reporter gene assay performed in the presence of excess p65. This inhibition action resulted, at least in part, from direct interaction of the carotenoid derivative with p65 leading to reduced binding of the protein to DNA as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) experiments. Importantly, we found by using

  11. Decision making and co-operation between stakeholders within the process of sick leave. A case study in a Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd;

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses how recent reforms of the Sickness Benefit Act in Denmark are put into practice. A single case study embedded with five subunits of analysis based on "real life" cases has been conducted in a Danish municipality. Five "sick-listed" citizens and their respective municipal case...... manager and general practitioner (GP) were interviewed. Two key persons within the municipality were interviewed as background informants. The GPs and case managers ability to co-operate was hampered by lack of time, frequent staff turnover, lack of financial resources, and low accessibility....... The motivation for co-operation was low due to low status of social medical issues, lack of feedback and lack of trust. The co-operation was characterized by sequential task integration. The stakeholders encountered difficulties when reciprocal task integration was needed. The decision making was affected...

  12. Prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among 403 women with triple-negative breast cancer: implications for genetic screening selection criteria: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostira, Florentia; Tsitlaidou, Marianthi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Pertesi, Maroulio; Timotheadou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Glentis, Stavros; Bournakis, Evangelos; Bobos, Mattheos; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papakostas, Pavlos; Pentheroudakis, George; Gogas, Helen; Skarlos, Pantelis; Samantas, Epaminontas; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Kosmidis, Paris A; Koutras, Angelos; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fountzilas, George

    2012-07-01

    In spite the close association of the triple-negative breast cancer immunophenotype with hereditary breast cancers and the BRCA1 pathway, there is a lack of population studies that determine the frequency of BRCA1 mutations among triple-negative breast cancer patients. To address this, we have screened a large sample of 403 women diagnosed with triple-negative invasive breast cancer, independently of their age or family history, for germline BRCA1 mutations. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years (range 20-83). The overall prevalence of triple-negative cases among the initial patient group with invasive breast cancer was 8%. BRCA1 was screened by direct DNA sequencing in all patients, including all exons where a mutation was previously found in the Greek population (exons 5, 11, 12, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24-77% of the BRCA1 coding region), including diagnostic PCRs to detect the three Greek founder large genomic rearrangements. Sixty-five deleterious BRCA1 mutations were identified among the 403 triple-negative breast cancer patients (16%). Median age of onset for mutation carriers was 39 years. Among a total of 106 women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer (<40 years), 38 (36%) had a BRCA1 mutation, while 27% of women with triple-negative breast cancer diagnosed before 50 years (56/208) had a BRCA1 mutation. A mutation was found in 48% (50/105) of the triple-negative breast cancer patients with family history of breast or ovarian cancer. It is noteworthy, however, that of the 65 carriers, 15 (23%) had no reported family history of related cancers. All but one of the carriers had grade III tumors (98%). These results indicate that women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer, and ideally all triple-negative breast cancer patients, are candidates for BRCA1 genetic testing even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

  13. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  14. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean liver cancer study group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines compared with other guidelines and remaining issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Won [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed 'washout' in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  15. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines Compared with Other Guidelines and Remaining Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Joong-Won; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed "washout" in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  16. Pregnancy after breast cancer: if you wish, ma'am.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Olivia; Partridge, Ann; Korde, Larissa; Badve, Sunil; Bartlett, John; Albain, Kathy; Gelber, Richard; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2011-09-01

    A growing number of young breast cancer survivors consider reproductive health issues, including subsequent fertility and pregnancy, of great importance, but many questions regarding safety remain unanswered. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and review of published articles, control-matched, population-based, and co-operative group reports that addressed various aspects of pregnancy after breast cancer (patients' expectations, fertility damage, assessment and preservation, maternal and fetal outcome, breast feeding). Overall, available data support pregnancy and breast feeding after breast cancer as safe and feasible for women at low risk of recurrence. This retrospective and population-based evidence is, however, frequently incomplete; usually not representative of the entire population, it can be biased by patients' related effects or underpowered and is often not controlled for biological factors and risk determinants in the statistical model used. Before making any definitive assumption on this delicate and fundamental aspect of a woman's life after breast cancer, we should demonstrate without any reasonable doubt that the scattered information available today is scientifically sound. The Breast International Group and North American Breast Cancer Group are planning a global prospective study in young women with endocrine responsive, early breast cancer who desire pregnancy, to assess both patients' and pregnancy outcomes. The trial will include an observational phase investigating the feasibility and impact of a temporary treatment interruption to allow conception and an experimental phase investigating the optimal duration of the subsequent endocrine treatment after delivery or the last failed attempt to get pregnant.

  17. The Breast International Group 1-98 trial: big results for women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Alain M

    2007-05-01

    As there is a risk for relapse in early breast cancer, especially at 1-3 years post surgery, the need for adjuvant therapy is clear. In terms of disease-free survival, aromatase inhibitors have emerged as superior to tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in several Phase III clinical trials. Of these trials, the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial stands out as unique in design, as it is the only trial to address whether an aromatase inhibitor is more effective as initial adjuvant therapy or as sequential therapy with an aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen in either order and in rigor of end points and safety evaluations. When compared with tamoxifen, letrozole has been shown to significantly reduce recurrence risk in the overall population by 19% and also significantly reduced recurrence risk in the patient subgroups at increased risk: node-positive and previously chemotherapy-treated patients. Letrozole is the only aromatase inhibitor to demonstrate a significant 27% reduction in the risk of distant metastases (p = 0.001) in the clinically relevant, hormone receptor-positive population in the initial adjuvant setting. Recent results also suggest that letrozole in particular reduces the risk of distant metastases early on after initial surgery for breast cancer. This is important, as early distant metastatic events compose the majority of early recurrences and are a well-recognized predictor of breast cancer death. Letrozole has been found to be well tolerated in the initial adjuvant treatment setting, and these data have been confirmed by long-term safety data from the monotherapy analysis in the BIG 1-98 study. Thus far, the results from the BIG 1-98 trial provide clear support for the use of letrozole in the initial adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Future studies will provide the definitive answer to questions of which initial adjuvant therapy is superior (i.e., anastrozole or letrozole) and information as to the

  18. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.;

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... the pleomorphic subtype of LCIS was added to histological subtypes. The present work reviews the DBCG guidelines and recommendations concerning CIS adding a brief characterization of the Danish CIS population. It also refers to the introduction of modern molecular pathology and distinction between low...

  19. Zika virus evades interferon-mediated antiviral response through the co-operation of multiple nonstructural proteins in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaoxing; Liu, Qingxiang; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Weihong; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao; Cui, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) serves as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Inhibition of IFN-triggered signaling cascade by Zika virus (ZIKV) plays a critical role for ZIKV to evade antiviral responses from host cells. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV nonstructural proteins NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 inhibit the induction of IFN and downstream IFN-stimulated genes through diverse strategies. NS1 and NS4B of ZIKV inhibit IFNβ signaling at TANK-binding kinase 1 level, whereas NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV impairs JAK–STAT signaling pathway by degrading Jak1 and reduces virus-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, co-operation of NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 further enhances viral infection by blocking IFN-induced autophagic degradation of NS2B3. Hence, our study reveals a novel antagonistic system employing multiple ZIKV nonstructural proteins in restricting the innate antiviral responses. PMID:28373913

  20. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc− Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trista L. Thorn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc− contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc− expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes—either cultured alone or with neurons—to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc− mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death.

  1. Sympathetic control of skeletal muscle function: possible co-operation between noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y in rabbit jaw muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, C; Deriu, F; Roatta, S; Santarelli, R; Azzena, G B; Passatore, M

    1996-07-19

    Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve at 10/s increases by 12.9 +/- 0.7% peak tension of maximal twitches in the directly stimulated jaw muscles and markedly depresses (41.6 +/- 1.3%) the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited in the same muscles by vibration of the mandible. Both effects are not significantly influenced by administration of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. When both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors are blocked, sympathetic stimulation induces a very small increase in twitch tension (3.8 +/- 0.7%), while no detectable change in the TVR is observed. Close arterial injection of alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine mimics the effects induced by sympathetic stimulation on twitch tension and TVR, dose-dependently. The noradrenaline co-transmitter neuropeptide Y also produces a long-lasting, dose-dependent increase in the twitch tension which is unaffected by blockade of adrenergic receptors as well as of the neuromuscular junctions. Contribution of neuropeptide Y to the sympathetically-induced reduction of the stretch reflex is not clearly demonstrated. These data suggest that co-operation between noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y may be effective in determining sympathetic modulation of skeletal muscle function.

  2. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc- Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Trista L; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A; Hewett, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc(-)) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc(-) expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes--either cultured alone or with neurons--to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc(-) mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death.

  3. Co-operative mineralization and protein self-assembly in amelogenesis: silica mineralization and assembly of recombinant amelogenins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christabel E; Beniash, Elia; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Simmer, James P; Margolis, Henry C

    2006-05-01

    An amorphous silica mineralization technique was used to produce inorganic/protein composites to elucidate the structure and mechanism of formation of amelogenin assemblies, which may play an important role in regulating enamel structure during the initial stages of amelogenesis. Full-length recombinant amelogenins from mouse (rM179) and pig (rP172) were investigated along with key degradation products (rM166 and native P148) lacking the hydrophilic C terminus found in parent molecules. The resulting products were examined using transmission electron microscopy and/or small-angle X-ray scattering. Using protein concentrations of 0.1-3 mg ml-1, large monodisperse spheres of remarkably similar mean diameters were observed using rM179 (124+/-4 nm) and rP172 (126+/-7 nm). These spheres also exhibited 'internal structure', comprising nearly spherical monodisperse particles of approximately 20 nm in diameter. In the presence of rM166, P148, and bovine serum albumin (control), large unstructured and randomly shaped particles (250-1000 nm) were observed. Without added protein, large dense spherical particles of silica (mean approximately 500 nm) lacking internal structure were produced. These findings demonstrate that full-length amelogenins have the ability to form higher-order structures, whereas amelogenins that lack the hydrophilic C terminus do not. The results also suggest that full-length amelogenin can guide the formation of organized mineralized structures through co-operative interactions between assembling protein and forming mineral.

  4. Mixed parentage in Neolamprologus pulcher groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiver, K A; Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Balshine, S

    2009-04-01

    Genetic data collected on co-operatively breeding Neolamprologus pulcher groups from Lake Tanganyika revealed mixed parentage in 80% of the groups examined. A case (1/11) of shared maternity was detected where a subordinate female bred alongside the dominant female in a social group. Extra-pair paternity was assigned to other dominant males who held their own social groups, but subordinate males were not found to father young in any group (0/9).

  5. MicroRNA-495 Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion Possibly via Targeting High Mobility Group AT-Hook 2 (HMGA2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huashe; Jiang, Zhipeng; Chen, Honglei; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiang, Jun; Peng, Junsheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies, and has a high mortality rate. miR-495 acts as a suppressor in some cancers and HMGA2 (high mobility group AT-hook 2) is a facilitator for cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but little is known about their effect in gastric cancer. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of miR-495 in gastric cancer. Material/Methods miR-495 levels were quantitatively analyzed in gastric cancer tissue and GES-1, SGC-7901, BGC-823, and HGC-27 cell lines by qRT-PCR. Levels of miR-495 and HMGA2 were altered by cell transfection, after which cell migration and invasion were examined by Transwell and E-cadherin (CDH1); vimentin (VIM), and alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The interaction between miR-495 and HMGA2 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results miR-495 was significantly downregulated in cancer tissue and cell lines (pgastric cancer tissue, and promoted cell migration and invasion, inhibited CDH1, and elevated VIM and ACTA2. Conclusions miR-495 acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer by inhibiting cell migration and invasion, which may be associated with its direct inhibition on HMGA2. These results suggest a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:28159956

  6. Cognitive function in older women with breast cancer treated with standard chemotherapy and capecitabine on Cancer and Leukemia Group B 49907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A; Pitcher, Brandelyn; Keating, Nancy L; Ballman, Karla V; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Kornblith, Alice B; Kimmick, Gretchen G; Hurria, Arti; Winer, Eric P; Hudis, Clifford A; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Muss, Hyman B

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive changes in older women receiving chemotherapy are poorly understood. We examined self-reported cognitive function for older women who received adjuvant chemotherapy on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 49907. CALGB 49907 randomized 633 women aged ≥65 with stage I-III breast cancer to standard adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil or doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide) versus capecitabine. We examined self-reported cognitive function in 297 women (CALGB 361002) who enrolled on the quality of life substudy and had no gross impairment on cognitive screening. Women were evaluated using an 18-item instrument at six time points (baseline through 24 months). At each time point for each patient, we calculated a cognitive function score (CFS) defined as the mean response of items 1-18 and defined impairment as a score >1.5 standard deviations above the overall average baseline score. Differences in scores by patient characteristics were evaluated using a Kruskal-Wallis test. A linear mixed-effects model was used to assess CFSs by treatment over time. Among 297 women, the median age was 71.5 (range 65-85) and 73 % had performance status of 0. Baseline depression and fatigue were reported in 6 and 14 % of patients, respectively. The average CFS at baseline was 2.08 (corresponding to "normal ability"), and baseline cognitive function did not differ by treatment regimen (p = 0.350). Over 24 months, women reported minimal changes at each time point and insignificant differences by treatment arm were observed. In a healthy group of older women, chemotherapy was not associated with longitudinal changes in self-reported cognitive function.

  7. Network-constrained group lasso for high-dimensional multinomial classification with application to cancer subtype prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinyu; Wang, Xuefeng; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Classic multinomial logit model, commonly used in multiclass regression problem, is restricted to few predictors and does not take into account the relationship among variables. It has limited use for genomic data, where the number of genomic features far exceeds the sample size. Genomic features such as gene expressions are usually related by an underlying biological network. Efficient use of the network information is important to improve classification performance as well as the biological interpretability. We proposed a multinomial logit model that is capable of addressing both the high dimensionality of predictors and the underlying network information. Group lasso was used to induce model sparsity, and a network-constraint was imposed to induce the smoothness of the coefficients with respect to the underlying network structure. To deal with the non-smoothness of the objective function in optimization, we developed a proximal gradient algorithm for efficient computation. The proposed model was compared to models with no prior structure information in both simulations and a problem of cancer subtype prediction with real TCGA (the cancer genome atlas) gene expression data. The network-constrained mode outperformed the traditional ones in both cases.

  8. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting: Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Anders

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results Three main categories of experience were identified: 1 The health professionals' management, where a need to optimize was found. 2 Shared care, which was lacking. 3 The relatives' role, which needs an extra focus. Conclusion Relatives experience insufficient palliative care mainly due to organizational and cultural problems among professionals. Palliative care in primary care in general needs improvement and attention should be drawn to the "professionalization" of the relatives and the need to strike a balance between their needs, wishes and resources in end-of-life care and bereavement.

  9. Advanced research workshop "South Caucasus : making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Leedu Kaitseministeeriumi poolt 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses korraldatud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" arutati, kas ja kuidas on Lõuna-Kaukaasia regioonis võimalik rakendada Balti riikide julgeolekualase koostöö kogemusi

  10. Managing the Co-operation-Competition Dilemma in R&D Alliances : A Multiple Case Study in the Advanced Materials Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, Dries; Janssens, Maddy; Van Looy, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Generating value in R&D alliances requires intensive and fine-grained interaction between collaborating partners. At the same time, more intensive co-operation increases the risk of competitive abuse of the R&D alliance by one or more partners. In this study, we explore how managers address the fund

  11. Syntheses, characterization, and anti-cancer activities of pyridine-amide based compounds containing appended phenol or catechol groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Deepak Bansal; Nagendra K Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Eun Ha Choi; Rajeev Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Several pyridine-amide compounds appended with phenol/catechol groups are synthesized. These compounds consist of protected or deprotected phenol/catechol groups and offer pyridine, amide, and phenol/catechol functional groups. All compounds have been well-characterized by various spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis, thermal studies, and crystallography. The biological activities of all compounds were investigated while a few compounds significantly decreased the metabolic viability, growth and clonogenicity of T98G cells in dose dependent manner. Accumulation of ROS was observed in T98G cells, which displayed a compromised redox status as evident from increased cellular Caspase 3/7 activity and formation of micronuclei. The in silico pharmacokinetic studies suggest that all compounds have good bioavailability, water solubility and other drug-like parameters. A few compounds were identified as the lead molecules for future investigation due to their: (a) high activity against T98G brain, H-460 lung, and SNU-80 thyroid cancer cells; (b) low cytotoxicity in non-malignant HEK and MRC-5 cells; (c) low toxic risks based on in silico evaluation; (d) good theoretical oral bioavailability according to Lipinski ‘rule of five’ pharmacokinetic parameters; and (e) better drug-likeness and drug-score values.

  12. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  13. Variations in nasopharyngeal cancer incidence among specific Chinese communities (dialect groups) in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    1978-01-01

    A total of 729 cases of NPC (93.6% confirmed histologically) were diagnosed among the Singapore Chinese population during a five-year period (1968--1972). Age-standardized incidence rates for the total Chinese population were 18.4 per 100,000 per year for males and 7.0 for females; the respective rates for the specific Chinese communities were 14.1 and 4.7 for Hokkien, 18.3 and 6.2 for Teochew, 29.1 and 11.0 for Cantonese, 14.2 and 3.3 for Hainanese, 12.6 and 4.8 for Hakka and 12.2 and 6.0 for the other dialect groups. It is evident that all of the Chinese communities in Singapore have high risks for NPC; only the Cantonese have risks significantly higher than that for the rest of the Chinese population. NPC incidence rates for males and females of the other major racial groups in Singapore were 4.7 and 0.6 for Malays and 0.9 and 0.0 for Indians, respectively.

  14. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes predict human cancer independently of exposure to carcinogens. European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, S; Hagmar, L; Strömberg, U;

    2000-01-01

    played by exposure to carcinogens is still uncertain because of the requisite information concerning occupation and lifestyle was lacking. We evaluated in the present study whether CAs predicted cancer because they were the result of past exposure to carcinogens or because they were an intermediate end...... by country, sex, year of birth, and year of CA test were randomly selected. Occupational exposure and smoking habit were assessed by a collaborative group of occupational hygienists. Logistic regression models indicated a statistically significant increase in risk for subjects with a high level of CAs...... compared to those with a low level in the Nordic cohort (odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-4.23) and in the Italian cohort (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-5.62). These estimates were not affected by the inclusion of occupational exposure level and smoking habit...

  15. The achievements of the EORTC Lymphoma Group. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemaekers, J; Kluin-Nelemans, H; Teodorovic, I; Meerwaldt, C; Noordijk, E; Thomas, J; Glabbeke, M van; Henry-Amar, M; Carde, P

    2002-03-01

    From 1964 onwards, the EORTC Lymphoma Group has conducted seven consecutive randomised phase 3 trials on early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma aiming at increasing efficacy, while decreasing short- and long-term toxicity. Staging laparotomy is definitely abandoned and replaced by identification of prognostic subgroups based on pretreatment clinical characteristics. Event-free and overall survival significantly improved from about 50 and then 70%, in the early years, to over 80 and then 90% more recently. Radiotherapy fields have become more restricted, whereas chemotherapy has become standard. Longitudinal quality-of-life assessment has become an integral part of our studies. In advanced stages, overall outcome has improved as well with 6-year survival rates of over 80%. In aggressive types of NHL, the second generation chemotherapy schedule CHVmP-BV was superior to CHVmP. We could not show any advantage for intensification of upfront treatment with autologous stem cell transplantation.

  16. Adolescents with Cancer in Italy: Improving Access to National Cooperative Pediatric Oncology Group (AIEOP) Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Rondelli, Roberto; Pession, Andrea; Mascarin, Maurizio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Mosso, Maria Luisa; Maule, Milena; Barisone, Elena; Bertolotti, Marina; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Fagioli, Franca; Biondi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This analysis compared the numbers of patients treated at Italian pediatric oncology group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica [AIEOP]) centers with the numbers of cases predicted according to the population-based registry. It considered 32,431 patients registered in the AIEOP database (1989-2012). The ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases was 0.79 for children (0-14 years old) and 0.15 for adolescents (15-19 years old). The proportion of adolescents increased significantly over the years, however, from 0.05 in the earliest period to 0.10, 0.18, and then 0.28 in the latest period of observation, suggesting a greater efficacy of local/national programs dedicated to adolescents.

  17. Japan-Australia Co-operative Program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes: phase II (1990-1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hart, K.P. [eds.

    1996-05-01

    The major activities associated with Japan-Australia Co-operative Program were the preparation, characterization and subsequent testing of both Cm-doped Synroc containing PW-4b simulated waste and Cm-doped single-phase zirconolite and perovskite, and the initiation of studies on naturally-occurring zirconolites to study the long-term durability of this mineral phase over geological time. The preparation of the Cm-doped samples was carried out in JAERI`s WASTEF facility at Tokai, with technical information and assistance provided by ANSTO where necessary. The experiments were designed to induce accelerated radiation damage in Synroc samples that would correspond to periods of Synroc storage of up to 100,000 years. The results are of considerable importance in evaluating the potential of the Synroc process as a means of dealing with HLW waste streams and represent a significant contribution to the understanding of the ability of Synroc to immobilize HLW elements. Overall the Phase II Co-operative Program has continued the excellent co-operative working relationship between the staff at the two institutions, and provided a better understanding of the potential advantages and limitations of Synroc as a second generation waste form. The work has shown the need for additional studies to be carried out on the effect of the levels of Cm-doping on the Cm leach rate, extension of natural analogue studies to define the geological conditions under which zirconolite is stable and development of models to provide long-term predictions of releases of HLW elements from Synroc under a range of repository conditions. It is strongly recommended that the program carried out in Phase II of the Co-operative Agreement be extended for a further three years to allow additional information on the above areas to be collected and reported in a document providing an overview of the Co-operative Program and recommendations on HLW management strategies. (J.P.N.).

  18. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity: state of the art and recommendations from the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy Special Interest Group on Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Rey, Jean-Baptiste; Isnard-Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert; Daouphars, Mikael

    2008-05-01

    Antineoplastic drugs used in the treatment of cancers present with variable renal tolerance profiles. Among drugs with a potential for renal toxicity, platinum salts, and especially cisplatin is a well-known agent that may induce acute and chronic renal failure. The mechanisms of its renal toxicity and the means of its prevention are presented in this article which represent the Clinical Recommendation from the Special Interest Group on Cancer Care of the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy (ESCP).

  19. Directed evolution of Tau class glutathione transferases reveals a site that regulates catalytic efficiency and masks co-operativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axarli, Irine; Muleta, Abdi W; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Kotzia, Georgia; Maltezos, Anastasios; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2016-03-01

    A library of Tau class GSTs (glutathione transferases) was constructed by DNA shuffling using the DNA encoding the Glycine max GSTs GmGSTU2-2, GmGSTU4-4 and GmGSTU10-10. The parental GSTs are >88% identical at the sequence level; however, their specificity varies towards different substrates. The DNA library contained chimaeric structures of alternated segments of the parental sequences and point mutations. Chimaeric GST sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli and their enzymatic activities towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and the herbicide fluorodifen (4-nitrophenyl α,α,α-trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tolyl ether) were determined. A chimaeric clone (Sh14) with enhanced CDNB- and fluorodifen-detoxifying activities, and unusual co-operative kinetics towards CDNB and fluorodifen, but not towards GSH, was identified. The structure of Sh14 was determined at 1.75 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione. Analysis of the Sh14 structure showed that a W114C point mutation is responsible for the altered kinetic properties. This was confirmed by the kinetic properties of the Sh14 C114W mutant. It is suggested that the replacement of the bulky tryptophan residue by a smaller amino acid (cysteine) results in conformational changes of the active-site cavity, leading to enhanced catalytic activity of Sh14. Moreover, the structural changes allow the strengthening of the two salt bridges between Glu(66) and Lys(104) at the dimer interface that triggers an allosteric effect and the communication between the hydrophobic sites.

  20. Concurrent Weekly Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy for High risk group of Uterine Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Kang, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Ree; Lee, Eung Soo; Kim, Yong Bong; Park, Sung Kwan [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    Locally advanced cervical carcinoma has shown high rate of local failure and poor survival rate despite the advances in modern radiation therapy techniques. Combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy demonstrated benefit in improving local control and possibly the overall survival. Twelve patients with advanced stages(Figo stage III, IV) or 11b with bulky tumors(>5 cm in diameter) were treated with combination of radiation therapy and concurrent weekly cisplatin between May of 1988 and September of 1991 at Inje University Paik Hospital. Cisplatin was administered in bolus injections of 50mg at weekly intervals during the courses of radiation therapy. Median follow-up period was 34 months with ranges from 3 to 53 months. Eleven patients were evaluable for the estimation of response. Response was noted in all the 11 patients: complete response(CR) in 7(64%), partial response (PR) in 4(36%). Of the 7 patients with CR, all maintained local control, whereas only 1 of 4 with PR showed local control. Six of 7 with CR are alive disease free on the completion of follow-up. Eight of 11 patients (73%) maintained local control in the pelvis. The Median survival for CR patient is 27 months and 9 months for the PR patients. Analysis of survival by stage shows 11 b 4/5, III 2/e and IV 1/3. Overall survival rate was 61%. Three patients recurred : 1 at local, 1 in distant site and 1 with local and distant site. Toxicity for the combination therapy was not excessive. These results are preliminary, but definitely encouraging in view of markedly improved response rate compared with the results of historical control group.

  1. Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the Government of New-Zealand concerning the Further Development of Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    New Zealand has a pioneering tradition in experimental fundamental physics that originated with Ernest Rutherford. The country currently has active research programmes in the related areas of astrophysics and theoretical physics. Experimental groups from the Universities of Auckland and Canterbury have recently been accepted into the CMS collaboration. They are planning a contribution to the CMS pixel detector, and have already started simulations of heavy-ion collisions in CMS. They have also expressed interest in the applications of pixel imaging technology to medicine, and in Grid computing. Collaboration with CERN is seen by the New Zealand Government as an important element in its strategy of seeking linkages with international research networks and overcoming the country's relative geographical isolation. The proposed Agreement (which, taking into account specific New Zealand legal constraints, is named « Memorandum of Understanding » instead of, as is usual at CERN,« Co-operation Agreement ») would...

  2. Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, Lisa B.; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L.; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pret...

  3. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, Philippe, E-mail: radiologie@skynet.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Silva, Celso, E-mail: caras@uma.pt [Human Anatomy of Medical Course, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Gryspeerdt, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan@sgryspeerdt.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Rodrigues, António, E-mail: nucleo@nid.pt [Nucleo Imagem Diagnostica, Rua 5 De Outubro, 9000-216 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Rita, E-mail: rita@uma.pt [Department of Engineering and Mathematics, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Teixeira, Ricardo, E-mail: j.teixeira1947@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Central Hospital of Funchal, Avenida Luís de Camões, 9004513 Funchal (Portugal); Gouveia, Francisco Henriques de, E-mail: fhgouveia@netmadeira.com [LANA, Pathology Centre, Rua João Gago, 10, 9000-071 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer.

  4. Ataxia-telangiectasia group D complementing gene (ATDC promotes lung cancer cell proliferation by activating NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Ping Tang

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested Ataxia-telangiectasia group D complementing gene (ATDC as an oncogene in many types of cancer. However, its expression and biological functions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC remain unclear. Herein, we investigated its expression pattern in 109 cases of human NSCLC samples by immunohistochemistry and found that ATDC was overexpressed in 62 of 109 NSCLC samples (56.88%. ATDC overexpression correlated with histological type (p<0.0001, tumor status (p = 0.0227 and histological differentiation (p = 0.0002. Next, we overexpressed ATDC in normal human bronchial epithelial cell line HBE and depleted its expression in NSCLC cell lines A549 and H1299. MTT and colony formation assay showed that ATDC overexpression promoted cell proliferation while its depletion inhibited cell growth. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis showed that ATDC overexpression decreased the percentage of cells in G1 phase and increased the percentage of cells in S phase, while ATDC siRNA treatment increased the G1 phase percentage and decreased the S phase percentage. Further study revealed that ATDC overexpression could up-regulate cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression in HBE cells while its depletion down-regulated cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression in A549 and H1299 cells. In addition, ATDC overexpression was also associated with an increased proliferation index, cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression in human NSCLC samples. Further experiments demonstrated that ATDC up-regulated cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression independent of wnt/β-catenin or p53 signaling pathway. Interestingly, ATDC overexpression increased NF-κB reporter luciferase activity and p-IκB protein level. Correspondingly, NF-κB inhibitor blocked the effect of ATDC on up-regulation of cyclin D1 and c-Myc. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ATDC could promote lung cancer proliferation through NF-κB induced up-regulation of cyclin D1 and c-Myc.

  5. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    : Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles...

  6. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  7. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  8. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it

  9. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Heinz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it

  10. The Realization of Command Channel-Mechanism in a System for Human to Human Interaction and Co-operative%人人交互与协作系统中命令通道机制的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田友胜; 侯义斌

    2000-01-01

    The concept of command channel-mechanism has been introduced into the command channelmechanism system for human to human interaction and co-operative over the Internet/Intranet.A new type of interaction and co-operative environment has been built up.This paper discusses the running mechanism and software realization of the command channel.

  11. Thou should not know too much. When lack of information promotes co-operative behaviour. The case of oil-fields in Wyoming, Oklahoma and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassler, B.

    1997-12-31

    Proper assumptions of information levels are of vital importance in all kinds of analysis of interdependent decision-making. In most cases the rule is; the more information the better. In this paper, however, it is shown that such is not always the case. Lack of information can enhance resource utilisation of resources, when the problem of co-operation is of a Prisoner`s dilemma type, and when iteration of the interaction game is unlikely. The case of oil-fields in the United States has been chosen as an empirical example of the latter. Optimal drilling procedures tend to be chosen more often the less the drillers know about the resource characteristics. This outcome is explained by the structure of the decision-making problem, where low levels of information render it advantageous to choose co-operative strategies 16 refs, 4 figs

  12. Theoretical Foundations of the Web: Cognition, Communication, and Co-Operation. Towards an Understanding of Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bichler

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is much talk of Web 2.0 and Social Software. A common understanding of these notions is not yet in existence. The question of what makes Social Software social has thus far also remained unacknowledged. In this paper we provide a theoretical understanding of these notions by outlining a model of the Web as a techno-social system that enhances human cognition towards communication and co-operation. According to this understanding, we identify three qualities of the Web, namely Web 1.0 as a Web of cognition, Web 2.0 as a Web of human communication, and Web 3.0 as a Web of co-operation. We use the terms Web 1.0, Web 2.0, Web 3.0 not in a technical sense, but for describing and characterizing the social dynamics and information processes that are part of the Internet.

  13. 警检配合与侦查监督%Co-operation between the Police and the Procurator and the Investigation Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周标龙

    2012-01-01

    The Criminal Procedure Law of China stipulates that the police and the procurator should co-operate with each other and that the procurator supervises the investigating activities by the police. However there exists contradiction between the "co- operation" and the "supervision".. if the co-operation between the police and the procurator is strengthened, the function of su- pervision to the investigative power will be weakened; if the supervision to the investigative power is strengthened, the co-oper- ation between the police and the procurator will not work well. We ought to design a mode of relationship between the police and the procurator that the police and the procurator co-operate with each other intensely in order to complete the mission of crime control. At the same , it's necessary to strengthen the checking mechanism to the investigation power of the police.%我国刑事诉讼法规定公安机关与检察机关应当互相配合,同时规定检察机关对公安机关侦查活动进行监督。然而,警检配合与侦查监督具有矛盾性:加强警检配合会削弱侦查监督;加强侦查监督则会使警检难以相互配合。我国应以提高对犯罪的有效追诉为目标构建相互配合与协作的警检关系。同时,应当完善侦查权制约机制以防止侦查权的滥用。

  14. H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development (third from left) with (left to right) Florian Ciolacu (Romanian Mission in Geneva), Cornel Comsa (personal adviser to the Prince), Sorin Ilie (CERN), Calin Alexa (ATLAS), Iosif Legrand (Caltech/CMS), Mihaela Gheata (ALICE), Andrei Gheata (ALICE), and Sorin Zgura (ALICE).

  15. Endpoint comparison for bone mineral density measurements in North Central Cancer Treatment Group cancer clinical trials N02C1 and N03CC (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Atherton, P.; Liu, H.; Novotny, P.; Hines, S.; Loprinzi, C. L.; Perez, E. A.; Tan, A.; Burger, K.; Zhao, X.; Diekmann, B.; Sloan, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement can vary depending upon anatomical site, machine, and normative values used. This analysis compared different BMD endpoints in two clinical trials. Trial results differed across endpoints. Future clinical trials should consider inclusion of multiple endpoints in sensitivity analysis to ensure sound overall study conclusions. Introduction Methodological issues hamper efficacy assessment of osteoporosis prevention agents in cancer survivors. Osteoporosis diagnosis can vary depending upon which bone mineral density (BMD) anatomical site and machine is used and which set of normative values are applied. This analysis compared different endpoints for osteoporosis treatment efficacy assessment in two clinical studies. Methods Data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase III clinical trials N02C1 and N03CC (Alliance) were employed involving 774 patients each comparing two treatments for osteoporosis prevention. Endpoints for three anatomical sites included raw BMD score (RawBMD); raw machine-based, sample-standardized, and reference population-standardized T scores (RawT, TSamp, TRef); and standard normal percentile corresponding to the reference population-standardized T score (TPerc). For each, treatment arm comparison was carried out using three statistical tests using change and percentage change from baseline (CB, %CB) at 1 year. Results Baseline correlations among endpoints ranged from 0.79 to 1.00. RawBMD and TPerc produced more statistically significant results (14 and 19 each out of 36 tests) compared to RawT (11/36), TSamp (8/36), and TRef (7/36). Spine produced the most statistically significant results (26/60) relative to femoral neck (20/60) and total hip (13/60). Lastly, CB resulted in 44 statistically significant results out of 90 tests, whereas %CB resulted in only 15 significant results. Conclusions Treatment comparisons and interpretations were different across endpoints and anatomical sites

  16. Maternal diet and risk of astrocytic glioma in children: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group (United States and Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, G R; Kuijten, R R; Boesel, C P; Buckley, J D; Meadows, A T

    1994-03-01

    N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrites and nitrates, have been hypothesized as risk factors, and vitamins C and E, which inhibit N-nitroso formation, as protective factors for brain tumors. A case-control study of maternal diet during pregnancy and risk of astrocytoma, the most common childhood brain tumor, was conducted by the Childrens Cancer Group. The study included 155 cases under age six at diagnosis and the same number of matched controls selected by random-digit dialing. A trend was observed for consumption of cured meats, which contain preformed nitrosamines (a class of N-nitroso compounds) and their precursors (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for highest quartile of intake relative to lowest = 1.7, P trend = 0.10). However, no strong trends were observed for nitrosamine (OR = 0.8, P = 0.60); nitrite (OR = 1.3, P = 0.54); nitrate (OR = 0.7, P = 0.43); vitamin C (OR = 0.7, P = 0.37); or vitamin E (OR = 0.7, P = 0.48). Iron supplements were associated with a significant decrease in risk (OR = 0.5, 95 percent confidence interval = 0.3-0.8). The effect of several dietary factors differed by income level, making interpretation of the results difficult. Future research should investigate the effect of dietary components not assessed in this study, as these may explain the disparate effects by income level. The results of this study provide limited support for the nitrosamine hypothesis.

  17. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Prendes, Miguel; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2004-02-01

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation.

  18. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a potential biomarker in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: preliminary results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group Study-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mains, Jill Rachel; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Erik Morre;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computer tomography (CT) as a biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group...

  19. A randomized, open, parallel group, multicenter trial to investigate analgesic efficacy and safety of a new transdermal fentanyl patch compared to standard opioid treatment in cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kress, Hans G; Von der Laage, Dorothea; Hoerauf, Klaus H;

    2008-01-01

    to be pharmacokinetically bioequivalent to the marketed fentanyl patch. To determine noninferiority in efficacy in cancer patients and to compare safety, a clinical trial comparing the new fentanyl patch with standard oral or transdermal opioid treatment was planned. The design was an open, parallel group, multicenter...

  20. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  1. Randomised study of Casodex 50 MG monotherapy vs orchidectomy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. The Scandinavian Casodex Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Tveter, K; Varenhorst, E

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Casodex (ICI 176,334), a new, once-daily, selective antiandrogen, given as 50 mg monotherapy, was compared with orchidectomy in a randomised, multicentre, open study in 376 patients with metastatic prostate cancer. At 3 months, PSA was reduced by 86% in the Casodex group and by 96% ...

  2. From chemoprevention and organ preservation programmes to postoperative management : major achievements and strategies of the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, J; Vermorken, JB; Debruyne, C; Andry, G; Licitra, L; Grandi, C; Langendijk, H; De Mulder, PHM; Lefebvre, JL

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most significant results of the clinical studies conducted in the past two decades by the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Group (HNCG). As for phase III trials. the HNCG investigated. besides the efficacy of chemopreventive drugs, the impact of cytostatic agen

  3. Randomised phase III trial of S-1 versus capecitabine in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: SALTO study by the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakman, J J M; Simkens, L H J; van Rooijen, J M; van de Wouw, A J; Ten Tije, A J; Creemers, G J M; Hendriks, M P; Los, M; van Alphen, R J; Polée, M B; Muller, E W; van der Velden, A M T; van Voorthuizen, T; Koopman, M; Mol, L; van Werkhoven, E; Punt, C J A

    2017-04-05

    Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a common side effect of capecitabine. S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine with comparable efficacy to capecitabine in gastrointestinal cancers but associated with a lower incidence of HFS in Asian patients. This study compares the incidence of HFS between S-1 and capecitabine as first-line treatment in Western metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients.

  4. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in locally advanced rectal cancer. A phase I-II multicenter study of the Dutch colorectal cancer group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Geke A.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Tesselaar, Margot E.; Cats, Annemieke; Havenga, Klaas; Leer, Jan W. H.; Marijnen, Corrie A.; Jansen, Edwin P.; Van Krieken, Han H. J. M.; Wiggers, Theo; de Velde, Cornelis J. H. Van; Mulder, Nanno H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We studied the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and efficacy of oxaliplatin added to capecitabine and radiotherapy (Capox-RT) as neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer. Methods: T3-4 rectal cancer patients received escalating doses of oxaliplatin (day 1 and 29) with a fixed dose of capecitabi

  5. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in locally advanced rectal cancer. A phase I-II multicenter study of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, G.A.; Punt, C.J.A.; Tesselaar, M.E.; Cats, A.; Havenga, K.; Leer, J.W.H.; Marijnen, C.A.M.; Jansen, E.P.W.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Wiggers, T.; Velde, C.J. van de; Mulder, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and efficacy of oxaliplatin added to capecitabine and radiotherapy (Capox-RT) as neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer. METHODS: T3-4 rectal cancer patients received escalating doses of oxaliplatin (day 1 and 29) with a fixed dose of capecitabi

  6. “Not Just an Apartment Building”: Residents’ Quality of Life in a Social Housing Co-operative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Eileen Wisniewski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact that two social housing complexes have had on their residents' quality of life. These two complexes, known as Tannery Court Co-operative Ltd., target a specific segment of the affordable housing market: non-elderly singles. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the quality of life of residents. The data collection strategy used semi-structured interviews conducted with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 43 interviews were completed at the two building sites. Analysis of interview and questionnaire data identified six areas of improvement in residents' quality of life. These are life in general (an overarching dimension, housing (the focus of the Tannery Court intervention, neighbourhood (including safety and appearance, food, self-confidence (an enabling dimension for future development of projects and goals among the residents, and financial situation (a key dimension because of its multiple impacts on other aspects of life. / L'objectif de cette recherche était d'évaluer l'impact des deux complexes de logements coopératifs Tannery Court sur la qualité de vie des résidants. Ces complexes ciblent un segment particulier du marché du logement social, les célibataires d'âge actif et vivant en deçà du seuil de la pauvreté. Cette étude utilise une méthodologie mixte pour évaluer la situation et la qualité de vie des résidants. La stratégie de cueillette de données s'appuie sur des entrevues semi-dirigées effectuées à l'aide d'un questionnaire. Au total, nous avons complété 43 entrevues. Six aspects de la qualité de vie se sont améliorés de façon significative. Il s'agit de la vie en général (une dimension globale, le logement (l'objectif premier visé par l'équipe de Tannery Court, le quartier de résidence (dimensions importantes de la localisation d'un complexe comme la sécurité et l'apparence la confiance en soi (une dimension clé pour le d

  7. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease......- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...

  8. EGFR testing and clinical management of advanced NSCLC: a Galician Lung Cancer Group study (GGCP 048-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Vázquez,1 Joaquín Casal,2 Francisco Javier Afonso Afonso,3 José Luis Fírvida,4 Lucía Santomé,5 Francisco Barón,6 Martín Lázaro,7 Carolina Pena,7 Margarita Amenedo,8 Ihab Abdulkader,9 Carmen González-Arenas,10 Laura Fachal,11 Ana Vega11 On behalf of the Galician Lung Cancer Group (GGCP1Medical Oncology Department, Lucus Augusti University Hospital, Lugo, 2Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Pontevedra, 3Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Ferrol, Ferrol, 4Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Ourense, Ourense, 5Medical Oncology Department Povisa Hospital, Vigo, 6Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 7Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Complex of Pontevedra, Pontevedra, 8Medical Oncology Department, Oncology Center of Galicia, A Coruña, 9Anatomical Pathology Department, University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 10AstraZeneca, Madrid, 11Galician Public Foundation of Genomic Medicine-SERGAS, Santiago de Compostela Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Purpose: This study aimed to assess the incidence of mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients in the Galician region of Spain and the clinical management and outcome of patients carrying EGFR mutations. Patients and methods: All newly diagnosed advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients were screened for EGFR mutations in matched tumor samples (tissue or cytology specimens and serum samples. Results: Of 198 patients screened for EGFR mutations in tumor samples, 184 had evaluable data and, of these, 25 (13.6% had EGFR mutations (84% sensitizing mutations. EGFR mutation was found in serum in 14 (8.1% patients (of 174 evaluable. Compared to matched tumor tissue, serum EGFR mutation testing specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 52

  9. Polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) Gene Polymorphism in Shanghai population:Occupational and Non-occupational Bladder Cancer Patient Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING-WEN MA; GUO-FANG LIN; JI-GANG CHEN; CUI-QING XIANG; WEI-CHAO GUO; KLAUS GOLKA; JIAN-HUA SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are involved in the detoxification of aromatic amines and hydrazine. In order to explore the possible association of NAT2 polymorphism with bladder cancer risk in benzidine exposed or non-exposed Chinese individuals, healthy subjects, subjects with bladder cancer of a former benzidine exposed cohort in Shanghai dyestuff industry and a group of bladder cancer patients without known occupational exposure to aromatic amines were genotyped for NAT2 gene polymorphism. Methods NAT2 genotyping was performed with a set of RFLP procedures at seven major polymorphic loci of gene coding area: G191A, C282T, T341C, C481T, G590A, A803G and G857A. Results The wild allele NAT2 *4 was the most prevalent allele (59%) in healthy individuals. The alleles NAT2*6A and NAT2*7B were also frequently observed (21% and 17%, respectively). In contrast to Caucasians, the percentage of slow acetylators was lower (12% in Chinese vs. 58% in Caucasians, P<0.001). No relevant differences were observed for homogenous rapid, heterogeneous rapid/slow and homogeneous slow acetylation genotypes between the healthy subjects and both groups of bladder cancer patients. Conclusion The present work did not support the association of slow acetylating genotypes of NAT2 gene with elevated risk of bladder cancer in Chinese whereas it was documented as an important genetically determined risk factor in Caucasians. Different mechanisms might play a role in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer related with aromatic amine exposure in various races or ethnic groups.

  10. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  11. Breast cancer surgery and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller-Kreinsen, David; Quentin, Wilm; Geissler, Alexander; Busse, Reinhard

    2013-10-01

    Researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) compared how their DRG systems deal with breast cancer surgery patients. DRG algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were assessed for those DRGs that individually contain at least 1% of all breast cancer surgery patients. Six standardised case vignettes were defined and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems classify breast cancer surgery patients according to different sets of classification variables into three to seven DRGs. Quasi prices for an index case treated with partial mastectomy range from €577 in Poland to €5780 in the Netherlands. Countries award their highest payments for very different kinds of patients. Breast cancer specialists and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify breast cancer patients in order to identify potential scope for improvement and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement.

  12. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. Methods/Design This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, “ReCaPTure LiFe” will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15–25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1–6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting. Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. Discussion This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills

  13. Excision Repair Cross-complementation Group 1 is a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Xing Li; Xin-Yu Bi; Hong Zhao; Zhen Huang; Yue Han; Dong-Bin Zhao; Jian-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Background:Conflicting results about the association between expression level of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and clinical outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving chemotherapy have been reported.Thus,we searched the available articles and performed the meta-analysis to elucidate the prognostic role of ERCC1 expression in patients with CRC.Methods:A thorough literature search using PubMed (Medline),Embase,Cochrane Library,Web of Science databases,and Chinese Science Citation Database was conducted to obtain the relevant studies.Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the results.Results:A total of 11 studies were finally enrolled in this meta-analysis.Compared with patients with lower ERCC1 expression,patients with higher ERCC1 expression tended to have unfavorable overall survival (OS) (HR =2.325,95% CI:1.720-3.143,P < 0.001),progression-free survival (PFS) (HR =1.917,95% CI:1.366-2.691,P < 0.001) and poor response to chemotherapy (OR =0.491,95% CI:0.243-0.990,P =0.047).Subgroup analyses by treatment setting,ethnicity,HR extraction,detection methods,survival analysis,and study design demonstrated that our results were robust.Conclusions:ERCC1 expression may be taken as an effective prognostic factor predicting the response to chemotherapy,OS,and PFS.Further studies with better study design and longer follow-up are warranted in order to gain a deeper understanding of ERCC 1's prognostic value.

  14. The patient's perspective of the quality of breast cancer care: the developement of an instrument to measure quality of care through focus groups and concept mapping with breast cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M. de; Scholte, R.W.; Sixma, H.J.; Weijden, T. van der; Spijkers, K.F.; Velde, C.J.H. van de; Roukema, J.A.; Ent, F.W. van der; Bell, A.V.R.J.; Meyenfeldt, M.F. von

    2007-01-01

    Quality of care is often described by professionals. However, in this study breast cancer patients participated in developing an instrument that reflects quality of care from the patient's perspective. Through focus groups and concept mapping patients' ideas on determinants of good quality of care w

  15. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n.......13-2.82)), localization of cancer in the rectum and Dukes classification were independent risk factors. CONCLUSION: Blood transfusion per se may not be a risk factor for poor prognosis after colorectal cancer surgery. However, the combination of perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative...

  16. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.G. Klinkenbijl (Jean); J. Wils; J. Jeekel (Hans); T. Sahmoud; R. van Pel; M.L. Couvreur; C.H. Veenhof; J.P. Arnaud; D. González González (Dionisio); L.Th. de Wit (Laurens); A. Hennipman

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil versus observation alone after surgery was investigated in patients with pancreatic head and periampullary cancers. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A previous study of adjuvant radiotherapy

  17. Case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by rapidly progressive group A hemolytic streptococcal infection during postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Yuya; Tsuji, Kousuke; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Katakura, Satomi; Kisu, Iori; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe infectious disease caused by group A hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). This condition is a serious disease that involves rapidly progressive septic shock. We experienced a case of STSS caused by primary peritonitis during treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin (TP therapy) as postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer. STSS mostly develops after extremity pain, but initial influenza-like symptoms of fever, chill, myalgia and gastrointestinal symptoms may also occur. TP therapy is used to treat many cancers, including gynecological cancer, but may cause adverse reactions of neuropathy and nephrotoxicity and sometimes fever, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and general malaise. The case reported here indicates that development of STSS can be delayed after chemotherapy and that primary STSS symptoms may be overlooked because they may be viewed as adverse reactions to chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of STSS during chemotherapy.

  18. Cancer predictive value of cytogenetic markers used in occupational health surveillance programs: a report from an ongoing study by the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Bonassi, S; Strömberg, U;

    1998-01-01

    The cytogenetic endpoints in peripheral blood lymphocytes: chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) are established biomarkers of exposure for mutagens or carcinogens in the work environment. However, it is not clear whether these biomarkers also may serve...... for SCE or MN. A collaborative study between the Nordic and Italian research groups, will enable a more thorough evaluation of the cancer predictivity of the cytogenetic endpoints. We here report on the establishment of a joint data base comprising 5271 subjects, examined 1965-1988 for at least one...... cytogenetic biomarker. Totally, 3540 subjects had been examined for CA, 2702 for SCE and 1496 for MN. These cohorts have been followed-up with respect to subsequent cancer mortality or cancer incidence, and the expected values have been calculated from rates derived from the general populations in each...

  19. Cancer incidence in Arkhangelskaja Oblast in northwestern Russia. The Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkatsjov Anatolij V

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data concerning incidence and prevalence of cancer in the different regions of Russia have traditionally not been provided on a basis that facilitated comparison with data from countries in western parts of Europe. The oncological hospital in Arkhangelsk, in co-operation with Universitetet i Tromsø (Norway, has established a population based cancer registry for Arkhangelskaja Oblast (AO. AO is an administrative unit with 1.3 million inhabitants in northwestern Russia. The aim of this investigation was to assess the content and quality of the AO cancer registry (AKR, and to present the site-specific cancer-incidence rates in AO in the period 1993–2001. Methods The population in this study consisted of all individuals registered as residents of AO. All new cancer cases in the period 1993 – 2001, registered the AKR, were included in the study (ICD-10: C00-C95, except for C77-78. The annual gender and age-group-specific population figures were obtained from the AO statistics office. Results A total of 34 697 cases of primary cancers were included. The age-adjusted (world standard incidence rate for all sites combined was 164/100 000 for women and 281/100 000 for men. The highest incidence was for cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung (16.3% of all cases, whereof 88.6 % of the cases were among men. Among women, cancer of the breast constituted 15.9 percent of all cases. The age-adjusted incidences of the most frequent cancer sites among men were: lung (77.4/100 000; stomach (45.9; rectum (13.4; oesophagus (13.0; colon (12.2; bladder (11.6; and prostate cancer (11.1. Among women they were: breast (28.5; stomach (19.7; colon (12.2; and ovary cancer (9.0. Conclusion Our findings confirm and strengthen the indication that the incidences of stomach, larynx, liver, pancreas, prostate, colon, bladder and melanoma cancer are quite different in male populations in Russia compared to many other European countries. Among women, most

  20. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  1. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR DEVELOPING BREAST CANCER IN BREAST CANCER (BRCA GENE CARRIER FEMALE IN- THE 30-60 YEARS AGE GROUP: A META-ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghimire S, Shrestha N, BK Baral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature linking breast cancer with oral contraceptives and BRCA mutation as possible risk factors is equivocal. Hence, to account for these conflicting results in the existing literature and to observe the net effect, this meta-analysis aims to investigate whether oral contraceptives are a risk factor for developing breast cancer in breast cancer (BRCA gene carrier female in the 30-60 years age group. Method: Systematic review of the literature, both published and unpublished, and meta-analysis of relevant data. Results: Meta-analysis of data from five relevant studies, with a total of 6682 BRCA carriers (3,269 BRCA1 carriers and 791 BRCA2 carriers, revealed that use of oral contraceptives is associated with increased risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers (OR=2.267; 95 % CI= 1.311, 3.919. When the same risk was stratified by mutation type, both BRCA1 and BRCA2 were at increased risk. However, BRCA2 carriers (OR= 3.060; 95% CI=0.951, 9.848 were found to be at elevated risk compared to BRCA1 carriers (OR= 2.347; 95% CI=0.939, 5.865. Conclusions: This meta-analytical finding suggests that oral contraceptives are a risk factor for developing breast cancer in breast cancer (BRCA gene carrier females.

  2. Cancer predictive value of cytogenetic markers used in occupational health surveillance programs. A report from an ongoing study by the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, Lars; Stroemberg, Ulf; Mikoczy, Zoli; Tinnerberg, Hakan; Skerfving, Staffan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Bonassi, Stefano; Lando, Cecilia [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Viale Benedetto XV, I-1016132 Genoa (Italy); Hansteen, Inger-Lise [Department of Occupational Medicine, Telemark Central Hospital, N-3710 Skien (Norway); Montagud, Alicia Huici [Centro Nacional de Condiciones de Trabajo, Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Dulcet 2-10, ES-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Knudsen, Lisbeth [National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersoe Parkalle 105, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Norppa, Hannu [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksekatu 41 aA, FIN-00250 Helsinki (Finland); Reuterwall, Christina [National Institute of Work Life, S-171 84 Solna (Sweden); Broegger, Anton [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Forni, Alessandra [Istituto di Medicina del Lavoro Clinica del Lavoro `L. Devoto`, Milan (Italy); Hoegstedt, Benkt [Department of Occupational Medicine, Central Hospital, Halmstad (Sweden); Lambert, Bo [Department of Environmental Medicine, Centre for Nutrition and Toxicology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Mitelman, Felix [Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Nordenson, Ingrid [National Institute of Work Life, Umea (Sweden); Salomaa, Sisko [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-09-20

    The cytogenetic endpoints in peripheral blood lymphocytes: chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) are established biomarkers of exposure for mutagens or carcinogens in the work environment. However, it is not clear whether these biomarkers also may serve as biomarkers for genotoxic effects which will result in an enhanced cancer risk. In order to assess this problem, Nordic and Italian cohorts were established, and preliminary results from these two studies indicated a predictive value of CA frequency for cancer risk, whereas no such associations were observed for SCE or MN. A collaborative study between the Nordic and Italian research groups, will enable a more thorough evaluation of the cancer predictivity of the cytogenetic endpoints. We here report on the establishment of a joint data base comprising 5271 subjects, examined 1965-1988 for at least one cytogenetic biomarker. Totally, 3540 subjects had been examined for CA, 2702 for SCE and 1496 for MN. These cohorts have been followed-up with respect to subsequent cancer mortality or cancer incidence, and the expected values have been calculated from rates derived from the general populations in each country. Stratified cohort analyses will be performed with respect to the levels of the cytogenetic biomarkers. The importance of potential effect modifiers such as gender, age at test, and time since test, will be evaluated using Poisson regression models. The remaining two potential effect modifiers, occupational exposures and smoking, will be assessed in a case-referent study within the study base

  3. Similarities and differences of doctor-patient co-operated evidence-based medical record of treating digestive system diseases with integrative medicine compared with traditional medical records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Li; Wen-Hong Shao; Yan-Da Li; Ying-Pan Zhao; Qing-Na Li; Zhao Yang; Hong-Cai Shang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish the model of doctor-patient cooperated record, based on the concepts of narrative evidence-based medicine and related theories on Doctor-Patient Co-operated Evidence-Based Medical Record. Methods: We conducted a literature search from Pubmed, following the principles of narrative evidence-based medicine, and refer to the advice of experts of digestive system and EBM in both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Result: This research is a useful attempt to discuss the establishment of doctor-patient co-operated evidence-based medical record guided by narrative evidence-based medicine. Conclusion:Doctor-patient co-operated medical record can become a key factor of the curative effect evaluation methodology system of integrated therapy of tradition Chinese medicine and Western medicine on spleen and stomach diseases.%遵循叙事循证医学理念,咨询中西医消化内科及循证医学专家,凝练医患共建式病历的理论,建立医患共建式病历的范本,对比医患共建式病历与传统病历记录的不同,分析医患共建式病历的优缺点。思考与展望:医患共建式病历有可能成为中西医合作治疗脾胃病疗效评价方法学体系的一个要素。

  4. Assessing risk of breast cancer in an ethnically South-East Asia population (results of a multiple ethnic groups study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Fei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gail and others developed a model (GAIL using age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child, number of previous benign breast biopsy examinations, and number of first-degree-relatives with breast cancer as well as baseline age-specific breast cancer risks for predicting the 5-year risk of invasive breast cancer for Caucasian women. However, the validity of the model for projecting risk in South-East Asian women is uncertain. We evaluated GAIL and attempted to improve its performance for Singapore women of Chinese, Malay and Indian origins. Methods Data from the Singapore Breast Screening Programme (SBSP are used. Motivated by lower breast cancer incidence in many Asian countries, we utilised race-specific invasive breast cancer and other cause mortality rates for Singapore women to produce GAIL-SBSP. By using risk factor information from a nested case-control study within SBSP, alternative models incorporating fewer then additional risk factors were determined. Their accuracy was assessed by comparing the expected cases (E with the observed (O by the ratio (E/O and 95% confidence interval (CI and the respective concordance statistics estimated. Results From 28,883 women, GAIL-SBSP predicted 241.83 cases during the 5-year follow-up while 241 were reported (E/O=1.00, CI=0.88 to 1.14. Except for women who had two or more first-degree-relatives with breast cancer, satisfactory prediction was present in almost all risk categories. This agreement was reflected in Chinese and Malay, but not in Indian women. We also found that a simplified model (S-GAIL-SBSP including only age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child and number of first-degree-relatives performed similarly with associated concordance statistics of 0.5997. Taking account of body mass index and parity did not improve the calibration of S-GAIL-SBSP. Conclusions GAIL can be refined by using national race-specific invasive breast cancer rates and mortality rates

  5. A European union (EU) co-operation program: Integral, innovative, industrial product design and development, I3PD(2) and project led education (PLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Hvid

    2007-01-01

    Aalborg University's project-organised and problem-oriented studies were introduced Thirty-three years ago. The experience since then has proved this to be an important innovation in higher education. The primary aim is to teach young people, students to become useful members for industry...... and society. Other primary objectives are to ensure high-quality research and education and to enhance technology transfer and to stimulate industry-university partnerships within the EU and stimulate Inter-University co-operation programmes. In this project we are focusing on the importance of curriculum...

  6. H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen, Special Representative of the Romanian Government for Integration, Co-operation and Sustainable Development, is seen here visiting Microcosm, CERN's on-site exhibition centre. Photo 01: H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen (right) with his personal adviser Cornel Comsa inside Microcosm's full-scale model of a six-metre section of the LHC. Photos 04-06: H.S.H. Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen with Emma Sanders from ETT Division.

  7. Comparative analysis of prostate-specific antigen free survival outcomes for patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer treatment by radical therapy. Results from the Prostate Cancer Results Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Peter; Billiet, Ignace; Bostwick, David; Dicker, Adam P; Frank, Steven; Immerzeel, Jos; Keyes, Mira; Kupelian, Patrick; Lee, W Robert; Machtens, Stefan; Mayadev, Jyoti; Moran, Brian J; Merrick, Gregory; Millar, Jeremy; Roach, Mack; Stock, Richard; Shinohara, Katsuto; Scholz, Mark; Weber, Ed; Zietman, Anthony; Zelefsky, Michael; Wong, Jason; Wentworth, Stacy; Vera, Robyn; Langley, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Very few comparative studies to date evaluate the results of treatment options for prostate cancer using the most sensitive measurement tools. PSA has been identified as the most sensitive tool for measuring treatment effectiveness. To date, comprehensive unbiased reviews of all the current literature are limited for prostate cancer. This is the first large scale comprehensive review of the literature comparing risk stratified patients by treatment option and with long-term follow-up. The results of the studies are weighted, respecting the impact of larger studies on overall results. The study identified a lack of uniformity in reporting results amongst institutions and centres. A large number of studies have been conducted on the primary therapy of prostate cancer but very few randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The comparison of outcomes from individual studies involving surgery (radical prostatectomy or robotic radical prostatectomy), external beam radiation (EBRT) (conformal, intensity modulated radiotherapy, protons), brachytherapy, cryotherapy or high intensity focused ultrasound remains problematic due to the non-uniformity of reporting results and the use of varied disease outcome endpoints. Technical advances in these treatments have also made long-term comparisons difficult. The Prostate Cancer Results Study Group was formed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of prostate cancer treatments. This international group conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify all studies involving treatment of localized prostate cancer published during 2000-2010. Over 18,000 papers were identified and a further selection was made based on the following key criteria: minimum/median follow-up of 5 years; stratification into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups; clinical and pathological staging; accepted standard definitions for prostate-specific antigen failure; minimum patient

  8. In vitro activities of eight macrolide antibiotics and RP-59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) against viridans group streptococci isolated from blood of neutropenic cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaide, F; Carratala, J; Liñares, J; Gudiol, F.; Martin, R.

    1996-01-01

    From January 1988 to December 1994, 66 consecutive blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the agar dilution method. The antibiotics studied were erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, diacetyl-midecamycin, spiramycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 26 (39.4%) strains were resistant to erythromycin with an MIC range of 0.5 ...

  9. How Does Insightful and Emotional Disclosure Bring Potential Health Benefits?: Study Based on Online Support Groups for Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Minsun; Cappella, Joseph N.; Han, Jeong Yeob

    2011-01-01

    Despite much research on the beneficial effects of written disclosure, relatively little attention has been paid to specifying the mechanism underlying the effects. Building upon the two theoretical models (the cognitive adaptation model and the emotional exposure-habituation model), this research focused on two aspects of disclosure content—insights and emotions—and examined how women with breast cancer benefit from written disclosure in online support groups. Using survey data collected at ...

  10. Vinorelbine and gemcitabine vs vinorelbine and carboplatin as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. A phase III randomised controlled trial by the Norwegian Lung Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtten, Ø; Grønberg, B H; Bremnes, R;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but earlier studies have suggested that non-platinum combinations are equally effective and better tolerated. We conducted a national, randomised study to compare...... of radiotherapy did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. CONCLUSION: The two regimens yielded similar overall survival. The VG combination had only a slightly better toxicity profile....

  11. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of paclitaxel and carboplatin in ovarian cancer patients : A study by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanisms Group and New Drug Development Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerger, Markus; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Richel, Dick J.; Dittrich, Christian; Pavlidis, Nikolas; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Vermorken, Jan B.; Strocchi, Elena; Martoni, Andrea; Sorio, Roberto; Sleeboom, Henk P.; Izquierdo, Miguel A.; Jodrell, Duncan I.; Calvert, Hilary; Boddy, Alan V.; Hollema, Harry; Fety, Regine; Van der Vijgh, Wjf J. F.; Hempel, Georg; Chatelut, Etienne; Karlsson, Mats; Wilkins, Justin; Tranchand, Brigitte; Schrijvers, Ad H. G. J.; Twelves, Christian; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schellens, Jan H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Paclitaxel and carboplatin are frequently used in advanced ovarian cancer following cytoreductive surgery. Threshold models have been used to predict paclitaxel pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics, whereas the time above paclitaxel plasma concentration of 0.05 to 0.2 mu mol/L (t(c > 0.05-0.2))

  12. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Hachemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME)

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Hachemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME)

  13. Protocol to the 2001 Co-Operation Agreement between the European Organization For Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Development of the Republic of Serbia

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    On 8 June 2001, on the basis of the mandate given by Council in 1989 to the Director-General to enter into Co-operation Agreements following a defined text model, CERN and the Government of the Republic of Serbia have entered into a Co-operation Agreement on the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics. As usual, the concrete implementation of the Co-operation Agreement is foreseen to take place through the conclusion of Protocols. Agreement has now been reached on the text of a Protocol concerning the Serbian participation in the CMS Collaboration. Annex I to the Protocol, which defines the technical specification of the Serbian contribution, is still under preparation. Although the Protocol contains no concrete financial commitment by CERN, pending a decision by the Committee of Council on procedures for agreements and protocols, the Management proposes that the Finance Committee takes note of the text of the Protocol.

  14. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  15. In vitro activities of eight macrolide antibiotics and RP-59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) against viridans group streptococci isolated from blood of neutropenic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, F; Carratala, J; Liñares, J; Gudiol, F; Martin, R

    1996-09-01

    From January 1988 to December 1994, 66 consecutive blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the agar dilution method. The antibiotics studied were erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, diacetyl-midecamycin, spiramycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 26 (39.4%) strains were resistant to erythromycin with an MIC range of 0.5 to > 128 micrograms/ml. The strains were classified into three groups according to their penicillin susceptibility: 42 (63.6%) were susceptible, 8 (12.1%) were intermediately resistant, and 16 (24.3%) were highly resistant. The percentages of erythromycin-resistant strains in each group were 23.8, 62.5, and 68.8%, respectively. Streptococcus mitis was the species most frequently isolated (83.3%) and showed the highest rates of penicillin (40%) and erythromycin (43.6%) resistance. MICs of all macrolide antibiotics tested and of quinupristin-dalfopristin were higher for penicillin-resistant strains than for penicillin-susceptible strains. All macrolide antibiotics tested had cross-resistance to erythromycin, which was not observed with quinupristin-dalfopristin. Our study shows a high rate of macrolide resistance among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood samples of neutropenic cancer patients, especially those infected with penicillin-resistant strains. These findings make macrolides unsuitable prophylactic agents against viridans group streptococcal bacteremia in this patient population.

  16. Role of recombinant interferon-gamma maintenance in responding patients with small cell lung cancer. A randomised phase III study of the EORTC lung cancer cooperative group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanZandwijk, N; Groen, HJM; Postmus, PE; Burghouts, JTW; tenVelde, GPM; Ardizzoni, A; Smith, IE; Baas, P; Sahmoud, T; Kirkpatrick, A; Dalesio, O; Giaccone, G

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) given every other day as maintenance therapy could prolong the survival of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who achieved a complete or nearly-complete response to induction therapy. A secondary endpoint wa

  17. Parenteral estrogen versus combined androgen deprivation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer: part 2. Final evaluation of the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group (SPCG) Study No. 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, P.O.; Damber, J.E.; Hagerman, I.;

    2008-01-01

    To compare parenteral estrogen therapy in the form of high-dose polyestradiol phosphate (PEP; Estradurin) with combined androgen deprivation (CAD) in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastases. The aim of the study was to compare anticancer efficacy and adverse events...

  18. LONG-TERM SURVIVAL IN OVARIAN-CANCER - MATURE DATA FROM THE NETHERLANDS JOINT STUDY-GROUP FOR OVARIAN-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NEIJT, JP; HUININK, WWT; VANDERBURG, MEL; VANOOSTEROM, AT; WILLEMSE, PHB; VERMORKEN, JB; VANLINDERT, ACM; HEINTZ, APM; AARTSEN, E; VANLENT, M; TRIMBOS, JB; DEMEIJER, AJ

    1991-01-01

    In two studies initiated in 1979 and 1981, 377 patients were treated for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. In the first study patients were randomly assigned to receive Hexa-CAF (hexamethylmelamine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) or CHAP-5 (cyclophosphamide, hexamethylmelamine, do

  19. UGT1A1*28 genotype and irinotecan dosage in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kweekel, D.M.; Gelderblom, H.; Straaten, T Van der; Antonini, N.F.; Punt, C.J.A.; Guchelaar, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between UGT1A1(*)28 genotype and (1) response rates, (2) febrile neutropenia and (3) dose intensity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan. UGT1A1(*)28 genotype was determined in 218 patients receiving irinotecan

  20. Standardization of pathologic evaluation and reporting of postneoadjuvant specimens in clinical trials of breast cancer: recommendations from an international working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Elena; Bossuyt, Veerle; Viale, Giuseppe; Cameron, David; Badve, Sunil; Denkert, Carsten; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Boughey, Judy; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Dixon, J Michael; Esserman, Laura; Fastner, Gerd; Kuehn, Thorsten; Peintinger, Florentia; von Minckwitz, Gunter; White, Julia; Yang, Wei; Symmans, W Fraser

    2015-09-01

    Neoadjuvant systemic therapy is being used increasingly in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Response, in the form of pathological complete response, is a validated and evaluable surrogate end point of survival after neoadjuvant therapy. Thus, pathological complete response has become a primary end point for clinical trials. However, there is a current lack of uniformity in the definition of pathological complete response. A review of standard operating procedures used by 28 major neoadjuvant breast cancer trials and/or 25 sites involved in such trials identified marked variability in specimen handling and histologic reporting. An international working group was convened to develop practical recommendations for the pathologic assessment of residual disease in neoadjuvant clinical trials of breast cancer and information expected from pathology reports. Systematic sampling of areas identified by informed mapping of the specimen and close correlation with radiological findings is preferable to overly exhaustive sampling, and permits taking tissue samples for translational research. Controversial areas are discussed, including measurement of lesion size, reporting of lymphovascular space invasion and the presence of isolated tumor cells in lymph nodes after neoadjuvant therapy, and retesting of markers after treatment. If there has been a pathological complete response, this must be clearly stated, and the presence/absence of residual ductal carcinoma in situ must be described. When there is residual invasive carcinoma, a comment must be made as to the presence/absence of chemotherapy effect in the breast and lymph nodes. The Residual Cancer Burden is the preferred method for quantifying residual disease in neoadjuvant clinical trials in breast cancer; other methods can be included per trial protocols and regional preference. Posttreatment tumor staging using the Tumor-Node-Metastasis system should be included. These recommendations for standardized

  1. Proposal of a new staging system for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Analysis of surgical patients from a nationwide survey of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Michiie; Izumi, Namiki; Kadoya, Masumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Ku, Yonson; Kudo, Masatoshi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Nakashima, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the current American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer staging system (seventh edition) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), tumor size was excluded, and periductal invasion was added as a new tumor classification‐defining factor. The objective of the current report was to propose a new staging system for ICC that would be better for stratifying the survival of patients based on data from the nationwide Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan database. METHODS Of 756 patients who underwent surgical resection for ICC between 2000 and 2005, multivariate analyses of the clinicopathologic factors of 419 patients who had complete data sets were performed to elucidate relevant factors for inclusion in a new tumor classification and staging system. RESULTS Overall survival data were best stratified using a cutoff value of 2 cm using a minimal P value approach to discriminate patient survival. The 5‐year survival rate of 15 patients who had ICC measuring ≤2 cm in greatest dimension without lymph node metastasis or vascular invasion was 100%, and this cohort was defined as T1. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for 267 patients with lymph node‐negative and metastasis‐negative (N0M0) disease indicated that the number of tumors, the presence arterial invasion, and the presence major biliary invasion were independent and significant prognostic factors. The proposed new system, which included tumor number, tumor size, arterial invasion, and major biliary invasion for tumor classification, provided good stratification of overall patient survival according to disease stage. Macroscopic periductal invasion was associated with major biliary invasion and an inferior prognosis. CONCLUSIONS The proposed new staging system, which includes a tumor cutoff size of 2 cm and major biliary invasion, may be useful for assigning patients to surgery. Cancer 2016;122:61–70. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley

  2. Planning of biogas plants. A question of co-operation and negotiation; Planering av biogasanlaeggningar. En fraaga om samverkan och foerhandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Jamil

    2003-04-01

    During the last years there has been an increased interest in Sweden to build biogas reactors. The planning of a biogas plant brings about the need for co-operation between a variety of actors. Furthermore, there are a number of different issues that need to be dealt with. To build a biogas plant is thus a rather complicated thing to do. The aim of this report is to increase the knowledge about the processes that precede a decision to build a biogas plant, in order to try to facilitate the planning of future projects. The report is based on case studies of the planning of two biogas plants in Sweden and the empirical material consists of interviews with key persons as well as written documents. In the study, three parallel processes are identified and analysed, which are all crucial to carry through a project. These are the project planning process, the political process and the application process. The most important result of the study is that there is not only one way to carry through a project and that the choice of strategy depends on the character of the project and the different questions that need to be handled. Examples of other results are: the importance of an early and continuous dialogue with the political leadership, the necessity to build an organisation for the co-operation between key actors and that the project leaders should be flexible and open to changes in the project throughout the planning process.

  3. Japan-Australia co-operative program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes. Final report 1985 to 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.; Vance, E.; Lumpkin, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Mitamura, H.; Banba, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The overall aim of the Co-operative Program has been to promote the exchange of information on technology for the management of High-Level Wastes (HLW) and to encourage research and development relevant to such technology. During the 13 years that the Program has been carried out, HLW management strategies have matured and developed internationally, and Japan has commenced construction of a domestic reprocessing and vitrification facility for HLW. The HLW management strategy preferred is a national decision. Many countries are using vitrification, direct disposal of spent fuel or a combination of both to handle their existing wastes whereas others have deferred the decision. The work carried out in the Co-operative Program provides strong scientific evidence that the durability of ceramic waste forms is not significantly affected by radiation damage and that high loadings of actinide elements can be incorporated into specially designed ceramic waste forms. Moreover, natural minerals have been shown to remain as closed systems for U and Th for up to 2.5 b y. All of these results give confidence in the ability of second generation waste forms, such as Synroc, to handle future waste arisings that may not be suitable for vitrification 87 refs., 15 tabs., 22 figs.

  4. Learning from the Co-operative Institutional Model: How to Enhance Organizational Robustness of Third Sector Organizations with More Pluralistic Forms of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Taylor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organizations are oftentimes seen as contributing to a robust civil society. Yet the dominant modes of third sector organizational governance often adhere to a unitary orientation. The over-reliance on unitary modes of governance introduces two challenges: first, organizational stakeholders are kept from utilizing participatory mechanisms that would enable them to act as societal intermediaries, and; second, these organizations may underperform due to the artificial separation of stakeholders from participating in governance. This paper addresses calls to widen our knowledge by translating theory into practice through a discussion about the efficacy of pluralistic governance. The co-operative enterprise in introduced to focus analyses on pluralist modes of stakeholder governance. A specific co-operative’s governance structure and practice is introduced—Choctaw Electric Co-operative—through an archival analyses of secondary media accounts of a stakeholder-led reform initiative in rural Oklahoma. The Ostrom Design Principles—a diagnostic used to assess institutional robustness—are applied to demonstrate the shortsightedness of unitary governance, and highlight the potential benefits of pluralistic stakeholder engagement. Knowledge is widened in two ways: first, empirical analyses of co-operative enterprise may provide for significant insights and innovations in third sector governance, and; second proper systems of pluralistic governance exhibit enormous capacity to better orient the firm toward better serving the stakeholder base, improving performance and institutional robustness, while empowering stakeholders as societal intermediaries.

  5. 内镜黏膜切除术的配合体会%Experiences of nursing co-operation during Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜素峰; 韩树堂

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨内镜黏膜切除术时护理配合治疗.方法 术前给患者心理指导和术前常规准备,并备好各种治疗器械,术中配合术者操作,术后做好健康教育预防并发症的发生.结果 58例胃肠道侧向发育型肿瘤均经内镜切除,成功率100%.结论护士能否在术前、术中和术后做好配合影响内镜下侧向发育型肿瘤切除术的效果.%Objective To explore the role of nursing cooperation during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Methods Psychological counseling and regular preparation were carried out pre- operationally, co- operation with the operator was done during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and health education was given to prevent the complications. Results Totally 58 cases of laterally spreading tumor (LST) were resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), the successful rate was 100%. Conclusion Whether nursing co-operation was performed skillfully in perioperative period influenced the effects of endoscopic submucosal dissection of laterally spreading tumor (LST).

  6. Biocompatibility, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica and polystyrene nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells: effects of size and surface charge groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkapongpisit, Maneerat; Giovia, Antonino; Follo, Carlo; Caputo, Giuseppe; Isidoro, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10–30 nm versus 50 nm), type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene), and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups) on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles. Results We found that mesoporous silica nanoparticles entered via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and reached the lysosomes; however, while the 50 nm nanoparticles permanently resided within these organelles, the 10 nm nanoparticles soon relocated in the cytoplasm. Naked 10 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles showed the highest and 50 nm carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles the lowest uptake rates, respectively. Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake also occurred via a caveolae-independent pathway, and was negatively affected by serum. The 30 nm carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles did not localize in lysosomes and were not toxic, while the 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene nanoparticles accumulated within lysosomes and eventually caused cell death. Ovarian cancer cells expressing caveolin-1 were more likely to endocytose these nanoparticles. Conclusion These data highlight the importance of considering both the physicochemical characteristics (ie, material, size and surface charge on chemical groups) of nanoparticles and the biochemical composition of the cell membrane when choosing the most suitable nanotheranostics for targeting cancer cells. PMID:22904626

  7. Group sequential monitoring based on the weighted log-rank test statistic with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights in cancer vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, immunological science has evolved, and cancer vaccines are now approved and available for treating existing cancers. Because cancer vaccines require time to elicit an immune response, a delayed treatment effect is expected and is actually observed in drug approval studies. Accordingly, we propose the evaluation of survival endpoints by weighted log-rank tests with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights. We consider group sequential monitoring, which allows early efficacy stopping, and determine a semiparametric information fraction for the Fleming-Harrington family of weights, which is necessary for the error spending function. Moreover, we give a flexible survival model in cancer vaccine studies that considers not only the delayed treatment effect but also the long-term survivors. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, we illustrate that when the primary analysis is a weighted log-rank test emphasizing the late differences, the proposed information fraction can be a useful alternative to the surrogate information fraction, which is proportional to the number of events. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Theory of sporting technique and «semantics of motions» - in search of co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev S.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology of the educational teaching motive actions is examined in a theory and practice of shotput. The biomechanics and psychological semantic mechanisms of organization of motions of pushrod of kernel are investigational. The methods of registration of electric activity of basic muscular groups of sportsmen of different qualification were used. Developed concept-terminology and methodological vehicle of research. It allows to perfect professionally-pedagogical credo of researchers.

  9. 9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

  10. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection......, and pneumonia were prospectively recorded in 303 patients undergoing elective resection for primary rectal cancer in 18 Danish hospitals. Patient risk variables and variables related to operation technique and transfusion were recorded prospectively, whereas amount given before infectious complication...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...

  11. Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and serum C-reactive protein levels in patients with colorectal cancer. The RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Sørensen, Steen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prognostic variable in patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested, however, that plasma PAI-1 is a nonspecific prognostic parameter similar to the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP). In the present...... statistical analysis including Dukes classification, gender, age, tumor location, perioperative blood transfusion, PAI-1 and CRP, plasma PAI-1 was a dependent prognostic variable, while serum CRP (P

  12. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungshim L; Carmella, Steven G; Chen, Menglan; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear.

  13. Clinical practice guidelines for the surgical management of colon cancer: a consensus statement of the Hellenic and Cypriot Colorectal Cancer Study Group by the HeSMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xynos, Evaghelos; Gouvas, Nikolaos; Triantopoulou, Charina; Tekkis, Paris; Vini, Louiza; Tzardi, Maria; Boukovinas, Ioannis; Androulakis, Nikolaos; Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Christodoulou, Christos; Chrysou, Evangelia; Dervenis, Christos; Emmanouilidis, Christos; Georgiou, Panagiotis; Katopodi, Ourania; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Makatsoris, Thomas; Papakostas, Pavlos; Papamichael, Demetris; Pentheroudakis, Georgios; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Sgouros, Joseph; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Xynogalos, Spyridon; Ziras, Nikolaos; Karachaliou, Niki; Zoras, Odysseas; Agalianos, Christos; Souglakos, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable improvement in the management of colon cancer, there is a great deal of variation in the outcomes among European countries, and in particular among different hospital centers in Greece and Cyprus. Discrepancy in the approach strategies and lack of adherence to guidelines for the management of colon cancer may explain the situation. The aim was to elaborate a consensus on the multidisciplinary management of colon cancer, based on European guidelines (ESMO and EURECCA), and also taking into account local special characteristics of our healthcare system. Following discussion and online communication among members of an executive team, a consensus was developed. Statements entered the Delphi voting system on two rounds to achieve consensus by multidisciplinary international experts. Statements with an agreement rate of ≥80% achieved a large consensus, while those with an agreement rate of 60-80% a moderate consensus. Statements achieving an agreement of Guidelines are proposed along with algorithms of diagnosis and treatment. The importance of centralization, care by a multidisciplinary team, and adherence to guidelines is emphasized.

  14. Group-based exercise in daily clinical practice to improve physical fitness in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter; Ragle, Anne-Mette; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . This article describes the design of an ongoing prospective observational study to evaluate the potential benefits of exercise in daily clinical practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer starting or already receiving ADT at our facility are invited to participate in a 12-week exercise......INTRODUCTION: Level 1 evidence supports the use of supervised exercise to mitigate the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with prostate cancer. The data, however, have been generated in controlled research settings and might not be transferable to daily clinical practice...... programme implemented as the standard of care. Exclusion criteria are opioid-demanding treatment for skeletal pain, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status above 2 or the inability to perform floor and machine exercises independently. The intervention consists of an initial...

  15. Emotional expression and diurnal cortisol slope in women with metastatic breast cancer in supportive-expressive group therapy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Davis, Janine; DiMiceli, Sue; Sephton, Sandra; Spiegel, David

    2006-08-01

    We examined coded emotional expression during an initial therapy session and its association with a known physiological risk factor for early death, aberrant diurnal cortisol slope, in women with metastatic breast cancer. Out of 64 women with metastatic breast cancer randomized to a multi-site clinical intervention trial of supportive-expressive group therapy (SET), a subsample of 29 met eligibility criteria for this study. We tested whether longer mean durations of primary negative affect (fear, sadness, and anger) expression were associated with steeper diurnal cortisol slopes after adjusting for speaking time, repressive-defensiveness, anxiety, and the interaction between repressive-defensiveness and anxiety. We found that steeper cortisol slopes were related to lower repressive-defensiveness and greater primary negative affect expression in line with a priori hypotheses. Additionally we explored whether coded positive affect, defensive/hostile affect, constrained anger, and the interaction between primary negative affect and repressive-defensiveness explained additional variance in diurnal cortisol patterns.

  16. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Austin; Bhavsar, Sheila; Riley, Erinn; Caponetti, Gabriel; Agrawal, Devendra

    2016-10-01

    Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  17. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Austin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes predict human cancer: a report from the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health (ESCH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Bonassi, S; Strömberg, U;

    1998-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes have for decades been used as cytogenetic biomarkers to survey genotoxic risks in the work environment. The conceptual basis for this application has been the idea that increased...... cytogenetic damage reflects an enhanced cancer risk. Nordic and Italian cohorts have been established to evaluate this hypothesis, and analyses presented previously have shown a positive trend between CA frequency and increased cancer risk. We now report on a pooled analysis of updated data for 3541 subjects...... examined for CAs, 2703 for SCEs, and 1496 for MN. To standardize for interlaboratory variation, the results for the various cytogenetic end points were trichotomized on the basis of the absolute value distribution within each laboratory as "low" (1-33 percentile), "medium" (34-66 percentile), or "high" (67...

  19. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 2: T2 substaging and prostate cancer volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kwast, Theo H; Amin, Mahul B; Billis, Athanase; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David; Humphrey, Peter A; Montironi, Rodolfo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Srigley, John R; Egevad, Lars; Delahunt, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the substaging of pT2 prostate cancers according to the TNM 2002/2010 system, reporting of tumor size/volume and zonal location of prostate cancers were coordinated by working group 2. A survey circulated before the consensus conference demonstrated that 74% of the 157 participants considered pT2 substaging of prostate cancer to be of clinical and/or academic relevance. The survey also revealed a considerable variation in the frequency of reporting of pT2b substage prostate cancer, which was likely a consequence of the variable methodologies used to distinguish pT2a from pT2b tumors. Overview of the literature indicates that current pT2 substaging criteria lack clinical relevance and the majority (65.5%) of conference attendees wished to discontinue pT2 substaging. Therefore, the consensus was that reporting of pT2 substages should, at present, be optional. Several studies have shown that prostate cancer volume is significantly correlated with other clinicopathological features, including Gleason score and extraprostatic extension of tumor; however, most studies fail to demonstrate this to have prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Consensus was reached with regard to the reporting of some quantitative measure of the volume of tumor in a prostatectomy specimen, without prescribing a specific methodology. Incorporation of the zonal and/or anterior location of the dominant/index tumor in the pathology report was accepted by most participants, but a formal definition of the identifying features of the dominant/index tumor remained undecided.

  20. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a surgical tool to remove the tumor.Mohs' surgery. Layers of cancer cells are removed one ... usually have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicine may have ...

  1. Analysis of BMP4 and BMP7 signaling in breast cancer cells unveils time-dependent transcription patterns and highlights a common synexpression group of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Martinez Alejandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years, evidence has accumulated of their crucial functions in tumor biology. BMP4 and BMP7, in particular, have been implicated in breast cancer. However, little is known about BMP target genes in the context of tumor. We explored the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 treatment on global gene transcription in seven breast cancer cell lines during a 6-point time series, using a whole-genome oligo microarray. Data analysis included hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes, gene ontology enrichment analyses and model based clustering of temporal data. Results Both ligands had a strong effect on gene expression, although the response to BMP4 treatment was more pronounced. The cellular functions most strongly affected by BMP signaling were regulation of transcription and development. The observed transcriptional response, as well as its functional outcome, followed a temporal sequence, with regulation of gene expression and signal transduction leading to changes in metabolism and cell proliferation. Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct differences in the response of individual cell lines to BMPs, but also highlighted a synexpression group of genes for both ligands. Interestingly, the majority of the genes within these synexpression groups were shared by the two ligands, probably representing the core molecular responses common to BMP4 and BMP7 signaling pathways. Conclusions All in all, we show that BMP signaling has a remarkable effect on gene transcription in breast cancer cells and that the functions affected follow a logical temporal pattern. Our results also uncover components of the common cellular transcriptional response to BMP4 and BMP7. Most importantly, this study provides a list of potential novel BMP target

  2. The Role of the Engineered Barrier System in Safety Cases for Geological Radioactive Waste Repoitories: An NEA Initiaive in Co-Operations with the EC, Process Issues and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.G. Bennett; A.J. Hooper; S. Voinis; H. Umeki; A.V. Luik; J. Alonso

    2006-02-07

    The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee in co-operation with the European Commission (EC) is conducting a project to develop a greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for successful design, construction, testing, modeling, and assessment of engineered barrier systems. The project also seeks to clarify the role that the EBS plays in assuring the overall safety of a repository. A framework for the EBS Project is provided by a series of workshops that allow discussion of the wide range of activities necessary for the design, assessment and optimization of the EBS, and the integration of this information into the safety case. The topics of this series of workshops have been planned so that the EBS project will work progressively through the main aspects comprising one cycle of the design and optimization process. This paper seeks to communicate key results from the EBS project to a wider audience. The paper focuses on two topics discussed at the workshops: process issues and the role of modeling.

  3. Conflicts and Co-Operation Between Returnees and Immigrants in the Period After the War: the Brod-Posavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines conjunctive and disjunctive social integrational processes (cooperation and conflict in the western part of the Brod-Posavina county. The actors involved in the mentioned processes – queried in a questionnaire survey – included refugees-immigrants, returnee Croats, returnee Serbs and representatives of the institutions of the groups. In total, 180 war victims were surveyed. With the end of the war, the primary network of social relations in the liberated area is beginning to be renewed. At first after the return especially of Serbs there were conflicts and settlings of accounts between the members of the three groups of war victims. However, although the conflicts were present on the level of nationality (which is not surprising in view of the Serb aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia and the marked stigmatisation of this national group, a shift can be noted from the psycho-emotional to the socio-economical levels. Although there is enmity in Croat–Serb relations, nevertheless the conflict is more pronounced between refugees-immigrants and returnee Serbs, despite what might be expected on the basis of the war events. Yet as opposed to returnee Croats, refugees-immigrants were not actors of the war events in this area, which may be (on the psychological level a slight advantage in communicating with returnee Serbs. However, among them as well it is evident that conflicts occur mainly in the area of property, which is precisely the unresolved question between refugees-immigrants and returnee Serbs. Immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina have been settled mainly in houses of persons of Serb nationality, which is the source of intolerance, distrust as well as conflict between them. On the other hand, returnee Croats are relatively secure in this regard and do not have direct property relations with the Serb population. Memories of the war and the role of the Serbs is not negligible, but it is also noted that the

  4. Development of co-operation between a research institute and enterprises in the context of marketing communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Niemczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the article is presentation of results of recent research on the effectiveness of practical solutions used in marketing communication of the Institute of Logistics and Warehousing, leading to development of cooperation with enterprises. Thanks to the management, the appropriate information reaches definite groups of clients through multiple channels. E-marketing of scientific and research organizations is carried out mainly through web sites, web portals, social media. The analytical and research instruments in the marketing of scientific and research organisations used for measuring the effectiveness and efficacy of marketing communication include: Google Analytics, Seo Stat, Salesmanago, Advertising Value Equivalency and a range of reports. Product line and product managers are employees who are highly qualified and often possess unique competences. Ongoing research coupled with direct contact with companies results in a constant improvement in the services rendered and generation of innovative products.

  5. Dialogic feedforward in group coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrø, Helle; Dahl, Poul Nørgård

    2015-01-01

    programme targeted for a group of individuals with a weak position on the labour market. The author brings out what happens when individuals try to understand perspectives from one another. The results demonstrate the knowledge that is developed when members of a project team are included in the entire...... research process, from the definition of problems to the analysis, presentation of results and suggestions of change. Further the outcome illustrates how an interactive research approach can be conducted in close co-operation with those concerned. Active participation, a structured learning process...

  6. Biocompatibility, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica and polystyrene nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells: effects of size and surface charge groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkapongpisit M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maneerat Ekkapongpisit,1 Antonino Giovia,1 Carlo Follo,1 Giuseppe Caputo,2,3 Ciro Isidoro11Laboratory of Molecular Pathology and Nanobioimaging, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “A Avogadro”, Novara, 2Dipartimento di Chimica dell’Università di Torino, Torino, 3Cyanine Technology SpA, Torino, ItalyBackground and methods: Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10–30 nm versus 50 nm, type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene, and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles.Results: We found that mesoporous silica nanoparticles entered via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and reached the lysosomes; however, while the 50 nm nanoparticles permanently resided within these organelles, the 10 nm nanoparticles soon relocated in the cytoplasm. Naked 10 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles showed the highest and 50 nm carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles the lowest uptake rates, respectively. Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake also occurred via a caveolae-independent pathway, and was negatively affected by serum. The 30 nm carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles did not localize in lysosomes and were not toxic, while the 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene nanoparticles accumulated within lysosomes and eventually caused cell death. Ovarian cancer cells expressing caveolin-1 were more likely to endocytose these nanoparticles.Conclusion: These data highlight the importance of considering both the

  7. Results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment for small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas: a retrospective and nationwide survey in Japan. The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, S; Yamaoka, Y; Futagawa, S; Inoue, K; Kobayashi, K; Kojiro, M; Makuuchi, M; Nakamura, Y; Okita, K; Yamada, R

    2000-12-01

    Hepatic resection (HX), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and transcatheter arterial embolization (TCAE) have all been used in the treatment of patients with small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, the indications for these therapeutic modalities remain unclear. Therefore, the first step to minimize the debate on these indications is to review the standard results from each treatment based on an extensive survey. The participants in this study were patients with HCCs less than 5 cm in diameter who were enrolled in The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. The survival rates in the HX (n = 8,010), PEI (n = 4,037), and TCAE (n = 841) groups were calculated in relation to the number of tumors and the clinical stage. In the clinical stage I cases with a solitary tumor less than 2 cm in diameter and in all clinical stages with a solitary tumor greater than 2 cm and in the clinical stage II cases with 2 tumors greater than 2 cm, the HX group showed higher survival rates than the nonsurgical groups. The HX group had a higher male/female ratio and a younger mean age than the PEI or TCAE group. The ratio of HBs antigen-positive cases/hepatitis C virus antibody-positive cases in the PEI group was lower than that in the corresponding HX group. In contrast, the PIVKA-II values in the HX group tended to be higher than in the PEI group. In conclusion, these findings will provide useful information for selection of a therapeutic modality for small-sized HCCs.

  8. Task 9: deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Sources of financing for PV-based rural electrification in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Syngellakis, K. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Shanker, A. [Innovation Energie Developpement, IED, Francheville (France)

    2004-05-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at how PV-based rural electrification in developing countries can be financed. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the overall rate of successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries through increased co-operation and information exchange. This document provides an introduction to PV project financing, including funding sources available, strategies and planning needed to secure the necessary financial resources for the deployment of PV technologies in developing and transitional economies. Topics discussed include risk analysis and the barriers to financing, sources of financing, considerations and variables that influence financing decisions and the process for securing financing. Various forms of international and national financing are looked at, as are the factors influencing financing decisions.

  9. FBH1 co-operates with MUS81 in inducing DNA double-strand breaks and cell death following replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Chu, Wai Kit; Haahr, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The molecular events occurring following the disruption of DNA replication forks are poorly characterized, despite extensive use of replication inhibitors such as hydroxyurea in the treatment of malignancies. Here, we identify a key role for the FBH1 helicase in mediating DNA double-strand break...... formation following replication inhibition. We show that FBH1-deficient cells are resistant to killing by hydroxyurea, and exhibit impaired activation of the pro-apoptotic factor p53, consistent with decreased DNA double-strand break formation. Similar findings were obtained in murine ES cells carrying...... disrupted alleles of Fbh1. We also show that FBH1 through its helicase activity co-operates with the MUS81 nuclease in promoting the endonucleolytic DNA cleavage following prolonged replication stress. Accordingly, MUS81 and EME1-depleted cells show increased resistance to the cytotoxic effects...

  10. The co-operative performance of a hydrated salt assisted sponge like P(VDF-HFP) piezoelectric generator: an effective piezoelectric based energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Prakriti; Garain, Samiran; Mandal, Dipankar

    2015-03-21

    We have prepared hydrated salt filler assisted sponge like P(VDF-HFP) micro-porous electroactive films to fabricate a high performance flexible piezoelectric generator (FPG). These FPGs deliver up to 8 V of open circuit voltage under external stress and also generate enough power to turn on at least fifteen commercial blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) instantly. Furthermore, capacitors have been successfully charged by repeated finger touches indicating the potential of the FPGs to be used as self-powered devices where different types of mechanical vibrations can be applied. The high performance of FPGs might be attributed to the co-operative contribution from the porous electret structure and electroactive nature of the P(VDF-HFP) film, as they also enhance the dielectric permittivity. This approach is simple, cost-effective, and well-suited for large-scale fabrication of high-performance FPGs.

  11. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection, and pneumo......BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...... to each transfused patient was a median of 60% in patients developing postoperative infections versus 25% (P = 0.037) in patients without infections. A multivariate analysis of significant risk variables showed weight > 75 kg (odds ratio, 2.0 versus blood stored > or = 21...

  12. Empowering Processes and Outcomes of Participation in Online Support Groups for Patients With Breast Cancer, Arthritis, or Fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van Cornelia F.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; Shaw, Bret R.; Seydel, Erwin R.; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the rise of online support groups it has been presumed that there is an empowering effect from patients' participating in these groups, despite a lack of evidence to back up this assumption. In this study we explored if, and in which ways, patients feel empowered by participation. Additio

  13. Breast cancer screening in women at increased risk according to different family histories: an update of the Modena Study Group experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortesi Laura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC detection in women with a genetic susceptibility or strong family history is considered mandatory compared with BC screening in the general population. However, screening modalities depend on the level of risk. Here we present an update of our screening programs based on risk classification. Methods We defined different risk categories and surveillance strategies to identify early BC in 1325 healthy women recruited by the Modena Study Group for familial breast and ovarian cancer. Four BC risk categories included BRCA1/2 carriers, increased, intermediate, and slightly increased risk. Women who developed BC from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2005 (N = 44 were compared with the number of expected cases matched for age and period. BRCA1/2 carriers were identified by mutational analysis. Other risk groups were defined by different levels of family history for breast or ovarian cancer (OC. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR was used to evaluate the observed and expected ratio among groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results After a median follow-up of 55 months, there was a statistically significant difference between observed and expected incidence [SIR = 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6 to 7.6; p P P P = 0.0018 was higher than expected, while the difference between observed and expected among women at slightly increased risk was not statistically significant (SIR = 2.4, 95% CI = 0.9 to 8.3; P = .74. Conclusion The rate of cancers detected in women at high risk according to BRCA status or strong family history, as defined according to our operational criteria, was significantly higher than expected in an age-matched general population. However, we failed to identify a greater incidence of BC in the slightly increased risk group. These results support the effectiveness of the proposed program to identify and monitor individuals at high risk, whereas prospective trials are needed for

  14. Breast cancer screening in women at increased risk according to different family histories: an update of the Modena Study Group experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Laura; Turchetti, Daniela; Marchi, Isabella; Fracca, Antonella; Canossi, Barbara; Rachele, Battista; Silvia, Ruscelli; Rita, Pecchi Anna; Pietro, Torricelli; Massimo, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) detection in women with a genetic susceptibility or strong family history is considered mandatory compared with BC screening in the general population. However, screening modalities depend on the level of risk. Here we present an update of our screening programs based on risk classification. Methods We defined different risk categories and surveillance strategies to identify early BC in 1325 healthy women recruited by the Modena Study Group for familial breast and ovarian cancer. Four BC risk categories included BRCA1/2 carriers, increased, intermediate, and slightly increased risk. Women who developed BC from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2005 (N = 44) were compared with the number of expected cases matched for age and period. BRCA1/2 carriers were identified by mutational analysis. Other risk groups were defined by different levels of family history for breast or ovarian cancer (OC). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used to evaluate the observed and expected ratio among groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results After a median follow-up of 55 months, there was a statistically significant difference between observed and expected incidence [SIR = 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6 to 7.6; p < 0.001]. The incidence observed among BRCA carriers (SIR = 20.3; 95% CI = 3.1 to 83.9; P < 0.001), women at increased (SIR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.5 to 8.3; P < 0.001) or intermediate risk (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.0 to 17.1; P = 0.0018) was higher than expected, while the difference between observed and expected among women at slightly increased risk was not statistically significant (SIR = 2.4, 95% CI = 0.9 to 8.3; P = .74). Conclusion The rate of cancers detected in women at high risk according to BRCA status or strong family history, as defined according to our operational criteria, was significantly higher than expected in an age-matched general population. However, we failed to identify a greater incidence of BC in

  15. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  16. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small region of about 70 kb on human chromosome 19q13.3 encompasses 4 genes of which 3, ERCC1, ERCC2, and PPP1R13L (aka RAI are related to DNA repair and cell survival, and one, CD3EAP, aka ASE1, may be related to cell proliferation. The whole region seems related to the cellular response to external damaging agents and markers in it are associated with risk of several cancers. Methods We downloaded the genotypes of all markers typed in the 19q13.3 region in the HapMap populations of European, Asian and African descent and inferred haplotypes. We combined the European HapMap individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same extent in the Asian population. The cause of this increase is unknown. The maximal proportion of overall genetic variation due to differences between groups for Europeans versus Africans and Europeans versus Asians (the Fst value closely matched the putative location of the susceptibility variant as judged from haplotype-based association mapping. Conclusion The combined observation that a common haplotype causing an increased risk of cancer in Europeans and a high differentiation between human populations is highly unusual and suggests a causal relationship with a recent increase in Europeans caused either by genetic drift overruling selection against the susceptibility variant or a positive selection for the same haplotype. The data does not allow us to distinguish between these two scenarios. The analysis suggests that the region is not involved in cancer risk in Africans and that the susceptibility variants may be more finely mapped in Asian populations.

  17. A randomized, open, parallel group, multicenter trial to investigate analgesic efficacy and safety of a new transdermal fentanyl patch compared to standard opioid treatment in cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kress, H.G.; Laage, D. Von der; Hoerauf, K.H.;

    2008-01-01

    to be pharmacokinetically bioequivalent to the marked fentanyl patch. To determine noninferiority in efficacy in cancer patients and to compare safety, a clinical trial comparing the new fentanyl patch with standard oral or transdermal opioid treatment was planned. The design was an open, parallel group, multicenter trial......A new 72-hour transdermal fentanyl matrix patch has been designed, which has a 35%-50% reduction of the absolute fentanyl content compared with other currently available transdermal fentanyl patches that are using the matrix technology. The new patch has previously been shown...... in relative PI area under the curve between the fentanyl patch and standard opioid treatment were less than 10% for both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. Scores for the tolerability endpoints were similar in the treatment groups. The new fentanyl matrix patch with a lower drug load...

  18. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungshim L Park

    Full Text Available The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA, respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P < 0.0001. Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear.

  19. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated.

  20. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  1. The effect of debulking surgery after induction chemotherapy on the prognosis in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecological Cancer Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.L. van der Burg (Maria); M. van Lent; M. Buyse; A. Kobierska; N. Colombo; G. Favalli; A.J. Lacave; M. Nardi; J. Renard; S. Pecorelli (Sergio)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Although the value of primary cytoreductive surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer is beyond doubt, the value of debulking surgery after induction chemotherapy has not yet been defined. In this randomized study we investigated the effect on surviv

  2. International Economic Co-operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1945-01-01

    textabstractSeries ‘Elseviers Economische Bibliotheek’, No.4, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1945, 208 p. In Spanish: La Cooperación Económica Internacional, Biblioteca de la Ciencia Económica, Madrid, 1952, 186 p. 2nd, complete revised edition, 1954, Elsevier, 191 p.

  3. Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is required for growth of RAF driven non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Becker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously described a RAF oncogene driven transgenic mouse model for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Here we examine whether tumor initiation and growth requires the stem cell self-renewal factor Bmi1. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to evaluate Bmi1 function in NSCLC two founder lines that differ in incidence and latency of tumor formation were compared. Ablation of Bmi1 expression in both lines had a dramatically decreased tumor growth. As the line with shorter latency matched the life span of Bmi1 knock out mice, these mice were chosen for further study. The absence of Bmi1 did not decrease the number of tumor initiation in these mice as only the size and not the number of tumors decreased. Reduction in tumor growth resulted from an increase in cell death and decrease in cell cycle progression that corresponded with up-regulation of the p16(INK4a and p19(ARF. SIGNIFICANCE: The data identifies Bmi1 as an important factor for expansion but not initiation of RAF driven NSCLC.

  4. [Expectations of patients with ovarian cancer. Results of the European investigation EXPRESSION III in French patients from GINECO group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Laure; Kieffer, Anne; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Joly, Florence; Weber, Béatrice

    2015-03-01

    EXPRESSION III was designed to evaluate the information, needs and expectations of patients with ovarian cancer in different European countries. This abstract focuses on specific results from French OC patients. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients filled a 27-item questionnaire during a medical visit. Median age range was 63 years (26-89). Nearly all the patients (94 %) had primary surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy (95 %), 50 % had recurrent disease. At the time of the survey, 85 % reported symptoms: fatigue: 88 %, neuropathy: 55 %, nausea/vomiting: 40 %, pain: 39 %. Patients wished for non-alopeciant treatment (52 %) and a better management of fatigue (42 %). Eighty percent of the patients knew their chemotherapy but 60 % ignored their initial disease stage and how to find more information for treatment choice (91 %). Most patients (92 %) preferred to get it directly from their physician. Sixty-six percent expressed the need for clear information about their life expectancy. Still 21 % patients did not want to get negative information. French patients need for more support and clearer information on their disease. Direct information from their physician remains the mainstay of communication.

  5. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  6. Synthesis, Anti-Breast Cancer Activity, and Molecular Docking Study of a New Group of Acetylenic Quinolinesulfonamide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marciniec

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of regioisomeric acetylenic sulfamoylquinolines are designed, synthesized, and tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against three human breast cacer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 and a human normal fibroblast (HFF-1 by 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl-2-(4-nitrophenyl-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1 assay. The antiproliferative activity of the tested acetylenic quinolinesulfonamides is comparable to that of cisplatin. The bioassay results demonstrate that most of the tested compounds show potent antitumor activities, and that some compounds exhibit better effects than the positive control cisplatin against various cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 4-(3-propynylthio-7-[N-methyl-N-(3-propynylsulfamoyl]quinoline shows significant antiprolierative activity against T47D cells with IC50 values of 0.07 µM. In addition, 2-(3-Propynylthio-6-[N-methyl-N-(3-propynylsulfa-moyl]quinoline and 2-(3-propynylseleno-6-[N-methyl-N-(3-propynylsulfamoyl]quinoline display highly effective atitumor activity against MDA-MB-231 cells, with IC50 values of 0.09 and 0.50 µM, respectively. Furthermore, most of the tested compounds show a weak cytotoxic effect against the normal HFF-1 cell line. Additionally, in order to suggest a mechanism of action for their activity, all compounds are docked into the binding site of two human cytochrome P450 (CYP isoenzymes. These data indicate that some of the title compounds display significant cytotoxic activity, possibly targeting the CYPs pathways.

  7. Library and information services to support the education and development of nurses: the management of co-operation and change--a clash of two cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, S; Banwell, L; Walton, G

    1997-12-01

    This paper reports on the findings of research conducted by the Department of Information and Library Management and the Information Services Department at the University of Northumbria at Newcastle on behalf of the LINC Health Panel. It aims to investigate the organization and funding of library and information services to the nursing profession since the move of nurse education into higher education. The paper focuses on the lack of co-operation and communication between the National Health Service and higher education cultures in the provision of services to nurses. A brief review of the literature includes the views of experts in the field on library and information services and education for nurses as they are now, and ideas for possible developments for the future. This is followed by a description of the main research findings and the five key issues identified by information professionals in a questionnaire survey as vital for future consideration and action. Finally, the conclusions drawn from the findings have been developed into recommendations for the direction of the future discussion, research and action which is needed to further improve library and information services for all nurses.

  8. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review.

  9. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species.

  10. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, F. (UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith (UK))

    1990-12-01

    An analysis of the OECD-LOFT-LP-SB-2 experiment making use of TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is described in the report. LP-SB2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3 inches equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR operating at full power. The experiment was performed on 14 July 1983 in the LOFT facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This analysis presents an evaluation of the code capability in reproducing the complex phenomena which determined the LP-SB-2 transient evolution. the analysis comprises the results obtained from two different runs. The first run is described in detail analysing the main variables over two time spans: short and longer term. Several conclusions are drawn and then a second run testing some of these conclusions is shown. All of the calculations were preformed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith under the auspices of an agreement between the UKAEA (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear Espanol (CSN). 16 refs., 64 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Opportunities and Threats of Ukrainian Membership in WTO for Engineering under Conditions of Co-operation with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of the membership of Ukraine in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for the engineering industry when co-operating with the EU and CU (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia countries. It shows that, after Ukraine joined WTO, tariff rates for Ukrainian products reduced in general and liberalisation of access to the world market took place. Along with it, the internal market of Ukraine became more open for imported products. The article analyses the structure of export from Ukraine after joining WTO in the context of individual types of products. The article identifies changes that took place in the market of engineering products after Ukraine joined WTO. The article shows that by main indicators of economic security the engineering industry of Ukraine cannot be considered as stable and also that, after joining WTO, main indicators of economic security of the engineering industry of Ukraine have not improved. It analyses the structure of export and import of Ukrainian engineering products to EU, CU and other countries. It proves that the most topical for the Ukrainian engineering industry is the issue of realisation of the import-replacement potential and increase of competitiveness of domestic products. It considers the state and changes, which took place after Ukraine joined WTO, in car building. It identifies main problems of domestic car building. It analyses measures of the state programme of Ukraine on economic development.

  12. A statistical study of the spatial distribution of Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS) backscatter power during EISCAT heater beam-sweeping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergill, H.; Robinson, T. R.; Dhillon, R. S.; Lester, M.; Milan, S. E.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2010-05-01

    High-power electromagnetic waves can excite a variety of plasma instabilities in Earth's ionosphere. These lead to the growth of plasma waves and plasma density irregularities within the heated volume, including patches of small-scale field-aligned electron density irregularities. This paper reports a statistical study of intensity distributions in patches of these irregularities excited by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) heater during beam-sweeping experiments. The irregularities were detected by the Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS) coherent scatter radar located in Finland. During these experiments the heater beam direction is steadily changed from northward to southward pointing. Comparisons are made between statistical parameters of CUTLASS backscatter power distributions and modeled heater beam power distributions provided by the EZNEC version 4 software. In general, good agreement between the statistical parameters and the modeled beam is observed, clearly indicating the direct causal connection between the heater beam and the irregularities, despite the sometimes seemingly unpredictable nature of unaveraged results. The results also give compelling evidence in support of the upper hybrid theory of irregularity excitation.

  13. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Guidelines for the Delineation of the Clinical Target Volume in the Postoperative Treatment of Pancreatic Head Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: goodmank@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ben-Josef, Edgar [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Haustermans, Karin [University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Bosch, Walter R. [Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A. [Rush University Medical College, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines to be used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0848, a Phase III randomized trial evaluating the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiation in patients with resected head of pancreas cancer. Methods and Materials: A consensus committee of six radiation oncologists with expertise in gastrointestinal radiotherapy developed stepwise contouring guidelines and an atlas for the delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) in the postoperative treatment of pancreas cancer, based on identifiable regions of interest and margin expansions. Areas at risk for subclinical disease to be included in the CTV were defined, including nodal regions, anastomoses, and the preoperative primary tumor location. Regions of interest that could be reproducibly contoured on postoperative imaging after a pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified. Standardized expansion margins to encompass areas at risk were developed after multiple iterations to determine the optimal margin expansions. Results: New contouring recommendations based on CT anatomy were established. Written guidelines for the delineation of the postoperative CTV and normal tissues, as well as a Web-based atlas, were developed. Conclusions: The postoperative abdomen has been a difficult area for effective radiotherapy. These new guidelines will help physicians create fields that better encompass areas at risk and minimize dose to normal tissues.

  14. Combination goserelin and tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal advanced breast cancer: a multicentre study by the ITMO group. Italian Trials in Medical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, R.; Biganzoli, L.; Bajetta, E.; Celio, L.; Fornasiero, A.; Mariani, L.; Zilembo, N.; Di Bartolomeo, M.; Di Leo, A.; Arcangeli, G.

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that tamoxifen may improve the efficacy of medical castration with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues, but very few data have so far been published concerning the clinical and endocrinological activity of this therapeutic modality. In this phase II multicentre trial conducted by the Italian Trials in Medical Oncology group (ITMO), 64 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive or unknown breast cancer were treated with monthly s.c. injections of goserelin 3.6 mg, in association with a tamoxifen daily dose of 20 mg, as first-line therapy for their advanced disease. All of the patients were evaluable for efficacy and there was an overall response rate of 41% (95% confidence interval 28-52%), with 7 of the 26 responders achieving complete remission. The median time to response was 4 months (range 2-17), and the median response duration was 13 months (range 6-37 +). Better responses were observed in soft tissues (51%); the response in visceral and bone metastases was respectively 19% and 37%. Serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and oestradiol were significantly decreased by the treatment, oestrogen levels being constantly suppressed to within the range observed in post-menopausal women. No significant change was detected in serum testosterone levels. In our experience, although it was not associated with any increased clinical efficacy, the concurrent use of goserelin and tamoxifen proved to be a feasible approach in the management of premenopausal advanced breast cancer. PMID:7734310

  15. Bioelectrical impedance for detecting and monitoring lymphedema in patients with breast cancer. Preliminary results of the florence nightingale breast study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan Iyigun, Zeynep; Selamoglu, Derya; Alco, Gul; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Cetin; Agacayak, Filiz; Elbüken, Filiz; Bozdogan, Atilla; Ilgun, Serkan; Guler Uysal, Fusun; Ozmen, Vahit

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bioimpedance spectroscopy for the follow-up of patients with lymphedema in Turkey and its benefits in the diagnosis of stage 0, 1, and 2 lymphedema in patients who are under treatment for breast cancer. Thirty-seven female patients with breast cancer who underwent surgical procedures in our Breast Health Centre were followed up for lymphedema using bioimpedance, and clinical measurements were taken for a minimum period of 1 year at 3-month intervals. Patients who had been monitored regularly between November, 2011, and September, 2013, were enrolled to the study. In total, 8 patients developed lymphedema with an overall rate of 21.6%. Among the 8 patients who developed lymphedema, 4 had Stage 2, 1 had Stage 1, and 3 had Stage 0 lymphedema. Stage 0 lymphedema could not be detected with clinical measurements. During the patients' 1-year follow-up period using measurements of bioimpedance, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the occurrence of lymphedema and the disease characteristics. including the number of the extracted and remaining lymph nodes and the region of radiotherapy (p=0.042, p=0.024, p=0.040). Bioimpedance analysis seems to be a practical and reliable method for the early diagnosis of lymphedema. It is believed that regular monitoring of patients in the high-risk group using bioimpedance analyses increases the ability to treat lymphedema.

  16. Quality assurance of U.S.-guided external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: report of AAPM Task Group 154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A; Chan, Gordon; Markovic, Alexander; McNeeley, Shawn; Pfeiffer, Doug; Salter, Bill; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2011-02-01

    Task Group 154 (TG154) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was created to produce a guidance document for clinical medical physicists describing recommended quality assurance (QA) procedures for ultrasound (U.S.)-guided external beam radiotherapy localization. This report describes the relevant literature, state of the art, and briefly summarizes U.S. imaging physics. Simulation, treatment planning and treatment delivery considerations are presented in order to improve consistency and accuracy. User training is emphasized in the report and recommendations regarding peer review are included. A set of thorough, yet practical, QA procedures, frequencies, and tolerances are recommended. These encompass recommendations to ensure both spatial accuracy and image quality.

  17. Defining responses to therapy and study outcomes in clinical trials of invasive fungal diseases: Mycoses Study Group and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer consensus criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Brahm H; Herbrecht, Raoul; Stevens, David A; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Sobel, Jack; Viscoli, Claudio; Walsh, Thomas J; Maertens, Johan; Patterson, Thomas F; Perfect, John R; Dupont, Bertrand; Wingard, John R; Calandra, Thierry; Kauffman, Carol A; Graybill, John R; Baden, Lindsey R; Pappas, Peter G; Bennett, John E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Cordonnier, Catherine; Viviani, Maria Anna; Bille, Jacques; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Wheat, L Joseph; Graninger, Wolfgang; Bow, Eric J; Holland, Steven M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Dismukes, William E; De Pauw, Ben E

    2008-09-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have become major causes of morbidity and mortality among highly immunocompromised patients. Authoritative consensus criteria to diagnose IFD have been useful in establishing eligibility criteria for antifungal trials. There is an important need for generation of consensus definitions of outcomes of IFD that will form a standard for evaluating treatment success and failure in clinical trials. Therefore, an expert international panel consisting of the Mycoses Study Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer was convened to propose guidelines for assessing treatment responses in clinical trials of IFDs and for defining study outcomes. Major fungal diseases that are discussed include invasive disease due to Candida species, Aspergillus species and other molds, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides immitis. We also discuss potential pitfalls in assessing outcome, such as conflicting clinical, radiological, and/or mycological data and gaps in knowledge.

  18. High mobility group A-interacting proteins in cancer: focus on chromobox protein homolog 7, homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 and PATZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fedele

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Mobility Group A (HMGA proteins, a family of DNA architectural factors, by interacting with different proteins play crucial roles in neoplastic transformation of a wide range of tissues. Therefore, the search for HMGA-interacting partners was carried out by several laboratories in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying HMGA-dependent tumorigenesis. Three of the several HMGA-binding proteins are discussed in this review. These are the Chromobox family protein (chromobox protein homolog 7, CBX7, the homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2 and the POZ/domain and Kruppel zinc finger family member, PATZ. All of them play a critical role in tumorigenesis, and may also be independent markers of cancer. Their activities are linked to cell cycle, apoptosis and senescence. In this review, we discuss the properties of each protein, including their effect on HMGA1 functions, and propose a model accounting for how their activities might be coordinated.

  19. Registered nurses' thoughts on blended learning in a postgraduate course in cancer care--content analyses of web surveys and a focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arving, Cecilia; Wadensten, Barbro; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-06-01

    Purpose of the research was to describe registered nurses' (RNs) (n = 53) thoughts on the blended learning format in a 'specialist nursing programme in cancer care'. The study was conducted in autumn 2007 and 2008. A content analysis of answers to open-ended questions in a web-based questionnaire and a focus group interview were carried out. The analysis revealed that the RNs appreciated blended learning. The web lectures facilitated learning and gave RNs access to the education at any time. However, according to the RNs, knowledge is gained through interaction between RNs and teachers, and this aspect needed to be improved. The RNs also thought that the content of the seminars on campus should focus on evidence-based nursing knowledge and practical skills, not just taught as stable facts and procedures. The result from the present study could help to improve the design and content of advanced nursing courses using a blended learning format.

  20. AAPM recommendations on dose prescription and reporting methods for permanent interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer: report of Task Group 137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ravinder; Bice, William S; Butler, Wayne M; Chen, Zhe; Meigooni, Ali S; Narayana, Vrinda; Rivard, Mark J; Yu, Yan

    2009-11-01

    During the past decade, permanent radioactive source implantation of the prostate has become the standard of care for selected prostate cancer patients, and the techniques for implantation have evolved in many different forms. Although most implants use 125I or 103Pd sources, clinical use of 131Cs sources has also recently been introduced. These sources produce different dose distributions and irradiate the tumors at different dose rates. Ultrasound was used originally to guide the planning and implantation of sources in the tumor. More recently, CT and/or MR are used routinely in many clinics for dose evaluation and planning. Several investigators reported that the tumor volumes and target volumes delineated from ultrasound, CT, and MR can vary substantially because of the inherent differences in these imaging modalities. It has also been reported that these volumes depend critically on the time of imaging after the implant. Many clinics, in particular those using intraoperative implantation, perform imaging only on the day of the implant. Because the effects of edema caused by surgical trauma can vary from one patient to another and resolve at different rates, the timing of imaging for dosimetry evaluation can have a profound effect on the dose reported (to have been delivered), i.e., for the same implant (same dose delivered), CT at different timing can yield different doses reported. Also, many different loading patterns and margins around the tumor volumes have been used, and these may lead to variations in the dose delivered. In this report, the current literature on these issues is reviewed, and the impact of these issues on the radiobiological response is estimated. The radiobiological models for the biological equivalent dose (BED) are reviewed. Starting with the BED model for acute single doses, the models for fractionated doses, continuous low-dose-rate irradiation, and both homogeneous and inhomogeneous dose distributions, as well as tumor cure

  1. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papaxoinis

    Full Text Available The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9 and kinase (exon 20 domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer.Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20 and qPCR (exon 9 (Sanger/qPCR mutations. In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive, molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR negative tumors.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23% with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24% with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82. Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel, while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin. The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004. Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified.The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer

  2. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators of Using a Web-Based Interactive Decision Aid for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Community Practice Settings: Findings From Focus Groups With Primary Care Clinicians and Medical Office Staff

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Information is lacking about the capacity of those working in community practice settings to utilize health information technology for colorectal cancer screening. Objective To address this gap we asked those working in community practice settings to share their perspectives about how the implementation of a Web-based patient-led decision aid might affect patient-clinician conversations about colorectal cancer screening and the day-to-day clinical workflow. Methods Five focus group...

  3. The Comparison of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT andIntensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT for prostate cancer byNCCN risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ricco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to compare freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF between SBRT and IMRT for patients with organ confined prostate cancer treated between 2007 through 2012 utilizing the 2015 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN risk stratification guidelines. A secondary objective is to compare our updated toxicity at last follow up compared to pretreatment with respect to bowel, bladder, sexual functioning, and need for invasive procedures between the two groups.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 270 consecutive men treated with either SBRT (n=150 or IMRT (120 at a community hospital with two distinct radiation departments and referral patterns. Charts were reviewed for pretreatment and treatment factors including race, age, clinical T stage, initial PSA, Gleason score, use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT, treatment with SBRT vs. IMRT as well as stratification by 2015 NCCN guidelines. Kaplan Meier (KM methodology was used to estimate freedom from biochemical failure, with statistical comparisons accomplished using log rank tests. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to establish independent factors prognostic of biochemical failure. Descriptive statistics were used to describe toxicity graded by a modified RTOG late radiation morbidity scoring system. RESULTS: Significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis for FFBF included NCCN risk groups (p=0.0032, grade (p=0.019, and PSA (p=0.008. There was no significant difference in FFBF between SBRT vs. IMRT (p=0.46 with 6 year actuarial FFBF of 91.9% for SBRT and 88.9% for IMRT. Multivariable analysis revealed only the NCCN risk stratification to be significant predictor for FFBF (p=0.04. 4 year actuarial FFBF by NCCN risk stratification was 100% very low risk, 100% low risk, 96.5% intermediate risk, 94.5% high risk, and 72.7% very high risk. There were no grade 3 gastrointestinal (GI or genitourinary (GU toxicities for either

  4. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C A; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy ("Pre-RT-MRI examination") and at the time of BT ("BT MRI examination") with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  5. Advocate's Viewpoint on Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolling-Dandrieu Francisca

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the presentation I held at the symposium on genetics during the 4th European Breast Cancer Conference held in Hamburg in March 2004. Primarily, the goals and working methods of the advocacy group specialised in Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer of the Dutch Breast Cancer Patient Organisation known as BorstkankerVereniging Nederland (BVN are explained. Furthermore, some specific individual problems that mutation carriers might encounter before and after BRCA1/2 susceptibility testing are discussed. These include: dilemmas in choosing preventive interventions, dealing with the psychological impact of knowing you are a mutation carrier, dealing with the social implications of being genetically at risk, an example of insurance discrimination. In addition, some controversial social and ethical issues that are currently under debate are highlighted, such as the issue of the European patenting of the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Since this topic could also become relevant for other gene-related diseases, society as a whole has to consider the ethical and social implications related to the patenting of human genes in general. Another ethical area of debate is the controversial issue of prenatal BRCA testing and the choice of pregnancy termination. Finally, the Working Party pleads for the international co-operation and exchange of data and experience among professionals as well as patients. It appears that professionals in different European countries tend to advise on different risk management strategies and treatments and as such, the Working Party strongly advocates the international standardisation of risk management and treatment of mutation carriers. In this respect, specific attention should be given to a group that has had a non-informative or negative BRCA test result, because this group is still considered to be at high risk to develop the disease.

  6. Late xerostomia after intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tract cancers: study 2004-03 by the head and neck oncology and radiotherapy Group (Gortec); Xerostomie tardive apres radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers des voies aero-digestives superieures: etude 2004-03 du Groupe oncologie et radiotherapie de la tete et du cou (Gortec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, I.; Lapeyre, M. [Centre Jean-Perrin, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Graff, P. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Serre, C. [Centre Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France); Bensadoun, R.J. [CHU La Miletrie, 86 - Poitiers (France); Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Calais, G. [CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Alfonsi, M. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Giraud, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Racadot, S. [Centre Leon-Berrard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective assessment of late xerostomia according to the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) classification of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) among patients treated by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and suffering from upper aero-digestive tract carcinomas of different stages. Some of these patients have bee operated, and some have been treated by chemotherapy. It appears that the IMRT results in a reduction of late xerostomia, and even in an absence of salivary toxicity. Short communication

  7. Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development 2002/2003; an independent publication from the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram; Thommessen, Oeystein B.

    2002-07-01

    The Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development aims to demonstrate the status of collaboration, the main obstacles to effective international solutions, and how to overcome them. The Yearbook assesses the achievements and the shortcomings of international co-operation, and helps the reader to distinguish between rhetoric and reality. The combination of independent, high-quality analysis and updated reference material makes this Yearbook an indispensable guide for decision-makers in government, international organizations, NGOs, and industry, as well as an essential source book for academic institutions, students, and libraries serving the concerned public. Current Issues and Key Themes in this edition focus on: (1) how effective environmental mega-conferences are in global environmental governance; (2) how the climate change regime can achieve its objective by addressing the very real concerns about climate-change impacts on human beings as much as on healthy ecosystems; (3) how the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme has been an effective regional agent for environmental protection and how it should cope with the challenges ahead; (4) how the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty has contributed to strengthening international cooperation within the Treaty, but nevertheless is hampered by the vagueness of some core requirements and by the unresolved issues of jurisdiction, control, and enforcement in the Antarctic; (5) how the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands-neither rigorous nor extensive in its obligations-has acted as a vehicle for the development of a reasonably detailed policy framework for wetland conservation; (6) how Friends of the Earth International-among the world's largest, most diverse, and most influential environmental NGOs-has such internal diversity, in addition to its geographic spread and lack of agreed political ideology, that it risks its external profile becoming blurred and its internal

  8. Nanosatellites for Interplanetary Exploration : Missions of Co-Operation and Exploration to Mars, Exo-Moons and other worlds in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Aditya; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2016-07-01

    The last decade has borne witness to a large number of Nano-satellites being launched.This increasing trend is mainly down to the advancements in consumer electronics that has played a crucial role in increasing the potential power available on board for mission study and analysis whilst being much smaller in size when compared to their satellite counterparts. This overall reduction in size and weight is a crucial factor when coupled with the recent innovations in various propulsion systems and orbital launch vehicles by private players has also allowed the cost of missions to brought down to a very small budget whilst able to retain the main science objectives of a dedicated space Missions. The success of first time missions such as India's Mars Orbiter Mission and the upcoming Cube-Sat Mission to Mars has served as a catalyst and is a major eye-opener on how Interplanetary missions can be funded and initiated in small time spans. This shows that Interplanetary missions with the main objective of a scientific study can be objectified by using Dedicated Nano-satellite constellations with each satellite carrying specific payloads for various mission parameters such as Telemetry, Observation and possible small lander payloads for studying the various Atmospheric and Geo-Physical parameters of a particular object with-out the requirement of a very long term expensive Spacecraft Mission. The association of Major Universities and Colleges in building Nano and-satellites are facilitating an atmosphere of innovation and research among students in a class-room level as their creative potential will allow for experiments and innovation on a scale never imagined before. In this paper, the Author envisions the feasibility of such low cost Nano satellite missions to various bodies in the solar system and how Nano satellite partnerships from universities and space agencies from around the world could foster a new era in diplomacy and International Co-operation.

  9. Quality of type 2 diabetes management in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Alhyas

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing, worldwide public health concern. Recent growth has been particularly dramatic in the states of The Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC, and these and other developing economies are at particular risk. We aimed to systematically review the quality of control of type 2 diabetes in the GCC, and the nature and efficacy of interventions. We identified 27 published studies for review. Studies were identified by systematic database searches. Medline and Embase were searched separately (via Dialog and Ovid, respectively; 1950 to July 2010 (Medline, and 1947 to July 2010 (Embase on 15/07/2009. The search was updated on 08/07/2010. Terms such as diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent, hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and Gulf States were used. Our search also included scanning reference lists, contacting experts and hand-searching key journals. Studies were judged against pre-determined inclusion/exclusion criteria, and where suitable for inclusion, data extraction/quality assessment was achieved using a specifically-designed tool. All studies wherein glycaemic-, blood pressure- and/or lipid- control were investigated (clinical and/or process outcomes were eligible for inclusion. No limitations on publication type, publication status, study design or language of publication were imposed. We found the extent of control to be sub-optimal and relatively poor. Assessment of the efficacy of interventions was difficult due to lack of data, but suggestive that more widespread and controlled trial of secondary prevention strategies may have beneficial outcomes. We found no record of audited implementation of primary preventative strategies and anticipate that controlled trial of such strategies would also be useful.

  10. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the States of the co-operation council for the Arab States of the Gulf: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Alhyas

    Full Text Available AIMS: The recent and ongoing worldwide expansion in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM is a considerable risk to individuals, health systems and economies. The increase in prevalence has been particularly marked in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC, and these trends are set to continue. We aimed to systematically review the current prevalence of T2DM within these states, and also within particular sub-populations. METHODS: We identified 27 published studies for review. Studies were identified by systematic database searches. Medline and Embase were searched using terms such as diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent, hyperglycemia, prevalence, epidemiology and Gulf States. Our search also included scanning reference lists, contacting experts and hand-searching key journals. Studies were judged against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and where suitable for inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment was achieved using a specifically-designed tool. All studies where prevalence of diabetes was investigated were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion criteria required that the study population be of a GCC country, but otherwise all ages, sexes and ethnicities were included, resident and migrant populations, urban and rural, of all socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. No limitations on publication type, publication status, study design or language of publication were imposed. However, we did not include secondary reports of data, such as review articles without novel data synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of T2DM is an increasing problem for all GCC states. They may therefore benefit to a relatively high degree from co-ordinated implementation of broadly consistent management strategies. Further study of prevalence in children and in national versus expatriate populations would also be useful.

  11. Deconstructing therapeutic mechanisms in cancer support groups: do we express more emotion when we tell stories or talk directly to each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Rie; Li, Yong; Gravity, Theo; Piemme, Karen Altree; DiMiceli, Sue; Collie, Kate; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-02-01

    Studies indicate that story-telling and emotional expression may be important therapeutic mechanisms. This study examined how they work together over 1 year of supportive-expressive group therapy (SET). Participants were 41 women randomized to SET. We coded emotional expression and story types (story vs. non-story) at the initial session, 4, 8, and 12 months. Women engaged in more storytelling in their initial than later sessions. In later sessions, women expressed significantly more emotion, specifically compassion and high-arousal positive affect. Direct communication (non-story) allowed more positive but also more defensive expression as women supported and challenged each other. Greater hostility in non-story and greater constrained anger during story were associated with increasing depression. Greater high-arousal positive affect in non-story and greater primary negative affect in story were associated with increasing social network size. These results inform clinicians about cues they might use to improve the effectiveness of cancer support groups.

  12. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC) Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Lehmann (Frederick); D. Lacombe (Denis); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer treat

  13. Problems, solutions, and perspectives in the evaluation of interval cancers in Italian mammography screening programmes: a position paper from the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Lauro; Frigerio, Alfonso; Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Angiolucci, Giovanni; Bernardi, Daniela; Campari, Cinzia; Crocetti, Emanuele; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi, Daniela; Marchisio, Francesca; Morrone, Doralba; Naldoni, Carlo; Petrella, Marco; Ponti, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Saguatti, Gianni; Santini, Dolores; Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Serafini, Monica; Vergini, Viviana; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper, a self-convened team of experts from the Italian Group for Mammography Screening (Gruppo italiano screening mammografico, GISMa) pointed out the problems that increasingly hamper the feasibility and validity of the estimate of the proportional incidence of interval breast cancer (IBC) in Italy, suggested potential solutions and an agenda for research, and proposed that the question of the sensitivity of mammography be viewed in a larger perspective, with a greater attention to radiological review activities and breast radiology quality assurance programmes. The main problems are as follows: the coverage of cancer registration is incomplete; the robustness of using the pre-screening incidence rates as underlying rates decreases with time since the start of screening; the intermediate mammograms performed for early detection purposes may cause an overrepresentation of IBCs; the classification of many borderline screening histories is prone to subjectivity; and, finally, the composition of cohorts of women with negative screening results is uncertain, because several mammography reports are neither clearly negative nor clearly positive, and because of the limitations and instability of the electronic mammography records. Several possibilities can be considered to cope with these issues: standard methods for using the hospital discharge records in the identification of IBCs should be established; for the calculation of regional estimates of the underlying incidence, a suitable mathematical model should be identified; the definition of IBC according to the 2008 GISMa guidelines needs to be updated, especially with respect to in situ cancers and to invasive cancers with borderline screening histories; a closer adherence to standard screening protocols, with a simplified patient management, would make it easier to objectively identify IBCs; alternative methods for estimating the sensitivity of mammography should be taken into consideration; and

  14. A Novel Biomarker Panel Examining Response to Gemcitabine with or without Erlotinib for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy in NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Shultz

    Full Text Available NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3 was a randomized control trial that demonstrated improved overall survival (OS in patients receiving erlotinib in addition to gemcitabine for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Prior to therapy, patients had plasma samples drawn for future study. We sought to identify biomarkers within these samples.Using the proximity ligation assay (PLA, a probe panel was built from commercially available antibodies for 35 key proteins selected from a global genetic analysis of pancreatic cancers, and used to quantify protein levels in 20 uL of patient plasma. To determine if any of these proteins levels independently associated with OS, univariate and mulitbaraible Cox models were used. In addition, we examined the associations between biomarker expression and disease stage at diagnosis using Fisher's exact test. The correlation between Erlotinib sensitivity and each biomarkers was assessed using a test of interaction between treatment and biomarker.Of the 569 eligible patients, 480 had samples available for study. Samples were randomly allocated into training (251 and validation sets (229. Among all patients, elevated levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha, and interleukin-6 were independently associated with lower OS, while IL-8, CEA, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and mucin-1 were associated with metastatic disease. Patients with elevated levels of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2 expression had improved OS when treated with erlotinib compared to placebo. In conclusion, PLA is a powerful tool for identifying biomarkers from archived, small volume serum samples. These data may be useful to stratify patient outcomes regardless of therapeutic intervention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00040183.

  15. 肿瘤患者的短期团体认知行为干预%Short-term group cognitive behavioral intervention in cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑儒君; 符琰; 陈林; 牟倩倩; 刘珊珊; 李俊英; 余春华

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨认知行为干预对肿瘤患者的生命质量和心理痛苦的影响.方法 本研究为随机对照研究,计算机随机化分组,试验组和对照组最终分别纳入64例和66例肿瘤患者.对照组只接受常规健康教育;试验组接受每周2次的认知行为干预.所有研究对象在认知行为干预前后接受生命质量的调查及心理痛苦的评估.结果 认知行为干预后试验组的生命质量得分为(71.7±17.5)分,显著高于对照组(63.9±18.3)分,差异有统计学意义,t=2.2,P<0.05;试验组心理痛苦评分为(2.6±0.6)分,显著低于对照组的(3.9±0.7)分,差异有统计学意义,t=11.8,P<0.05,其中试验组在担忧、疼痛、抑郁和睡眠4方面的心理痛苦问题所占比例[ 42.2%(27/64)、29.7%(19/64)、35.9%(23/64)、23.4%(15/64)]显著低于对照组 [ 60.6%(40/66)、47.0%(31/66)、53.0%(35/66)、39.4%(26/66)],差异有统计学意义,X2=4.4、4.1、3.9和4.5,P<0.05.结论 短期团体认知行为干预可缓解肿瘤患者的心理痛苦和躯体疼痛,改善其不良情绪和睡眠状态,最终提高患者的生命质量.%Objective To explore the effect of cognitive behavioral intervention on quality of life and distress of cancer patients. Methods The research was a random control study, and computer randomized grouping, the experimental group and control group contained 64 cases, 66 cases, respectively. The control group only accepted health education, while experimental group accepted cognitive behavioral intervention twice a week. Before and after the research, the patients were investigated with quality of life and distress scale. Results After the study of cognitive behavioral intervention, quality of life of experimental group scored (71.7±17.5) points which showed greater improvement than the control group scored (63.9±18.3) points (t=2.2,P<0.05), the distress score of experimental group was (2.6±0.6) points which was significant lower than the control group scored (3.9 ±0

  16. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats.

  17. Non-hormonal systemic therapy in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and metastases: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care's Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotte Sébastien

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer that has recurred after local therapy or disseminated distantly is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy; however, most men will eventually experience disease progression within 12 to 20 months. New data emerging from randomized controlled trials (RCTs of chemotherapy provided the impetus for a systematic review addressing the following question: which non-hormonal systemic therapies are most beneficial for the treatment of men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC and clinical evidence of metastases? Methods A systematic review was performed to identify RCTs or meta-analyses examining first-line non-hormonal systemic (cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic therapy in patients with HRPC and metastases that reported at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, disease control, palliative response, quality of life, and toxicity. Excluded were RCTs of second-line hormonal therapies, bisphosphonates or radiopharmaceuticals, or randomized fewer than 50 patients per trial arm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology were searched for relevant trials. Citations were screened for eligibility by four reviewers and discrepancies were handled by consensus. Results Of the 80 RCTs identified, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Two recent, large trials reported improved overall survival with docetaxel-based chemotherapy compared to mitoxantrone-prednisone. Improved progression-free survival and rates of palliative and objective response were also observed. Compared with mitoxantrone, docetaxel treatment was associated with more frequent mild toxicities, similar rates of serious toxicities, and better quality of life. More frequent serious toxicities were observed when docetaxel was combined with estramustine. Three trials reported improved time-to-disease progression, palliative response, and/or quality of life with mitoxatrone

  18. The Effectiveness of Group-based Self-management Programmes to Improve Physical and Psychological Outcomes in Patients with Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Turchyn, J; Morgan, A; Richardson, J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with cancer who participate in group-based self-management programmes have better physical and psychological outcomes than patients with cancer who do not participate in group-based self-management programmes. A literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science and ProQUEST using the terms 'self-management' OR 'self-care' AND 'cancer' OR 'neoplasm'. Randomised controlled trials comparing outcomes for people with cancer participating in group-based self-management programmes with those not participating in these programmes were selected after screening by two reviewers. Initial searches yielded 563 articles. Two reviewers independently extracted data using piloted forms and assessed risk of bias using Cochrane's tool. Standard mean differences were calculated for continuous outcomes. The percentage of variability due to heterogeneity was assessed using I(2). A subgroup analysis was carried out where possible. Six trials were included in the review after 141 full-text articles were screened. Group-based self-management programmes were found to improve physical function [standard mean difference (95% confidence interval) = 0.34 (0.02, 0.65), P = 0.04]. No significant results were found between groups for quality of life [0.48 (-0.16, 1.11), P = 0.14] and physical activity level [0.21 (-0.07, 0.5), P = 0.15] outcomes. Group-based self-management programmes for individuals with cancer resulted in improvements in physical outcomes. However, considerable heterogeneity was found between the included studies and the quality of evidence was very low for all main outcomes. Therefore the results should be viewed with caution.

  19. Metabolic Tumor Volume as a Prognostic Imaging-Based Biomarker for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Pilot Results From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: david.schwartz@utsw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern School of Medicine, Dallas, Texas (United States); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yao, Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Opanowski, Adam; Levering, Anthony [American College of Radiology Imaging Network, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Trotti, Andy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Sutter Medical Group, Sacramento, California (United States); Harari, Paul [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Foote, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Qiang [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes. Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited. Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials.

  20. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01: Lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment. Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated "help-desk" team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%, technical problems (46% while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support.

  1. Early oesophageal cancer: results of a European multicentre survey. Group Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavina, L

    1995-01-01

    Early oesophageal cancer has been extensively studied in Far-Eastern countries, where its prevalence is high. A multicentre survey was conducted within the Groupe Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage to analyse results of surgical treatment in patients with disease staged as pTis-T1 N0 M0 according to the tumour node metastasis classification. Of 9743 patients with squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma observed since 1980, 4663 underwent resection; 253 (5.4 per cent) of these fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the study. The overall mortality rate was 9.1 per cent (23 patients), and was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (10.7 versus 6 per cent, P not significant). Pathological examination showed an intraepithelial tumour in 46 patients (18.2 per cent), intramucosal carcinoma in 64 (25.3 per cent) and a submucosal lesion in 143 (56.5 per cent). The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with intraepithelial, intramucosal and submucosal tumours was 92.8, 72.8 and 44.3 per cent respectively. The 5-year survival rate was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (66 versus 52 per cent). No survival advantage was observed after either operation in patients with mucosal tumours. Of 21 patients with recurrent disease, 20 had a submucosal lesion. The 5-year survival rate in patients with submucosal tumour was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (54.2 versus 25.5 per cent).

  2. Assessment of corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis in children undergoing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Japanese Childhood Cancer and Leukemia Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Shimomura, Yasuto; Watanabe, Arata; Taga, Takashi; Kikuta, Atsushi; Matsushita, Takeji; Kogawa, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Chihiro; Horikoshi, Yasuo; Iwai, Tsuyako; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Asami, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Steroid-induced osteonecrosis (ON) is a challenging complication encountered during modern chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We retrospectively assessed the incidence of ON and its risk factors in a total of 1095 patients enrolled in 3 consecutive Japanese Children's Cancer and Leukemia Study Group ALL studies (ALL941 [1994 to 2000], n=464; ALL2000 [2000 to 2004], n=305; and ALL2004 [2004 to 2010], n=326). ON was diagnosed in 16 patients, of whom 15 were symptomatic. The cumulative incidence of ON was 0.76% in ALL941, 0.35% in ALL2000, and 3.6% in ALL2004. The incidence of ON in ALL941/2000, in which only prednisolone was administered as a steroid, was significantly lower than that in ALL2004, in which dexamethasone was used as a partial substitute for prednisolone (P<0.01). In ALL2004, sex and age were significantly correlated with the incidence of ON (1.3% in boys vs. 6.7% in girls, P=0.0132; 0.42% for age <10 y vs. 15.6% for age ≥10 y, P<0.0001), suggesting that girls aged 10 years and above are at a greater risk of ON onset. These results indicate that the risk of ON should be considered when administering dexamethasone as part of ALL protocol treatment in girls aged 10 years and above.

  3. Different impact of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 on survival in male and female patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer treated with carboplatin and gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Mellemgaard, Anders; Skov, Torsten;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) status was assessed in patients receiving carboplatin and gemcitabine for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the association between the ERCC1 status and the overall survival after the chemotherapy. PATIENTS...

  4. Protocol to the 1994 Co-operation Agreement between The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and CERN concerning a Special Contribution by Pakistan towards the Construction of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    CERN signed a Co-operation Agreement with the Government of Pakistan in 1994, which was followed in 1997 by a Protocol signed with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) concerning CMS magnet supports. CERN and PAEC then signed in 1998 a Memorandum of Understanding for collaboration in the construction of the CMS detector. The participation by Pakistani scientists and engineers in the CERN programme is channelled through the National Centre of Physics (NCP) established at the Quaid-i-Azzam University in Islamabad, under the terms of a 1999 Protocol to the 1994 Co-operation Agreement. The engineering and detector construction work performed under these Agreements has been of high quality, and the Pakistani participation is valued highly by the CMS collaboration. In continuation of this co-operation, Pakistan, represented by PAEC as funding agency, has now proposed to make in-kind contributions to the LHC Project, such as mechanical components and assembly work, with a value of up to ten million US dollar...

  5. Protocol to the 1994 Co-operation Agreement between The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and CERN concerning a Special Contribution by Pakistan towards the Construction of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    CERN signed a Co-operation Agreement with the Government of Pakistan in 1994, which was followed in 1997 by a Protocol signed with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) concerning CMS magnet supports. CERN and PAEC then signed in 1998 a Memorandum of Understanding for collaboration in the construction of the CMS detector. The participation by Pakistani scientists and engineers in the CERN programme is channelled through the National Centre of Physics (NCP) established at the Quaid-i-Azzam University in Islamabad, under the terms of a 1999 Protocol to the 1994 Co-operation Agreement. The engineering and detector construction work performed under these Agreements has been of high quality, and the Pakistani participation is valued highly by the CMS collaboration. In continuation of this co-operation, Pakistan, represented by PAEC as funding agency, has now proposed to make in-kind contributions to the LHC Project of a value of up to ten million US dollars. Under the proposed scheme, CERN shall pay 50% of ...

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Tien-Hsien Liquid Practical in Patients with Refractory Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Phase IIa Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Tien-Hsien Liquid Practical (THL-P, a Chinese herbal mixture, in patients with refractory metastatic breast cancer, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase IIa pilot trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either receive THL-P or matching placebo and followed up every 4 weeks for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in the global health status/quality of life (GHS/QOL scale. The secondary endpoints were changes in functional and symptom scales, immunomodulating effects, and adverse events. Sixty-three patients were enrolled between June 2009 and June 2011. The intent-to-treat population included 28 patients in the THL-P group and 11 patients in the placebo group. Compared to the placebo group, the THL-P group had significant improvement from baseline to last visit in GHS/QOL (41.7 versus −33.3; P<0.05, CD3, CD4/CD8, CD19, CD16+56 positive cells (P<0.05, and higher levels of physical, role, emotional, and cognitive functioning, as well as decreased fatigue and systemic side effects. Treatment-related adverse events were mild constipation and localized itching, and no serious adverse events were reported. THL-P appears to be a safe alternative adjuvant treatment for patients with refractory metastatic breast cancer, as it effectively improves QOL and palliates cancer-related symptoms.

  7. Sipuleucel-T for the Treatment of Metastatic Hormone-Relapsed Prostate Cancer: A NICE Single Technology Appraisal; An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Emma L; Davis, Sarah; Thokala, Praveen; Breeze, Penny R; Bryden, Peter; Wong, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Dendreon, the company manufacturing sipuleucel-T, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, metastatic, non-visceral hormone-relapsed prostate cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is not yet clinically indicated, as part of NICE's single technology appraisal process. The comparator was abiraterone acetate (AA) or best supportive care (BSC). The School of Health and Related Research at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper describes the company submission (CS), ERG review, and subsequent decision of the NICE Appraisal Committee (AC). The ERG produced a critical review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence of sipuleucel-T based upon the CS. Clinical-effectiveness data relevant to the decision problem were taken from three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of sipuleucel-T and a placebo (PBO) comparator of antigen-presenting cells (APC) being re-infused (APC-PBO) (D9901, D9902A and D9902B), and one RCT (COU-AA-302) of AA plus prednisone vs. PBO plus prednisone. Two trials reported a significant advantage for sipuleucel-T in median overall survival compared with APC-PBO: for trial D9901, an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.47; (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.76) p Sipuleucel-T and APC-PBO groups did not differ significantly in time to disease progression, in any of the three RCTs. Most adverse events developed within 1 day of the infusion, and resolved within 2 days. The CS included an indirect comparison of sipuleucel-T (D9902B) and AA plus prednisone (COU-AA-302). As trials differed in prior use of chemotherapy, an analysis of only chemotherapy-naïve patients was included, in which the overall survival for sipuleucel-T and AA was not significantly different, HR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.69, 1.28) p = 0.699. The ERG had several concerns regarding the data and

  8. An observational cohort study of bevacizumab and chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients: safety and efficacy with analysis by age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahover, Esther; Hubert, Ayala; Temper, Mark; Salah, Azzam; Peretz, Tamar; Hamburger, Tamar; Uziely, Beatrice

    2015-03-01

    Bevacizumab improves survival when added to chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We assessed the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab in mCRC patients ≥70 years old (YO) vs. those plus bevacizumab were included. The primary end point was safety; secondary objectives were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Data was collected retrospectively. Three-hundred eight patients (92 ≥70 YO, 216 bevacizumab-related adverse effects; all were bevacizumab in patients ≥70 YO included hypertension (37.0 %), venous thromboembolism (6.5 %), wound-healing complications (5.4 %), bleeding (7.6 %), fistula (4.3 %), arterial thromboembolism (3.3 %), congestive heart failure (2.2 %), and proteinuria (grades 1-2 only, 14.1 %). Treatment was stopped due to adverse effects in 6.0 % of older patients. Older patients had significantly more ischemic heart disease and hypertension at baseline, and were treated less with FOLFOX and more with 5FU/LV monotherapy; nevertheless, OS and PFS were similar in younger and older patients. Compared to younger patients, in older patients, rates of proteinuria (all grades 1-2) were significantly higher (14.1 vs. 5.6 %, p=0.012) and rates of treatment-related hypertension (grades 3-5) were marginally higher (37 vs. 25.9 %, p=0.053); rates of other adverse events were similar in the two groups. In our patient population, bevacizumab was safe and effective in older as well as younger patients.

  9. Comparative study on cancer incidence in neighboring regions of Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia in 1969-1980. Pannonian Tumor Epidemiology Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The present collaborative study was performed in four confined, neighboring regions of Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia with different demographic and occupational characteristics of their respective populations, various structures of medical facilities, and cancer registration systems. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates and trends of six major cancer sites (stomach, colorectum and lung in both sexes as well as breast, uterine cervix and uterine body in women) in three 4-year periods (1969-1972, 1973-1976, 1977-1980) were computed and mutually compared in the mentioned regions. Relatively high, different but more or less decreasing incidence rates of stomach, and varying but mainly increasing rates and trends of colorectal cancer were observed, while lung cancer incidence rates and tendencies showed great variations in both sexes. For women, besides continuous increase, the tendencies towards culmination and stabilization were found in regions with the highest incidence rates of breast and uterine body cancer in comparison with the more or less declining rates of uterine cervix cancer over the period studied. The observed different incidence rates and trends of these and obviously of other cancer sites require further investigations using more sophisticated epidemiological methods and approaches.

  10. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  11. Cancer risk in humans predicted by increased levels of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes: Nordic study group on the health risk of chromosome damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Brøgger, A; Hansteen, I L;

    1994-01-01

    Cytogenetic assays in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have been used extensively to survey the exposure of humans to genotoxic agents. The conceptual basis for this has been the hypothesis that the extent of genetic damage in PBL reflects critical events for carcinogenic processes in target...... tissues. Until now, no follow-up studies have been performed to assess the predictive value of these methods for subsequent cancer risk. In an ongoing Nordic cohort study of cancer incidence, 3182 subjects were examined between 1970 and 1988 for chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange.......0009) in CA strata with regard to subsequent cancer risk. The point estimates of the standardized incidence ratio in the three CA strata were 0.9, 0.7, and 2.1, respectively. Thus, an increased level of chromosome breakage appears to be a relevant biomarker of future cancer risk....

  12. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"175","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400","style":"width: 400px; height: 266px;","class":"i | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  13. Group classification based on high-dimensional data: application to differential scanning calorimetry plasma thermogram analysis of cervical cancer and control samples

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Shesh; Pan,, Y.B.; Cambon,; Chaires,; Garbett,

    2013-01-01

    Shesh N Rai,1,2 Jianmin Pan,1 Alex Cambon,2 Jonathan B Chaires,3–5 Nichola C Garbett3,4 1Biostatistics Shared Facility, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, 2Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, University of Louisville, 3Biophysical Core Facility, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, 4Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, ...

  14. Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and specific botanical groups in relation to lung cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Margaret E; Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Neal D; Albanes, Demetrius; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael F; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-11-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against lung cancer, although epidemiologic findings are inconclusive. The authors prospectively examined associations between lung cancer risk and intakes of fruit, vegetables, and botanical subgroups in 472,081 participants aged 50-71 years in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Diet was assessed at baseline (1995-1996) with a 124-item dietary questionnaire. A total of 6,035 incident lung cancer cases were identified between 1995 and 2003. Total fruit and vegetable intake was unrelated to lung cancer risk in both men and women. Higher consumption of several botanical subgroups, however, was significantly inversely associated with risk, but only in men. For example, the relative risks of lung cancer among men in the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake of rosaceae, convolvulaceae, and umbelliferae were 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 0.91), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.96), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively; corresponding relative risks in women were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.12), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.09), and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.06). These results provide support for a protective role of specific botanical subgroups of fruits and vegetables in lung cancer prevention in men, although the findings could also be due to residual confounding by smoking or chance.

  15. Maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation of the oral cancer patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfaardt, J.F.; Monteith, B.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Prosthetic Dentistry)

    1982-08-01

    The victim of orofacial cancer is frequently subjected to severe morphological and functional disturbance: a condition which the maxillofacial prosthetist can do much to alleviate through the use of various prosthetic devices. The successful rehabilitation of these patients, however, is often compromised by the presence of psychosocial and other problems, the solution of which extends beyond the limits of a single clinical discipline. The modern approach to orofacial cancer, therefore, is organised within the context of interdisciplinary co-operation: each phase of patient management being planed and executed according to the co-ordinated efforts of the various members of a head and neck cancer team.

  16. Living with Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Cancer is regarded as a formidable threat to mankind. Every yem’ in Shanghai, which has a high cancer rate, 15,000 people are diagnosed with the disease and 12,000 die of cancer. Because many people believe that "cancer equals death," a special cancer rehabilitation center has appeared in Shanghai. The center creates an environment where cancer patients can exchange experiences and receive psychological group therapy. In this way those patients

  17. Research on Canadian Accreditation System of Co-operative Education Program and Its Implications%加拿大合作教育项目认证及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正; 贾卫辉

    2012-01-01

    本文就加拿大合作教育协会认证委员会对该国高等教育机构合作教育项目的认证流程、认证内容和认证指标等进行了研究。研究认为其认证过程由认证委员会负责;认证内容涵盖了合作教育项目的参与主体、运作过程以及保障制度等方面;认证指标与认证内容契合度高,兼有定量和定性指标,操控性强。并就此建议我国合作教育项目在未来的发展中,要树立系统认证意识,着力建立全国性组织,简化认证流程并推进指标的标准化构建,以此来提升我国合作教育认证的公信度。%This paper makes a study on Canadian accreditation system of co-operation education pr.ogram, including the accreditation process, the content and the accreditation indexes. Results suggest that the accreditation council of Canadian association for co-operative education is responsible for the accreditation process the accreditation content covers all parts of the program, from participative subjects to operation process and institutional insurance~ the accreditation indexes of both quantitative and quali- tative are operational and in great accord with accreditation content. The article puts forward sugges- tions for improvement, such as foster system sense, found a related national organization, simplify the accreditation process and set up standardization indexes, to promote the social approval to our co- operation education programs.

  18. Operation and maintenance service provision in uncertain times – the case of the FLSmidth Group during the Arab Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    This case was written by Melanie E. Kreye. It was compiled based on primary data collection by the author such as interviews and observations and published secondary data by the case companies. The case was made possible through the generous co-operation of the FLSmidth Group. It is intended to b...

  19. Recommendations for gonadotoxicity surveillance in male childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors : a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group in collaboration with the PanCareSurFup Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, Roderick; Mulder, Renee L.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Constine, Louis S.; Bardi, Edit; Boekhout, Annelies; Borgmann-Staudt, Anja; Brown, Morven C.; Cohn, Richard; Dirksen, Uta; Giwercman, Alexsander; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Kenney, Lisa B.; Loonen, Jacqueline J.; Meacham, Lilian; Neggers, Sebastian; Nussey, Stephen; Petersen, Cecilia; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; van Santen, Hanneke M.; Wallace, William H B; Green, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery that involves reproductive organs can cause impaired spermatogenesis, testosterone deficiency, and physical sexual dysfunction in male pubertal, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors. Guidelines for surveillance and management of potential

  20. New polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH) 2-derived peptide with the potential to induce cancer-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in prostate cancer patients with HLA-A3 supertype alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Takafumi; Minami, Tomoko; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; De Velasco, Marco A; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Harashima, Nanae; Harada, Mamoru; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    Analyses on reactivity of anti-cancer cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and clinical application of peptide-based anti-cancer vaccine have been mainly focused on patients with HLA-A2 or -A24 alleles. In this study, we identified an enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH) 2-derived peptide applicable for anti-cancer vaccine for prostate cancer patients with HLA-A3 supertype alleles. Five EZH2-derived peptides that were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A3 supertype alleles (HLA-A11, -A31, and -A33) were functionally screened for their potential to induce peptide-specific CTLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients. As a result, EZH2733-741 peptide was found to efficiently induce peptide-specific CTLs. The EZH2733-741 peptide-stimulated and purified CD8(+) T cells from PBMCs of HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients showed higher cytotoxicity against HLA-A3 supertype allele-expressing LNCaP prostate cancer cells than against parental LNCaP cells. This cytotoxicity against HLA-A3 supertype allele-expressing LNCaP cells was partially but significantly inhibited by the addition of EZH2733-741 peptide-pulsed competitive cells. These results indicate that the EZH2733-741 peptide could be a promising candidate for peptide-based immunotherapy for HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients.