Sample records for cancer cells dynamics

  1. Nonequilibrium population dynamics of phenotype conversion of cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Xu Zhou

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a dynamic biological process that involves distinct cancer cell subpopulations proliferating at different rates and interconverting between them. In this paper we proposed a mathematical framework of population dynamics that considers both distinctive growth rates and intercellular transitions between cancer cell populations. Our mathematical framework showed that both growth and transition influence the ratio of cancer cell subpopulations but the latter is more significant. We derived the condition that different cancer cell types can maintain distinctive subpopulations and we also explain why there always exists a stable fixed ratio after cell sorting based on putative surface markers. The cell fraction ratio can be shifted by changing either the growth rates of the subpopulations (Darwinism selection or by environment-instructed transitions (Lamarckism induction. This insight can help us to understand the dynamics of the heterogeneity of cancer cells and lead us to new strategies to overcome cancer drug resistance.

  2. Hazard function for cancer patients and cancer cell dynamics. (United States)

    Horová, Ivana; Pospísil, Zdenek; Zelinka, Jirí


    The aim of the paper is to develop a procedure for an estimate of an analytical form of a hazard function for cancer patients. Although a deterministic approach based on cancer cell population dynamics yields the analytical expression, it depends on several parameters which should be estimated. On the other hand, a kernel estimate is an effective nonparametric method for estimating hazard functions. This method provides the pointwise estimate of the hazard function. Our procedure consists of two steps: in the first step we find the kernel estimate of the hazard function and in the second step the parameters in the deterministic model are obtained by the least squares method. A simulation study with different types of censorship is carried out and the developed procedure is applied to real data.

  3. Global dynamics of a colorectal cancer treatment model with cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Abernathy, Kristen; Abernathy, Zachary; Brown, Kelsey; Burgess, Claire; Hoehne, Rebecca


    We present and analyze a mathematical model of the treatment of colorectal cancer using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model describes the effectiveness of immunotherapy and chemotherapy for treatment of tumor cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). The effects of CD8+T cells, natural killer cells, and interleukin proteins on tumor cells and CSCs under the influence of treatment are also illustrated. Using the method of localization of compact invariant sets, we present conditions on treatment parameters to guarantee a globally attracting tumor clearance state. Numerical simulations using estimated parameters from the literature are included to showcase various global dynamics of the model.

  4. A Versatile Bioreactor for Dynamic Suspension Cell Culture. Application to the Culture of Cancer Cell Spheroids. (United States)

    Massai, Diana; Isu, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Denise; Cerino, Giulia; Falco, Angela; Frati, Caterina; Gallo, Diego; Deriu, Marco A; Falvo D'Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Quaini, Federico; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto


    A versatile bioreactor suitable for dynamic suspension cell culture under tunable shear stress conditions has been developed and preliminarily tested culturing cancer cell spheroids. By adopting simple technological solutions and avoiding rotating components, the bioreactor exploits the laminar hydrodynamics establishing within the culture chamber enabling dynamic cell suspension in an environment favourable to mass transport, under a wide range of tunable shear stress conditions. The design phase of the device has been supported by multiphysics modelling and has provided a comprehensive analysis of the operating principles of the bioreactor. Moreover, an explanatory example is herein presented with multiphysics simulations used to set the proper bioreactor operating conditions for preliminary in vitro biological tests on a human lung carcinoma cell line. The biological results demonstrate that the ultralow shear dynamic suspension provided by the device is beneficial for culturing cancer cell spheroids. In comparison to the static suspension control, dynamic cell suspension preserves morphological features, promotes intercellular connection, increases spheroid size (2.4-fold increase) and number of cycling cells (1.58-fold increase), and reduces double strand DNA damage (1.5-fold reduction). It is envisioned that the versatility of this bioreactor could allow investigation and expansion of different cell types in the future.

  5. Stem cell dynamics in homeostasis and cancer of the intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Louis; Snippert, Hugo J.


    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and colorectal cancer (CRC) biology are tightly linked in many aspects. It is generally thought that ISCs are the cells of origin for a large proportion of CRCs and crucial ISC-associated signalling pathways are often affected in CRCs. Moreover, CRCs are thought to

  6. Growth dynamics of cancer cell colonies and their comparison with noncancerous cells (United States)

    Huergo, M. A. C.; Pasquale, M. A.; González, P. H.; Bolzán, A. E.; Arvia, A. J.


    The two-dimensional (2D) growth dynamics of HeLa (cervix cancer) cell colonies was studied following both their growth front and the pattern morphology evolutions utilizing large population colonies exhibiting linearly and radially spreading fronts. In both cases, the colony profile fractal dimension was df=1.20±0.05 and the growth fronts displaced at the constant velocity 0.90±0.05 μm min-1. Colonies showed changes in both cell morphology and average size. As time increased, the formation of large cells at the colony front was observed. Accordingly, the heterogeneity of the colony increased and local driving forces that set in began to influence the dynamics of the colony front. The dynamic scaling analysis of rough colony fronts resulted in a roughness exponent α = 0.50±0.05, a growth exponent β = 0.32±0.04, and a dynamic exponent z=1.5±0.2. The validity of this set of scaling exponents extended from a lower cutoff lc≈60 μm upward, and the exponents agreed with those predicted by the standard Kardar-Parisi-Zhang continuous equation. HeLa data were compared with those previously reported for Vero cell colonies. The value of df and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang-type 2D front growth dynamics were similar for colonies of both cell lines. This indicates that the cell colony growth dynamics is independent of the genetic background and the tumorigenic nature of the cells. However, one can distinguish some differences between both cell lines during the growth of colonies that may result from specific cooperative effects and the nature of each biosystem.

  7. On-chip dynamic stress control for cancer cell evolution study (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert


    The growth and spreading of cancer in host organisms is an evolutionary process. Cells accumulate mutations that help them adapt to changing environments and to obtain survival fitness. However, all cancer--promoting mutations do not occur at once. Cancer cells face selective environmental pressures that drive their evolution in stages. In traditional cancer studies, environmental stress is usually homogenous in space and difficult to change in time. Here, we propose a microfluidic chip employing embedded dynamic traps to generate dynamic heterogeneous microenvironments for cancer cells in evolution studies. Based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible diaphragms, these traps are able to enclose and shield cancer cells or expose them to external environmental stress. Digital controls for each trap determine the nutrition, antibiotics, CO2/O2 conditions, and temperatures to which trapped cells are subjected. Thus, the stress applied to cells can be varied in intensity and duration in each trap independently. The chip can also output cells from specific traps for sequencing and other biological analysis. Hence our design simultaneously monitors and analyzes cell evolution behaviors under dynamic stresses.

  8. Phenotypic Plasticity and Cell Fate Decisions in Cancer: Insights from Dynamical Systems Theory. (United States)

    Jia, Dongya; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Kulkarni, Prakash; Levine, Herbert


    Waddington's epigenetic landscape, a famous metaphor in developmental biology, depicts how a stem cell progresses from an undifferentiated phenotype to a differentiated one. The concept of "landscape" in the context of dynamical systems theory represents a high-dimensional space, in which each cell phenotype is considered as an "attractor" that is determined by interactions between multiple molecular players, and is buffered against environmental fluctuations. In addition, biological noise is thought to play an important role during these cell-fate decisions and in fact controls transitions between different phenotypes. Here, we discuss the phenotypic transitions in cancer from a dynamical systems perspective and invoke the concept of "cancer attractors"-hidden stable states of the underlying regulatory network that are not occupied by normal cells. Phenotypic transitions in cancer occur at varying levels depending on the context. Using epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem-like properties, metabolic reprogramming and the emergence of therapy resistance as examples, we illustrate how phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells enables them to acquire hybrid phenotypes (such as hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal and hybrid metabolic phenotypes) that tend to be more aggressive and notoriously resilient to therapies such as chemotherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy. Furthermore, we highlight multiple factors that may give rise to phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells, such as (a) multi-stability or oscillatory behaviors governed by underlying regulatory networks involved in cell-fate decisions in cancer cells, and (b) network rewiring due to conformational dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) that are highly enriched in cancer cells. We conclude by discussing why a therapeutic approach that promotes "recanalization", i.e., the exit from "cancer attractors" and re-entry into "normal attractors", is more likely to succeed rather than a

  9. MST-312 Alters Telomere Dynamics, Gene Expression Profiles and Growth in Human Breast Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Gurung, Resham Lal; Lim, Shi Ni; Low, Grace Kah Mun; Hande, M Prakash


    Targeting telomerase is a potential cancer management strategy given that it allows unlimited cellular replication in the majority of cancers. Dysfunctional telomeres are recognized as double-strand breaks. However, the status of DNA repair response pathways following telomerase inhibition is not well understood in human breast cancer cells. Here, we evaluated the effects of MST-312, a chemically modified derivative from tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, on telomere dynamics and DNA damage gene expression in breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were treated with MST-312, and telomere-telomerase homeostasis, induced DNA damage and gene expression profiling were analyzed. MST-312 decreased telomerase activity and induced telomere dysfunction and growth arrest in breast cancer cells with more profound effects in MDA-MB-231 than in MCF-7 cells. Consistent with these data, the telomere-protective protein TRF2 was downregulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. MST-312 induced DNA damage at telomeres accompanied by reduced expression of DNA damage-related genes ATM and RAD50. Co-treatment with MST-312 and the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) inhibitor PJ-34 further enhanced growth reduction as compared to single treatment with MST-312 or PJ-34. Our work demonstrates potential importance for the establishment of antitelomerase cancer therapy using MST-312 along with PARP-1 inhibition in breast cancer therapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Modeling Cancer Cell Growth Dynamics In vitro in Response to Antimitotic Drug Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander


    Investigating the role of intrinsic cell heterogeneity emerging from variations in cell-cycle parameters and apoptosis is a crucial step toward better informing drug administration. Antimitotic agents, widely used in chemotherapy, target exclusively proliferative cells and commonly induce a prolonged mitotic arrest followed by cell death via apoptosis. In this paper, we developed a physiologically motivated mathematical framework for describing cancer cell growth dynamics that incorporates the intrinsic heterogeneity in the time individual cells spend in the cell-cycle and apoptosis process. More precisely, our model comprises two age-structured partial differential equations for the proliferative and apoptotic cell compartments and one ordinary differential equation for the quiescent compartment. To reflect the intrinsic cell heterogeneity that governs the growth dynamics, proliferative and apoptotic cells are structured in “age,” i.e., the amount of time remaining to be spent in each respective compartment. In our model, we considered an antimitotic drug whose effect on the cellular dynamics is to induce mitotic arrest, extending the average cell-cycle length. The prolonged mitotic arrest induced by the drug can trigger apoptosis if the time a cell will spend in the cell cycle is greater than the mitotic arrest threshold. We studied the drug\\'s effect on the long-term cancer cell growth dynamics using different durations of prolonged mitotic arrest induced by the drug. Our numerical simulations suggest that at confluence and in the absence of the drug, quiescence is the long-term asymptotic behavior emerging from the cancer cell growth dynamics. This pattern is maintained in the presence of small increases in the average cell-cycle length. However, intermediate increases in cell-cycle length markedly decrease the total number of cells and can drive the cancer population to extinction. Intriguingly, a large “switch-on/ switch-off” increase in the average

  11. Modeling Cancer Cell Growth Dynamics In vitro in Response to Antimitotic Drug Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lorz


    Full Text Available Investigating the role of intrinsic cell heterogeneity emerging from variations in cell-cycle parameters and apoptosis is a crucial step toward better informing drug administration. Antimitotic agents, widely used in chemotherapy, target exclusively proliferative cells and commonly induce a prolonged mitotic arrest followed by cell death via apoptosis. In this paper, we developed a physiologically motivated mathematical framework for describing cancer cell growth dynamics that incorporates the intrinsic heterogeneity in the time individual cells spend in the cell-cycle and apoptosis process. More precisely, our model comprises two age-structured partial differential equations for the proliferative and apoptotic cell compartments and one ordinary differential equation for the quiescent compartment. To reflect the intrinsic cell heterogeneity that governs the growth dynamics, proliferative and apoptotic cells are structured in “age,” i.e., the amount of time remaining to be spent in each respective compartment. In our model, we considered an antimitotic drug whose effect on the cellular dynamics is to induce mitotic arrest, extending the average cell-cycle length. The prolonged mitotic arrest induced by the drug can trigger apoptosis if the time a cell will spend in the cell cycle is greater than the mitotic arrest threshold. We studied the drug’s effect on the long-term cancer cell growth dynamics using different durations of prolonged mitotic arrest induced by the drug. Our numerical simulations suggest that at confluence and in the absence of the drug, quiescence is the long-term asymptotic behavior emerging from the cancer cell growth dynamics. This pattern is maintained in the presence of small increases in the average cell-cycle length. However, intermediate increases in cell-cycle length markedly decrease the total number of cells and can drive the cancer population to extinction. Intriguingly, a large

  12. Suicide Gene-Engineered Stromal Cells Reveal a Dynamic Regulation of Cancer Metastasis (United States)

    Shen, Keyue; Luk, Samantha; Elman, Jessica; Murray, Ryan; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Parekkadan, Biju


    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cancer-promoting component in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The dynamic role of human CAFs in cancer progression has been ill-defined because human CAFs lack a unique marker needed for a cell-specific, promoter-driven knockout model. Here, we developed an engineered human CAF cell line with an inducible suicide gene to enable selective in vivo elimination of human CAFs at different stages of xenograft tumor development, effectively circumventing the challenge of targeting a cell-specific marker. Suicide-engineered CAFs were highly sensitive to apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo by the addition of a simple small molecule inducer. Selection of timepoints for targeted CAF apoptosis in vivo during the progression of a human breast cancer xenograft model was guided by a bi-phasic host cytokine response that peaked at early timepoints after tumor implantation. Remarkably, we observed that the selective apoptosis of CAFs at these early timepoints did not affect primary tumor growth, but instead increased the presence of tumor-associated macrophages and the metastatic spread of breast cancer cells to the lung and bone. The study revealed a dynamic relationship between CAFs and cancer metastasis that has counter-intuitive ramifications for CAF-targeted therapy.

  13. Dynamic modulation of thymidylate synthase gene expression and fluorouracil sensitivity in human colorectal cancer cells.

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    Kentaro Wakasa

    Full Text Available Biomarkers have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy. However, many biomarker candidates are still in debate. In addition to clinical studies, a priori experimental approaches are needed. Thymidylate synthase (TS expression is a long-standing candidate as a biomarker for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment of cancer patients. Using the Tet-OFF system and a human colorectal cancer cell line, DLD-1, we first constructed an in vitro system in which TS expression is dynamically controllable. Quantitative assays have elucidated that TS expression in the transformant was widely modulated, and that the dynamic range covered 15-fold of the basal level. 5-FU sensitivity of the transformant cells significantly increased in response to downregulated TS expression, although being not examined in the full dynamic range because of the doxycycline toxicity. Intriguingly, our in vitro data suggest that there is a linear relationship between TS expression and the 5-FU sensitivity in cells. Data obtained in a mouse model using transformant xenografts were highly parallel to those obtained in vitro. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that TS expression is a determinant of 5-FU sensitivity in cells, at least in this specific genetic background, and, therefore, support the possibility of TS expression as a biomarker for 5-FU-based cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Dynamics between cancer cell subpopulations reveals a model coordinating with both hierarchical and stochastic concepts. (United States)

    Wang, Weikang; Quan, Yi; Fu, Qibin; Liu, Yu; Liang, Ying; Wu, Jingwen; Yang, Gen; Luo, Chunxiong; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Yugang


    Tumors are often heterogeneous in which tumor cells of different phenotypes have distinct properties. For scientific and clinical interests, it is of fundamental importance to understand their properties and the dynamic variations among different phenotypes, specifically under radio- and/or chemo-therapy. Currently there are two controversial models describing tumor heterogeneity, the cancer stem cell (CSC) model and the stochastic model. To clarify the controversy, we measured probabilities of different division types and transitions of cells via in situ immunofluorescence. Based on the experiment data, we constructed a model that combines the CSC with the stochastic concepts, showing the existence of both distinctive CSC subpopulations and the stochastic transitions from NSCCs to CSCs. The results showed that the dynamic variations between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs) can be simulated with the model. Further studies also showed that the model can be used to describe the dynamics of the two subpopulations after radiation treatment. More importantly, analysis demonstrated that the experimental detectable equilibrium CSC proportion can be achieved only when the stochastic transitions from NSCCs to CSCs occur, indicating that tumor heterogeneity may exist in a model coordinating with both the CSC and the stochastic concepts. The mathematic model based on experimental parameters may contribute to a better understanding of the tumor heterogeneity, and provide references on the dynamics of CSC subpopulation during radiotherapy.

  15. Dynamics between cancer cell subpopulations reveals a model coordinating with both hierarchical and stochastic concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weikang Wang

    Full Text Available Tumors are often heterogeneous in which tumor cells of different phenotypes have distinct properties. For scientific and clinical interests, it is of fundamental importance to understand their properties and the dynamic variations among different phenotypes, specifically under radio- and/or chemo-therapy. Currently there are two controversial models describing tumor heterogeneity, the cancer stem cell (CSC model and the stochastic model. To clarify the controversy, we measured probabilities of different division types and transitions of cells via in situ immunofluorescence. Based on the experiment data, we constructed a model that combines the CSC with the stochastic concepts, showing the existence of both distinctive CSC subpopulations and the stochastic transitions from NSCCs to CSCs. The results showed that the dynamic variations between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs can be simulated with the model. Further studies also showed that the model can be used to describe the dynamics of the two subpopulations after radiation treatment. More importantly, analysis demonstrated that the experimental detectable equilibrium CSC proportion can be achieved only when the stochastic transitions from NSCCs to CSCs occur, indicating that tumor heterogeneity may exist in a model coordinating with both the CSC and the stochastic concepts. The mathematic model based on experimental parameters may contribute to a better understanding of the tumor heterogeneity, and provide references on the dynamics of CSC subpopulation during radiotherapy.

  16. A van der Waals-like Transition Between Normal and Cancerous Phases in Cell Populations Dynamics of Colorectal Cancer (United States)

    Qiu, Kang; Wang, Li-fang; Shen, Jian; Yousif, Alssadig A. M.; He, Peng; Shao, Dan-dan; Zhang, Xiao-min; Kirunda, John B.; Jia, Ya


    Based on a deterministic continuous model of cell populations dynamics in the colonic crypt and in colorectal cancer, we propose four combinations of feedback mechanisms in the differentiations from stem cells (SCs) to transit cells (TCs) and then to differentiated cells (DCs), the four combinations include the double linear (LL), the linear and saturating (LS), the saturating and linear (SL), and the double saturating (SS) feedbacks, respectively. The relative fluctuations of the population of SCs, TCs, and DCs around equilibrium states with four feedback mechanisms are studied by using the Langevin method. With the increasing of net growth rate of TCs, it is found that the Fano factors of TCs and DCs go to a peak in a transient phase, and then increase again to infinity in the cases of LS and SS feedbacks. The “up-down-up” characteristic on the Fano factor (like the van der Waals loop) demonstrates that there exists a transient phase between the normal and cancerous phases, our novel findings suggest that the mathematical model with LS or SS feedback might be better to elucidate the dynamics of a normal and abnormal (cancerous) phases. PMID:27857154

  17. A van der Waals-like Transition Between Normal and Cancerous Phases in Cell Populations Dynamics of Colorectal Cancer (United States)

    Qiu, Kang; Wang, Li-Fang; Shen, Jian; Yousif, Alssadig A. M.; He, Peng; Shao, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Kirunda, John B.; Jia, Ya


    Based on a deterministic continuous model of cell populations dynamics in the colonic crypt and in colorectal cancer, we propose four combinations of feedback mechanisms in the differentiations from stem cells (SCs) to transit cells (TCs) and then to differentiated cells (DCs), the four combinations include the double linear (LL), the linear and saturating (LS), the saturating and linear (SL), and the double saturating (SS) feedbacks, respectively. The relative fluctuations of the population of SCs, TCs, and DCs around equilibrium states with four feedback mechanisms are studied by using the Langevin method. With the increasing of net growth rate of TCs, it is found that the Fano factors of TCs and DCs go to a peak in a transient phase, and then increase again to infinity in the cases of LS and SS feedbacks. The “up-down-up” characteristic on the Fano factor (like the van der Waals loop) demonstrates that there exists a transient phase between the normal and cancerous phases, our novel findings suggest that the mathematical model with LS or SS feedback might be better to elucidate the dynamics of a normal and abnormal (cancerous) phases.

  18. Mitochondrial dynamics protein Drp1 is overexpressed in oncocytic thyroid tumors and regulates cancer cell migration. (United States)

    Ferreira-da-Silva, André; Valacca, Cristina; Rios, Elisabete; Pópulo, Helena; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Scorrano, Luca; Máximo, Valdemar; Campello, Silvia


    Oncocytic cell tumors are characterized by the accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in their cells, suggesting a role for abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cell transformation. Little is known about the reason for the dysmorphology of accumulated mitochondria. The proteins regulating the morphology of mitochondria, the "mitochondria-shaping" proteins, can modulate their size and number; however, nothing is known hitherto about a possible involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in oncocytic cell transformation in tumors. Our aim was to assess the status of the mitochondria morphology and its role in oncocytic cell transformation. We therefore evaluated the expression pattern of the main mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in a series of thyroid cell tumor samples, as well as in thyroid tumor cell lines, with and without oncocytic cell features. The expression of mitochondrial fusion (Opa1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) and fission (Drp1 and Fis1) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a series of 88 human thyroid tumors. In vitro studies, for comparative purposes and to deepen the study, were performed using TPC1--a papillary thyroid carcinoma derived cell line--and XTC.UC1, an oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinoma-derived cell line. Both IHC and in vitro protein analyses showed an overall increase in the levels of "mitochondrial-shaping" proteins in oncocytic thyroid tumors. Furthermore, overexpression of the pro-fission protein Drp1 was found to be associated with malignant oncocytic thyroid tumors. Interestingly, genetic and pharmacological blockage of Drp1 activity was able to influence thyroid cancer cells' migration/invasion ability, a feature of tumor malignancy. In this study we show that unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics characterize the malignant features of thyroid oncocytic cell tumors, and participate in the acquisition of the migrating phenotype.

  19. The integrin alphav beta3 increases cellular stiffness and cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics to facilitate cancer cell invasion (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja


    The process of cancer cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissue plays a prominent role in tumor progression and is based fundamentally on biomechanics. Cancer cell invasion usually requires cell adhesion to the ECM through the cell-matrix adhesion receptors integrins. The expression of the αvβ3 integrin is increased in several tumor types and is consistently associated with increased metastasis formation in patients. The hypothesis was that the αvβ3 integrin expression increases the invasiveness of cancer cells through increased cellular stiffness, and increased cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. Here, the invasion of cancer cells with different αvβ3 integrin expression levels into dense three-dimensional (3D) ECMs has been studied. Using a cell sorter, two subcell lines expressing either high or low amounts of αvβ3 integrins (αvβ3high or αvβ3low cells, respectively) have been isolated from parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. αvβ3high cells showed a threefold increased cell invasion compared to αvβ3low cells. Similar results were obtained for A375 melanoma, 786-O kidney and T24 bladder carcinoma cells, and cells in which the β3 integrin subunit was knocked down using specific siRNA. To investigate whether contractile forces are essential for αvβ3 integrin-mediated increased cellular stiffness and subsequently enhanced cancer cell invasion, invasion assays were performed in the presence of myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Indeed, cancer cell invasiveness was reduced after addition of ML-7 and Y27632 in αvβ3high cells but not in αvβ3low cells. Moreover, after addition of the contractility enhancer calyculin A, an increase in pre-stress in αvβ3low cells was observed, which enhanced cellular invasiveness. In addition, inhibition of the Src kinase, STAT3 or Rac1 strongly reduced the invasiveness of αvβ3high cells, whereas the invasiveness of β3 specific knock

  20. Global genetic response in a cancer cell: self-organized coherent expression dynamics. (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masa; Hashimoto, Midori; Takenaka, Yoshiko; Motoike, Ikuko N; Yoshikawa, Kenichi


    Understanding the basic mechanism of the spatio-temporal self-control of genome-wide gene expression engaged with the complex epigenetic molecular assembly is one of major challenges in current biological science. In this study, the genome-wide dynamical profile of gene expression was analyzed for MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by two distinct ErbB receptor ligands: epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heregulin (HRG), which drive cell proliferation and differentiation, respectively. We focused our attention to elucidate how global genetic responses emerge and to decipher what is an underlying principle for dynamic self-control of genome-wide gene expression. The whole mRNA expression was classified into about a hundred groups according to the root mean square fluctuation (rmsf). These expression groups showed characteristic time-dependent correlations, indicating the existence of collective behaviors on the ensemble of genes with respect to mRNA expression and also to temporal changes in expression. All-or-none responses were observed for HRG and EGF (biphasic statistics) at around 10-20 min. The emergence of time-dependent collective behaviors of expression occurred through bifurcation of a coherent expression state (CES). In the ensemble of mRNA expression, the self-organized CESs reveals distinct characteristic expression domains for biphasic statistics, which exhibits notably the presence of criticality in the expression profile as a route for genomic transition. In time-dependent changes in the expression domains, the dynamics of CES reveals that the temporal development of the characteristic domains is characterized as autonomous bistable switch, which exhibits dynamic criticality (the temporal development of criticality) in the genome-wide coherent expression dynamics. It is expected that elucidation of the biophysical origin for such critical behavior sheds light on the underlying mechanism of the control of whole genome.

  1. Global genetic response in a cancer cell: self-organized coherent expression dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Understanding the basic mechanism of the spatio-temporal self-control of genome-wide gene expression engaged with the complex epigenetic molecular assembly is one of major challenges in current biological science. In this study, the genome-wide dynamical profile of gene expression was analyzed for MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by two distinct ErbB receptor ligands: epidermal growth factor (EGF and heregulin (HRG, which drive cell proliferation and differentiation, respectively. We focused our attention to elucidate how global genetic responses emerge and to decipher what is an underlying principle for dynamic self-control of genome-wide gene expression. The whole mRNA expression was classified into about a hundred groups according to the root mean square fluctuation (rmsf. These expression groups showed characteristic time-dependent correlations, indicating the existence of collective behaviors on the ensemble of genes with respect to mRNA expression and also to temporal changes in expression. All-or-none responses were observed for HRG and EGF (biphasic statistics at around 10-20 min. The emergence of time-dependent collective behaviors of expression occurred through bifurcation of a coherent expression state (CES. In the ensemble of mRNA expression, the self-organized CESs reveals distinct characteristic expression domains for biphasic statistics, which exhibits notably the presence of criticality in the expression profile as a route for genomic transition. In time-dependent changes in the expression domains, the dynamics of CES reveals that the temporal development of the characteristic domains is characterized as autonomous bistable switch, which exhibits dynamic criticality (the temporal development of criticality in the genome-wide coherent expression dynamics. It is expected that elucidation of the biophysical origin for such critical behavior sheds light on the underlying mechanism of the control of whole genome.

  2. An antitubulin agent BCFMT inhibits proliferation of cancer cells and induces cell death by inhibiting microtubule dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Rai

    Full Text Available Using cell based screening assay, we identified a novel anti-tubulin agent (Z-5-((5-(4-bromo-3-chlorophenylfuran-2-ylmethylene-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one (BCFMT that inhibited proliferation of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa (IC(50, 7.2 ± 1.8 µM, human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 (IC(50, 10.0 ± 0.5 µM, highly metastatic breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231 (IC(50, 6.0 ± 1 µM, cisplatin-resistant human ovarian carcinoma (A2780-cis (IC(50, 5.8 ± 0.3 µM and multi-drug resistant mouse mammary tumor (EMT6/AR1 (IC(50, 6.5 ± 1 µM cells. Using several complimentary strategies, BCFMT was found to inhibit cancer cell proliferation at G2/M phase of the cell cycle apparently by targeting microtubules. In addition, BCFMT strongly suppressed the dynamics of individual microtubules in live MCF-7 cells. At its half maximal proliferation inhibitory concentration (10 µM, BCFMT reduced the rates of growing and shortening phases of microtubules in MCF-7 cells by 37 and 40%, respectively. Further, it increased the time microtubules spent in the pause (neither growing nor shortening detectably state by 135% and reduced the dynamicity (dimer exchange per unit time of microtubules by 70%. In vitro, BCFMT bound to tubulin with a dissociation constant of 8.3 ± 1.8 µM, inhibited tubulin assembly and suppressed GTPase activity of microtubules. BCFMT competitively inhibited the binding of BODIPY FL-vinblastine to tubulin with an inhibitory concentration (K(i of 5.2 ± 1.5 µM suggesting that it binds to tubulin at the vinblastine site. In cultured cells, BCFMT-treatment depolymerized interphase microtubules, perturbed the spindle organization and accumulated checkpoint proteins (BubR1 and Mad2 at the kinetochores. BCFMT-treated MCF-7 cells showed enhanced nuclear accumulation of p53 and its downstream p21, which consequently activated apoptosis in these cells. The results suggested that BCFMT inhibits proliferation of several types of cancer cells including drug

  3. Fabricating upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles modified substrate for dynamical control of cancer cells and pathogenic bacteria. (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen; Urmila, Khulal


    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted widespread interests in the field of biomedicine because of their unique upconverting capability by converting near infrared (NIR) excitation to visible or ultraviolet (UV) emission. Here, we developed a novel UCNP-based substrate for dynamic capture and release of cancer cells and pathogenic bacteria under NIR-control. The UCNPs harvest NIR light and convert it to ultraviolet light, which subsequently result in the cleavage of photoresponsive linker (PR linker) from the substrate, and on demand allows the release of a captured cell. The results show that after seeding cells for 5 h, the cells were efficiently captured on the surface of the substrate and ˜89.4% of the originally captured S. aureus was released from the surface after exposure to 2 W/cm2 NIR light for 30 min, and ˜92.1% of HepG2 cells. These findings provide a unique platform for exploring an entirely new application field for this promising luminescent nanomaterial. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Stem cell dynamics and heterogeneity: implications for epidermal regeneration and skin cancer. (United States)

    Petersson, M; Niemann, C


    The skin epithelium undergoes constant renewal, a process that is driven by stem cells (SCs) localising to the interfollicular epidermis and different regions of the hair follicle. Over the last years, tremendous progress has been made to unravel the physiological function of distinct stem and progenitor cell populations by using genetic lineage tracing in vivo, transplantation, clonogenicity approaches and live cell imaging. It turned out that these cell compartments constitute heterogeneous SC pools and that individual SCs respond differently to various signals sent by the microenvironment. Recent genetic manipulation experiments and elegant mouse models have shed light on the signalling pathways being crucial for self-renewal and lineage fate decisions during tissue homeostasis. Here, we summarise current concepts of SC function in mammalian skin and focus on the dynamic behaviour of SCs during morphogenesis and tissue regeneration of the skin epithelium. Clearly, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of SC regulation and function during tissue homeostasis has enormous impact on our view of the pathogenesis of various skin diseases and will be beneficial for regenerative medicine. Recent experiments suggest an important role of tissue SCs in the process of skin tumour initiation and progression. For the future, the genuine challenge is to further dissect SC function in pathophysiological settings and to translate our knowledge to design novel efficient therapeutic strategies for treatment of cutaneous cancer.

  5. ATIP3, a novel prognostic marker of breast cancer patient survival, limits cancer cell migration and slows metastatic progression by regulating microtubule dynamics. (United States)

    Molina, Angie; Velot, Lauriane; Ghouinem, Lydia; Abdelkarim, Mohamed; Bouchet, Benjamin Pierre; Luissint, Anny-Claude; Bouhlel, Imène; Morel, Marina; Sapharikas, Elène; Di Tommaso, Anne; Honoré, Stéphane; Braguer, Diane; Gruel, Nadège; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Delattre, Olivier; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; André, Fabrice; Terris, Benoit; Akhmanova, Anna; Di Benedetto, Mélanie; Nahmias, Clara; Rodrigues-Ferreira, Sylvie


    Metastasis, a fatal complication of breast cancer, does not fully benefit from available therapies. In this study, we investigated whether ATIP3, the major product of 8p22 MTUS1 gene, may be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic breast tumors. We show that ATIP3 is a prognostic marker for overall survival among patients with breast cancer. Notably, among metastatic tumors, low ATIP3 levels associate with decreased survival of the patients. By using a well-defined experimental mouse model of cancer metastasis, we show that ATIP3 expression delays the time-course of metastatic progression and limits the number and size of metastases in vivo. In functional studies, ATIP3 silencing increases breast cancer cell migration, whereas ATIP3 expression significantly reduces cell motility and directionality. We report here that ATIP3 is a potent microtubule-stabilizing protein whose depletion increases microtubule dynamics. Our data support the notion that by decreasing microtubule dynamics, ATIP3 controls the ability of microtubule tips to reach the cell cortex during migration, a mechanism that may account for reduced cancer cell motility and metastasis. Of interest, we identify a functional ATIP3 domain that associates with microtubules and recapitulates the effects of ATIP3 on microtubule dynamics, cell proliferation, and migration. Our study is a major step toward the development of new personalized treatments against metastatic breast tumors that have lost ATIP3 expression.

  6. Ovarian Cancer Cell Adhesion/Migration Dynamics on Micro-Structured Laminin Gradients Fabricated by Multiphoton Excited Photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Yu He


    Full Text Available Haptotaxis, i.e., cell migration in response to adhesive gradients, has been previously implicated in cancer metastasis. A better understanding of cell migration dynamics and their regulation could ultimately lead to new drug targets, especially for cancers with poor prognoses, such as ovarian cancer. Haptotaxis has not been well-studied due to the lack of biomimetic, biocompatible models, where, for example, microcontact printing and microfluidics approaches are primarily limited to 2D surfaces and cannot produce the 3D submicron features to which cells respond. Here we used multiphoton excited (MPE phototochemistry to fabricate nano/microstructured gradients of laminin (LN as 2.5D models of the ovarian basal lamina to study the haptotaxis dynamics of a series of ovarian cancer cells. Using these models, we found that increased LN concentration increased migration speed and also alignment of the overall cell morphology and their cytoskeleton along the linear axis of the gradients. Both these metrics were enhanced on LN compared to BSA gradients of the same design, demonstrating the importance of both topographic and ECM cues on the adhesion/migration dynamics. Using two different gradient designs, we addressed the question of the roles of local concentration and slope and found that the specific haptotactic response depends on the cell phenotype and not simply the gradient design. Moreover, small changes in concentration strongly affected the migration properties. This work is a necessary step in studying haptotaxis in more complete 3D models of the tumor microenvironment for ovarian and other cancers.

  7. Cancer stem cell dynamics in tumor progression and metastasis: Is the microenvironment to blame?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessler, Evelyn; Dijkgraaf, Feline E.; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Medema, Jan Paul


    Stem cells are defined by their self-renewal capacity and the ability to give rise to all differentiated progeny necessary for one specific organ. These two characteristics are also inherent in cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be the only subpopulation within a tumor endowed with

  8. A feasibility study of dynamic adaptive radiotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsun, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-6043 (United States); Phillips, Mark H. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-6043 (United States)


    Purpose: The final state of the tumor at the end of a radiotherapy course is dependent on the doses given in each fraction during the treatment course. This study investigates the feasibility of using dynamic adaptive radiotherapy (DART) in treating lung cancers assuming CBCT is available to observe midtreatment tumor states. DART adapts treatment plans using a dynamic programming technique to consider the expected changes of the tumor in the optimization process. Methods: DART is constructed using a stochastic control formalism framework. It minimizes the total expected number of tumor cells at the end of a treatment course, which is equivalent to maximizing tumor control probability, subject to the uncertainty inherent in the tumor response. This formulation allows for nonstationary dose distributions as well as nonstationary fractional doses as needed to achieve a series of optimal plans that are conformal to the tumor over time, i.e., spatiotemporally optimal plans. Sixteen phantom cases with various sizes and locations of tumors and organs-at-risk (OAR) were generated using in-house software. Each case was planned with DART and conventional IMRT prescribing 60 Gy in 30 fractions. The observations of the change in the tumor volume over a treatment course were simulated using a two-level cell population model. Monte Carlo simulations of the treatment course for each case were run to account for uncertainty in the tumor response. The same OAR dose constraints were applied for both methods. The frequency of replanning was varied between 1, 2, 5 (weekly), and 29 times (daily). The final average tumor dose and OAR doses have been compared to quantify the potential dosimetric benefits of DART. Results: The average tumor max, min, mean, and D95 doses using DART relative to these using conventional IMRT were 124.0%–125.2%, 102.1%–114.7%, 113.7%–123.4%, and 102.0%–115.9% (range dependent on the frequency of replanning). The average relative maximum doses for the

  9. Investigation of dynamic morphological changes of cancer cells during photoimmuno therapy (PIT) by low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (United States)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Iwai, Hidenao; Magata, Yasuhiro; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka


    We have reported a new molecular-targeted cancer phototherapy, photoimmunotherapy (PIT), which killed implanted tumors in mice without side-effects. To understand the mechanism of cell killing with PIT, three-dimentional dynamic low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (3D LC-QPM), a device developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K, was used to detect morphologic changes in cancer cells during PIT. 3T3/HER2 cells were incubated with anti-HER2 trastuzumab-IR700 (10 μg/mL, 0.1 μM as IR700) for 24 hours, then, three-dimensionally imaged with the LC-QPM during the exposure of two different optically filtered lights for excitation of IR700 (500-780 nm) and imaging (780-950 nm). For comparison with traditional PDT, the same experiments were performed with Photofrin (10 and 1 μM). Serial changes in the cell membrane were readily visualized on 3D LC-QPM. 3T3/HER2 cells began to swell rapidly after exposure to 500-780 nm light excitation. The cell volume reached a maximum within 1 min after continuous exposure, and then the cells appeared to burst. This finding suggests that PIT damages the cell membrane by photo-reaction inducing an influx of water into the cell causing swelling and bursting of the cells. Interestingly, even after only 5 seconds of light exposure, the cells demonstrated swelling and bursting albeit more slowly, implying that sufficient cumulative damage occurs on the cell membrane to induce lethal damage to cells even at minimal light exposure. Similar but non-selective membrane damage was shown in PDT-treated cells Photofrin. Thus, PIT induces sufficient damage to the cell membrane within 5 seconds to induce rapid necrotic cell death which can be observed directly with 3D LC-QPM. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the biochemical mechanisms underlying PIT-induced cellular membrane damage.

  10. A tunable cancer cell filter using magnetic beads: cellular and fluid dynamic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Bance, Simon; Exl, Lukas; Reichel, Franz; Oezelt, Harald; Schrefl, Thomas


    In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We develop a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics, discrete particle dynamics and fluid dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. For the simulation of blood flow we use the Lattice-Boltzmann method with immersed elastic blood cell models. Parallelization distributes large fluid and particle dynamic simulations over available resources to reduce overall calculation time.

  11. HER2 expression identifies dynamic functional states within circulating breast cancer cells (United States)

    Jordan, Nicole Vincent; Bardia, Aditya; Wittner, Ben S.; Benes, Cyril; Ligorio, Matteo; Zheng, Yu; Yu, Min; Sundaresan, Tilak K.; Licausi, Joseph A.; Desai, Rushil; O’Keefe, Ryan M.; Ebright, Richard Y.; Boukhali, Myriam; Sil, Srinjoy; Onozato, Maristela L.; Iafrate, Anthony J.; Kapur, Ravi; Sgroi, Dennis; Ting, David T.; Toner, Mehmet; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Haas, Wilhelm; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.


    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in women with advanced estrogen receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer acquire a HER2-positive subpopulation following multiple courses of therapy1,2. In contrast to HER2-amplified primary breast cancer, which is highly sensitive to HER2-targeted therapy, the clinical significance of acquired HER2 heterogeneity during the evolution of metastatic breast cancer is unknown. Here, we analyzed CTCs from 19 ER+/HER2− patients, 84% of whom had acquired CTCs expressing HER2. Cultured CTCs maintain discrete HER2+ and HER2− subpopulations: HER2+ CTCs are more proliferative but not addicted to HER2, consistent with activation of multiple signaling pathways. HER2− CTCs show activation of Notch and DNA damage pathways, exhibiting resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy, but sensitivity to Notch inhibition. HER2+ and HER2− CTCs interconvert spontaneously, with cells of one phenotype producing daughters of the opposite within four cell doublings. While HER2+ and HER2− CTCs have comparable tumor initiating potential, differential proliferation favors the HER2+ state, while oxidative stress or cytotoxic chemotherapy enhances transition to the HER2− phenotype. Simultaneous treatment with paclitaxel and Notch inhibitors achieves sustained suppression of tumorigenesis in orthotopic CTC-derived tumor models. Together, these results point to distinct yet interconverting phenotypes within patient-derived CTCs, contributing to progression of breast cancer and acquisition of drug resistance. PMID:27556950

  12. High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo Dynamic Therapy in 3D Cell Cultures (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, 3D sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation cancer spheres within a 2 cm by 2 cm core area, (2) culture spheres for more than 2 weeks, and (3) allow the retrieval of spheres. Using the presented platform, we have successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and 3D cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells.

  13. Taming the Trojan horse: optimizing dynamic carrier cell/oncolytic virus systems for cancer biotherapy. (United States)

    Power, A T; Bell, J C


    Live cells offer unique advantages as vehicles for systemic oncolytic virus (OV) delivery. Recent studies from our laboratory and others have shown that virus-infected cells can serve as Trojan horse vehicles to evade antiviral mechanisms encountered in the bloodstream, prevent uptake by off-target tissues and act as microscale factories to produce OV upon arrival in tumor beds. However to be employed effectively, OV-infected cells are best viewed as dynamic biological systems rather than static therapeutic agents. The time-dependent processes of infection and in vivo cell trafficking will inevitably vary depending on which particular OV is being delivered, as well as the type of carrier cells (CC) employed. Understanding these parameters with respect to each unique CC/OV combination will therefore be required in order to effectively evaluate and harness their potential in preclinical study. In the following review, we discuss how early studies of OV delivery led us to investigate the use of cell carriers in our laboratory, and the approaches we are currently undertaking to compare the dynamics of different CC/OV systems. On the basis of these studies and others it is apparent that the success of any cell-based system for OV delivery rests upon the coordinated timing of three sequential phases--(1) ex vivo loading, (2) stealth delivery and (3) virus production at the tumor site. While at the current time, the timing of these processes are coupled to the natural cycle of infection and in vivo trafficking properties innate to each cell virus system, a quantitative delineation of their dynamics will lay the foundation for engineering CC/OV biotherapeutic systems that can be clinically deployed in a highly directed and controlled manner.

  14. Monitoring Dynamic Interactions between Breast Cancer Cells and Human Bone Tissue in a Co-Culture Model (United States)

    Contag, Christopher H.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Bammer, Marie C.; Hardy, Jonathan W.; Schmidt, Tobi L.; Maloney, William J.; King, Bonnie L.


    Purpose Bone is a preferential site of breast cancer metastasis and models are needed to study this process at the level of the microenvironment. We have used bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and multiplex biomarker immunoassays to monitor dynamic breast cancer cell behaviors in co-culture with human bone tissue. Procedures Femur tissue fragments harvested from hip replacement surgeries were co-cultured with luciferase-positive MDA-MB-231-fLuc cells. BLI was performed to quantify breast cell division and track migration relative to bone tissue. Breast cell colonization of bone tissues was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Biomarkers in co-culture supernatants were profiled with MILLIPLEX® immunoassays. Results BLI demonstrated increased MDA-MB-231-fLuc proliferation (pbones, and revealed breast cell migration toward bone. Immunohistochemistry illustrated MDA-MB-231-fLuc colonization of bone, and MILLIPLEX® profiles of culture supernatants suggested breast/bone crosstalk. Conclusions Breast cell behaviors that facilitate metastasis occur reproducibly in human bone tissue co-cultures and can be monitored and quantified using BLI and multiplex immunoassays. PMID:24008275

  15. Investigation of Energy Transfer Dynamics Between Target Contrast Agents and Prostate Cancer Cells Using Ultrafast Spectroscopy (United States)


    Res., 49, 4941 - 4944 (1989). 22. George D. Birkmayer, M.D., Ph.D. “The role of NADH in cancer therapy ”, an in 4T1 cel vs. deprivatio and 67NR ce ctivity. In aer ate synthes -fold faster sy 1 and 67NR h said change n metastatic dropping whe se...metabolic er Center Su ell Cycle 200 . NCER CEL ed States significantly im on-metastatic itro, and (b) microenviron (2,3)), could ew therapies . tigate

  16. Transformations in plasma membranes of cancerous cells and resulting consequences for cation insertion studied with molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Klähn, Marco; Zacharias, Martin


    Structural and energetic transformations in the plasma membrane of a cancerous cell are investigated together with related consequences for the insertion of small cationic compounds. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed with an empirical force field on two membrane models that represent the membrane of a cancerous cell (M-Cancer) and of a healthy cell (M-Eukar), respectively. An eight-fold increase of negatively charged phosphatidylserine in the external membrane layer as well as a reduction of cholesterol concentration by half is taken into account to describe the membrane transformation. Three additional reference membranes are prepared and consist of pure phosphatidylcholine (M-PC), where 20% is replaced with phosphatidylserine (M-PC0.8S0.2), and where 34% is replaced with cholesterol (M-PC0.66Ch0.34), respectively. Moreover, the free energy released by inserting octadecylmethylimidazolium (OMIM(+)), a cation found in a class of common ionic liquids, into M-Eukar, M-Cancer as well as into the three reference model membranes is derived by applying thermodynamic integration. We find that the presence of serine improves the solvation of the membrane through favorable electrostatic interactions with solvated sodium ions, where a significant number of sodium ions are capable of penetrating the upper polar layer of the membrane. However, the insertion free energy of OMIM(+) does not seem to be influenced by serine in the membrane. Furthermore, a significant serine induced structural reorganization of the membrane is not observed. In contrast, a reduction of cholesterol in the membrane models leads to smaller lipid surface densities, thinner membranes as well as less ordered and less stretched lipids as expected. We also observe that cholesterol reduction leads to a rougher membrane surface and an increased solvent accessibility of the hydrophobic membrane core. Membrane insertion of OMIM(+) becomes significantly more favorable in the absence of cholesterol

  17. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine. (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo


    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  18. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness (United States)

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng


    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion.

  19. Influence of dynamic flow environment on nanoparticle-protein corona: From protein patterns to uptake in cancer cells. (United States)

    Palchetti, Sara; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Barbera, Giorgia La; Chiozzi, Riccardo Zenezini; Digiacomo, Luca; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Caracciolo, Giulio; Laganà, Aldo


    The fast growing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in biotechnology and biomedicine raises concerns about human health and the environment. When introduced in physiological milieus, NPs adsorb biomolecules (especially proteins) forming the so-called protein corona (PC). As it is the PC that mostly interacts with biological systems, it represents a major element of the NPs' biological identity with impact on nanotoxicology, nanosafety and targeted delivery of nanomedicines. To date, NP-protein interactions have been largely investigated in vitro, but this condition is far from mimicking the dynamic nature of physiological environments. Here we investigate the effect of shear stress on PC by exposing lipid NPs with different surface chemistry (either unmodified and PEGylated) to circulating fetal bovine serum (FBS). PC formed upon in vitro incubation was used as a reference. We demonstrate that PC is significantly influenced by exposure to dynamic flow and that changes in PC composition are dependent on both exposure time and NP's surface chemistry. Notably, alterations induced by dynamic flow affected cellular uptake of lipid NPs in both human cervical cancer (HeLa) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor Delineation and Quantitative Assessment of Glucose Metabolic Rate within Histologic Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Using Dynamic 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, T.W.H.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Visser, E.P.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Looijen-Salamon, M.G.; Visvikis, D.; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.; Bussink, J.; Vriens, D.


    Purpose To assess whether dynamic fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has added value over static 18F-FDG PET for tumor delineation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) radiation therapy planning by using pathology volumes as the reference standard and to

  1. PI(3,4)P2 plays critical roles in the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Fukumoto, Miki; Ijuin, Takeshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi


    Phosphoinositides play pivotal roles in the regulation of cancer cell phenotypes. Among them, phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2 ) localizes to the invadopodia, and positively regulates tumor cell invasion. In this study, we examined the effect of PI(3,4)P2 on focal adhesion dynamics in MDA-MB-231 basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SHIP2, a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphatase (PIP3 ) 5-phosphatase that generates PI(3,4)P2 , in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, induced the development of focal adhesions and cell spreading, leading to the suppression of invasion. In contrast, knockdown of PTEN, a 3-phosphatase that de-phosphorylates PIP3 and PI(3,4)P2 , induced cell shrinkage and increased cell invasion. Interestingly, additional knockdown of SHIP2 rescued these phenotypes. Overexpression of the TAPP1 PH domain, which binds to PI(3,4)P2 , and knockdown of Lpd, a downstream effector of PI(3,4)P2 , resulted in similar phenotypes to those induced by SHIP2 knockdown. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of PI(3,4)P2 generation and/or downstream signaling could be useful for inhibiting breast cancer metastasis. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Lung cancer - small cell (United States)

    ... carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Secondhand smoke and lung cancer Normal lungs and alveoli Respiratory system Smoking hazards Bronchoscope References Horn L, Eisenberg R, ...

  3. Cell phones and cancer (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of exposure ...

  4. Proteomic analysis of ovarian cancer cells reveals dynamic processes of protein secretion and shedding of extra-cellular domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M Faça

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the repertoire of secreted and cell surface proteins of tumor cells is relevant to molecular diagnostics, tumor imaging and targeted therapies. We have characterized the cell surface proteome and the proteins released into the extra-cellular milieu of three ovarian cancer cell lines, CaOV3, OVCAR3 and ES2 and of ovarian tumor cells enriched from ascites fluid. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: To differentiate proteins released into the media from protein constituents of media utilized for culture, cells were grown in the presence of [(13C]-labeled lysine. A biotinylation-based approach was used to capture cell surface associated proteins. Our general experimental strategy consisted of fractionation of proteins from individual compartments followed by proteolytic digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, some 6,400 proteins were identified with high confidence across all specimens and fractions. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Protein profiles of the cell lines had substantial similarity to the profiles of human ovarian cancer cells from ascites fluid and included protein markers known to be associated with ovarian cancer. Proteomic analysis indicated extensive shedding from extra-cellular domains of proteins expressed on the cell surface, and remarkably high secretion rates for some proteins (nanograms per million cells per hour. Cell surface and secreted proteins identified by in-depth proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cells may provide new targets for diagnosis and therapy.

  5. Classification of biosensor time series using dynamic time warping: applications in screening cancer cells with characteristic biomarkers (United States)

    Rai, Shesh N; Trainor, Patrick J; Khosravi, Farhad; Kloecker, Goetz; Panchapakesan, Balaji


    The development of biosensors that produce time series data will facilitate improvements in biomedical diagnostics and in personalized medicine. The time series produced by these devices often contains characteristic features arising from biochemical interactions between the sample and the sensor. To use such characteristic features for determining sample class, similarity-based classifiers can be utilized. However, the construction of such classifiers is complicated by the variability in the time domains of such series that renders the traditional distance metrics such as Euclidean distance ineffective in distinguishing between biological variance and time domain variance. The dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm is a sequence alignment algorithm that can be used to align two or more series to facilitate quantifying similarity. In this article, we evaluated the performance of DTW distance-based similarity classifiers for classifying time series that mimics electrical signals produced by nanotube biosensors. Simulation studies demonstrated the positive performance of such classifiers in discriminating between time series containing characteristic features that are obscured by noise in the intensity and time domains. We then applied a DTW distance-based k-nearest neighbors classifier to distinguish the presence/absence of mesenchymal biomarker in cancer cells in buffy coats in a blinded test. Using a train–test approach, we find that the classifier had high sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (81.8%) in differentiating between EpCAM-positive MCF7 cells spiked in buffy coats and those in plain buffy coats. PMID:27942497

  6. Liver Cancer Stem Cells


    Sameh Mikhail; Aiwu Ruth He


    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent research supports that liver cancer is a disease of adult stem cells. From the models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, there may be at least three distinct cell lineages with progenitor properties susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Identification of specific cell surface markers fo...

  7. 6α-Acetoxyanopterine: A Novel Structure Class of Mitotic Inhibitor Disrupting Microtubule Dynamics in Prostate Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Levrier, Claire; Sadowski, Martin C; Rockstroh, Anja; Gabrielli, Brian; Kavallaris, Maria; Lehman, Melanie; Davis, Rohan A; Nelson, Colleen C


    The lack of a cure for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) highlights the urgent need for more efficient drugs to fight this disease. Here, we report the mechanism of action of the natural product 6α-acetoxyanopterine (6-AA) in prostate cancer cells. At low nanomolar doses, this potent cytotoxic alkaloid from the Australian endemic tree Anopterus macleayanus induced a strong accumulation of LNCaP and PC-3 (prostate cancer) cells as well as HeLa (cervical cancer) cells in mitosis, severe mitotic spindle defects, and asymmetric cell divisions, ultimately leading to mitotic catastrophe accompanied by cell death through apoptosis. DNA microarray of 6-AA-treated LNCaP cells combined with pathway analysis identified very similar transcriptional changes when compared with the anticancer drug vinblastine, which included pathways involved in mitosis, microtubule spindle organization, and microtubule binding. Like vinblastine, 6-AA inhibited microtubule polymerization in a cell-free system and reduced cellular microtubule polymer mass. Yet, microtubule alterations that are associated with resistance to microtubule-destabilizing drugs like vinca alkaloids (vinblastine/vincristine) or 2-methoxyestradiol did not confer resistance to 6-AA, suggesting a different mechanism of microtubule interaction. 6-AA is a first-in-class microtubule inhibitor that features the unique anopterine scaffold. This study provides a strong rationale to further develop this novel structure class of microtubule inhibitor for the treatment of malignant disease. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 3-15. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P


    .... Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes...

  9. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a potential biomarker in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: preliminary results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group Study-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mains, Jill Rachel; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Erik Morre


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computer tomography (CT) as a biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group...... not reached, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is a potential biomarker in patients with mRCC. High baseline BF and reductions in BF and BV during early treatment are associated with improved outcome. Large-scale studies are required....

  10. Influence of distributed delays on the dynamics of a generalized immune system cancerous cells interactions model (United States)

    Piotrowska, M. J.; Bodnar, M.


    We present a generalisation of the mathematical models describing the interactions between the immune system and tumour cells which takes into account distributed time delays. For the analytical study we do not assume any particular form of the stimulus function describing the immune system reaction to presence of tumour cells but we only postulate its general properties. We analyse basic mathematical properties of the considered model such as existence and uniqueness of the solutions. Next, we discuss the existence of the stationary solutions and analytically investigate their stability depending on the forms of considered probability densities that is: Erlang, triangular and uniform probability densities separated or not from zero. Particular instability results are obtained for a general type of probability densities. Our results are compared with those for the model with discrete delays know from the literature. In addition, for each considered type of probability density, the model is fitted to the experimental data for the mice B-cell lymphoma showing mean square errors at the same comparable level. For estimated sets of parameters we discuss possibility of stabilisation of the tumour dormant steady state. Instability of this steady state results in uncontrolled tumour growth. In order to perform numerical simulation, following the idea of linear chain trick, we derive numerical procedures that allow us to solve systems with considered probability densities using standard algorithm for ordinary differential equations or differential equations with discrete delays.

  11. Novel Piperazine-based Compounds Inhibit Microtubule Dynamics and Sensitize Colon Cancer Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor-induced Apoptosis* (United States)

    Chopra, Avijeet; Anderson, Amy; Giardina, Charles


    We recently identified a series of mitotically acting piperazine-based compounds that potently increase the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to apoptotic ligands. Here we describe a structure-activity relationship study on this compound class and identify a highly active derivative ((4-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)(2-ethoxyphenyl)methanone), referred to as AK301, the activity of which is governed by the positioning of functional groups on the phenyl and benzoyl rings. AK301 induced mitotic arrest in HT29 human colon cancer cells with an ED50 of ≈115 nm. Although AK301 inhibited growth of normal lung fibroblast cells, mitotic arrest was more pronounced in the colon cancer cells (50% versus 10%). Cells arrested by AK301 showed the formation of multiple microtubule organizing centers with Aurora kinase A and γ-tubulin. Employing in vitro and in vivo assays, tubulin polymerization was found to be slowed (but not abolished) by AK301. In silico molecular docking suggests that AK301 binds to the colchicine-binding domain on β-tubulin, but in a novel orientation. Cells arrested by AK301 expressed elevated levels of TNFR1 on their surface and more readily activated caspases-8, -9, and -3 in the presence of TNF. Relative to other microtubule destabilizers, AK301 was the most active TNF-sensitizing agent and also stimulated Fas- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In summary, we report a new class of mitosis-targeting agents that effectively sensitizes cancer cells to apoptotic ligands. These compounds should help illuminate the role of microtubules in regulating apoptotic ligand sensitivity and may ultimately be useful for developing agents that augment the anti-cancer activities of the immune response. PMID:24338023

  12. [Dosimetric comparison of non-small cell lung cancer treatment with multi fields dynamic-MLC IMRT]. (United States)

    Hao, Longying; Wang, Delin; Cao, Yujuan; Du, Fang; Cao, Feng; Liu, Chengwei


    We compared the dosimetric differences between the target and surrounding tissues/organs of the 5-field and 7,9-field (Hereinafter referred to as F5, F7, F9) treatment plan in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by the dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (dIMRT), to provide reference for clinical application. Using Varian planning system (Eclipse 7.3), we randomly selected 30 cases of patients who received dIMRT to study, all patients were 5, 7, 9 fixed field dynamics intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans to meet the target prescription requirements (95% dose curve enveloping 100% of the PTV), by comparing dose-volume histogram DVH evaluation, and the maximum dose D(max), the minimum dose D(min), and the mean dose D(mean), and conformal index CI of PTV,organs at risk of spinal cord the maximum dose D(max), lung V(5), V(10), V(20), V(30), heart V(30) and esophageal V(50), V(60) of F5,F7 and F9 dIMRT plans,and compare the mu of the three treatment programs. The D(max), D(min) and D(mean) values of F5's PTV are (7 203 ± 128), (5 493 ± 331), (6 900 ± 138) cGy respectively; the D(max), D(min) and D(mean) values of F7's PTV are (7 304 ± 96), (5 526 ± 296), (6 976 ± 130) cGy respectively; and the D(max), D(min) and D(mean) values of F9's PTV are (7 356 ± 54), (5 578 ± 287), (7 019 ± 56) cGy respectively. The data shows that while we increased the numbers of fields, the isodose line surrounding the target area would also promote slightly. The conformity index CI of target became better with the increase of radiation fields. The whole lung V(5) and V(10) slightly became larger with increase of fields and the V(20) showed no significant difference in three models, V(30) of double lungs slightly decreased with the increase of fields. The above date was statistically meaningless (P > 0.05). With the increase of fields esophagus V(50) were reduced by 3% and 5% respectively, V(60) of the esophagus were reduced by 6% and 11%, the average dose reduced by 5% and 10

  13. Basal cell cancer (image) (United States)

    ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure ... is required to watch for new sites of basal cell cancer.

  14. Prostate cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa


    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate gland formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade therapy. The androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG could be used to clarify both the cells of origin and the evolution of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we show that the hypothesis that distinct subtypes of cancer result from abnormalities within specific cell types-the stem cell theory of cancer-may instigate a major paradigm shift in cancer research and therapy. Ultimately, the stem cell theory of cancers will affect how we practice clinical oncology: our diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of prostate and other cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Static micro-array isolation, dynamic time series classification, capture and enumeration of spiked breast cancer cells in blood: the nanotube-CTC chip (United States)

    Khosravi, Farhad; Trainor, Patrick J.; Lambert, Christopher; Kloecker, Goetz; Wickstrom, Eric; Rai, Shesh N.; Panchapakesan, Balaji


    We demonstrate the rapid and label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in blood using nanotube-antibody micro-arrays. 76-element single wall carbon nanotube arrays were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM), Anti-human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (anti-Her2) and non-specific IgG antibodies were functionalized to the surface of the nanotube devices using 1-pyrene-butanoic acid succinimidyl ester. Following device functionalization, blood spiked with SKBR3, MCF7 and MCF10A cells (100/1000 cells per 5 μl per device, 170 elements totaling 0.85 ml of whole blood) were adsorbed on to the nanotube device arrays. Electrical signatures were recorded from each device to screen the samples for differences in interaction (specific or non-specific) between samples and devices. A zone classification scheme enabled the classification of all 170 elements in a single map. A kernel-based statistical classifier for the ‘liquid biopsy’ was developed to create a predictive model based on dynamic time warping series to classify device electrical signals that corresponded to plain blood (control) or SKBR3 spiked blood (case) on anti-Her2 functionalized devices with ˜90% sensitivity, and 90% specificity in capture of 1000 SKBR3 breast cancer cells in blood using anti-Her2 functionalized devices. Screened devices that gave positive electrical signatures were confirmed using optical/confocal microscopy to hold spiked cancer cells. Confocal microscopic analysis of devices that were classified to hold spiked blood based on their electrical signatures confirmed the presence of cancer cells through staining for DAPI (nuclei), cytokeratin (cancer cells) and CD45 (hematologic cells) with single cell sensitivity. We report 55%-100% cancer cell capture yield depending on the active device area for blood adsorption with mean of 62% (˜12 500 captured off 20 000 spiked cells in 0.1 ml

  16. The Use of Living Cancer Cells Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein in the Nucleus and Red Fluorescence Protein in the Cytoplasm for Real-time Confocal Imaging of Chromosome and Cytoplasmic Dynamics During Mitosis. (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Meng; Yamamoto, Norio; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Saji, Shigetoyo; Hoffman, Robert M


    A library of dual-color fluorescent cancer cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP), linked to histone H2B, expressed in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressed in the cytoplasm was previously genetically engineered. The aim of the current study was to use the dual-color cancer cells to visualize chromosome and cytoplasmic dynamics during mitosis. Using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope, a library of dual-color cells from the major cancer types was cultured on plastic. The cells were imaged by confocal microscopy to demonstrate chromosome and cytoplasmic dynamics during mitosis. Nuclear GFP expression enabled visualization of chromosomes behavior, whereas simultaneous cytoplasmic RFP expression enabled visualization of cytoplasmic behavior during mitosis. Thus, total cellular dynamics can be visualized at high resolution, including individual chromosomes in some cases, in living dual-color cells in real time. Dual-color cancer cells expressing H2B-GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm provide unique tools for visualizing subcellular nuclear and cytoplasm dynamics, including the behavior of individual chromosomes during mitosis. The dual-color cells can be used to evaluate chromosomal loss or gain in real time during treatment with a variety of agents or as the cells are selected for increased or decreased malignancy in culture or in vivo. The dual color cells will be a useful tool to discover and evaluate novel strategies for killing cancer cells. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens


    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  18. A MYC-Driven Change in Mitochondrial Dynamics Limits YAP/TAZ Function in Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Cancer. (United States)

    von Eyss, Björn; Jaenicke, Laura A; Kortlever, Roderik M; Royla, Nadine; Wiese, Katrin E; Letschert, Sebastian; McDuffus, Leigh-Anne; Sauer, Markus; Rosenwald, Andreas; Evan, Gerard I; Kempa, Stefan; Eilers, Martin


    In several developmental lineages, an increase in MYC expression drives the transition from quiescent stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. We show that MYC activates a stereotypic transcriptional program of genes involved in cell growth in mammary epithelial cells. This change in gene expression indirectly inhibits the YAP/TAZ co-activators, which maintain the clonogenic potential of these cells. We identify a phospholipase of the mitochondrial outer membrane, PLD6, as the mediator of MYC activity. MYC-dependent growth strains cellular energy resources and stimulates AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). PLD6 alters mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics downstream of MYC. This change activates AMPK, which in turn inhibits YAP/TAZ. Mouse models and human pathological data show that MYC enhances AMPK and suppresses YAP/TAZ activity in mammary tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hurthle Cell Cancer (United States)

    ... breath Hurthle cell cancer Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  20. Basal cell skin cancer (United States)

    Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads. If it is left untreated, it may spread into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone. In these cases, treatment can injure the appearance of the skin.

  1. Endothelial cell-initiated extravasation of cancer cells visualized in zebrafish


    Kanada, Masamitsu; Zhang, Jinyan; Libo YAN; Sakurai, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu


    The extravasation of cancer cells, a key step for distant metastasis, is thought to be initiated by disruption of the endothelial barrier by malignant cancer cells. An endothelial covering-type extravasation of cancer cells in addition to conventional cancer cell invasion-type extravasation was dynamically visualized in a zebrafish hematogenous metastasis model. The inhibition of VEGF-signaling impaired the invasion-type extravasation via inhibition of cancer cell polarization and motility re...

  2. Cancer growth dynamics: stochastic models and noise induced effects (United States)

    Spagnolo, B.; Fiasconaro, A.; Pizzolato, N.; Valenti, D.; Adorno, D. Persano; Caldara, P.; Ochab-Marcinek, A.; Gudowska-Nowak, E.


    In the framework of the Michaelis-Menten (MM) reaction kinetics, we analyze the cancer growth dynamics in the presence of the immune response. We found the coexistence of noise enhanced stability (NES) and resonant activation (RA) phenomena which act in an opposite way with respect to the extinction of the tumor. The role of the stochastic resonance (SR) in the case of weak cancer therapy has been analyzed. The evolutionary dynamics of a system of cancerous cells in a model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is investigated by a Monte Carlo approach. We analyzed the effects of a targeted therapy on the evolutionary dynamics of normal, first-mutant and cancerous cell populations. We show how the patient response to the therapy changes when an high value of the mutation rate from healthy to cancerous cells is present. Our results are in agreement with clinical observations.

  3. Immune Repertoire Characteristics and Dynamics in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao

    The diversity of T and B cells in terms of their receptors is huge in the invertebrate’s immune system, to provide broad protection against the vast diversity of pathogens. Immune repertoire is defined as the sum of total subtypes that makes the organism’s immune system, either T cell receptor...... the experimental and analytical methodologies we developed for immune repertoire analysis. We have devoted extensive efforts on the optimization and evaluation of these pipelines. We then use the tools to investigate the characteristics and dynamic of immune repertoire on both blood and solid cancer. Specifically...

  4. Identification of a Hormone-regulated Dynamic Nuclear Actin Network Associated with Estrogen Receptor α in Human Breast Cancer Cell Nuclei* (United States)

    Ambrosino, Concetta; Tarallo, Roberta; Bamundo, Angela; Cuomo, Danila; Franci, Gianluigi; Nassa, Giovanni; Paris, Ornella; Ravo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Zambrano, Nicola; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Jänne, Olli A.; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A.; Cicatiello, Luigi; Weisz, Alessandro


    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a modular protein of the steroid/nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators that upon binding to the hormone undergoes structural changes, resulting in its nuclear translocation and docking to specific chromatin sites. In the nucleus, ERα assembles in multiprotein complexes that act as final effectors of estrogen signaling to the genome through chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, leading to dynamic and coordinated regulation of hormone-responsive genes. Identification of the molecular partners of ERα and understanding their combinatory interactions within functional complexes is a prerequisite to define the molecular basis of estrogen control of cell functions. To this end, affinity purification was applied to map and characterize the ERα interactome in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. MCF-7 cell clones expressing human ERα fused to a tandem affinity purification tag were generated and used to purify native nuclear ER-containing complexes by IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation. Purified complexes were analyzed by two-dimensional DIGE and mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of a ligand-dependent multiprotein complex comprising β-actin, myosins, and several proteins involved in actin filament organization and dynamics and/or known to participate in actin-mediated regulation of gene transcription, chromatin dynamics, and ribosome biogenesis. Time course analyses indicated that complexes containing ERα and actin are assembled in the nucleus early after receptor activation by ligands, and gene knockdown experiments showed that gelsolin and the nuclear isoform of myosin 1c are key determinants for assembly and/or stability of these complexes. Based on these results, we propose that the actin network plays a role in nuclear ERα actions in breast cancer cells, including coordinated regulation of target gene activity, spatial and functional

  5. Identification of a hormone-regulated dynamic nuclear actin network associated with estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cell nuclei. (United States)

    Ambrosino, Concetta; Tarallo, Roberta; Bamundo, Angela; Cuomo, Danila; Franci, Gianluigi; Nassa, Giovanni; Paris, Ornella; Ravo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Zambrano, Nicola; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Jänne, Olli A; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A; Cicatiello, Luigi; Weisz, Alessandro


    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is a modular protein of the steroid/nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators that upon binding to the hormone undergoes structural changes, resulting in its nuclear translocation and docking to specific chromatin sites. In the nucleus, ERalpha assembles in multiprotein complexes that act as final effectors of estrogen signaling to the genome through chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, leading to dynamic and coordinated regulation of hormone-responsive genes. Identification of the molecular partners of ERalpha and understanding their combinatory interactions within functional complexes is a prerequisite to define the molecular basis of estrogen control of cell functions. To this end, affinity purification was applied to map and characterize the ERalpha interactome in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. MCF-7 cell clones expressing human ERalpha fused to a tandem affinity purification tag were generated and used to purify native nuclear ER-containing complexes by IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation. Purified complexes were analyzed by two-dimensional DIGE and mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of a ligand-dependent multiprotein complex comprising beta-actin, myosins, and several proteins involved in actin filament organization and dynamics and/or known to participate in actin-mediated regulation of gene transcription, chromatin dynamics, and ribosome biogenesis. Time course analyses indicated that complexes containing ERalpha and actin are assembled in the nucleus early after receptor activation by ligands, and gene knockdown experiments showed that gelsolin and the nuclear isoform of myosin 1c are key determinants for assembly and/or stability of these complexes. Based on these results, we propose that the actin network plays a role in nuclear ERalpha actions in breast cancer cells, including coordinated regulation of target gene

  6. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans


    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  7. Inflammation and cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei


    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja


    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  9. Alterations of calcium homeostasis in cancer cells. (United States)

    Marchi, Saverio; Pinton, Paolo


    Typical hallmarks of cancer include programmed cell death evasion, uncontrolled cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels can modulate signaling pathways that control a broad range of cellular events, including those important to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Here we discuss how known molecular mediators of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis impact tumor dynamics and how deregulation of major oncogenes and tumor suppressors is tightly associated with Ca(2+) signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial Cell Dynamics Lab (MCDL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microbial Cell Dynamics Laboratory at PNNL enables scientists to study the molecular details of microbes under relevant environmental conditions. The MCDL seeks...

  11. Squamous cell skin cancer (United States)

    ... squamous cell cancer include: Having light-colored skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Long-term, daily sun exposure (such as in people who work outside) Many severe sunburns early in life Older age Having had many x-rays Chemical exposure A weakened immune system, especially in ...

  12. Decoding network dynamics in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linding, Rune


    Biological systems are composed of highly dynamic and interconnected molecular networks that drive biological decision processes. The goal of network biology is to describe, quantify and predict the information flow and functional behaviour of living systems in a formal language and with an accur...... of disease mutations on cellular signaling networks [Creixell et al. Nature Biotechnology 2012, Erler & Linding Cell 2012, Horn et al. Nature Methods 2014]....

  13. Manual for Dynamic Triaxial Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Schmidt; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report is a test report that describes the test setup for a dynamic triaxial cell at the Laboratory for Geotechnique at Aalborg University.......This report is a test report that describes the test setup for a dynamic triaxial cell at the Laboratory for Geotechnique at Aalborg University....

  14. Alcohol and Cancer Stem Cells


    Mei Xu; Jia Luo


    Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and ...

  15. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila


    Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.

  16. Dynamic Nucleosome-Depleted Regions at Androgen Receptor Enhancers in the Absence of Ligand in Prostate Cancer Cells (United States)

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia; Lai, John; Berman, Benjamin P.; Frenkel, Baruch; Jia, Li; Jones, Peter A.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.


    Nucleosome positioning at transcription start sites is known to regulate gene expression by altering DNA accessibility to transcription factors; however, its role at enhancers is poorly understood. We investigated nucleosome positioning at the androgen receptor (AR) enhancers of TMPRSS2, KLK2, and KLK3/PSA in prostate cancer cells. Surprisingly, a population of enhancer modules in androgen-deprived cultures showed nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) in all three loci. Under androgen-deprived conditions, NDRs at the TMPRSS2 enhancer were maintained by the pioneer AR transcriptional collaborator GATA-2. Androgen treatment resulted in AR occupancy, an increased number of enhancer modules with NDRs without changes in footprint width, increased levels of histone H3 acetylation (AcH3), and dimethylation (H3K4me2) at nucleosomes flanking the NDRs. Our data suggest that, in the absence of ligand, AR enhancers exist in an equilibrium in which a percentage of modules are occupied by nucleosomes while others display NDRs. We propose that androgen treatment leads to the disruption of the equilibrium toward a nucleosome-depleted state, rather than to enhancer de novo “remodeling.” This allows the recruitment of histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers, and ultimately gene activation. The “receptive” state described here could help explain AR signaling activation under very low ligand concentrations. PMID:21969603

  17. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Dyall


    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis is becoming more widely accepted as a model for carcinogenesis. Tumours are heterogeneous both at the molecular and cellular level, containing a small population of cells that possess highly tumourigenic “stem-cell” properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs, or tumour-initiating cells, have the ability to self-renew, generate xenografts reminiscent of the primary tumour that they were derived from, and are chemoresistant. The characterisation of the CSC population within a tumour that drives its growth could provide novel target therapeutics against these cells specifically, eradicating the cancer completely. There have been several reports describing the isolation of putative cancer stem cell populations in several cancers; however, no defined set of markers has been identified that conclusively characterises “stem-like” cancer cells. This paper highlights the current experimental approaches that have been used in the field and discusses their limitations, with specific emphasis on the identification and characterisation of the CSC population in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  18. Cancer treatments transform residual cancer cell phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harless William W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiologic wound repair and tissue regeneration are associated with distinct cellular behaviors triggered by tissue damage. Normally quiescent stem cells proliferate to regenerate damaged tissue, while relatively immobile epithelial cells can transform into a motile, tissue invasive phenotype through a partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These distinct cellular behaviors may have particular relevance to how cancer cells can be predicted to behave after treatments damaging a tumor. Presentation of the hypothesis Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy trigger highly conserved wound healing pathways that: (1 facilitate the phenotypic transformation of surviving cancer cells into a highly mobile, metastatic phenotype through an EMT or epithelial-mesenchymal transition and (2 induce residual cancer stem cell proliferation. Testing the hypothesis Tissue damage caused by cancer treatments will trigger the release of distinct cytokines with established roles in physiologic wound healing, EMT induction, and stem cell activation. They will be released rapidly after treatment and detectable in the patient's blood. Careful histologic evaluation of cancerous tissue before and after treatment will reveal cellular changes suggestive of EMT induction (down regulation of cytokeratin expression and cancer stem cell enrichment (stem cell markers upregulated. Implications of the hypothesis Cancer cells surviving treatment will be more capable of metastasis and resistant to conventional therapies than the pre-treatment population of cancer cells. These changes will develop rapidly after treatment and, in distinct contrast to selection pressures fostering such changes, be triggered by highly conserved wound repair signals released after tissue damage. This pattern of tissue (tumor repair may be amenable to treatment intervention at the time it is upregulated.

  19. Stem cells and solid cancers. (United States)

    McDonald, Stuart A C; Graham, Trevor A; Schier, Stefanie; Wright, Nicholas A; Alison, Malcolm R


    Recently, there have been significant advances in our knowledge of stem cells found in tissues that can develop solid tumours. In particular, novel stem cell markers have been identified for the first time identifying multipotential cells: a required characteristic of a stem cell. The scarcity of cancer stem cells has been questioned. Current dogma states that they are rare, but novel research has suggested that this may not be the case. Here, we review the latest literature on stem cells, particularly cancer stem cells within solid tumours. We discuss current thinking on how stem cells develop into cancer stem cells and how they protect themselves from doing so and do they express unique markers that can be used to detect stem cells. We attempt to put into perspective these latest advances in stem cell biology and their potential for cancer therapy.

  20. Dynamic changes in quality of life after three first-line therapies for EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. (United States)

    Yang, Szu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lai, Wu-Wei; Chang, Sheng-Mao; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Su, Wu-Chou; Wang, Jung-Der


    Three different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved as first-line therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with similar overall survival. This study determined dynamic changes in quality of life (QoL) for patients using these therapies after controlling for potential confounders. From 2011 to 2016, we prospectively assessed the utility values and QoL scores of patients using the EuroQol five-dimension and World Health Organization Quality-of-Life - Brief questionnaires. QoL functions after initiation of treatment were estimated using a kernel-smoothing method. Dynamic changes in major determinants were repeatedly assessed for constructing mixed models. A total of 344 patients were enrolled, with 934 repeated assessments. After controlling for performance status, disease progression, EGFR mutation subtype and other confounders, the mixed models showed significantly lower QoL scores for afatinib versus gefitinib in the physical, psychological and social domains, and 10 facets. The differences seemed to appear 10 months after initiation of treatment. In contrast, there was no significant difference between erlotinib and gefitinib in the scores of all domains and facets. QoL in patients receiving afatinib seemed to be lower than in those receiving gefitinib. Since the sample sizes in this study were relatively small, more studies are warranted to corroborate these results.

  1. Tumor Delineation and Quantitative Assessment of Glucose Metabolic Rate within Histologic Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Using Dynamic18F Fluorodeoxyglucose PET. (United States)

    Meijer, Tineke W H; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Visser, Eric P; Oyen, Wim J G; Looijen-Salamon, Monika G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Verhagen, Ad F T M; Bussink, Johan; Vriens, Dennis


    Purpose To assess whether dynamic fluorine 18 ( 18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has added value over static 18 F-FDG PET for tumor delineation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) radiation therapy planning by using pathology volumes as the reference standard and to compare pharmacokinetic rate constants of 18 F-FDG metabolism, including regional variation, between NSCLC histologic subtypes. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board. Patients gave written informed consent. In this prospective observational study, 1-hour dynamic 18 F-FDG PET/computed tomographic examinations were performed in 35 patients (36 resectable NSCLCs) between 2009 and 2014. Static and parametric images of glucose metabolic rate were obtained to determine lesion volumes by using three delineation strategies. Pathology volume was calculated from three orthogonal dimensions (n = 32). Whole tumor and regional rate constants and blood volume fraction (V B ) were computed by using compartment modeling. Results Pathology volumes were larger than PET volumes (median difference, 8.7-25.2 cm 3 ; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P metabolic rate and 18 F-FDG phosphorylation rate were higher in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in adenocarcinoma (AC), whereas V B was lower (Mann-Whitney U test or t test, P = .003, P = .036, and P = .019, respectively). Glucose metabolic rate, 18 F-FDG phosphorylation rate, and V B were less heterogeneous in AC than in SCC (Friedman analysis of variance). Conclusion Parametric images are not superior to static images for NSCLC delineation. FLAB-based segmentation on static 18 F-FDG PET images is in best agreement with pathology volume and could be useful for NSCLC autocontouring. Differences in glycolytic rate and V B between SCC and AC are relevant for research in targeting agents and radiation therapy dose escalation. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  2. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy. (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank


    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min


    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research. PMID:22507219

  4. Second Cancers After Fractionated Radiotherapy: Stochastic Population Dynamics Effects (United States)

    Sachs, Rainer K.; Shuryak, Igor; Brenner, David; Fakir, Hatim; Hahnfeldt, Philip


    When ionizing radiation is used in cancer therapy it can induce second cancers in nearby organs. Mainly due to longer patient survival times, these second cancers have become of increasing concern. Estimating the risk of solid second cancers involves modeling: because of long latency times, available data is usually for older, obsolescent treatment regimens. Moreover, modeling second cancers gives unique insights into human carcinogenesis, since the therapy involves administering well characterized doses of a well studied carcinogen, followed by long-term monitoring. In addition to putative radiation initiation that produces pre-malignant cells, inactivation (i.e. cell killing), and subsequent cell repopulation by proliferation can be important at the doses relevant to second cancer situations. A recent initiation/inactivation/proliferation (IIP) model characterized quantitatively the observed occurrence of second breast and lung cancers, using a deterministic cell population dynamics approach. To analyze ifradiation-initiated pre-malignant clones become extinct before full repopulation can occur, we here give a stochastic version of this I I model. Combining Monte Carlo simulations with standard solutions for time-inhomogeneous birth-death equations, we show that repeated cycles of inactivation and repopulation, as occur during fractionated radiation therapy, can lead to distributions of pre-malignant cells per patient with variance >> mean, even when pre-malignant clones are Poisson-distributed. Thus fewer patients would be affected, but with a higher probability, than a deterministic model, tracking average pre-malignant cell numbers, would predict. Our results are applied to data on breast cancers after radiotherapy for Hodgkin disease. The stochastic IIP analysis, unlike the deterministic one, indicates: a) initiated, pre-malignant cells can have a growth advantage during repopulation, not just during the longer tumor latency period that follows; b) weekend

  5. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua


    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  6. Lung cancer - non-small cell (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Horn L, Eisenberg R, Gius D, et al. Cancer of the lung. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan ...

  7. Mechanotransduction in cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Hao, Jin; Zhang, Yueling; Ye, Rui; Zheng, Yingcheng; Zhao, Zhihe; Li, Juan


    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept, which arose about a decade ago, proposes that tumor growth is sustained by a subpopulation of highly malignant cells. These cells, termed CSCs, are capable of extensive self-renewal that contributes to metastasis and treatment resistance. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target CSCs should be developed for improving outcomes of cancer patients. Recent progress has highlighted the importance of physical properties of the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction pathway in cancer cells during cancer development. On the other hand, the significance of CXCR1, an upstream signal of FAK/PI3K/Akt has been revealed in CSCs. FAK/PI3K/Akt is a key signal mediator in mechanotransduction pathway. Therefore, mechanotransduction could be a new target for CSCs, and would be an innovative way to treat cancer by inhibiting FAK/PI3K/Akt. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Nanotechniques Inactivate Cancer Stem Cells (United States)

    Goltsev, Anatoliy N.; Babenko, Natalya N.; Gaevskaya, Yulia A.; Bondarovich, Nikolay A.; Dubrava, Tatiana G.; Ostankov, Maksim V.; Chelombitko, Olga V.; Malyukin, Yuriy V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Kavok, Nataliya S.


    One of the tasks of current oncology is identification of cancer stem cells and search of therapeutic means capable of their specific inhibition. The paper presents the data on phenotype characteristics of Ehrlich carcinoma cells as convenient and easy-to-follow model of tumor growth. The evidence of cancer stem cells as a part of Ehrlich carcinoma and significance of CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations in maintaining the growth of this type of tumor were demonstrated. A high (tenfold) tumorigenic activity of the Ehrlich carcinoma CD44+ cells if compared to CD44- cells was proven. In this pair of comparison, the CD44+ cells had a higher potential of generating in peritoneal cavity of CD44high, CD44+CD24-, CD44+CD24+ cell subpopulations, highlighting the presence of cancer stem cells in a pool of CD44+ cells.

  9. Cancer stem cell markers in common cancers - therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonisch, Thomas; Wiechec, Emilia; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine


    Rapid advance in the cancer stem cell field warrants optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies within the next 2-3 decades. Below, we characterize and compare the specific markers that are present on stem cells, cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in selected tissues...

  10. SU-F-T-674: In Vitro Study of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Photo Dynamic Therapy in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Wang, B; Gupta, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PTD) is a promising cancer treatment modality. 5-sminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a clinically approved photosensitizer. Here we studied the effect of 5-ALA administration with irradiation on several cell lines in vitro. Methods: Human head and neck (FaDu), lung (A549) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells (104/well) were seeded overnight in 96-well plates (Figure 1). 5-ALA at a range from 0.1 to 30.0mg/ml was added to confluent cells 3h before irradiation in 100ul of culture medium. 15MV photon beams from a Siemens Artiste linear accelerator were used to deliver 2 Gy dose in one fraction to the cells. Cell viability was evaluated by WST1 assay. The development of orange color was measured 3h after the addition of WST-1 reagent at 450nm on an Envision Multilabel Reader (Figure 2) and directly correlated to cell number. Control, untreated cells were incubated without 5-ALA. The experiment was performed twice for each cell line. Results: The cell viability rates for the head and neck cancer line are shown in Figure 3. FaDu cell viability was reduced significantly to 36.5% (5-ALA) and 18.1% (5-ALA + RT) only at the highest concentration of 5-ALA, 30mg/ml. This effect was observed in neither A549, nor LNCaP cell line. No toxicity was detected at lower 5-ALA concentrations. Conclusion: Application of 5-ALA and subsequent PDT was found to be cytotoxic at the highest dose of the photosensitizer used in the FaDu head and neck cell line, and their effect was synergistic. Further efforts are necessary to study the potential therapeutic effects of 5-ALA PTD in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest 5-ALA may improve the efficacy of radiotherapy by acting as a radiomediator in head and neck cancer.

  11. Population genetics of cancer cell clones: possible implications of cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naugler Christopher T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population dynamics of the various clones of cancer cells existing within a tumour is complex and still poorly understood. Cancer cell clones can be conceptualized as sympatric asexual species, and as such, the application of theoretical population genetics as it pertains to asexual species may provide additional insights. Results The number of generations of tumour cells within a cancer has been estimated at a minimum of 40, but high cancer cell mortality rates suggest that the number of cell generations may actually be in the hundreds. Such a large number of generations would easily allow natural selection to drive clonal evolution assuming that selective advantages of individual clones are within the range reported for free-living animal species. Tumour cell clonal evolution could also be driven by variation in the intrinsic rates of increase of different clones or by genetic drift. In every scenario examined, the presence of cancer stem cells would require lower selection pressure or less variation in intrinsic rates of increase. Conclusions The presence of cancer stem cells may result in more rapid clonal evolution. Specific predictions from theoretical population genetics may lead to a greater understanding of this process.

  12. DYNAMICS OF NERVE CELLS (United States)

    Garrey, Walter E.


    1. It is possible to determine by the colorimetric method the rate of production of carbon dioxide by the cardiac ganglion of Limulus. 2. Carbon dioxide formation in the cardiac ganglion was found to run parallel to the rate of heart beat for different temperatures. 3. The conclusion seems justified that the rate of cardiac rhythm of Limulus depends upon a chemical reaction in the nerve cells of the cardiac ganglion and that this reaction is associated with the production of carbon dioxide since the rate of beat and the rate of CO2 production are similarly affected by changes in temperature. PMID:19871847

  13. Cancer stem cells: a minor cancer subpopulation that redefines global cancer features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eEnderling


    Full Text Available In recent years cancer stem cells (CSCs have been hypothesized to comprise only a minor subpopulation in solid tumors that drives tumor initiation, development and metastasis; the so-called cancer stem cell hypothesis. While a seemingly trivial statement about numbers, much is put at stake. If true, the conclusions of many studies of cancer cell populations could be challenged, as the bulk assay methods upon which they depend have, by and large, taken for granted the notion that a ‘typical’ cell of the population possesses the attributes of a cell capable of perpetuating the cancer, i.e., a CSC. In support of the CSC hypothesis, populations enriched for so-called ‘tumor-initiating’ cells have demonstrated a corresponding increase in tumorigenicity as measured by dilution assay, although estimates have varied widely as to what the fractional contribution of tumor-initiating cells is in any given population. Some have taken this variability to suggest the CSC fraction may be nearly 100% after all, countering the CSC hypothesis, and that there are simply assay-dependent error rates in our ability to ‘reconfirm’ CSC status at the cell level. To explore this controversy more quantitatively, we developed a simple theoretical model of cancer stem cell-driven tumor growth dynamics. Assuming CSC and non-stem cancer cell subpopulations coexist to some degree, we evaluated the impact of an environmentally-dependent cancer stem cell symmetric division probability and a non-stem cancer cell proliferation capacity on tumor progression and morphology. Our model predicts, as expected, that the frequency of CSC divisions that are symmetric highly influences the frequency of CSCs in the population, but goes on to predict the two frequencies can be widely divergent, and that spatial constraints will tend to increase the CSC fraction over time.

  14. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells


    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki


    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but...

  15. Characterising Castrate Tolerant Prostate Cancer Cells




    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disease in aging males. This thesis explores prostate cancer cells that escape current therapy and give rise to end-stage disease. Using sophisticated experimental approaches, this important cancer cell population was identified and characterised in human prostate cancer tissues.  Our discoveries will eventually lead to improved cancer treatments for men with prostate cancer.

  16. Evaluation of phosphopeptide enrichment strategies for quantitative TMT analysis of complex network dynamics in cancer-associated cell signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Lombardi


    Full Text Available Defining alterations in signalling pathways in normal and malignant cells is becoming a major field in proteomics. A number of different approaches have been established to isolate, identify and quantify phosphorylated proteins and peptides. In the current report, a comparison between SCX prefractionation versus an antibody based approach, both coupled to TiO2 enrichment and applied to TMT labelled cellular lysates, is described. The antibody strategy was more complete for enriching phosphopeptides and allowed the identification of a large set of proteins known to be phosphorylated (715 protein groups with a minimum number of not previously known phosphorylated proteins (2.

  17. Reprogramming of human cancer cells to pluripotency for models of cancer progression (United States)

    Kim, Jungsun; Zaret, Kenneth S


    The ability to study live cells as they progress through the stages of cancer provides the opportunity to discover dynamic networks underlying pathology, markers of early stages, and ways to assess therapeutics. Genetically engineered animal models of cancer, where it is possible to study the consequences of temporal-specific induction of oncogenes or deletion of tumor suppressors, have yielded major insights into cancer progression. Yet differences exist between animal and human cancers, such as in markers of progression and response to therapeutics. Thus, there is a need for human cell models of cancer progression. Most human cell models of cancer are based on tumor cell lines and xenografts of primary tumor cells that resemble the advanced tumor state, from which the cells were derived, and thus do not recapitulate disease progression. Yet a subset of cancer types have been reprogrammed to pluripotency or near-pluripotency by blastocyst injection, by somatic cell nuclear transfer and by induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technology. The reprogrammed cancer cells show that pluripotency can transiently dominate over the cancer phenotype. Diverse studies show that reprogrammed cancer cells can, in some cases, exhibit early-stage phenotypes reflective of only partial expression of the cancer genome. In one case, reprogrammed human pancreatic cancer cells have been shown to recapitulate stages of cancer progression, from early to late stages, thus providing a model for studying pancreatic cancer development in human cells where previously such could only be discerned from mouse models. We discuss these findings, the challenges in developing such models and their current limitations, and ways that iPS reprogramming may be enhanced to develop human cell models of cancer progression. PMID:25712212

  18. Single cancer cell analysis on a chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yoon Sun


    Cancer cells in blood may represent “a real time liquid biopsy” through the interrogation of single cancer cells thereby determining the outspread of their heterogeneity and guiding therapy. In this thesis, we focused on single cancer cell analysis downstream of the isolation of cancer cells from

  19. Quantitative analysis of ChIP-seq data uncovers dynamic and sustained H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modulation in cancer cells under hypoxia. (United States)

    Adriaens, Michiel E; Prickaerts, Peggy; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; van den Beucken, Twan; Dahlmans, Vivian E H; Eijssen, Lars M; Beck, Timothy; Wouters, Bradly G; Voncken, Jan Willem; Evelo, Chris T A


    A comprehensive assessment of the epigenetic dynamics in cancer cells is the key to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer and to improving cancer diagnostics, prognostics and treatment. By combining genome-wide ChIP-seq epigenomics and microarray transcriptomics, we studied the effects of oxygen deprivation and subsequent reoxygenation on histone 3 trimethylation of lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in a breast cancer cell line, serving as a model for abnormal oxygenation in solid tumors. A priori, epigenetic markings and gene expression levels not only are expected to vary greatly between hypoxic and normoxic conditions, but also display a large degree of heterogeneity across the cell population. Where traditionally ChIP-seq data are often treated as dichotomous data, the model and experiment here necessitate a quantitative, data-driven analysis of both datasets. We first identified genomic regions with sustained epigenetic markings, which provided a sample-specific reference enabling quantitative ChIP-seq data analysis. Sustained H3K27me3 marking was located around centromeres and intergenic regions, while sustained H3K4me3 marking is associated with genes involved in RNA binding, translation and protein transport and localization. Dynamic marking with both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 (hypoxia-induced bivalency) was found in CpG-rich regions at loci encoding factors that control developmental processes, congruent with observations in embryonic stem cells. In silico -identified epigenetically sustained and dynamic genomic regions were confirmed through ChIP-PCR in vitro, and obtained results are corroborated by published data and current insights regarding epigenetic regulation.

  20. Basal/HER2 breast carcinomas: integrating molecular taxonomy with cancer stem cell dynamics to predict primary resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin). (United States)

    Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufí, Silvia; Moreno, José Manuel; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Urruticoechea, Ander; Martín, Ángel G; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Menendez, Javier A


    High rates of inherent primary resistance to the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) are frequent among HER2 gene-amplified breast carcinomas in both metastatic and adjuvant settings. The clinical efficacy of trastuzumab is highly correlated with its ability to specifically and efficiently target HER2-driven populations of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Intriguingly, many of the possible mechanisms by which cancer cells escape trastuzumab involve many of the same biomarkers that have been implicated in the biology of CS-like tumor-initiating cells. In the traditional, one-way hierarchy of CSCs in which all cancer cells descend from special self-renewing CSCs, HER2-positive CSCs can occur solely by self-renewal. Therefore, by targeting CSC self-renewal and resistance, trastuzumab is expected to induce tumor shrinkage and further reduce breast cancer recurrence rates when used alongside traditional therapies. In a new, alternate model, more differentiated non-stem cancer cells can revert to trastuzumab-refractory, CS-like cells via the activation of intrinsic or microenvironmental paths-to-stemness, such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Alternatively, stochastic transitions of trastuzumab-responsive CSCs might also give rise to non-CSC cellular states that lack major attributes of CSCs and, therefore, can remain "hidden" from trastuzumab activity. Here, we hypothesize that a better understanding of the CSC/non-CSC social structure within HER2-overexpressing breast carcinomas is critical for trastuzumab-based treatment decisions in the clinic. First, we decipher the biological significance of CSC features and the EMT on the molecular effects and efficacy of trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Second, we reinterpret the genetic heterogeneity that differentiates trastuzumab-responders from non-responders in terms of CSC cellular states. Finally, we propose that novel predictive approaches aimed at better forecasting

  1. Engineering chemically modified viruses for prostate cancer cell recognition. (United States)

    Mohan, K; Weiss, G A


    Specific detection of circulating tumor cells and characterization of their aggressiveness could improve cancer diagnostics and treatment. Metastasis results from such tumor cells, and causes the majority of cancer deaths. Chemically modified viruses could provide an inexpensive and efficient approach to detect tumor cells and quantitate their cell surface biomarkers. However, non-specific adhesion between the cell surface receptors and the virus surface presents a challenge. This report describes wrapping the virus surface with different PEG architectures, including as fusions to oligolysine, linkers, spacers and scaffolded ligands. The reported PEG wrappers can reduce by >75% the non-specific adhesion of phage to cell surfaces. Dynamic light scattering verified the non-covalent attachment by the reported wrappers as increased sizes of the virus particles. Further modifications resulted in specific detection of prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA, a key prostate cancer biomarker. The approach allowed quantification of PSMA levels on the cell surface, and could distinguish more aggressive forms of the disease.

  2. Cancer stem cell: fundamental experimental pathological concepts and updates. (United States)

    Islam, Farhadul; Qiao, Bin; Smith, Robert A; Gopalan, Vinod; Lam, Alfred K-Y


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of cancer cells which play a key role in predicting the biological aggressiveness of cancer due to its ability of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation (stemness). The CSC model is a dynamic one with a functional subpopulation of cancer cells rather than a stable cell population responsible for tumour regeneration. Hypotheses regarding the origins of CSCs include (1) malignant transformation of normal stem cells; (2) mature cancer cell de-differentiation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and (3) induced pluripotent cancer cells. Surprisingly, the cancer stem cell hypothesis originated in the late nineteenth century and the existence of haematopoietic stem cells was demonstrated a century later, demonstrating that the concept was possible. In the last decade, CSCs have been identified and isolated in different cancers. The hallmark traits of CSCs include their heterogeneity, interaction with microenvironments and plasticity. Understanding these basic concepts of CSCs is important for translational applications using CSCs in the management of patients with cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind; Meijer, Coby; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Timens, Wim; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.


    The prognostic value of markers of cancer stem cells and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in small cell lung cancer is not known. We retrospectively studied these markers in the biopsy tissue of patients with small cell lung cancer and correlated them with overall survival and the strongest

  4. Evolution and phenotypic selection of cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Poleszczuk


    Full Text Available Cells of different organs at different ages have an intrinsic set of kinetics that dictates their behavior. Transformation into cancer cells will inherit these kinetics that determine initial cell and tumor population progression dynamics. Subject to genetic mutation and epigenetic alterations, cancer cell kinetics can change, and favorable alterations that increase cellular fitness will manifest themselves and accelerate tumor progression. We set out to investigate the emerging intratumoral heterogeneity and to determine the evolutionary trajectories of the combination of cell-intrinsic kinetics that yield aggressive tumor growth. We develop a cellular automaton model that tracks the temporal evolution of the malignant subpopulation of so-called cancer stem cells(CSC, as these cells are exclusively able to initiate and sustain tumors. We explore orthogonal cell traits, including cell migration to facilitate invasion, spontaneous cell death due to genetic drift after accumulation of irreversible deleterious mutations, symmetric cancer stem cell division that increases the cancer stem cell pool, and telomere length and erosion as a mitotic counter for inherited non-stem cancer cell proliferation potential. Our study suggests that cell proliferation potential is the strongest modulator of tumor growth. Early increase in proliferation potential yields larger populations of non-stem cancer cells(CC that compete with CSC and thus inhibit CSC division while a reduction in proliferation potential loosens such inhibition and facilitates frequent CSC division. The sub-population of cancer stem cells in itself becomes highly heterogeneous dictating population level dynamics that vary from long-term dormancy to aggressive progression. Our study suggests that the clonal diversity that is captured in single tumor biopsy samples represents only a small proportion of the total number of phenotypes.

  5. Neoantigen landscape dynamics during human melanoma-T cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdegaal, Els M. E.; De Miranda, Noel F. C. C.; Visser, Marten


    is constant over time is unclear. Here we analyse the stability of neoantigen-specific T-cell responses and the antigens they recognize in two patients with stage IV melanoma treated by adoptive T-cell transfer. The T-cell-recognized neoantigens can be selectively lost from the tumour cell population, either...... by overall reduced expression of the genes or loss of the mutant alleles. Notably, loss of expression of T-cell-recognized neoantigens was accompanied by development of neoantigen-specific T-cell reactivity in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. These data demonstrate the dynamic interactions between cancer...

  6. SU-D-BRB-06: Treating Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) as a Chronic Disease: Implication of Temporal-Spatial Dose Fractionation Optimization Including Cancer Stem Cell Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, V; Nguyen, D; Pajonk, F; Kaprealian, T; Kupelian, P; Steinberg, M; Low, D; Sheng, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of improving GBM treatment outcome with temporal-spatial dose optimization of an ordinary differential equation (ODE) that models the differentiation and distinct radiosensitivity between cancer stem cells (CSC) and differentiated cancer cells (DCC). Methods: The ODE was formulated into a non-convex optimization problem with the objective to minimize remaining total cancer cells 500 days from the onset of radiotherapy when the total cancer cell number was 3.5×10{sup 7}, while maintaining normal tissue biological effective dose (BED) of 100Gy resulted from standard prescription of 2Gyx30. Assuming spatially separated CSC and DCC, optimization was also performed to explore the potential benefit from dose-painting the two compartments. Dose escalation to a sub-cell-population in the GTV was also examined assuming that a 2 cm margin around the GTV allows sufficient dose drop-off to 100Gy BED. The recurrence time was determined as the time at which the total cancer cell number regrows to 10{sup 9} cells. Results: The recurrence time with variable fractional doses administered once per week, bi-week and month for one year were found to be 615, 593 and 570 days, superior to the standard-prescription recurrence time of 418 days. The optimal dose-fraction size progression for both uniform and dose-painting to the tumor is low and relatively constant in the beginning and gradually increases to more aggressive fractions at end of the treatment course. Dose escalation to BED of 200Gy to the whole tumor alongside with protracted weekly treatment was found to further delay recurrence to 733 days. Dose-painting of 200 and 500Gy BED to CSC on a year-long weekly schedule further extended recurrence to 736 and 1076 days, respectively. Conclusion: GBM treatment outcome can possibly be improved with a chronic treatment approach. Further dose escalation to the entire tumor or CSC targeted killing is needed to achieve total tumor control. This work

  7. Cancer stem cells: constantly evolving and functionally heterogeneous therapeutic targets. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Rycaj, Kiera; Liu, Zhong-Min; Tang, Dean G


    Elucidating the origin of and dynamic interrelationship between intratumoral cell subpopulations has clear clinical significance in helping to understand the cellular basis of treatment response, therapeutic resistance, and tumor relapse. Cancer stem cells (CSC), together with clonal evolution driven by genetic alterations, generate cancer cell heterogeneity commonly observed in clinical samples. The 2013 Shanghai International Symposium on Cancer Stem Cells brought together leaders in the field to highlight the most recent progress in phenotyping, characterizing, and targeting CSCs and in elucidating the relationship between the cell-of-origin of cancer and CSCs. Discussions from the symposium emphasize the urgent need in developing novel therapeutics to target the constantly evolving CSCs. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Dynamics of GFP-Fusion p110α and p110β Isoforms of PI3K Signaling Pathway in Normal and Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Singh, Paramjeet; Dar, Mohd Saleem; Singh, Gurjinder; Jamwal, Gayatri; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Ahmad, Muzamil; Dar, Mohd Jamal


    Cancer therapeutics is a hot subject and PI3K class 1A isoforms (p110α and p110β) are pursued as major targets. Genetic analysis, biochemical approaches, and structural studies have demonstrated crucial roles for these isoforms in several physiological processes. p110α is critical for insulin signaling, whereas p110β is essential for the growth and differs from p110α in many ways. Here, we have generated GFP-fusion clones of wildtype and mutant version of p110α and p110β and expressed them in HEK293 and cancer cells to examine their subcellular localization and their impact on downstream signaling. In HEK293 cells, p110β GFP-fusion protein is translocated into the nucleus, whereas p110α-GFP stays exclusively in the cytoplasm. This study demonstrates that p110α and p110β oncogenecity, kinase activity, and interaction with p85 regulatory subunit does not have any impact on their subcellular localization. PI3K pathway specific inhibitor, LY294002, abrogated PI3K signaling by reducing pAkt levels, however, the subcellular localization of p110α and p110β remained unchanged. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of recombinant p110α and p110β in a panel of human cancer cells and observed remarkable differences in their expression levels. The differential expression of recombinant p110α and p110β was observed to be mainly regulated by the endogenous levels of pAkt. Unlike in HEK293, p110α showed nuclear localization in cancer cells in a similar fashion to p110β. Moreover, we observed the PI3K signaling activities in low pAkt expressing cells are mediated by PDK1 and S6K proteins. Finally, p110α and p110β were seen to play an essential role in promoting the cell cycle progression in MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2864-2874, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard


    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  10. Cancer-stroma evolutionary dynamics in stress-gradient microenvironment (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert; Sturm, James; Khin, Zayar; Silva, Ariosto


    In order to study the evolution of drug resistance in cancer, it is important to mimic the tumor microenvironment, in which cells are exposed to not uniform concentrations but rather gradients of drugs, nutrients, and other factors Compared to traditional in-vitro methods, microfluidic structure enables better control of the temporal and spatial profile of gradients. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic Doxorubicin gradient environment with heterogeneous landscape, and culture multiple myeloma (8226-S, expressing RFP) and bone marrow stroma (HS-5, expressing GFP) cell lines together. The myeloma cells are not directly motile, but they are able to migrate via the adhesion to motile stroma cells. The indirect motility mechanism of the myeloma cells is crucial for the adaptation to stress environment. Finally, we will report the co-culture dynamics under the stress of doxorubicin gradients, observing for cellular migrations and growth

  11. Avoiding healthy cells extinction in a cancer model. (United States)

    López, Álvaro G; Sabuco, Juan; Seoane, Jesús M; Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Sanjuán, Miguel A F


    We consider a dynamical model of cancer growth including three interacting cell populations of tumor cells, healthy host cells and immune effector cells. For certain parameter choice, the dynamical system displays chaotic motion and by decreasing the response of the immune system to the tumor cells, a boundary crisis leading to transient chaotic dynamics is observed. This means that the system behaves chaotically for a finite amount of time until the unavoidable extinction of the healthy and immune cell populations occurs. Our main goal here is to apply a control method to avoid extinction. For that purpose, we apply the partial control method, which aims to control transient chaotic dynamics in the presence of external disturbances. As a result, we have succeeded to avoid the uncontrolled growth of tumor cells and the extinction of healthy tissue. The possibility of using this method compared to the frequently used therapies is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel mechanism whereby BRCA1/1a/1b fine tunes the dynamic complex interplay between SUMO-dependent/independent activities of Ubc9 on E2-induced ERalpha activation/repression and degradation in breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Xu, J; Watkins, T; Reddy, A; Reddy, E S P; Rao, V N


    BRCA1 dysfunction is associated with hormone-responsive cancers. We have identified a consensus SUMO modification site in the amino-terminal region of BRCA1/1a/1b proteins and the mutation in this potential SUMO acceptor site (K 109 to R) impaired their ability to bind and repress ligand-dependent ERalpha transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we have found SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 to bind BRCA1 proteins. We have mapped BRCA1 [within amino acids (aa) 1-182] as the minimum domain that is sufficient for in vitro binding to Ubc9 as well as for regulating ERalpha activity. BRCA1 Mutant #1 (K109 to R) was impaired in its ability to both bind, as well as modulate Ubc9 mediated SUMO-dependent/independent E2-induced ERalpha transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells. Similarly, BRCA1 cancer-predisposing mutation (61Cys-Gly) abrogated the ability to both bind Ubc9 as well as inhibit ERalpha activity suggesting physiological significance. Addition of BRCA1 but not Mutant #1 to E2-induced ERalpha in the presence of SUMO-1 and Ubc9 resulted in the degradation of ERalpha suggesting BRCA1 to be a putative SUMO-1 and Ubc9-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase for ERalpha. This is the first report demonstrating the participation of Ubc9 in BRCA1 E3 ubiquitin ligase mediated degradation of ERalpha. These results suggest a novel function for BRCA1 in regulating the dynamic cycles of SUMO and ubiquitin modifications required for ERalpha turn over and deregulation of this molecular switch due to lack of BRCA1 results in ERalpha-negative/positive breast cancers. This study will help in designing novel BRCA1 function-based targeted treatment for breast cancers.

  13. High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells (United States)

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon; Rico, Felix


    Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range--up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components--provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

  14. Dynamic emergence of the mesenchymal CD44(pos)CD24(neg/low) phenotype in HER2-gene amplified breast cancer cells with de novo resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin). (United States)

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Cufí, Silvia; Del Barco, Sonia; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Brunet, Joan; Menendez, Javier A


    Evidence is mounting that the occurrence of the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) cell population, which contains potential breast cancer (BC) stem cells, could explain BC clinical resistance to HER2-targeted therapies. We investigated whether de novo refractoriness to the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Tzb; Herceptin) may relate to the dynamic regulation of the mesenchymal CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) phenotype in HER2-positive BC. We observed that the subpopulation of Tzb-refractory JIMT-1 BC cells exhibiting CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low)-surface markers switched with time. Low-passage JIMT-1 cell cultures were found to spontaneously contain approximately 10% of cells bearing the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) immunophenotype. Late-passage (>60) JIMT-1 cultures accumulated approximately 80% of CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) cells and closely resembled the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low)-enriched ( approximately 85%) cell population constitutively occurring in HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 mesenchymal BC cells. Dynamic expression of mesenchymal markers was not limited to CD44/CD24 because high-passages of JIMT-1 cells exhibited also reduced expression of the HER2 protein and over-secretion of pro-invasive/metastatic chemokines and metalloproteases. Accordingly, late-passage JIMT-1 cells displayed an exacerbated migratogenic phenotype in plastic, collagen, and fibronectin substrates. Intrinsic genetic plasticity to efficiently drive the emergence of the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) mesenchymal phenotype may account for de novo resistance to HER2 targeting therapies in basal-like BC carrying HER2 gene amplification. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Jamming and liquidity in 3D cancer cell aggregates (United States)

    Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Lippoldt, Jürgen; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol; KäS, Josef A.

    Traditionally, tissues are treated as simple liquids, which holds for example for embryonic tissue. However, recent experiments have shown that this picture is insufficient for other tissue types, suggesting possible transitions to solid-like behavior induced by cellular jamming. The coarse-grained self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model predicts such a transition depending on cell shape which is thought to arise from an interplay of cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension. We observe non-liquid behavior in 3D breast cancer spheroids of varying metastatic potential and correlate single cell shapes, single cell dynamics and collective dynamic behavior of fusion and segregation experiments via the SPV model.

  16. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Carvalho


    Full Text Available Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is an aim in several oncology areas. For this purpose, several techniques have been used to detect CTC, including the use of antibodies and techniques with nucleic acids. This study reviews the published studies considering the detection of breast cancer CTC. There are focused the difficulties in identifying a CTC in a heterogeneous population, the handling of the sample, criteria of positivity, analytical techniques, and specific markers. There are systematized various specific markers of breast cancer cells also the problems with false positive results. Finally, we hypothesize clinical applications either as a prognostic marker or as a therapeutic response monitor.

  17. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Veronica [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Gaggianesi, Miriam [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Spina, Valentina; Iovino, Flora [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Dieli, Francesco [Departement of Biopathology and Medicine Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Stassi, Giorgio, E-mail: [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Todaro, Matilde [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy)


    Nowadays it is reported that, similarly to other solid tumors, colorectal cancer is sustained by a rare subset of cancer stem–like cells (CSCs), which survive conventional anticancer treatments, thanks to efficient mechanisms allowing escape from apoptosis, triggering tumor recurrence. To improve patient outcomes, conventional anticancer therapies have to be replaced with specific approaches targeting CSCs. In this review we provide strong support that BMP4 is an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent colon cancer growth increasing differentiation markers expression and apoptosis. Recent data suggest that in colorectal CSCs, protection from apoptosis is achieved by interleukin-4 (IL-4) autocrine production through upregulation of antiapoptotic mediators, including survivin. Consequently, IL-4 neutralization could deregulate survivin expression and localization inducing chemosensitivity of the colon CSCs pool.

  18. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen


    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  19. Stem cells in prostate cancer. (United States)

    Mateo, Francesca; Fernandez, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M


    Tumors constitute complex ecosystems with multiple interactions among neoplastic cells displaying various phenotypes and functions and where the tumoral niche is built with an active participation of the host environment that also impacts the malignant progression of the tumor cells. Irrespective of the cell of origin of prostate adenocarcinoma, mounting evidences support the existence of a hierarchy within neoplastic prostate cells that contributes to the heterogeneity of these tumors. At the origin of this hierarchy are small populations of tumor cells with high self-renewal potential and also capable of generating progeny tumor cells that lose self-renewal properties as they acquire more differentiated phenotypes. These cancer stem cells (CSC) depend on active gene networks that confer them with their self-renewal capacity through symmetrical divisions whereas they can also undergo asymmetrical division and differentiation either as stochastic events or in response to environmental cues. Although new experimental evidences indicate that this is can be a reversible process, thus blurring the distinction between CSCs and non-CSCs, the former are considered as the drivers of tumor growth and evolution, and thus a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Of particular importance in prostate cancer, CSCs may constitute the repository population of androgen-insensitive and chemotherapy-resistant tumor cells responsible for castration-resistant and chemotherapy-insensitive tumors, thus their identification and quantification in primary and metastatic neoplasms could play important roles in the management of this disease.

  20. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, M.M.; Meijer, C.; de Bock, G.H.; Boersma-van Ek, W.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Groen, H.J.M.; Timens, W.; Kruyt, F.A.E.; Hiltermann, T.N.J.


    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis, and even with localized (limited) disease, the 5-year survival has only been around 20%. Elevated levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been associated with a worse prognosis, and markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and

  1. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)


    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  2. Mapping the CXCR4 receptor on breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Wang, Biran; Guo, Peng; Auguste, Debra T


    The CXCR4 receptor triggers cell migration and, in breast cancer, promotes metastasis. To date, the dynamic assembly of CXCR4 on the cell surface as a mediator of receptor binding is not well characterized. The objective of this work is to quantify the density, spatial organization, and magnitude of binding of the CXCR4 receptor on live metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cells. We measured the Young's modulus, the CXCR4 surface density, and CXCR4 unbinding force on MBC cells by atomic force microscopy. We conclude that the CXCR4 density, spatial organization, and matrix stiffness are paramount to achieve strong binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy]. (United States)

    Gato, M; Liechtenstein, T; Blanco-Luquín, I; Zudaire, M I; Kochan, G; Escors, D


    Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carried out by professional antigen presenting cells such as DC. Although there are a number of strategies to strengthen antigen presentation by DC, anti-cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as we would expect according to preclinical data accumulated in recent decades. We do not aim to make an exhaustive review of DC immunotherapy here, which is an extensive research subject already dealt with in many specialised reviews. Instead, we present the experimental approaches undertaken by our group over the last decade, by modifying DC to improve their anti-tumour capacities.

  4. Proteasome expression and activity in cancer and cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A


    Proteasome is a multi-protein organelle that participates in cellular proteostasis by destroying damaged or short-lived proteins in an organized manner guided by the ubiquitination signal. By being in a central place in the cellular protein complement homeostasis, proteasome is involved in virtually all cell processes including decisions on cell survival or death, cell cycle, and differentiation. These processes are important also in cancer, and thus, the proteasome is an important regulator of carcinogenesis. Cancers include a variety of cells which, according to the cancer stem cell theory, descend from a small percentage of cancer stem cells, alternatively termed tumor-initiating cells. These cells constitute the subsets that have the ability to propagate the whole variety of cancer and repopulate tumors after cytostatic therapies. Proteasome plays a role in cellular processes in cancer stem cells, but it has been found to have a decreased function in them compared to the rest of cancer cells. This article will discuss the transcriptional regulation of proteasome sub-unit proteins in cancer and in particular cancer stem cells and the relationship of the proteasome with the pluripotency that is the defining characteristic of stem cells. Therapeutic opportunities that present from the understanding of the proteasome role will also be discussed.

  5. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska


    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  6. Epigenetic dynamics across the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Tony Bou; Lund, Anders H.


    Progression of the mammalian cell cycle depends on correct timing and co-ordination of a series of events, which are managed by the cellular transcriptional machinery and epigenetic mechanisms governing genome accessibility. Epigenetic chromatin modifications are dynamic across the cell cycle...... a correct inheritance of epigenetic chromatin modifications to daughter cells. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge on the dynamics of epigenetic chromatin modifications during progression of the cell cycle....

  7. Cancer Stem Cells and the Ontogeny of Lung Cancer


    Peacock, Craig D.; Watkins, D. Neil


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world today and is poised to claim approximately 1 billion lives during the 21st century. A major challenge in treating this and other cancers is the intrinsic resistance to conventional therapies demonstrated by the stem/progenitor cell that is responsible for the sustained growth, survival, and invasion of the tumor. Identifying these stem cells in lung cancer and defining the biologic processes necessary for their existence is paramou...

  8. Microenvironment-Centred Dynamics in Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cacciatore


    Full Text Available Aggressive B-cell lymphomas share high proliferative and invasive attitudes and dismal prognosis despite heterogeneous biological features. In the interchained sequence of events leading to cancer progression, neoplastic clone-intrinsic molecular events play a major role. Nevertheless, microenvironment-related cues have progressively come into focus as true determinants for this process. The cancer-associated microenvironment is a complex network of nonneoplastic immune and stromal cells embedded in extracellular components, giving rise to a multifarious crosstalk with neoplastic cells towards the induction of a supportive milieu. The immunological and stromal microenvironments have been classically regarded as essential partners of indolent lymphomas, while considered mainly negligible in the setting of aggressive B-cell lymphomas that, by their nature, are less reliant on external stimuli. By this paper we try to delineate the cardinal microenvironment-centred dynamics exerting an influence over lymphoid clone progression in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

  9. Reprogramming cancer cells: overview & current progress. (United States)

    Lim, Kian Lam; Teoh, Hoon Koon; Choong, Pei Feng; Teh, Hui Xin; Cheong, Soon Keng; Kamarul, Tunku


    Cancer is a disease with genetic and epigenetic origins, and the possible effects of reprogramming cancer cells using the defined sets of transcription factors remain largely uninvestigated. In the handful of publications available so far, findings have shown that reprogramming cancer cells changed the characteristics of the cells to differ from the parental cancer cells. These findings indicated the possibility of utilizing reprogramming technology to create a disease model in the laboratory to be used in studying the molecular pathogenesis or for drug screening of a particular cancer model. Despite numerous methods employed in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from cancer cells only a few studies have successfully reprogrammed malignant human cells. In this review we will provide an overview on i) methods to reprogram cancer cells, ii) characterization of the reprogrammed cancer cells, and iii) the differential effects of reprogramming on malignancy, epigenetics and response of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Continued technical progress in cancer cell reprogramming technology will be instrumental for more refined in vitro disease models and ultimately for the development of directed and personalized therapy for cancer patients in the future.

  10. Cancer stem cells: the theory and perspectives in cancer therapy. (United States)

    Gil, Justyna; Stembalska, Agnieszka; Pesz, Karolina A; Sasiadek, Maria M


    The cancer stem cell theory elucidates not only the issue of tumour initiation and development, tumour's ability to metastasise and reoccur, but also the ineffectiveness of conventional cancer therapy. This review examines stem cell properties, such as self-renewal, heterogeneity, and resistance to apoptosis. The 'niche' hypothesis is presented, and mechanisms of division, differentiation, self-renewal and signalling pathway regulation are explained. Epigenetic alterations and mutations of genes responsible for signal transmission may promote the formation of cancer stem cells. We also present the history of development of the cancer stem cell theory and discuss the experiments that led to the discovery and confirmation of the existence of cancer stem cells. Potential clinical applications are also considered, including therapeutic models aimed at selective elimination of cancer stem cells or induction of their proper differentiation.

  11. Reprogramming cancer cells: a novel approach for cancer therapy or a tool for disease-modeling? (United States)

    Yilmazer, Açelya; de Lázaro, Irene; Taheri, Hadiseh


    Chromatin dynamics have been the major focus of many physiological and pathological processes over the past 20 years. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to be reshaped during both cellular reprogramming and tumorigenesis. For this reason, cancer cell reprogramming can provide a powerful tool to better understand both regenerative and cancer-fate processes, with a potential to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Recent studies showed that cancer cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by the overexpression of reprogramming transcription factors. Activation of transcription factors and modification of chromatin regulators may result in the remodeling of epigenetic status and refueling of tumorigenicity in these reprogrammed cancer cells. However, studies focusing on cancer cell reprogramming are contradictory; some studies reported increased tumor progression whereas others showed that cellular reprogramming has a treatment potential for cancer. In this review, first, the current knowledge on the epigenetic mechanisms involved during cancer development and cellular reprogramming will be presented. Later, different reports and key factors about pluripotency-based reprogramming of cancer cells will be reviewed in detail. New insights will be provided on cancer biology and therapy in the light of cellular reprogramming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  13. Mitochondrial dynamics altered by oxidative stress in cancer. (United States)

    Kim, Boyun; Song, Yong Sang


    Mitochondria as crucial organelles regulate cellular energy generation, calcium and redox homeostasis, and apoptosis. To perform the cellular functions effectively, mitochondria continuously change their structure and morphology through protein machineries controlling fission and fusion process (mitochondrial dynamics). Traditionally, many researches had focused on the interaction of mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. However, recent studies are reporting the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics in human diseases including many types of cancers. Considering that cancers maintain a high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dynamics can be influenced by oxidative stress. In this review, we will discuss the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics by ROS and its effect on metastasis and chemoresistance in cancers.

  14. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail:; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  15. Colon Cancer Cell Separation by Dielectrophoresis (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoming; Jiang, H.; Wood, P.; Hrushesky, W.; Wang, Guiren


    Separation of cancer cells from the other biological cells can be useful for clinical cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this presentation, conventional dielectrophoresis (c-DEP) is used in a microfluidic chip to manipulate and collect colorectal cancer HCT116 cell, which is doped with Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK 293). It is noticed that, the HCT116 cell are deflected to a side channel from a main channel clearly by apply electric field at particular AC frequency band. This motion caused by negative DEP can be used to separate the cancer cell from others. In this manuscript, chip design, flow condition, the DEP spectrum of the cancer cell are reported respectively, and the separation and collection efficiency are investigated as well. The sorter is microfabricated using plastic laminate technology. -/abstract- This work has been financially supported by the NSF RII funding (EP

  16. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Centralized Dynamic Cell Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Pedersen, Klaus I.


    Centralized architectures with fronthauls can be used to deal with some of the problems inherently associated with dense small cell deployments. This study examines a joint cell assignment and scheduling solution for the downlink to increase the users’ data rates, based on cell switching and a su...... with two different traffic models, and it is not necessary to be able to connect to a large number of cells in order to reap most of the benefits of the centralized dynamic cell selection....

  18. Aggregation Effects and Population-Based Dynamics as a Source of Therapy Resistance in Cancer. (United States)

    Brown, Joel S; Cunningham, Jessica J; Gatenby, Robert A


    Evolution of resistance allows cancer cells to adapt and continue proliferating even when therapy is initially very effective. Most investigations of treatment resistance focus on the adaptive phenotypic properties of individual cells. We propose that the resistance of a single cell to therapy may extend beyond its own phenotypic and molecular properties and be influenced by the phenotypic properties of surrounding cells and variations in cell density. Similar variation exists in population densities of animals living in groups and can significantly affect the outcome of an external threat. We investigate aggregation effects in cancer therapy using Darwinian models that integrate phenotypic properties of individual cells and common population effects found in nature to simulate the dynamics of resistance and sensitivity in the diverse cellular environments within cancers. We demonstrate that the density of cancer cell populations can profoundly influence response to chemotherapy independent of the properties of individual cells. Most commonly, these aggregation effects benefit the tumor allowing cells to survive even with phenotypic properties that would render them highly vulnerable to therapy in the absence of population effects. We demonstrate aggregation effects likely play a significant role in conferring resistance to therapy on tumor cells that would otherwise be sensitive to treatment. The potential role of aggregation in outcomes from cancer therapy has not been previously investigated. Our results demonstrate these dynamics may play a key role in resistance to therapy and could be used to design evolutionarily-enlightened therapies that exploit aggregation effects to improve treatment outcomes.

  19. Cancer Cell Fusion: Mechanisms Slowly Unravel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicite K. Noubissi


    Full Text Available Although molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways driving invasion and metastasis have been studied for many years, the origin of the population of metastatic cells within the primary tumor is still not well understood. About a century ago, Aichel proposed that cancer cell fusion was a mechanism of cancer metastasis. This hypothesis gained some support over the years, and recently became the focus of many studies that revealed increasing evidence pointing to the possibility that cancer cell fusion probably gives rise to the metastatic phenotype by generating widespread genetic and epigenetic diversity, leading to the emergence of critical populations needed to evolve resistance to the treatment and development of metastasis. In this review, we will discuss the clinical relevance of cancer cell fusion, describe emerging mechanisms of cancer cell fusion, address why inhibiting cancer cell fusion could represent a critical line of attack to limit drug resistance and to prevent metastasis, and suggest one new modality for doing so.

  20. Tumor-associated myeloid cells as guiding forces of cancer cell stemness. (United States)

    Sica, Antonio; Porta, Chiara; Amadori, Alberto; Pastò, Anna


    Due to their ability to differentiate into various cell types and to support tissue regeneration, stem cells simultaneously became the holy grail of regenerative medicine and the evil obstacle in cancer therapy. Several studies have investigated niche-related conditions that favor stemness properties and increasingly emphasized their association with an inflammatory environment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are major orchestrators of cancer-related inflammation, able to dynamically express different polarized inflammatory programs that promote tumor outgrowth, including tumor angiogenesis, immunosuppression, tissue remodeling and metastasis formation. In addition, these myeloid populations support cancer cell stemness, favoring tumor maintenance and progression, as well as resistance to anticancer treatments. Here, we discuss inflammatory circuits and molecules expressed by TAMs and MDSCs as guiding forces of cancer cell stemness.

  1. Telomere Length Dynamics and the Evolution of Cancer Genome Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kez Cleal


    Full Text Available Telomeres are progressively eroded during repeated rounds of cell division due to the end replication problem but also undergo additional more substantial stochastic shortening events. In most cases, shortened telomeres induce a cell-cycle arrest or trigger apoptosis, although for those cells that bypass such signals during tumour progression, a critical length threshold is reached at which telomere dysfunction may ensue. Dysfunction of the telomere nucleoprotein complex can expose free chromosome ends to the DNA double-strand break (DSB repair machinery, leading to telomere fusion with both telomeric and non-telomeric loci. The consequences of telomere fusions in promoting genome instability have long been appreciated through the breakage–fusion–bridge (BFB cycle mechanism, although recent studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies have uncovered evidence of involvement in a wider spectrum of genomic rearrangements including chromothripsis. A critical step in cancer progression is the transition of a clone to immortality, through the stabilisation of the telomere repeat array. This can be achieved via the reactivation of telomerase, or the induction of the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT pathway. Whilst telomere dysfunction may promote genome instability and tumour progression, by limiting the replicative potential of a cell and enforcing senescence, telomere shortening can act as a tumour suppressor mechanism. However, the burden of senescent cells has also been implicated as a driver of ageing and age-related pathology, and in the promotion of cancer through inflammatory signalling. Considering the critical role of telomere length in governing cancer biology, we review questions related to the prognostic value of studying the dynamics of telomere shortening and fusion, and discuss mechanisms and consequences of telomere-induced genome rearrangements.

  2. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells


    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Wei ZHAO


    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  3. Tumor associated macrophage × cancer cell hybrids may acquire cancer stem cell properties in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Ding

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women, and metastasis makes it lethal. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs that acquire an alternatively activated macrophage (M2 phenotype may promote metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we examined how TAMs interact with breast cancer cells to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of the M2-specific antigen CD163 in paraffin-embedded mammary carcinoma blocks to explore fusion events in breast cancer patients. U937 cells were used as a substitute for human monocytes, and these cells differentiated into M2 macrophages following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and M-CSF stimulation. M2 macrophages and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 fused in the presence of 50% polyethylene glycol. Hybrids were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the relevant cell biological properties were compared with their parental counterparts. Breast cancer stem cell (BCSC-related markers were quantified by immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and/or western blotting. The tumor-initiating and metastatic capacities of the hybrids and their parental counterparts were assessed in NOD/SCID mice. We found that the CD163 expression rate in breast cancer tissues varied significantly and correlated with estrogen receptor status (p0.05. Characterization of the fusion hybrids revealed a more aggressive phenotype, including increased migration, invasion and tumorigenicity, but reduced proliferative ability, compared with the parental lines. The hybrids also gained a CD44(+CD24(-/low phenotype and over-expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes. These results indicate that TAMs may promote breast cancer metastasis through cell fusion, and the hybrids may gain a BCSC phenotype.

  4. Cell Division, Differentiation and Dynamic Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya


    A novel mechanism for cell differentiation is proposed, based on the dynamic clustering in a globally coupled chaotic system. A simple model with metabolic reaction, active transport of chemicals from media, and cell division is found to show three successive stages with the growth of the number of cells; coherent growth, dynamic clustering, and fixed cell differentiation. At the last stage, disparity in activities, germ line segregation, somatic cell differentiation, and homeochaotic stability against external perturbation are found. Our results, in consistency with the experiments of the preceding paper, imply that cell differentiation can occur without a spatial pattern. From dynamical systems viewpoint, the new concept of ``open chaos" is proposed, as a novel and general scenario for systems with growing numbers of elements, also seen in economics and sociology.A


    Mesin, Luka; Ersching, Jonatan; Victora, Gabriel D.


    Germinal centers (GCs) are the site of antibody diversification and affinity maturation, and as such are vitally important for humoral immunity. The study of GC biology has undergone a renaissance in the past 10 years, with a succession of findings that have transformed our understanding of the cellular dynamics of affinity maturation. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the field, with special emphasis on how GC cellular and clonal dynamics shape antibody affinity and diversity during the immune response. PMID:27653600

  6. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana


    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  7. Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells: A New Target for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Zhan


    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease among all gynecologic malignancies and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Although the standard combination of surgery and chemotherapy was initially effective in patients with ovarian cancer, disease relapse commonly occurred due to the generation of chemoresistance. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs are involved in drug resistance and cancer recurrence. Over the past decades, increasing studies have been done to identify CSCs from human ovarian cancer cells. The present paper will summarize different investigations on ovarian CSCs, including isolation, mechanisms of chemoresistance, and therapeutic approaches. Although there are still numerous challenges to translate basic research to clinical applications, understanding the molecular details of CSCs is essential for developing effective strategies to prevent ovarian cancer and its recurrence.

  8. Pancreatic cancer study based on full field OCT and dynamic full field OCT (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Apelian, Clement; Camus, Marine; Prat, Frederic; Boccara, A. Claude


    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most feared cancer types due to high death rates and the difficulty to perform surgery. This cancer outcome could benefit from recent technological developments for diagnosis. We used a combination of standard Full Field OCT and Dynamic Full Field OCT to capture both morphological features and metabolic functions of rodents pancreas in normal and cancerous conditions with and without chemotherapy. Results were compared to histology to evaluate the performances and the specificities of the method. The comparison highlighted the importance of a number of endogenous markers like immune cells, fibrous development, architecture and more.

  9. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei


    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  10. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer (United States)

    ... inside of the lungs. Enlarge Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their ... Cell Lung Cancer Tobacco (includes help with quitting) Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit Secondhand Smoke and Cancer For general cancer information and other ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer) (United States)

    ... inside of the lungs. Enlarge Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their ... Cell Lung Cancer Tobacco (includes help with quitting) Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit Secondhand Smoke and Cancer For general cancer information and other ...

  12. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer (United States)

    ... inside of the lungs. Enlarge Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their ... Cell Lung Cancer Tobacco (includes help with quitting) Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit Secondhand Smoke and Cancer For general cancer information and other ...

  13. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system. (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi


    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. Molecular Biology of Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oishi, Naoki; Yamashita, Taro; Kaneko, Shuichi


    .... The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is based primarily on the clinical and experimental observations that indicate the existence of a subpopulation of cells with the capacity to self-renew and differentiate as well as show increased...

  15. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the biological interface between cancer and the microenvironment: a fractal anomalous diffusion model with microenvironment plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Feng-Chou


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasion-metastasis cascade of cancer involves a process of parallel progression. A biological interface (module in which cells is linked with ECM (extracellular matrix by CAMs (cell adhesion molecules has been proposed as a tool for tracing cancer spatiotemporal dynamics. Methods A mathematical model was established to simulate cancer cell migration. Human uterine leiomyoma specimens, in vitro cell migration assay, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, dynamic viscosity, and an in vivo C57BL6 mouse model were used to verify the predictive findings of our model. Results The return to origin probability (RTOP and its related CAM expression ratio in tumors, so-called "tumor self-seeding", gradually decreased with increased tumor size, and approached the 3D Pólya random walk constant (0.340537 in a periodic structure. The biphasic pattern of cancer cell migration revealed that cancer cells initially grew together and subsequently began spreading. A higher viscosity of fillers applied to the cancer surface was associated with a significantly greater inhibitory effect on cancer migration, in accordance with the Stokes-Einstein equation. Conclusion The positional probability and cell-CAM-ECM interface (module in the fractal framework helped us decipher cancer spatiotemporal dynamics; in addition we modeled the methods of cancer control by manipulating the microenvironment plasticity or inhibiting the CAM expression to the Pólya random walk, Pólya constant.

  16. Cancer Stem Cells: Repair Gone Awry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rangwala


    Full Text Available Because cell turnover occurs in all adult organs, stem/progenitor cells within the stem-cell niche of each tissue must be appropriately mobilized and differentiated to maintain normal organ structure and function. Tissue injury increases the demands on this process, and thus may unmask defective regulation of pathways, such as Hedgehog (Hh, that modulate progenitor cell fate. Hh pathway dysregulation has been demonstrated in many types of cancer, including pancreatic and liver cancers, in which defective Hh signaling has been linked to outgrowth of Hh-responsive cancer stem-initiating cells and stromal elements. Hence, the Hh pathway might be a therapeutic target in such tumors.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of paced cardiac cells. (United States)

    Shiferaw, Yohannes; Qu, Zhilin; Garfinkel, Alan; Karma, Alain; Weiss, James N


    When a cardiac cell is rapidly paced it can exhibit a beat-to-beat alternation in the action potential duration (APD) and the intracellular calcium transient. This dynamical instability at the cellular level has been shown to correlate with the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias and has motivated the application of nonlinear dynamics in cardiology. In this article, we review mathematical approaches to describe the underlying mechanisms for alternans using beat-to-beat iterated maps. We explain the development and properties of these maps, and show that they provide a fruitful framework to understand dynamical instabilities of voltage and calcium in paced cardiac cells.

  18. NK Cells and Virus-Related Cancers


    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva


    Natural killer (NK) cells become activated during viral infections and can play roles in such infections by attacking virus-infected cells or by regulating adaptive immune responses. Experimental models suggest that NK cells may also have the capacity to restrain virus-induced cancers. Here, we discuss the seven viruses linked to human cancers and the evidence of NK cell involvement in these systems.

  19. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can


    There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics ......, help us both in the identification and characterization of cancer stem cells and in the further development of therapeutic strategies including tissue engineering...

  20. Targeting the osteosarcoma cancer stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ling


    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common type of solid bone cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in pediatric patients. Many patients are not cured by the current osteosarcoma therapy consisting of combination chemotherapy along with surgery and thus new treatments are urgently needed. In the last decade, cancer stem cells have been identified in many tumors such as leukemia, brain, breast, head and neck, colon, skin, pancreatic, and prostate cancers and these cells are proposed to play major roles in drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis. Recent studies have shown evidence that osteosarcoma also possesses cancer stem cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the osteosarcoma cancer stem cell including the methods used for its isolation, its properties, and its potential as a new target for osteosarcoma treatment.

  1. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens 11521 (Greece); Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, Athens 12210 (Greece)


    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  2. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas (United States)


    dominant role over some oncogene function.In addition, we recently reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs)- stem cell like cells in tumors that have stem ... cell properties and tumor initiating ability- retain epigenetic memories of their cells of origin (Chow et al., 2014). We showed that CSCs derived from

  3. Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer. Cellular senescence is a programmed response to oncogenic (tumour-causing) stress that aims to halt the expansion of cells with malignant potential. It does this by stopping the proliferation of pre-cancerous lesions and recruitment of the immune system for their elimination.

  4. Betulinic Acid Kills Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potze, Lisette; Di Franco, Simone; Kessler, Jan H.; Stassi, Giorgio; Medema, Jan Paul


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the origin of cancer and it is suggested that they are resistant to chemotherapy. Current therapies fail to eradicate CSCs and therefore selecting a resistant cell subset that is able to facilitate tumor recurrences. Betulinic acid (BetA) is a broad

  5. The metabolic cross-talk between epithelial cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts in ovarian cancer progression: Autophagy plays a role. (United States)

    Thuwajit, Chanitra; Ferraresi, Alessandra; Titone, Rossella; Thuwajit, Peti; Isidoro, Ciro


    Cancer and stromal cells, which include (cancer-associated) fibroblasts, adipocytes, and immune cells, constitute a mixed cellular ecosystem that dynamically influences the behavior of each component, creating conditions that ultimately favor the emergence of malignant clones. Ovarian cancer cells release cytokines that recruit and activate stromal fibroblasts and immune cells, so perpetuating a state of inflammation in the stroma that hampers the immune response and facilitates cancer survival and propagation. Further, the stroma vasculature impacts the metabolism of the cells by providing or limiting the availability of oxygen and nutrients. Autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process with homeostatic and prosurvival functions, influences the behavior of cancer cells, affecting a variety of processes such as the survival in metabolic harsh conditions, the invasive growth, the development of immune and chemo resistance, the maintenance of stem-like properties, and dormancy. Further, autophagy is involved in the secretion and the signaling of promigratory cytokines. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can influence the actual level of autophagy in ovarian cancer cells through the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the release of autophagy-derived metabolites and substrates. Interrupting the metabolic cross-talk between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts could be an effective therapeutic strategy to arrest the progression and prevent the relapse of ovarian cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening (United States)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay


    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  7. A cancer cell-specific fluorescent probe for imaging Cu2 + in living cancer cells (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Dong, Baoli; Kong, Xiuqi; Song, Xuezhen; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Weiying


    Monitoring copper level in cancer cells is important for the further understanding of its roles in the cell proliferation, and also could afford novel copper-based strategy for the cancer therapy. Herein, we have developed a novel cancer cell-specific fluorescent probe for the detecting Cu2 + in living cancer cells. The probe employed biotin as the cancer cell-specific group. Before the treatment of Cu2 +, the probe showed nearly no fluorescence. However, the probe can display strong fluorescence at 581 nm in response to Cu2 +. The probe exhibited excellent sensitivity and high selectivity for Cu2 + over the other relative species. Under the guidance of biotin group, could be successfully used for detecting Cu2 + in living cancer cells. We expect that this design strategy could be further applied for detection of the other important biomolecules in living cancer cells.

  8. Are cancer cells really softer than normal cells? (United States)

    Alibert, Charlotte; Goud, Bruno; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste


    Solid tumours are often first diagnosed by palpation, suggesting that the tumour is more rigid than its surrounding environment. Paradoxically, individual cancer cells appear to be softer than their healthy counterparts. In this review, we first list the physiological reasons indicating that cancer cells may be more deformable than normal cells. Next, we describe the biophysical tools that have been developed in recent years to characterise and model cancer cell mechanics. By reviewing the experimental studies that compared the mechanics of individual normal and cancer cells, we argue that cancer cells can indeed be considered as softer than normal cells. We then focus on the intracellular elements that could be responsible for the softening of cancer cells. Finally, we ask whether the mechanical differences between normal and cancer cells can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers of cancer progression. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Of germ cells, trophoblasts, and cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Burleigh, Angela R


    The trophoblastic theory of cancer, proposed in the early 1900s by Dr John Beard, may not initially seem relevant to current cancer models and treatments. However, the underpinnings of this theory are remarkably similar to those of the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory. Beard noticed that a significant fraction of germ cells never reach their final destination as they migrate during embryonic development from the hindgut to the germinal ridge. In certain situations, upon aberrant stimulation, these vagrant germ cells are able to generate tumors. Simplistically, the CSC theory surmises that a small population of tumorigenic cells exists, which initiate and maintain tumors, and these cells have a likely origin in normal stem cells. Both these theories are based on the potential of a single primitive cell to form a tumor. This has a major implication for cancer therapy, in that only a small percentage of cells need to be targeted to ablate a tumor.

  10. Single Cell Characterization of Prostate Cancer Circulating Tumor Cells (United States)


    CTCs from patient blood, a single T24 bladder and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, a pool of 8 prostate CTCs, and one leukocyte isolated from the blood...amplify 66% of mRNA pool from a single cell. Clustering analysis does differentiate CTCs from LNCaP and T24 bladder cell lines (Figure 4). At present we...profiles could distinguish a CTC from prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and T24 bladder cancer cell line.  There was intra and inter patient heterogeneity

  11. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer. (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary


    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  12. Response of breast cancer cells and cancer stem cells to metformin and hyperthermia alone or combined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyemi Lee

    Full Text Available Metformin, the most widely prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, has been shown to exert significant anticancer effects. Hyperthermia has been known to kill cancer cells and enhance the efficacy of various anti-cancer drugs and radiotherapy. We investigated the combined effects of metformin and hyperthermia against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell, and MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 0.5-10 mM metformin for 48 h caused significant clonogenic cell death. Culturing breast cancer cells with 30 µM metformin, clinically relevant plasma concentration of metformin, significantly reduced the survival of cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to CD44(high/CD24(low cells of MCF-7 cells and, CD44(high/CD24(high cells of MIA PaCa-2 cells, which are known to be cancer stem cells (CSCs of MCF-7 cells and MIA PaCa-2 cells, respectively. Heating at 42°C for 1 h was slightly toxic to both cancer cells and CSCs, and it markedly enhanced the efficacy of metformin to kill cancer cells and CSCs. Metformin has been reported to activate AMPK, thereby suppressing mTOR, which plays an important role for protein synthesis, cell cycle progression, and cell survival. For the first time, we show that hyperthermia activates AMPK and inactivates mTOR and its downstream effector S6K. Furthermore, hyperthermia potentiated the effect of metformin to activate AMPK and inactivate mTOR and S6K. Cell proliferation was markedly suppressed by metformin or combination of metformin and hyperthermia, which could be attributed to activation of AMPK leading to inactivation of mTOR. It is conclude that the effects of metformin against cancer cells including CSCs can be markedly enhanced by hyperthermia.

  13. Cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapasso S


    Full Text Available Eugenia Allegra, Serena TrapassoOtolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called "cells that start the tumor," represent in themselves one of the most topical and controversial issues in the field of cancer research. Tumor stem cells are able to self-propagate in vitro (self-renewal, giving rise both to other tumor stem cells and most advanced cells in the line of differentiation (asymmetric division. A final characteristic is tumorigenicity, a fundamental property, which outlines the tumor stem cell as the only cell able to initiate the formation of a tumor when implanted in immune-deficient mice. The hypothesis of a hierarchical organization of tumor cells dates back more than 40 years, but only in 1997, thanks to the work of John Dick and Dominique Bonnet, was there the formal proof of such an organization in acute myeloid leukemia. Following this, many other research groups were able to isolate CSCs, by appropriate selection markers, in various malignancies, such as breast, brain, colon, pancreas, and liver cancers and in melanoma. To date, however, it is not possible to isolate stem cells from all types of neoplasia, particularly in solid tumors. From a therapeutic point of view, the concept of tumor stem cells implies a complete revision of conventional antineoplastic treatment. Conventional cytotoxic agents are designed to target actively proliferating cells. In the majority of cases, this is not sufficient to eliminate the CSCs, which thanks to their reduced proliferative activity and/or the presence of proteins capable of extruding chemotherapeutics from the cell are not targeted. Therefore, the theory of cancer stem cells can pose new paradigms in terms of cancer treatment. Potential approaches, even in the very early experimental stages, relate to the selective inhibition of pathways connected with self-renewal, or more specifically based on

  14. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W.J. Lennard


    Full Text Available In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP, have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC, combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis.

  15. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Kelly M. [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); Kirby, John A. [Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Lennard, Thomas W.J. [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Meeson, Annette P., E-mail: [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); North East England Stem Cell Institute, Bioscience Centre, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom)


    In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP), have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC), combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis.

  16. Cisplatin induces differentiation of breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Praseetha; Hassiotou, Foteini; Blancafort, Pilar; Filgueira, Luis


    Breast tumors are heterogeneous including cells with stem cell properties and more differentiated cells. This heterogeneity is reflected into the molecular breast cancer subtypes. Breast cancer stem cells are resistant to chemotherapy, thus recent efforts are focusing on identifying treatments that shift them toward a more differentiated phenotype, making them more susceptible to chemotherapy. We examined whether the drug cisplatin induces differentiation in breast cancer cell lines that represent different breast cancer subtypes. We used three cell lines representing triple-negative breast cancers, BT-549 and MDA-MB-231 (claudin-low), and MDA-MB-468 (basal-like), along with estrogen and progesterone receptor positive MCF-7 cells (luminal). Cisplatin was applied at 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μM, and cell viability and proliferation were measured using MTS and BrdU assays, respectively. The effect of cisplatin on the cellular hierarchy was examined by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Cisplatin treatment of 10 and 20 μM reduced cell viability by 36-51% and proliferation capacity by 36-67%. Treatment with cisplatin resulted in 12-67% down-regulation of stem cell markers (CD49f, SSEA4) and 10-130% up-regulation of differentiation markers (CK18, SMA, β-tubulin). At the mRNA level, CD49f was down-regulated whilst β-tubulin was up-regulated in the claudin-low cell lines. SSEA4 protein expression decreased upon cisplatin treatment, but SSEA4 mRNA expression increased indicating a differential regulation of cisplatin at the post-transcriptional level. It is concluded that cisplatin reduces breast cancer cell survival and induces differentiation of stem/progenitor cell subpopulations within breast cancer cell lines. These effects indicate the potential of this drug to target specific chemotherapy-resistant cells within a tumor.

  17. Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote proliferation of endometrial cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita S Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy worldwide; yet the tumor microenvironment, especially the fibroblast cells surrounding the cancer cells, is poorly understood. We established four primary cultures of fibroblasts from human endometrial cancer tissues (cancer-associated fibroblasts, CAFs using antibody-conjugated magnetic bead isolation. These relatively homogenous fibroblast cultures expressed fibroblast markers (CD90, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin and hormonal (estrogen and progesterone receptors. Conditioned media collected from CAFs induced a dose-dependent proliferation of both primary cultures and cell lines of endometrial cancer in vitro (175% when compared to non-treated cells, in contrast to those from normal endometrial fibroblast cell line (51% (P<0.0001. These effects were not observed in fibroblast culture derived from benign endometrial hyperplasia tissues, indicating the specificity of CAFs in affecting endometrial cancer cell proliferation. To determine the mechanism underlying the differential fibroblast effects, we compared the activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathways in endometrial cancer cells following treatment with normal fibroblasts- and CAFs-conditioned media. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of both phosphorylated forms of Akt and Erk were significantly down-regulated in normal fibroblasts-treated cells, but were up-regulated/maintained in CAFs-treated cells. Treatment with specific inhibitors LY294002 and U0126 reversed the CAFs-mediated cell proliferation (P<0.0001, suggesting for a role of these pathways in modulating endometrial cancer cell proliferation. Rapamycin, which targets a downstream molecule in PI3K pathway (mTOR, also suppressed CAFs-induced cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Cytokine profiling analysis revealed that CAFs secrete higher levels of macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and vascular

  18. Single-Cell DNA Methylome Sequencing and Bioinformatic Inference of Epigenomic Cell-State Dynamics (United States)

    Farlik, Matthias; Sheffield, Nathan C.; Nuzzo, Angelo; Datlinger, Paul; Schönegger, Andreas; Klughammer, Johanna; Bock, Christoph


    Summary Methods for single-cell genome and transcriptome sequencing have contributed to our understanding of cellular heterogeneity, whereas methods for single-cell epigenomics are much less established. Here, we describe a whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) assay that enables DNA methylation mapping in very small cell populations (μWGBS) and single cells (scWGBS). Our assay is optimized for profiling many samples at low coverage, and we describe a bioinformatic method that analyzes collections of single-cell methylomes to infer cell-state dynamics. Using these technological advances, we studied epigenomic cell-state dynamics in three in vitro models of cellular differentiation and pluripotency, where we observed characteristic patterns of epigenome remodeling and cell-to-cell heterogeneity. The described method enables single-cell analysis of DNA methylation in a broad range of biological systems, including embryonic development, stem cell differentiation, and cancer. It can also be used to establish composite methylomes that account for cell-to-cell heterogeneity in complex tissue samples. PMID:25732828

  19. Syncytin is involved in breast cancer-endothelial cell fusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, B; Holck, Susanne; Christensen, Ib Jarle


    Cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with normal host cells, including endothelial cells, and such fusions may strongly modulate the biological behaviour of tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We now show that human breast cancer cell lines and 63 out of 165 (38%) breast cancer...... and inhibits fusions between breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, a syncytin inhibitory peptide also inhibits fusions between cancer and endothelial cells. These results are the first to show that syncytin is expressed by human cancer cells and is involved in cancer-endothelial cell fusions....

  20. Targetless T cells in cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, Eivind Per; Garrido, Federico


    Attention has recently focused on new cancer immunotherapy protocols aiming to activate T cell mediated anti-tumor responses. To this end, administration of antibodies that target inhibitory molecules regulating T-cell cytotoxicity has achieved impressive clinical responses, as has adoptive cell...... transfer (ACT) using expanded tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or genetically modified cytotoxic T cells. However, despite clear clinical responses, only a fraction of patients respond to treatment and there is an urgent call for characterization of predictive biomarkers. CD8 positive T cells can...... infiltrate tumor tissues and destroy HLA class I positive tumor cells expressing the specific antigen. In fact, current progress in the field of cancer immune therapy is based on the capacity of T cells to kill cancer cells that present tumor antigen in the context on an HLA class I molecule. However...

  1. Dynamic sentinel node biopsy for penile cancer: reliability of a staging technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Lont, A. P.; Meinhardt, W.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Nieweg, O. E.; Horenblas, S.


    PURPOSE: We determine the value of dynamic sentinel node biopsy for staging squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 patients with clinically node negative penile cancer were prospectively entered in this study. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed after

  2. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Shin [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hamada, Hirofumi [Laboratory of Oncology, Department of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji (Japan); Kobune, Masayoshi [Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Satoh, Kennichi [Division of Cancer Stem Cell, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called 'cancer stem cells', within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the 'stemness' of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  3. Intracellular Pressure Dynamics in Blebbing Cells (United States)

    Strychalski, Wanda; Guy, Robert D.


    Blebs are pressure-driven protrusions that play an important role in cell migration, particularly in three-dimensional environments. A bleb is initiated when the cytoskeleton detaches from the cell membrane, resulting in the pressure-driven flow of cytosol toward the area of detachment and local expansion of the cell membrane. Recent experiments involving blebbing cells have led to conflicting hypotheses regarding the timescale of intracellular pressure propagation. The interpretation of one set of experiments supports a poroelastic model of the cytoplasm that leads to slow pressure equilibration when compared to the timescale of bleb expansion. A different study concludes that pressure equilibrates faster than the timescale of bleb expansion. To address this discrepancy, a dynamic computational model of the cell was developed that includes mechanics of and the interactions among the cytoplasm, the actin cortex, the cell membrane, and the cytoskeleton. The model results quantify the relationship among cytoplasmic rheology, pressure, and bleb expansion dynamics, and provide a more detailed picture of intracellular pressure dynamics. This study shows the elastic response of the cytoplasm relieves pressure and limits bleb size, and that both permeability and elasticity of the cytoplasm determine bleb expansion time. Our model with a poroelastic cytoplasm shows that pressure disturbances from bleb initiation propagate faster than the timescale of bleb expansion and that pressure equilibrates slower than the timescale of bleb expansion. The multiple timescales in intracellular pressure dynamics explain the apparent discrepancy in the interpretation of experimental results. PMID:26958893

  4. Curcumin induces chemo/radio-sensitization in ovarian cancer cells and curcumin nanoparticles inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallapu Murali M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemo/radio-resistance is a major obstacle in treating advanced ovarian cancer. The efficacy of current treatments may be improved by increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemo/radiation therapies. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound with anti-cancer activity in multiple cancers; however, its chemo/radio-sensitizing potential is not well studied in ovarian cancer. Herein, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a curcumin pre-treatment strategy for chemo/radio-sensitizing cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. To improve the efficacy and specificity of curcumin induced chemo/radio sensitization, we developed a curcumin nanoparticle formulation conjugated with a monoclonal antibody specific for cancer cells. Methods Cisplatin resistant A2780CP ovarian cancer cells were pre-treated with curcumin followed by exposure to cisplatin or radiation and the effect on cell growth was determined by MTS and colony formation assays. The effect of curcumin pre-treatment on the expression of apoptosis related proteins and β-catenin was determined by Western blotting or Flow Cytometry. A luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the effect of curcumin on β-catenin transcription activity. The poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (Nano-CUR was developed by a modified nano-precipitation method and physico-chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods. Results Curcumin pre-treatment considerably reduced the dose of cisplatin and radiation required to inhibit the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. During the 6 hr pre-treatment, curcumin down regulated the expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 pro-survival proteins. Curcumin pre-treatment followed by exposure to low doses of cisplatin increased apoptosis as indicated by annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 9 and PARP. Additionally, curcumin pre

  5. Targeting Cancer Stem Cells with Natural Killer Cell Immunotherapy. (United States)

    Luna, Jesus I; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Murphy, William J; Canter, Robert J


    Standard cytoreductive cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are frequently resisted by a small portion of cancer cells with 'stem-cell' like properties including quiescence and repopulation. Immunotherapy represents a breakthrough modality for improving oncologic outcomes in cancer patients. Since the success of immunotherapy is not contingent on target cell proliferation, it may also be uniquely suited to address the problem of resistance and repopulation exerted by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Areas covered: Natural killer (NK) cells have long been known for their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells, and there are increasing data demonstrating that NK cells can selectively identify and lyse CSCs. The authors review the current knowledge of CSCs and NK cells and highlight recent studies that support the concept that NK cells are capable of targeting CSC in solid tumors, especially in the context of combination therapy simultaneously targeting non-CSCs and CSCs. Expert opinion: Unlike cytotoxic cancer treatments, NK cells can target and eliminate quiescent/non-proliferating cells such as CSCs, and these enigmatic cells are an important source of relapse and metastasis. NK targeting of CSCs represents a novel and potentially high impact method to capitalize on the intrinsic therapeutic potential of NK cells.

  6. Lipid degradation promotes prostate cancer cell survival (United States)

    Itkonen, Harri M; Brown, Michael; Urbanucci, Alfonso; Tredwell, Gregory; Lau, Chung Ho; Barfeld, Stefan; Hart, Claire; Guldvik, Ingrid J.; Takhar, Mandeep; Heemers, Hannelore V.; Erho, Nicholas; Bloch, Katarzyna; Davicioni, Elai; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Mohler, James L.; Clarke, Noel; Swinnen, Johan V.; Keun, Hector C.; Rekvig, Ole P.; Mills, Ian G.


    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer and androgen receptor (AR) is the major driver of the disease. Here we show that Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) is a novel AR-target that promotes prostate cancer cell survival. Increased ECI2 expression predicts mortality in prostate cancer patients (p = 0.0086). ECI2 encodes for an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and we use multiple metabolite profiling platforms and RNA-seq to show that inhibition of ECI2 expression leads to decreased glucose utilization, accumulation of fatty acids and down-regulation of cell cycle related genes. In normal cells, decrease in fatty acid degradation is compensated by increased consumption of glucose, and here we demonstrate that prostate cancer cells are not able to respond to decreased fatty acid degradation. Instead, prostate cancer cells activate incomplete autophagy, which is followed by activation of the cell death response. Finally, we identified a clinically approved compound, perhexiline, which inhibits fatty acid degradation, and replicates the major findings for ECI2 knockdown. This work shows that prostate cancer cells require lipid degradation for survival and identifies a small molecule inhibitor with therapeutic potential. PMID:28415728

  7. Characterization of cancer stem-like cells in the side population cells of human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45. (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-hong; Cai, Ai-zhen; Wei, Xue-ming; Ding, Li; Li, Feng-zhi; Zheng, Ai-ming; Dai, Da-jiang; Huang, Rong-rong; Cao, Hou-jun; Zhou, Hai-yang; Wang, Jian-mei; Wang, Xue-jing; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Heng; Yuan, Xiao-ying; Chen, Lin


    Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many kinds of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells, including several gastric cancer cell lines. This study is aimed to identify the cancer stem-like cells in the SP of gastric cancer cell line MKN-45. We used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort SP cells in the human gastric carcinoma cell line MKN-45 (cells labeled with Hoechst 33342) and then characterized the cancer stem-like properties of SP cells. This study found that the SP cells had higher clone formation efficiency than major population (MP) cells. Five stemness-related gene expression profiles, including OCT-4, SOX-2, NANOG, CD44, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters gene ABCG2, were tested in SP and MP cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Western blot was used to show the difference of protein expression between SP and MP cells. Both results show that there was significantly higher protein expression in SP cells than in MP cells. When inoculated into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice, SP cells show higher tumorigenesis tendency than MP cells. These results indicate that SP cells possess cancer stem cell properties and prove that SP cells from MKN-45 are gastric cancer stem-like cells.

  8. Heterogeneity for IGF-II production maintained by public goods dynamics in neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Ferraro, Daniela A; Christofori, Gerhard


    The extensive intratumor heterogeneity revealed by sequencing cancer genomes is an essential determinant of tumor progression, diagnosis, and treatment. What maintains heterogeneity remains an open question because competition within a tumor leads to a strong selection for the fittest subclone. Cancer cells also cooperate by sharing molecules with paracrine effects, such as growth factors, and heterogeneity can be maintained if subclones depend on each other for survival. Without strict interdependence between subclones, however, nonproducer cells can free-ride on the growth factors produced by neighboring producer cells, a collective action problem known in game theory as the "tragedy of the commons," which has been observed in microbial cell populations. Here, we report that similar dynamics occur in cancer cell populations. Neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer (insulinoma) cells that do not produce insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) grow slowly in pure cultures but have a proliferation advantage in mixed cultures, where they can use the IGF-II provided by producer cells. We show that, as predicted by evolutionary game theory, producer cells do not go extinct because IGF-II acts as a nonlinear public good, creating negative frequency-dependent selection that leads to a stable coexistence of the two cell types. Intratumor cell heterogeneity can therefore be maintained even without strict interdependence between cell subclones. Reducing the amount of growth factors available within a tumor may lead to a reduction in growth followed by a new equilibrium, which may explain relapse in therapies that target growth factors.

  9. Liver Cancer: Molecular Characterization, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Castelli


    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA. Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV infection (frequent in Asia and Africa, hepatitis C virus (HCV, chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries. In cirrhosis, hepatocarcinogenesis is a multi-step process where pre-cancerous dysplastic macronodules transform progressively into HCC. The patterns of genomic alterations observed in these tumors were recently identified and were instrumental for the identification of potential targeted therapies that could improve patient care. Liver cancer stem cells are a small subset of undifferentiated liver tumor cells, responsible for cancer initiation, metastasis, relapse and chemoresistance, enriched and isolated according to immunophenotypic and functional properties: cell surface proteins (CD133, CD90, CD44, EpCAM, OV-6, CD13, CD24, DLK1, α2δ1, ICAM-1 and CD47; the functional markers corresponding to side population, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity and autofluorescence. The identification and definition of liver cancer stem cells requires both immunophenotypic and functional properties.

  10. Force Dynamics During T Cell Activation (United States)

    Garcia, David A.; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    T cell activation is an essential step in the adaptive immune response. The binding of the T cell receptor (TCR) with antigen triggers signaling cascades and cell spreading. Physical forces exerted on the TCR by the cytoskeleton have been shown to induce signaling events. While cellular forces are known to depend on the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton, the biophysical mechanisms underlying force induced activation of TCR-antigen interactions unknown. Here, we use traction force microscopy to measure the force dynamics of activated Jurkat T cells. The movements of beads embedded in an elastic gel serve as a non-invasive reporter of cytoskeletal and molecular motor dynamics. We examined the statistical structure of the force profiles throughout the cell during signaling activation. We found two spatially distinct active regimes of force generation characterized by different time scales. Typically, the interior of the cells was found to be more active than the periphery. Inhibition of myosin motor activity altered the correlation time of the bead displacements indicating additional sources of stochastic force generation. Our results indicate a complex interaction between myosin activity and actin polymerization dynamics in producing cellular forces in immune cells.

  11. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo


    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  12. Automated analysis of invadopodia dynamics in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Berginski


    Full Text Available Multiple cell types form specialized protein complexes that are used by the cell to actively degrade the surrounding extracellular matrix. These structures are called podosomes or invadopodia and collectively referred to as invadosomes. Due to their potential importance in both healthy physiology as well as in pathological conditions such as cancer, the characterization of these structures has been of increasing interest. Following early descriptions of invadopodia, assays were developed which labelled the matrix underneath metastatic cancer cells allowing for the assessment of invadopodia activity in motile cells. However, characterization of invadopodia using these methods has traditionally been done manually with time-consuming and potentially biased quantification methods, limiting the number of experiments and the quantity of data that can be analysed. We have developed a system to automate the segmentation, tracking and quantification of invadopodia in time-lapse fluorescence image sets at both the single invadopodia level and whole cell level. We rigorously tested the ability of the method to detect changes in invadopodia formation and dynamics through the use of well-characterized small molecule inhibitors, with known effects on invadopodia. Our results demonstrate the ability of this analysis method to quantify changes in invadopodia formation from live cell imaging data in a high throughput, automated manner.

  13. Metabolic cooperation between cancer and non-cancerous stromal cells is pivotal in cancer progression. (United States)

    Lopes-Coelho, Filipa; Gouveia-Fernandes, Sofia; Serpa, Jacinta


    The way cancer cells adapt to microenvironment is crucial for the success of carcinogenesis, and metabolic fitness is essential for a cancer cell to survive and proliferate in a certain organ/tissue. The metabolic remodeling in a tumor niche is endured not only by cancer cells but also by non-cancerous cells that share the same microenvironment. For this reason, tumor cells and stromal cells constitute a complex network of signal and organic compound transfer that supports cellular viability and proliferation. The intensive dual-address cooperation of all components of a tumor sustains disease progression and metastasis. Herein, we will detail the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts, cancer-associated adipocytes, and inflammatory cells, mainly monocytes/macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages), in the remodeling and metabolic adaptation of tumors.

  14. Carbon Dots-AS1411 Aptamer Nanoconjugate for Ultrasensitive Spectrofluorometric Detection of Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Motaghi, Hasan; Mehrgardi, Masoud Ayatollahi; Bouvet, Philippe


    In the present study, a sensitive and selective signal-on method for aptamer based spectrofluorometric detection of cancer cells is introduced. AS1411, a nucleolin aptamer, is wrapped around water-soluble carbon dots and used as a probe for the detection of several types of cancer cells. Nucleolin, is overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells. Mouse breast 4T1, human breast MCF7, and human cervical HeLa cancer cells were selected as target cells, while human foreskin fibroblast cells HFFF-PI6 served as control cells. For the sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric detection of target cancer cells in the presence of control cells, the cells were incubated in carbon dots-aptamer solutions, the cell suspensions were subsequently centrifuged and the fluorescence intensities were measured as an analytical signal. The specific targeting of cancer cells by AS1411 aptamers causes the release of carbon dots and enhances the fluorescence intensity. A calibration curve with a dynamic range between 10-4500 4T1 cells and detectability of roughly 7 cells was obtained. In addition, no significant change in the signal was detected by modifying the amount of human foreskin fibroblast control cells. Our results demonstrate similar responses to human MCF7 breast and cervical HeLa cancer cells.

  15. c-Myc-Dependent Cell Competition in Human Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Patel, Manish S; Shah, Heta S; Shrivastava, Neeta


    Cell Competition is an interaction between cells for existence in heterogeneous cell populations of multicellular organisms. This phenomenon is involved in initiation and progression of cancer where heterogeneous cell populations compete directly or indirectly for the survival of the fittest based on differential gene expression. In Drosophila, cells having lower dMyc expression are eliminated by cell competition through apoptosis when present in the milieu of cells having higher dMyc expression. Thus, we designed a study to develop c-Myc (human homolog) dependent in vitro cell competition model of human cancer cells. Cells with higher c-Myc were transfected with c-myc shRNA to prepare cells with lower c-Myc and then co-cultured with the same type of cells having a higher c-Myc in equal ratio. Cells with lower c-Myc showed a significant decrease in numbers when compared with higher c-Myc cells, suggesting "loser" and "winner" status of cells, respectively. During microscopy, engulfment of loser cells by winner cells was observed with higher expression of JNK in loser cells. Furthermore, elimination of loser cells was prevented significantly, when co-cultured cells were treated with the JNK (apoptosis) inhibitor. Above results indicate elimination of loser cells in the presence of winner cells by c-Myc-dependent mechanisms of cell competition in human cancer cells. This could be an important mechanism in human tumors where normal cells are eliminated by c-Myc-overexpressed tumor cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1782-1791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gene sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs (United States)

    NCI scientists have found that a gene, Schlafen-11 (SLFN11), sensitizes cells to substances known to cause irreparable damage to DNA.  As part of their study, the researchers used a repository of 60 cell types to identify predictors of cancer cell respons

  17. Cancer cells exhibit clonal diversity in phenotypic plasticity. (United States)

    Mathis, Robert Austin; Sokol, Ethan S; Gupta, Piyush B


    Phenotypic heterogeneity in cancers is associated with invasive progression and drug resistance. This heterogeneity arises in part from the ability of cancer cells to switch between phenotypic states, but the dynamics of this cellular plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we apply DNA barcodes to quantify and track phenotypic plasticity across hundreds of clones in a population of cancer cells exhibiting epithelial or mesenchymal differentiation phenotypes. We find that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell ratio is highly variable across the different clones in cancer cell populations, but remains stable for many generations within the progeny of any single clone-with a heritability of 0.89. To estimate the effects of combination therapies on phenotypically heterogeneous tumours, we generated quantitative simulations incorporating empirical data from our barcoding experiments. These analyses indicated that combination therapies which alternate between epithelial- and mesenchymal-specific treatments eventually select for clones with increased phenotypic plasticity. However, this selection could be minimized by increasing the frequency of alternation between treatments, identifying designs that may minimize selection for increased phenotypic plasticity. These findings establish new insights into phenotypic plasticity in cancer, and suggest design principles for optimizing the effectiveness of combination therapies for phenotypically heterogeneous tumours. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Spindle Cell Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas


    Conclusion: Spindle cell metaplastic breast cancer must be considered in differential diagnosis of breast cancers, and preoperative immunohistochemical examination, including cytokeratin and vimentin, must be added to pathological examination in intervening cases. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(4.000: 259-262

  19. Stem Cells and Cancer; Celulas madre y cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segrelles, C.; Paraminio, J. M.; Lorz, C.


    Stem cell research has thrived over the last years due to their therapeutic and regenerative potential. Scientific breakthroughs in the field are immediately translated from the scientific journals to the mass media, which is not surprising as the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of stem cells is crucial for the treatment of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. In the Molecular Oncology Unit at Ciemat we work to unravel the role of cancer stem cells in tumour development, and to find new antitumor therapies. (Author)

  20. Mitochondrial dynamics and the cell cycle (United States)

    Nuclear-mitochondrial (NM) communication impacts many aspects of plant development including vigor, sterility and viability. Dynamic changes in mitochondrial number, shape, size, and cellular location takes place during the cell cycle possibly impacting the process itself and leading to distribution...

  1. Lgr5-Positive Cells are Cancer-Stem-Cell-Like Cells in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongli Wang


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Effective treatment of gastric cancer (GC requires better understanding of the molecular regulation of its carcinogenesis. Identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs in GC appears to be a critical question. Methods: We analyzed Lgr5 expression in GC specimen. We used an adeno-associated virus (AAV that carries diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA under the control of Lgr5 promoter (AAV-pLgr5-DTA to transduce human GC cells. The growth of GC cells with/without depletion of Lgr5-positive cells was studied in vitro in an MTT assay, and in vivo by analyzing bioluminescence levels. Results: A portion of GC cells in the resected specimen expressed Lgr5. GC cells that formed tumor spheres expressed high Lgr5. Selective depletion of Lgr5-positive GC cells resulted in significant growth inhibition of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Lgr5-positive cells may be CSCs-like cells in GC and may play a pivotal role in the tumorigenesis of GC. Treating Lgr5-positive GC cells may substantially improve the therapeutic outcome.

  2. Study characterizes how DNA-damaging anti-cancer drugs kill cancer cells | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Patients whose cancer cells express the SLFN11 protein are more likely to respond to DNA-damaging anti-cancer drugs than those whose cancer cells don’t express SLFN11. In a new study, Center for Cancer Research investigators show how these drugs recruit SLFN11 to block replication and kill cancer cells. Read more…

  3. Dynamics of B cells in germinal centres (United States)

    De Silva, Nilushi S.; Klein, Ulf


    Humoral immunity depends on the germinal centre (GC) reaction during which somatically mutated high-affinity memory B cells and plasma cells are generated. Recent studies have uncovered crucial cues that are required for the formation and the maintenance of GCs and for the selection of high-affinity antibody mutants. In addition, it is now clear that these events are promoted by the dynamic movements of cells within and between GCs. These findings have resolved the complexities of the GC reaction in greater detail than ever before. This Review focuses on these recent advances and discusses their implications for the establishment of humoral immunity. PMID:25656706

  4. Epigenetics of solid cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Verma, Mukesh


    Epigenetics is an emerging science that can help to explain carcinogenesis. The possibility that carcinogenesis may originate in a stem cell process was proposed recently. Stem cells are generated and contribute to tumor formation during the process of tumor development. This chapter focuses on the role of epigenetics and genetics in stem cell formation, different theories about the origin of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and epigenetic mechanisms that occur in solid CSCs. Potential applications of knowledge gained through this field and future prospects for cancer treatment also are discussed.

  5. Human Cancer Classification: A Systems Biology- Based Model Integrating Morphology, Cancer Stem Cells, Proteomics, and Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday A Idikio


    Full Text Available Human cancer classification is currently based on the idea of cell of origin, light and electron microscopic attributes of the cancer. What is not yet integrated into cancer classification are the functional attributes of these cancer cells. Recent innovative techniques in biology have provided a wealth of information on the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in cancer cells. The emergence of the concept of cancer stem cells needs to be included in a classification model to capture the known attributes of cancer stem cells and their potential contribution to treatment response, and metastases. The integrated model of cancer classification presented here incorporates all morphology, cancer stem cell contributions, genetic, and functional attributes of cancer. Integrated cancer classification models could eliminate the unclassifiable cancers as used in current classifications. Future cancer treatment may be advanced by using an integrated model of cancer classification.

  6. Cell-of-Origin of Cancer versus Cancer Stem Cells: Assays and Interpretations. (United States)

    Rycaj, Kiera; Tang, Dean G


    A tumor originates from a normal cell that has undergone tumorigenic transformation as a result of genetic mutations. This transformed cell is the cell-of-origin for the tumor. In contrast, an established clinical tumor is sustained by subpopulations of self-renewing cancer cells operationally called cancer stem cells (CSC) that can generate, intraclonally, both tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells. Identifying and characterizing tumor cell-of-origin and CSCs should help elucidate tumor cell heterogeneity, which, in turn, should help understand tumor cell responses to clinical treatments, drug resistance, tumor relapse, and metastatic spread. Both tumor transplantation and lineage-tracing assays have been helpful in characterizing these cancer cell populations, although each system has its strengths and caveats. In this article, we briefly review and summarize advantages and limitations of both assays in support of a combinatorial approach to accurately define the roles of both cancer-initiating and cancer-propagating cells. As an aside, we also wish to clarify the definitions of cancer cell-of-origin and CSCs, which are often interchangeably used by mistake. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. The therapeutic implications of plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Leder


    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that tumors contain a small population of cancer cells that have the ability to undergo symmetric self-renewing cell division. In tumors that follow this model, cancer stem cells produce various kinds of specified precursors that divide a limited number of times before terminally differentiating or undergoing apoptosis. As cells within the tumor mature, they become progressively more restricted in the cell types to which they can give rise. However, in some tumor types, the presence of certain extra- or intracellular signals can induce committed cancer progenitors to revert to a multipotential cancer stem cell state. In this paper, we design a novel mathematical model to investigate the dynamics of tumor progression in such situations, and study the implications of a reversible cancer stem cell phenotype for therapeutic interventions. We find that higher levels of dedifferentiation substantially reduce the effectiveness of therapy directed at cancer stem cells by leading to higher rates of resistance. We conclude that plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype is an important determinant of the prognosis of tumors. This model represents the first mathematical investigation of this tumor trait and contributes to a quantitative understanding of cancer.

  8. Fatty acids and breast cancer cell proliferation. (United States)

    Hardy, R W; Wickramasinghe, N S; Ke, S C; Wells, A


    We and others have shown that fatty acids are important regulators of breast cancer cell proliferation. In particular individual fatty acids specifically alter EGF-induced cell proliferation in very different ways. This regulation is mediated by an EGFR/G-protein signaling pathway. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of how this signaling pathway functions and how fatty acids regulate it will provide important information on the cellular and molecular basis for the association of dietary fat and cancer. Furthermore these in vitro studies may explain data previously obtained from in vivo animal studies and identify "good" as well as "bad" fatty acids with respect to the development of cancer.

  9. Expression of periostin in breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Ratajczak-Wielgomas, Katarzyna; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Matkowski, Rafal; Wojnar, Andrzej; Rys, Janusz; Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr


    Periostin (POSTN) is a protein involved in multiple processes important for cancer development, both at the stage of cancer initiation and progression, as well as metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of POSTN in the cells of non-invasive ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and to correlate it with clinicopathological data. Immunohistochemical studies (IHC) were conducted on 21 cases of fibrocystic breast change (FC), 44 cases of DCIS and 92 cases of IDC. POSTN expression at mRNA (real-time PCR) and protein level (western blot analysis) was also confirmed in selected breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231 and BO2). Statistically significant higher level of POSTN expression in IDC and DCIS cancer cells compared to FC was noted. Also, the level of POSTN expression in the cytoplasm of IDC cells was shown to increase with the increasing degree of tumour malignancy (G) and significantly higher expression of POSTN was observed in each degree of tumour malignancy (G) relative to FC. Statistically significant higher POSTN expression was observed in tumours with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) and progesterone receptor-negative (PR-) phenotypes in comparison to estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) cases, as well as significant negative correlation between POSTN expression in cancer cells and expression of ER and PR (p<0.05). Additionally, statistically significant differences in POSTN expression were shown between particular breast cancer cell lines, both at mRNA and protein level. Observed POSTN expression was the lowest in the case of MCF-7, and the highest in MDA-MB-231 and BO2 of the most aggressive potential clinically corresponding to G3 tumours. POSTN expression in the cytoplasm of IDC cancer cells may play an important role in cancer transformation mechanism.

  10. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie


    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  11. Cancer stem cells, the ultimate targets in cancer therapy


    Shabbir A; Esfandyari T; Farassati F


    Ahmed Shabbir,1 Tuba Esfandyari,2 Faris Farassati1,3,4 1Midwest Biomedical Research Foundation, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Kansas, 3Saint Luke’s Cancer Institute, 4Saint Luke’s Marion Bloch Neuroscience Institute, Saint Luke’s Health System, Kansas City, MO, USAThe concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is currently of significant interest due to its important implications in our under...

  12. Cancer stem cells, the ultimate targets in cancer therapy


    Shabbir A; Esfandyari T; Farassati F


    Ahmed Shabbir,1 Tuba Esfandyari,2 Faris Farassati1,3,4 1Midwest Biomedical Research Foundation, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Kansas, 3Saint Luke’s Cancer Institute, 4Saint Luke’s Marion Bloch Neuroscience Institute, Saint Luke’s Health System, Kansas City, MO, USAThe concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is currently of significant interest due to its important implications in our understanding of ...

  13. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karobi Moitra


    Full Text Available The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed.

  14. Could field cancerization be interpreted as a biochemical anomaly amplification due to transformed cells? (United States)

    Fernández P, Janeth; Méndez-Sánchez, Stelia C; Gonzalez-Correa, C A; Miranda, David A


    Field cancerization is a concept used to explain cellular and molecular alterations in tissue associated to neoplasia and cancer. This effect was proposed by Slaughter in order to explain the development of multiple primary tumors and locally recurrent cancer. The particular changes associated with this effect, in each type of cancer, have been detected even at distances greater than 10cm off the tumor, in areas classified as normal by histopathological studies. Early detection of lung, colon, and ovary cancer has been reported by the use of Partial Wave Microscopy Spectroscopy (PWS) and has been explained in terms of the field cancerization effect. Until now, field cancerization has been studied as a field effect and we hypothesize that it can be understood as an amplifying effect of biochemical abnormalities in cells, which leads us to ask the question: Could field cancerization be interpreted as a biochemical anomaly amplification due to transformed cells? We propose this question because the biochemical changes due to field cancerization alter the dynamics of molecules and cells in abnormal tissues in comparison to normal ones, these alterations modify the interaction of intracellular and extracellular medium, as well as cellular movement. We hypothesize that field cancerization when interpreted as an amplification effect can be used for the early detection of cancer by measuring the change of cell dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy landscape methods in probing L215H, L217R and L225M βI-tubulin mutations causing paclitaxel resistance in cancer cells. (United States)

    Tripathi, Shubhandra; Srivastava, Gaurava; Sharma, Ashok


    Drug resistance poses a threatening challenge for mankind, as the development of resistance to already well-established drugs causes serious therapeutic problems. Resistance to paclitaxel (Ptxl), a complex diterpenoid working as microtubule stabilizer, is one such issue in cancer treatment. Microtubule stabilizer drugs, stabilises microtubules upon binding to β-tubulin subunit of tubulin heterodimer thus causing mitotic arrest leading to death of cancer cell. Leucine point mutations viz. L215H, L217R, and L225M were reported for Ptxl resistance in various cancers. In the current study, molecular mechanism of these resistance causing mutations was explored using molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, binding energy estimation (MMPBSA), free energy decomposition, principle component analysis (PCA) and free energy landscape (FEL) methods. A total of five systems including unbound βI-tubulin (Apo), docked wild+Ptxl, L215H+Ptxl, L217R+Ptxl and L225M+Ptxl were prepared, and 50 ns MD simulation was performed for each system. Binding energy estimation indicated that leucine mutation reduces the binding affinity of Ptxl in mutant types (MTs) as compared to wild type (WT). Further, in contrast to WT Ptxl interactions with the M-loop (PHE270-VAL286), S6-S7 loop and H9-H10 were significantly altered in MTs. Results showed that in MTs, Ptxl had weak interaction with M-loop residues, while having strong affinity with S6-S7 loop and H6-H7 loop. Moreover, PCA and FEL analysis revealed that M-loop flexible region (THR274-LEU284) was strongly bound with Ptxl in WT preventing its flexible movement and the causing factor for microtubule stabilization. In MTs due to poor interaction with Ptxl, M-loop flexible region retains its flexibility, therefore unable to stabilize microtubule. This study will give an insight into the importance of M-loop flexible region interaction with Ptxl for microtubule stabilization. In addition, it clearly provides the molecular basis of

  16. The Physics of Cancer (United States)

    La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Zapperi, Stefano


    Preface; 1. Introduction to the cell; 2. The biology of cancer; 3. A modeling toolbox for cancer growth; 4. Vascular hydrodynamics and tumor angiogenesis; 5. Cancer stem cells and the population dynamics of tumors; 6. Biomechanics of cancer; 7. Cancer cell migration; 8. Chromosome and chromatin dynamics in cancer; 9. Control of tumor growth by the immune system; 10. Pharmacological approaches: old and new; 11. Outlook on the physics of cancer: a new interdisciplinary area; References; Index.

  17. Identification of cancer stem-like side population cells in ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3. (United States)

    Gao, Quanli; Geng, Li; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Gaudernack, Gustav; Suo, Zhenhe


    Side population (SP) cells may enrich stem-like cells in many normal and malignant tissues. However, SP method application has drawn special attention to the field of stem cell research, and the existence of SP cells in cell culture is being debated, most probably because different cell lines require different technical modifications, especially when cell staining is considered. In this study, the authors aimed to disclose whether the hoechst33342 staining required extensive optimization for identifying SP cells in the human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3. After systematic evaluations, it was found that only 2.5 microg/mL hoechst33342 staining of the cells for 60 min could get an ideal SP population, which accounted for 0.9% of the whole cell population. The sorted SP cells showed significantly higher colony formation efficiency than the non-side population (NSP) cells, and only the SP cells could form holoclones. Real-time PCR disclosed that SP cells expressed higher levels of "stemness" gene Oct3/4 than the NSP cells did, indicating that the SP cells might harbor cancer stem cells in this cell line. The results highlight the necessity of SP method optimization in cell studies, and the SP cells in this cell line merit further studies when cancer stem cell identification and isolation are considered.

  18. Cancer stem cells and their implication in breast cancer. (United States)

    Carrasco, E; Alvarez, Pablo J; Prados, José; Melguizo, Consolación; Rama, Ana R; Aránega, Antonia; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando


    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis on the origin of cancer has recently gained considerable support. CSCs are tumour cells with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation that direct the origin and progression of the disease and may be responsible for relapse, metastasis and treatment failures. This article reviews breast CSCs (BCSCs) phenotyping, clinical implications and clinical trials focused on BCSCs in breast cancer. Relevant studies were found through PubMed and databases. Cancer stem cells are identified and isolated using membrane and cell activity markers; in the case of BCSCs, these are CD44(+) /CD24(low/-) and show aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, alongside their capacity to grow and form mammospheres. The presence of stem cell properties is associated with a worse outcome. Hence, these cells have important clinical implications, and elucidation of the mechanisms underlying their activity will allow the development of novel effective therapies and diagnostic instruments, improving the prognosis of these patients. Standard treatments are directed against the tumour mass and do not eliminate CSCs. There is therefore a need for specific anti-CSC therapies, and numerous authors are investigating new targets to this end, as reported in this review. It is also necessary for clinical trials to be undertaken to allow this new knowledge to be applied in the clinical setting. However, there have been few trials on anti-BCSCs therapies to date. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Human Cancer Classification: A Systems Biology- Based Model Integrating Morphology, Cancer Stem Cells, Proteomics, and Genomics


    Halliday A Idikio


    Human cancer classification is currently based on the idea of cell of origin, light and electron microscopic attributes of the cancer. What is not yet integrated into cancer classification are the functional attributes of these cancer cells. Recent innovative techniques in biology have provided a wealth of information on the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in cancer cells. The emergence of the concept of cancer stem cells needs to be included in a classification model to capture...

  20. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... interagency program headquartered at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), which is part of the ...

  1. Induction of cancer stem cell properties in colon cancer cells by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobu Oshima

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered to be responsible for the dismal prognosis of cancer patients. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition and maintenance of CSC properties in cancer cells because of their rarity in clinical samples. We herein induced CSC properties in cancer cells using defined factors. We retrovirally introduced a set of defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2 and KLF4 into human colon cancer cells, followed by culture with conventional serum-containing medium, not human embryonic stem cell medium. We then evaluated the CSC properties in the cells. The colon cancer cells transduced with the three factors showed significantly enhanced CSC properties in terms of the marker gene expression, sphere formation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. We designated the cells with CSC properties induced by the factors, a subset of the transduced cells, as induced CSCs (iCSCs. Moreover, we established a novel technology to isolate and collect the iCSCs based on the differences in the degree of the dye-effluxing activity enhancement. The xenografts derived from our iCSCs were not teratomas. Notably, in contrast to the tumors from the parental cancer cells, the iCSC-based tumors mimicked actual human colon cancer tissues in terms of their immunohistological findings, which showed colonic lineage differentiation. In addition, we confirmed that the phenotypes of our iCSCs were reproducible in serial transplantation experiments. By introducing defined factors, we generated iCSCs with lineage specificity directly from cancer cells, not via an induced pluripotent stem cell state. The novel method enables us to obtain abundant materials of CSCs that not only have enhanced tumorigenicity, but also the ability to differentiate to recapitulate a specific type of cancer tissues. Our method can be of great value to fully understand CSCs and develop new therapies targeting CSCs.

  2. The therapeutic promise of the cancer stem cell concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frank, Natasha Y; Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells that selectively possess tumor initiation and self-renewal capacity and the ability to give rise to bulk populations of nontumorigenic cancer cell progeny through differentiation...

  3. The telomerase inhibitor imetelstat depletes cancer stem cells in breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Joseph, Immanual; Tressler, Robert; Bassett, Ekaterina; Harley, Calvin; Buseman, Christen M; Pattamatta, Preeti; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W; Go, Ning F


    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are rare drug-resistant cancer cell subsets proposed to be responsible for the maintenance and recurrence of cancer and metastasis. Telomerase is constitutively active in both bulk tumor cell and CSC populations but has only limited expression in normal tissues. Thus, inhibition of telomerase has been shown to be a viable approach in controlling cancer growth in nonclinical studies and is currently in phase II clinical trials. In this study, we investigated the effects of imetelstat (GRN163L), a potent telomerase inhibitor, on both the bulk cancer cells and putative CSCs. When breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with imetelstat in vitro, telomerase activity in the bulk tumor cells and CSC subpopulations were inhibited. Additionally, imetelstat treatment reduced the CSC fractions present in the breast and pancreatic cell lines. In vitro treatment with imetelstat, but not control oligonucleotides, also reduced the proliferation and self-renewal potential of MCF7 mammospheres and resulted in cell death after telomerase activity expression levels or telomere length of CSCs and bulk tumor cells in these cell lines did not correlate with the increased sensitivity of CSCs to imetelstat, suggesting a mechanism of action independent of telomere shortening for the effects of imetelstat on the CSC subpopulations. Our results suggest that imetelstat-mediated depletion of CSCs may offer an alternative mechanism by which telomerase inhibition may be exploited for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2010 AACR.

  4. Liver cancer stem cells as an important target in liver cancer therapies. (United States)

    Zou, Gang-Ming


    Hepatic cancer is one of most common cause of cancer-related death. Hepato-epithelial cancers are believed to originate from the malignant transformation of liver-resident stem/progenitor cells. Liver cancer stem cells have been characterized recently and the phenotype of liver cancer stem cells has been defined as CD133+ CD44+ cancer cells. Recently, it has been also demonstrated about the relevance of targeting liver cancer stem cells, due to cancer stem cells are related to cancer metastasis. These advances no doubt to bring the new strategy in liver cancer treatment and control in this disease. This review describes the current status and progress about cancer stem cell research in liver and discuss of the implications of these studies in new liver cancer treatment strategies.

  5. Cells as delivery vehicles for cancer therapeutics. (United States)

    Basel, Matthew T; Shrestha, Tej B; Bossmann, Stefan H; Troyer, Deryl L


    Cell-based therapeutics have advanced significantly over the past decade and are poised to become a major pillar of modern medicine. Three cell types in particular have been studied in detail for their ability to home to tumors and to deliver a variety of different payloads. Neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and monocytes have each been shown to have great potential as future delivery systems for cancer therapy. A variety of other cell types have also been studied. These results demonstrate that the field of cell-based therapeutics will only continue to grow.

  6. NSAIDs and Cell Proliferation in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Ettarh


    Full Text Available Colon cancer is common worldwide and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in patients. Fortunately, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that continuous therapy with NSAIDs offers real promise of chemoprevention and adjunct therapy for colon cancer patients. Tumour growth is the result of complex regulation that determines the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. How NSAIDs affect this balance is important for understanding and improving treatment strategies and drug effectiveness. NSAIDs inhibit proliferation and impair the growth of colon cancer cell lines when tested in culture in vitro and many NSAIDs also prevent tumorigenesis and reduce tumour growth in animal models and in patients, but the relationship to inhibition of tumour cell proliferation is less convincing, principally due to gaps in the available data. High concentrations of NSAIDs are required in vitro to achieve cancer cell inhibition and growth retardation at varying time-points following treatment. However, the results from studies with colon cancer cell xenografts are promising and, together with better comparative data on anti-proliferative NSAID concentrations and doses (for in vitro and in vivo administration, could provide more information to improve our understanding of the relationships between these agents, dose and dosing regimen, and cellular environment.

  7. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luis [CNRS UMR 7598, LJLL, & INRIA MAMBA team, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, (France); Chisholm, Rebecca [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, (Australia); Clairambault, Jean [INRIA MAMBA team & LJLL, UMR 7598, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France,, Corresponding author (France); Escargueil, Alexandre [INSERM “Cancer Biology and Therapeutics”, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR-S 938, CDR St Antoine, Hôpital St Antoine, 184 Fbg. St Antoine, 75571 Paris cedex 12, France, (France); Lorenzi, Tommaso [CMLA, ENS Cachan, 61, Av. du Président Wilson, 94230 Cachan cedex & INRIA MAMBA team, & LJLL, UMR 7598, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, (France); Lorz, Alexander [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LJLL, UMR 7598 & INRIA Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, (France); Trélat, Emmanuel [Institut Universitaire de France, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LJLL, UMR 7598, Boîte courrier 187, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, (France)


    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as “bet hedging” of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  8. IL-4-mediated drug resistance in colon cancer stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todaro, Matilde; Perez Alea, Mileidys; Scopelliti, Alessandro; Medema, Jan Paul; Stassi, Giorgio


    Cancer stem cells are defined as cells able to both extensively self-renew and differentiate into progenitors. Cancer stem cells are thus likely to be responsible for maintaining or spreading a cancer, and may be the most relevant targets for cancer therapy. The CD133 glycoprotein was recently

  9. Stem Cell Transplants in Cancer Treatment (United States)

    Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in cancer patients who have had theirs destroyed by very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Learn about the types of transplants and side effects that may occur.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JIANG, YI [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Cancer remains to be one of the leading causes of death due to diseases. We use a systems approach that combines mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, in vivo and in vitro experiments, to develop a predictive model that medical researchers can use to study and treat cancerous tumors. The multiscale, cell-based model includes intracellular regulations, cellular level dynamics and intercellular interactions, and extracellular level chemical dynamics. The intracellular level protein regulations and signaling pathways are described by Boolean networks. The cellular level growth and division dynamics, cellular adhesion and interaction with the extracellular matrix is described by a lattice Monte Carlo model (the Cellular Potts Model). The extracellular dynamics of the signaling molecules and metabolites are described by a system of reaction-diffusion equations. All three levels of the model are integrated through a hybrid parallel scheme into a high-performance simulation tool. The simulation results reproduce experimental data in both avasular tumors and tumor angiogenesis. By combining the model with experimental data to construct biologically accurate simulations of tumors and their vascular systems, this model will enable medical researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular interactions associated with cancer progression and treatment.

  11. Harnessing the apoptotic programs in cancer stem-like cells. (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Scadden, David T


    Elimination of malignant cells is an unmet challenge for most human cancer types even with therapies targeting specific driver mutations. Therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to alter cancer cell biology on multiple levels is increasingly recognized as essential for cancer cure. One such aspect of cancer cell biology is the relative apoptosis resistance of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms affecting the apoptotic process in tumor cells emphasizing the differences in the tumor-initiating or stem-like cells of cancer. Further, we summarize efforts to exploit these differences to design therapies targeting that important cancer cell population. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna


    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  13. T cell recognition of breast cancer antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nadia Viborg; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Andersen, Rikke Sick

    Recent studies are encouraging research of breast cancer immunogenicity to evaluate the applicability ofimmunotherapy as a treatment strategy. The epitope landscape in breast cancer is minimally described, thus it is necessary to identify T cell targets to develop immune mediated therapies.......This project investigates four proteins commonly upregulated in breast cancer and thus probable tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Aromatase, prolactin, NEK3, and PIAS3 contribute to increase growth, survival, and motility of malignant cells. Aspiring to uncover novel epitopes for cytotoxic T cells, a reverse...... immunology approach is applied. Via in silico screening of the protein sequences, 415 peptides were predicted as HLA-A*0201 and HLA-B*0702 binders. Subsequent in vitro binding analysis in a MHC ELISA platform confirmed binding for 147 of the 415 predicted binders. The 147 peptides were evaluated for T cell...

  14. Dynamic fluorescence imaging with molecular agents for cancer detection (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Kuk

    Non-invasive dynamic optical imaging of small animals requires the development of a novel fluorescence imaging modality. Herein, fluorescence imaging is demonstrated with sub-second camera integration times using agents specifically targeted to disease markers, enabling rapid detection of cancerous regions. The continuous-wave fluorescence imaging acquires data with an intensified or an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device. The work presented in this dissertation (i) assessed dose-dependent uptake using dynamic fluorescence imaging and pharmacokinetic (PK) models, (ii) evaluated disease marker availability in two different xenograft tumors, (iii) compared the impact of autofluorescence in fluorescence imaging of near-infrared (NIR) vs. red light excitable fluorescent contrast agents, (iv) demonstrated dual-wavelength fluorescence imaging of angiogenic vessels and lymphatics associated with a xenograft tumor model, and (v) examined dynamic multi-wavelength, whole-body fluorescence imaging with two different fluorescent contrast agents. PK analysis showed that the uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) in xenograft tumor regions linearly increased with doses of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) up to 1.5 nmol/mouse. Above 1.5 nmol/mouse, the uptake did not increase with doses, suggesting receptor saturation. Target to background ratio (TBR) and PK analysis for two different tumor cell lines showed that while Kaposi's sarcoma (KS1767) exhibited early and rapid uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf), human melanoma tumors (M21) had non-significant TBR differences and early uptake rates similar to the contralateral normal tissue regions. The differences may be due to different compartment location of the target. A comparison of fluorescence imaging with NIR vs. red light excitable fluorescent dyes demonstrates that NIR dyes are associated with less background signal, enabling rapid tumor detection. In contrast, animals injected with red light excitable fluorescent dyes showed high autofluorescence. Dual

  15. Cell fate determination dynamics in bacteria (United States)

    Kuchina, Anna; Espinar, Lorena; Cagatay, Tolga; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Suel, Gurol


    The fitness of an organism depends on many processes that serve the purpose to adapt to changing environment in a robust and coordinated fashion. One example of such process is cellular fate determination. In the presence of a variety of alternative responses each cell adopting a particular fate represents a ``choice'' that must be tightly regulated to ensure the best survival strategy for the population taking into account the broad range of possible environmental challenges. We investigated this problem in the model organism B.Subtilis which under stress conditions differentiates terminally into highly resistant spores or initiates an alternative transient state of competence. The dynamics underlying cell fate choice remains largely unknown. We utilize quantitative fluorescent microscopy to track the activities of genes involved in these responses on a single-cell level. We explored the importance of temporal interactions between competing cell fates by re- engineering the differentiation programs. I will discuss how the precise dynamics of cellular ``decision-making'' governed by the corresponding biological circuits may enable cells to adjust to diverse environments and determine survival.

  16. Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Lorico


    Full Text Available Many types of tumors are organized in a hierarchy of heterogeneous cell populations, with only a small proportion of cancer stem cells (CSCs capable of sustaining tumor formation and growth, giving rise to differentiated cells, which form the bulk of the tumor. Proof of the existence of CSC comes from clinical experience with germ-cell cancers, where the elimination of a subset of undifferentiated cells can cure patients (Horwich et al., 2006, and from the study of leukemic cells (Bonnet and Dick, 1997; Lapidot et al., 1994; and Yilmaz et al., 2006. The discovery of CSC in leukemias as well as in many solid malignancies, including breast carcinoma (Al-Hajj et al. 2003; Fang et al., 2005; Hemmati et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2005; Lawson et al., 2007; Li et al., 2007; Ricci-Vitiani et al., 2007; Singh et al., 2003; and Xin et al., 2005, has suggested a unifying CSC theory of cancer development. The reported general insensitivity of CSC to chemotherapy and radiation treatment (Bao et al., 2006 has suggested that current anticancer drugs, which inhibit bulk replicating cancer cells, may not effectively inhibit CSC. The clinical relevance of targeting CSC-associated genes is supported by several recent studies, including CD44 targeting for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (Jin et al., 2006, CD24 targeting for treatment of colon and pancreatic cancer (Sagiv et al., 2008, and CD133 targeting for hepatocellular and gastric cancer (Smith et al., 2008. One promising approach is to target CSC survival signaling pathways, where leukemia stem cell research has already made some progress (Mikkola et al., 2010.

  17. Modeling, signaling and cytoskeleton dynamics: integrated modeling-experimental frameworks in cell migration. (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Zaman, Muhammad H


    Cell migration is a complex and multistep process involved in homeostasis maintenance, morphogenesis, and disease development, such as cancer metastasis. Modeling cell migration and the relevant cytoskeleton dynamics have profound implications for studying fundamental development and disease diagnosis. This review focuses on some recent models of both cell migration and migration-related cytoskeleton dynamics, addressing issues such as the difference between amoeboid and mesenchymal migration modes, and between single-cell migration and collective cell migration. The review also highlights the computational integration among variable external cues, especially the biochemical and mechanical signaling that affects cell migration. Finally, we aim to identify the gaps in our current knowledge and potential strategies to develop integrated modeling-experimental frameworks for multiscale behavior integrating gene expression, cell signaling, mechanics, and multicellular dynamics. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1365. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1365 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Aberrant DNA methylation in breast cancer cells


    Campoy, Emanuel Martin; Laurito, Sergio Roberto; Urrutia, Guillermo; Branham, Maria Teresita; Roque Moreno, Maria


    The epigenome is regulated by a large number of macromolecular machines that are dynamically involved in various processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA signals, all of them working together to regulate the proper expression of the genome. Thus, in contrast with the genome, whose sequence is carefully conserved during cell life, the epigenome is highly dynamic. The epigenomic modifications are acquired during normal cell differentiation, replicated d...

  19. Targeting regulatory T cells in cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, William L


    Infiltration of tumors by regulatory T cells confers growth and metastatic advantages by inhibiting antitumor immunity and by production of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand, which may directly stimulate metastatic propagation of RANK-expressing cancer cells. Modulation of regulatory T cells can enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Strategies include depletion, interference with function, inhibition of tumoral migration, and exploitation of T-cell plasticity. Problems with these strategies include a lack of specificity, resulting in depletion of antitumor effector T cells or global interruption of regulatory T cells, which may predispose to autoimmune diseases. Emerging technologies, such as RNA interference and tetramer-based targeting, may have the potential to improve selectivity and efficacy.

  20. Cancer stem cells in the development of liver cancer (United States)

    Yamashita, Taro; Wang, Xin Wei


    Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a poor outcome. Several hepatic stem/progenitor markers are useful for isolating a subset of liver cells with stem cell features, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). These cells are responsible for tumor relapse, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Liver CSCs dictate a hierarchical organization that is shared in both organogenesis and tumorigenesis. An increased understanding of the molecular signaling events that regulate cellular hierarchy and stemness, and success in defining key CSC-specific genes, have opened up new avenues to accelerate the development of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies. This Review highlights recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of liver CSCs and discusses unanswered questions about the concept of liver CSCs. PMID:23635789

  1. Sunitinib for advanced renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Coppin


    Full Text Available Chris CoppinBC Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaAbstract: Renal cell cancer has been refractory to drug therapy in the large majority of patients. Targeted agents including sunitinib have been intensively evaluated in renal cell cancer over the past 5 years. Sunitinib is an oral small molecule inhibitor of several targets including multiple tyrosine kinase receptors of the angiogenesis pathway. This review surveys the rationale, development, validation, and clinical use of sunitinib that received conditional approval for use in North America and Europe in 2006. In patients with the clear-cell subtype of renal cell cancer and metastatic disease with good or moderate prognostic factors for survival, sunitinib 50 mg for 4 weeks of a 6-week cycle provides superior surrogate and patient-reported outcomes when compared with interferon-alfa, the previous commonly used first-line drug. Overall survival has not yet shown improvement over interferon and is problematic because of patient crossover from the control arm to sunitinib at disease progression. Toxicity is significant but manageable with experienced monitoring. Sunitinib therapy is an important step forward for this condition. High cost and limited efficacy support the ongoing search for further improved therapy.Keywords: renal cell cancer, targeted therapy, sunitinib

  2. with esophageal squamous cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively observe and analyze the long-term treatment outcomes of 191 elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC who were treated with californium-252 (252Cf neutron brachytherapy (NBT in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Material and methods : From January 2002 to November 2012, 191 patients with ESCC underwent NBT in combination with EBRT. The total radiation dose to the reference point via NBT was 8-25 Gy-eq in two to five fractions with one fraction per week. The total dose via EBRT was 50-60 Gy, which was delivered over a period of 5 to 6 weeks with normal fractionation. Results : The median survival time for the 191 patients was 23.6 months, and the 5-year rates for overall survival (OS and local-regional control (LRC were 28.7% and 54.2%, respectively. The patients’ age was a factor that was significantly associated with OS (p = 0.010, according to univariate analysis. The 5-year OS (LRC was 37.3% (58.6% for patients aged 70-74 years and 14.5% (47.9% for patients aged > 74 years (p = 0.010 and p = 0.038. In multivariate analysis, age and clinical N stage were associated with OS and LRC (p = 0.011 [0.041] and p = 0.005 [0.005]. From the time of treatment completion to the development of local-regional recurrence or death, 5 (2.6% patients experienced fistula and 15 (7.9% experienced massive bleeding. The incidence of severe late complications was related to older age (p = 0.027, higher NBT dose/fraction (20-25 Gy/5 fractions, and higher total dose (> 66 Gy. Conclusions : The clinical data indicated that NBT in combination with EBRT produced favorable local control and long-term survival rates for elderly patients with ESCC, and that the side effects were tolerable. Patient’s age, clinical stage N status, and radiation dose could be used to select the appropriate treatment for elderly patients.

  3. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram


    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  4. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells. (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R


    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M


    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based...

  6. Dendritic cell immunotherapy in uterine cancer. (United States)

    Coosemans, An; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Vanderstraeten, Anke; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frédéric; Van Gool, Stefaan W


    Uterine cancer is the most common pelvic gynecological malignancy. Uterine sarcomas and relapsed uterine carcinomas have limited treatment options. The search for new therapies is urgent. Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy holds much promise, though has been poorly explored in uterine cancer. This commentary gives an insight in existing DC immunotherapy studies in uterine cancer and summarizes the possibilities and the importance of the loading of tumor antigens onto DC and their subsequent maturation. However, the sole application of DC immunotherapy to target uterine cancer will be insufficient because of tumor-induced immunosuppression, which will hamper the establishment of an effective anti-tumor immune response. The authors give an overview on the limited existing immunosuppressive data and propose a novel approach on DC immunotherapy in uterine cancer.

  7. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan


    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  8. Dynamics of Immune Checkpoints, Immune System, and BCG in the Treatment of Superficial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Tijjani Saad


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the dynamics of immune suppressors/checkpoints, immune system, and BCG in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β are some of the examples of immune suppressors/checkpoints. They are responsible for deactivating the immune system and enhancing immunological tolerance. Moreover, they categorically downregulate and suppress the immune system by preventing and blocking the activation of T-cells, which in turn decreases autoimmunity and enhances self-tolerance. In cancer immunotherapy, the immune checkpoints/suppressors prevent and block the immune cells from attacking, spreading, and killing the cancer cells, which leads to cancer growth and development. We formulate a mathematical model that studies three possible dynamics of the treatment and establish the effects of the immune checkpoints on the immune system and the treatment at large. Although the effect cannot be seen explicitly in the analysis of the model, we show it by numerical simulations.

  9. Live cell imaging of septin dynamics in Ustilago maydis. (United States)

    Baumann, S; Zander, S; Weidtkamp-Peters, S; Feldbrügge, M


    Septins are highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins involved in a variety of biological processes such as cell polarization and cytokinesis. In humans, functional defects in these proteins have been linked to cancer and neuronal diseases. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in studying the structure of septin subunits and the formation of defined heteromeric building blocks. These are assembled into higher-order structures at distinct subcellular sites. An important microscopic approach in studying septin assembly and dynamics is the use of septins tagged with fluorescent proteins. This revealed, eg, that septins form rings during cytokinesis and that septins build extended filaments partially colocalizing with actin cables and microtubules. Here, we describe extensive live cell imaging of septins in the model microorganism Ustilago maydis. We present techniques to study dynamic localization of protein and septin mRNA on shuttling endosomes as well as colocalization of proteins at these highly motile units. Moreover, FLIM-FRET experiments for analyzing local protein interactions are presented. Importantly, these imaging approaches transfer well to other fungal and animal model systems for in vivo analysis of septin dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers (United States)


    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system, largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system, largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only...experience in ovary research (ovarian physiology , oogonial stem cells) to work on this project. We also ! 5! obtained approval of our animal

  11. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)


    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  12. Dynamic Proteomics: a database for dynamics and localizations of endogenous fluorescently-tagged proteins in living human cells. (United States)

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Cohen, Ariel A; Geva-Zatorsky, Naama; Eden, Eran; Prilusky, Jaime; Issaeva, Irina; Sigal, Alex; Cohen-Saidon, Cellina; Liron, Yuvalal; Cohen, Lydia; Danon, Tamar; Perzov, Natalie; Alon, Uri


    Recent advances allow tracking the levels and locations of a thousand proteins in individual living human cells over time using a library of annotated reporter cell clones (LARC). This library was created by Cohen et al. to study the proteome dynamics of a human lung carcinoma cell-line treated with an anti-cancer drug. Here, we report the Dynamic Proteomics database for the proteins studied by Cohen et al. Each cell-line clone in LARC has a protein tagged with yellow fluorescent protein, expressed from its endogenous chromosomal location, under its natural regulation. The Dynamic Proteomics interface facilitates searches for genes of interest, downloads of protein fluorescent movies and alignments of dynamics following drug addition. Each protein in the database is displayed with its annotation, cDNA sequence, fluorescent images and movies obtained by the time-lapse microscopy. The protein dynamics in the database represents a quantitative trace of the protein fluorescence levels in nucleus and cytoplasm produced by image analysis of movies over time. Furthermore, a sequence analysis provides a search and comparison of up to 50 input DNA sequences with all cDNAs in the library. The raw movies may be useful as a benchmark for developing image analysis tools for individual-cell dynamic-proteomics. The database is available at

  13. The evolving cancer stem cell paradigm: implications in veterinary oncology. (United States)

    Pang, Lisa Y; Argyle, David J


    The existence of subpopulations of cells in cancer with increased tumour-initiating ability, self-renewal potential, and intrinsic resistance to conventional therapeutics formed the basis of the cancer stem cell model. Some tumours have since been viewed as aberrant tissues with a unidirectional hierarchical structure consisting of cancer stem cells at the apex, driving tumour growth, metastasis and relapse after therapy. Here, recent developments in cancer stem cell research are reviewed with a focus on tumour heterogeneity, cellular plasticity and cancer stem cell reprogramming. The impact of these findings on the cancer stem cell model is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulating autophagy in cancer therapy: advancements and challenges for cancer cell death sensitization. (United States)

    Bhat, Punya; Kriel, Jurgen; Shubha Priya, Babu; Salundi, Basappa; Shivananju, Nanjunda Swamy; Loos, Ben


    Autophagy is a major protein degradation pathway capable of upholding cellular metabolism under nutrient limiting conditions, making it a valuable resource to highly proliferating tumour cells. Although the regulatory machinery of the autophagic pathway has been well characterized, accurate modulation of this pathway remains complex in the context of clinical translatability for improved cancer therapies. In particular, the dynamic relationship between the rate of protein degradation through autophagy, i.e. autophagic flux, and the susceptibility of tumours to undergo apoptosis remains largely unclear. Adding to inefficient clinical translation is the lack of measurement techniques that accurately depict autophagic flux. Paradoxically, both increased autophagic flux as well as autophagy inhibition have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to undergo cell death, indicating the highly context dependent nature of this pathway. In this article, we aim to disentangle the role of autophagy modulation in tumour suppression by assessing existing literature in the context of autophagic flux and cellular metabolism at the interface of mitochondrial function. We highlight the urgency to not only assess autophagic flux more accurately, but also to center autophagy manipulation within the unique and inherent metabolic properties of cancer cells. Lastly, we discuss the challenges faced when targeting autophagy in the clinical setting. In doing so, it is hoped that a better understanding of autophagy in cancer therapy is revealed in order to overcome tumour chemoresistance through more controlled autophagy modulation in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. HIF-1-alpha links mitochondrial perturbation to the dynamic acquisition of breast cancer tumorigenicity. (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Peifeng; Lin, Yi-Pei; Ma, Huimin; Chung, Yiyin; Chi, Kevin; Chen, Yuan; Li, Wei; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Ann, David K


    Up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), even in normoxia, is a common feature of solid malignancies. However, the mechanisms of increased HIF-1α abundance, and its role in regulating breast cancer plasticity are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that dimethyl-2-ketoglutarate (DKG), a widely used cell membrane-permeable α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) analogue, transiently stabilizes HIF-1α by inhibiting prolyl hydroxylase 2. Here, we report that breast cancer tumorigenicity can be acquired through prolonged treatment with DKG. Our results indicate that, in response to prolonged DKG treatment, mitochondrial respiration becomes uncoupled, leading to the accumulation of succinate and fumarate in breast cancer cells. Further, we found that an early increase in the oxygen flux rate was accompanied by a delayed enhancement of glycolysis. Together, our results indicate that these events trigger a dynamic enrichment for cells with pluripotent/stem-like cell markers and tumorsphere-forming capacity. Moreover, DKG-mediated metabolic reprogramming results in HIF-1α induction and reductive carboxylation pathway activation. Both HIF-1α accumulation and the tumor-promoting metabolic state are required for DKG-promoted tumor repopulation capacity in vivo. Our data suggest that mitochondrial adaptation to DKG elevates the ratio of succinate or fumarate to α-KG, which in turn stabilizes HIF-1α and reprograms breast cancer cells into a stem-like state. Therefore, our results demonstrate that metabolic regulation, with succinate and/or fumarate accumulation, governs the dynamic transition of breast cancer tumorigenic states and we suggest that HIF-1α is indispensable for breast cancer tumorigenicity.

  16. Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Cell Cycle Effects for Gemcitabine and Trabectedin Combinations in Pancreatic Cancer Cells (United States)

    Miao, Xin; Koch, Gilbert; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Straubinger, Robert M.; Jusko, William J.


    Combinations of gemcitabine and trabectedin exert modest synergistic cytotoxic effects on two pancreatic cancer cell lines. Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. Extensive experimental data were obtained for two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3), including cell proliferation rates over 0–120 h of drug exposure, and the fraction of cells in different cell cycle phases or apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that gemcitabine induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, and trabectedin induced transient cell cycle arrest in S phase that progressed to G2/M phase. Over time, cells in the control group accumulated in G0/G1 phase. Systems cell cycle models were developed based on observed mechanisms and were used to characterize both cell proliferation and cell numbers in the sub G1, G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases in the control and drug-treated groups. The proposed mathematical models captured well both single and joint effects of gemcitabine and trabectedin. Interaction parameters were applied to quantify unexplainable drug-drug interaction effects on cell cycle arrest in S phase and in inducing apoptosis. The developed models were able to identify and quantify the different underlying interactions between gemcitabine and trabectedin, and captured well our large datasets in the dimensions of time, drug concentrations, and cellular subpopulations. PMID:27895579

  17. Side population cells isolated from KATO III human gastric cancer cell line have cancer stem cell-like characteristics. (United States)

    She, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Ge; Wang, Xuan; Che, Xiang-Ming; Wang, Zi-Ming


    To investigate whether the side population (SP) cells possess cancer stem cell-like characteristics in vitro and the role of SP cells in tumorigenic process in gastric cancer. We analyzed the presence of SP cells in different human gastric carcinoma cell lines, and then isolated and identified the SP cells from the KATO III human gastric cancer cell line by flow cytometry. The clonogenic ability and self-renewal were evaluated by clone and sphere formation assays. The related genes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To compare tumorigenic ability, SP and non-side population (NSP) cells from the KATO III human gastric cancer cell line were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. SP cells from the total population accounted for 0.57% in KATO III, 1.04% in Hs-746T, and 0.02% in AGS (CRL-1739). SP cells could grow clonally and have self-renewal capability in conditioned media. The expression of ABCG2, MDRI, Bmi-1 and Oct-4 was different between SP and NSP cells. However, there was no apparent difference between SP and NSP cells when they were injected into nude mice. SP cells have some cancer stem cell-like characteristics in vitro and can be used for studying the tumorigenic process in gastric cancer.

  18. Characterizing cancer cells with cancer stem cell-like features in 293T human embryonic kidney cells. (United States)

    Debeb, Bisrat G; Zhang, Xiaomei; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Gao, Hui; Cohen, Evan; Li, Li; Rodriguez, Angel A; Landis, Melissa D; Lucci, Anthony; Ueno, Naoto T; Robertson, Fredika; Xu, Wei; Lacerda, Lara; Buchholz, Thomas A; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Reuben, James M; Lewis, Michael T; Woodward, Wendy A


    Since the first suggestion of prospectively identifiable cancer stem cells in solid tumors, efforts have been made to characterize reported cancer stem cell surrogates in existing cancer cell lines, and cell lines rich with these surrogates have been used to screen for cancer stem cell targeted agents. Although 293T cells were derived from human embryonic kidney, transplantation of these cells into the mammary fat pad yields aggressive tumors that self-renew as evidenced by serial xenograft passages through transplantation. Herein we fully characterize cancer stem cell-like features in 293T human embryonic kidney cells. 293T cells can be readily cultured and passaged as spheres in serum-free stem cell promoting culture conditions. Cells cultured in vitro as three-dimensional spheres (3D) were shown to contain higher ALDH1 and CD44+/CD24- population compared to monolayer cells. These cells were also resistant to radiation and upregulate stem cell survival signaling including beta-catenin, Notch1 and Survivin in response to radiation. Moreover, 3D spheres generated from the 293T cells have increased expression of mesenchymal genes including vimentin, n-cadherin, zeb1, snail and slug as well as pro-metastatic genes RhoC, Tenascin C and MTA1. In addition, microRNAs implicated in self-renewal and metastases were markedly reduced in 3D spheres. 293T cells exhibit a cancer stem cell-like phenotype when cultured as 3D spheres and represent an important research tool for studying the molecular and biological mechanisms of cancer stem cells and for testing and developing novel targets for cancer therapy.

  19. Stemness is Derived from Thyroid Cancer Cells (United States)

    Ma, Risheng; Bonnefond, Simon; Morshed, Syed A.; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F.


    Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs). Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Furthermore, EMT is a critical process for epithelial tumor progression, local invasion, and metastasis formation. In addition, stemness provides cells with therapeutic resistance and is the likely cause of tumor recurrence. However, the relevance of EMT and stemness in thyroid cancer progression has not been extensively studied. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer, we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E)/TPO-Cre). This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells, which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid-specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers, such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15, and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6-week-old BRAFV600E mice indicating the dedifferentiated status of the cells and the fact that stemness was derived in this model from differentiated thyroid cells. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a cancer thyroid cell line (named Marca cells) derived from one of the murine tumors. In this cell line, we also found that overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of

  20. Getting to the heart of the matter in cancer: Novel approaches to targeting cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh; Mori, Masaki


    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. While cancers may initially show good response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it is not uncommon for them to recur at a later date. This phenomenon may be explained by the existence of a small population of cancer stem cells, which are inherently resistant to anti-cancer treatment as well as being capable of self-renewal. Therefore, while most of the tumour bulk consisting of cells that are not cancer stem cells respond to treatment, the cancer stem cells remain, leading to disease recurrence. Following this logic, the effective targeting of cancer stem cells holds promise for providing long-term cure in individuals with cancer. Cancer stem cells, like normal stem cells are endowed with mechanisms to protect themselves against a wide range of insults including anti-cancer treatments, such as the enhancement of the DNA damage response and the ability to extrude drugs. It is therefore important to develop new strategies if cancer stem cells are to be eradicated. In this review, we describe the strategies that we have developed to target cancer stem cells. These strategies include the targeting of the histone demethylase jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B), which we found to be functionally significant in the maintenance of cancer stem cells. Other strategies being pursued include reprogramming of cancer stem cells and the targeting of a functional cell surface marker of liver cancer stem cells, the aminopeptidase CD13.

  1. Tumorigenic hybrids between mesenchymal stem cells and gastric cancer cells enhanced cancer proliferation, migration and stemness. (United States)

    Xue, Jianguo; Zhu, Yuan; Sun, Zixuan; Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Wenrong; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Yin, Lei; Xu, Huijuan; Zhang, Leilei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui


    Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate cell-cell fusion might contribute to cancer progression. Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of other cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of MSCs participated cell fusion in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. We fused human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) with gastric cancer cells in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG), the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. The growth and migration of hybrids were assessed by cell counting, cell colony formation and transwell assays. The proteins and genes related to epithelial- mesenchymal transition and stemness were tested by western blot, immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was examined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The xenograft assay was used to evaluation the tumorigenesis of the hybrids. The obtained hybrids exhibited epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) change with down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin, N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The hybrids also increased expression of stemness factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28. The expression of CD44 and CD133 on hybrid cells was stronger than parental gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the migration and proliferation of heterotypic hybrids were enhanced. In addition, the heterotypic hybrids promoted the growth abilities of gastric xenograft tumor in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic hybrids with EMT and stem cell-like properties, which may provide a flexible tool for investigating the roles of MSCs in gastric cancer.

  2. Dynamic four-dimensional computed tomography for preoperative assessment of lung cancer invasion into adjacent structures†. (United States)

    Choong, Cliff K C; Pasricha, Sundeep S; Li, Xun; Briggs, Peter; Ramdave, Shakher; Crossett, Marcus; Troupis, John M


    The 320-slice computed tomography (CT) provides three-dimensional and dynamic imaging resulting in the ability to assess motion analysis between two adjacent structures (the fourth dimension). Differential movements between two adjacent structures would indicate that there is no fixation between the two structures. Eight patients with non-small-cell lung cancers located adjacent to vital structures (e.g. the great vessels) (n = 4), mediastinum (n = 1) or chest wall (n = 3) where conventional CT was unable to exclude local invasion underwent dynamic four-dimensional (4D) CT assessment. In 3 patients, the lung tumour was abutting the chest wall and 1 patient had tumour abutting the mediastinum. The remaining patients included a patient with a large 14-cm left lower lobe cancer abutting the descending thoracic aorta who had previous pleurodesis; a patient with an apical right upper lobe 6-cm cancer with static imaging appearances suggestive of tumour invasion into the apex, the mediastinal surface and superior vena cava (SVC); a patient with a 3.5-cm cancer which had a broad 2.5-cm base abutting the distal aortic arch and a patient with a 14-cm left upper lobe cancer abutting the aortic arch, descending thoracic aorta and chest wall. Differential movements between the tumour and adjacent structure on 4D CT were considered indicative of the absence of frank invasion. Dynamic 4D imaging revealed differential movements between the tumour and the adjacent structures in 7 cases, suggesting the absence of overt malignant invasion. Intraoperative assessments confirmed the findings. In 1 case, a small area of fixation seen on dynamic CT corresponded intraoperatively to superficial invasion of the adventitia of the SVC. Dynamic 4D 320-slice CT is useful in the preoperative assessment of the direct invasion of lung cancer into adjacent structures and hence its resectability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for

  3. Characterizing motility dynamics in human RPE cells (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Furu; Miller, Donald T.


    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are vital to health of the outer retina, however, are often compromised in ageing and ocular diseases that lead to blindness. Early manifestation of RPE disruption occurs at the cellular level, but while in vivo biomarkers at this scale hold considerable promise, RPE cells have proven extremely challenging to image in the living human eye. Recently we addressed this problem by using organelle motility as a novel contrast agent to enhance the RPE cell in conjunction with 3D resolution of adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) to section the RPE layer. In this study, we expand on the central novelty of our method - organelle motility - by characterizing the dynamics of the motility in individual RPE cells, important because of its direct link to RPE physiology. To do this, AO-OCT videos of the same retinal patch were acquired at approximately 1 min intervals or less, time stamped, and registered in 3D with sub-cellular accuracy. Motility was quantified by an exponential decay time constant, the time for motility to decorrelate the speckle field across an RPE cell. In two normal subjects, we found the decay time constant to be just 3 seconds, thus indicating rapid motility in normal RPE cells.

  4. Cancer stem cells and field cancerization of oral squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Simple, M; Suresh, Amritha; Das, Debashish; Kuriakose, Moni A


    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high propensity for local failure, which is attributed to recurrence at the primary site or the development of second primary tumors (SPT). Field cancerization that refers to the existence of transformed cells in areas adjacent to the primary tumor, has been attributed to be one of the probable reasons underlying disease relapse. The carcinogenic process necessitates multiple molecular events for the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. This implies that only the long-time residents of the epithelium, such as the stem cells, might be the candidates capable of accumulating these genetic hits. These transformed stem cells- the 'Cancer stem cells' (CSCs), are further known to be equipped with the properties of tumor initiation and migration, both of which are essential for orchestrating field cancerization. The concept that the CSCs might be responsible for field cancerization in OSCC has not been explored extensively. If the role of CSCs as the primary units of field cancerization process is established, their presence in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor may be an indicator for local recurrence and/or development of second primary tumors. In this review, we examine the available evidence in literature exploring the possibilities of CSCs driving the process of field cancerization and thereby being the underlying mechanism for disease recurrence and development of SPT. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Targeting Lung Cancer Stem Cells: Research and Clinical Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norashikin Zakaria


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, accounting for 1.8 million new cases and 1.6 million deaths in 2012. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, which is one of two types of lung cancer, accounts for 85–90% of all lung cancers. Despite advances in therapy, lung cancer still remains a leading cause of death. Cancer relapse and dissemination after treatment indicates the existence of a niche of cancer cells that are not fully eradicated by current therapies. These chemoresistant populations of cancer cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs because they possess the self-renewal and differentiation capabilities similar to those of normal stem cells. Targeting the niche of CSCs in combination with chemotherapy might provide a promising strategy to eradicate these cells. Thus, understanding the characteristics of CSCs has become a focus of studies of NSCLC therapies.

  6. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casina Kan


    Full Text Available Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow.

  7. Clonal dominance and transplantation dynamics in hematopoietic stem cell compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ashcroft


    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells in mammals are known to reside mostly in the bone marrow, but also transitively passage in small numbers in the blood. Experimental findings have suggested that they exist in a dynamic equilibrium, continuously migrating between these two compartments. Here we construct an individual-based mathematical model of this process, which is parametrised using existing empirical findings from mice. This approach allows us to quantify the amount of migration between the bone marrow niches and the peripheral blood. We use this model to investigate clonal hematopoiesis, which is a significant risk factor for hematologic cancers. We also analyse the engraftment of donor stem cells into non-conditioned and conditioned hosts, quantifying the impact of different treatment scenarios. The simplicity of the model permits a thorough mathematical analysis, providing deeper insights into the dynamics of both the model and of the real-world system. We predict the time taken for mutant clones to expand within a host, as well as chimerism levels that can be expected following transplantation therapy, and the probability that a preconditioned host is reconstituted by donor cells.

  8. Single cell sequencing reveals heterogeneity within ovarian cancer epithelium and cancer associated stromal cells. (United States)

    Winterhoff, Boris J; Maile, Makayla; Mitra, Amit Kumar; Sebe, Attila; Bazzaro, Martina; Geller, Melissa A; Abrahante, Juan E; Klein, Molly; Hellweg, Raffaele; Mullany, Sally A; Beckman, Kenneth; Daniel, Jerry; Starr, Timothy K


    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of heterogeneity in high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by analyzing RNA expression in single epithelial and cancer associated stromal cells. In addition, we explored the possibility of identifying subgroups based on pathway activation and pre-defined signatures from cancer stem cells and chemo-resistant cells. A fresh, HGSOC tumor specimen derived from ovary was enzymatically digested and depleted of immune infiltrating cells. RNA sequencing was performed on 92 single cells and 66 of these single cell datasets passed quality control checks. Sequences were analyzed using multiple bioinformatics tools, including clustering, principle components analysis, and geneset enrichment analysis to identify subgroups and activated pathways. Immunohistochemistry for ovarian cancer, stem cell and stromal markers was performed on adjacent tumor sections. Analysis of the gene expression patterns identified two major subsets of cells characterized by epithelial and stromal gene expression patterns. The epithelial group was characterized by proliferative genes including genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation and MYC activity, while the stromal group was characterized by increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Neither group expressed a signature correlating with published chemo-resistant gene signatures, but many cells, predominantly in the stromal subgroup, expressed markers associated with cancer stem cells. Single cell sequencing provides a means of identifying subpopulations of cancer cells within a single patient. Single cell sequence analysis may prove to be critical for understanding the etiology, progression and drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Innate immune cells in inflammation and cancer. (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Gagliani, Nicola; Huber, Samuel; Flavell, Richard A


    The innate immune system has evolved in multicellular organisms to detect and respond to situations that compromise tissue homeostasis. It comprises a set of tissue-resident and circulating leukocytes primarily designed to sense pathogens and tissue damage through hardwired receptors and eliminate noxious sources by mediating inflammatory processes. While indispensable to immunity, the inflammatory mediators produced in situ by activated innate cells during injury or infection are also associated with increased cancer risk and tumorigenesis. Here, we outline basic principles of innate immune cell functions in inflammation and discuss how these functions converge upon cancer development. ©2013 AACR.

  10. Computational investigation of epithelial cell dynamic phenotype in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Jayanta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When grown in three-dimensional (3D cultures, epithelial cells typically form cystic organoids that recapitulate cardinal features of in vivo epithelial structures. Characterizing essential cell actions and their roles, which constitute the system's dynamic phenotype, is critical to gaining deeper insight into the cystogenesis phenomena. Methods Starting with an earlier in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA1 that validated for several Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cell culture attributes, we built a revised analogue (ISEA2 to increase overlap between analogue and cell culture traits. Both analogues used agent-based, discrete event methods. A set of axioms determined ISEA behaviors; together, they specified the analogue's operating principles. A new experimentation framework enabled tracking relative axiom use and roles during simulated cystogenesis along with establishment of the consequences of their disruption. Results ISEA2 consistently produced convex cystic structures in a simulated embedded culture. Axiom use measures provided detailed descriptions of the analogue's dynamic phenotype. Dysregulating key cell death and division axioms led to disorganized structures. Adhering to either axiom less than 80% of the time caused ISEA1 to form easily identified morphological changes. ISEA2 was more robust to identical dysregulation. Both dysregulated analogues exhibited characteristics that resembled those associated with an in vitro model of early glandular epithelial cancer. Conclusion We documented the causal chains of events, and their relative roles, responsible for simulated cystogenesis. The results stand as an early hypothesis–a theory–of how individual MDCK cell actions give rise to consistently roundish, cystic organoids.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer: Molecular Characterization, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells (United States)

    Pelosi, Elvira; Castelli, Germana


    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death and is the most lethal of common malignancies with a five-year survival rate of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The genetic landscape of PDAC is characterized by the presence of four frequently-mutated genes: KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53 and SMAD4. The development of mouse models of PDAC has greatly contributed to the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which driver genes contribute to pancreatic cancer development. Particularly, oncogenic KRAS-driven genetically-engineered mouse models that phenotypically and genetically recapitulate human pancreatic cancer have clarified the mechanisms through which various mutated genes act in neoplasia induction and progression and have led to identifying the possible cellular origin of these neoplasias. Patient-derived xenografts are increasingly used for preclinical studies and for the development of personalized medicine strategies. The studies of the purification and characterization of pancreatic cancer stem cells have suggested that a minority cell population is responsible for initiation and maintenance of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The study of these cells could contribute to the identification and clinical development of more efficacious drug treatments. PMID:29156578

  12. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Cancer: Lessons from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kid Törnquist


    Full Text Available Sphingomyelin is found in the cell membrane of all eukaryotic cells, and was for a long time considered merely as a structural component. However, during the last two decades, metabolites of sphingomyelin, especially sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, have proven to be physiologically significant regulators of cell function. Through its five different G protein-coupled receptors, S1P regulates a wide array of cellular processes, ranging from stimulating cellular proliferation and migration, to the inhibition of apoptosis and induction of angiogenesis and modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis. Many of the processes regulated by S1P are important for normal cell physiology, but may also induce severe pathological conditions, especially in malignancies like cancer. Thus, understanding S1P signaling mechanisms has been the aim of a multitude of investigations. Great interest has also been shown in understanding the action of sphingosine kinase (SphK, i.e., the kinase phosphorylating sphingosine to S1P, and the interactions between S1P and growth factor signaling. In the present review, we will discuss recent findings regarding the possible importance of S1P and SphK in the etiology of thyroid cancer. Although clinical data is still scarce, our in vitro findings suggest that S1P may function as a “double-edged sword”, as the receptor profile of thyroid cancer cells largely determines whether S1P stimulates or blocks cellular migration. We will also discuss the interactions between S1P- and VEGF-evoked signaling, and the importance of a S1P1-VEGF receptor 2 complex in thyroid cancer cells.

  13. EF5 and Motexafin Lutetium in Detecting Tumor Cells in Patients With Abdominal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (United States)


    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Gastric Cancer; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Colon Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage

  14. Autophagy Contributes to the Death/Survival Balance in Cancer PhotoDynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dini


    Full Text Available Autophagy is an important cellular program with a “double face” role, since it promotes either cell survival or cell death, also in cancer therapies. Its survival role occurs by recycling cell components during starvation or removing stressed organelles; when damage becomes extensive, autophagy provides another programmed cell death pathway, known as Autophagic Cell Death (ACD. The induction of autophagy is a common outcome in PhotoDynamic Therapy (PDT, a two-step process involving the irradiation of photosensitizer (PS-loaded cancer cells. Upon tissue oxygen interaction, PS provokes immediate and direct Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS-induced damage to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER, mitochondria, plasma membrane, and/or lysosomes. The main biological effects carried out in cancer PDT are direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells, vasculature damage and induction of inflammatory reactions stimulating immunological responses. The question about the role of autophagy in PDT and its putative immunological impact is hotly controversial and largely studied in recent times. This review deals with the induction of autophagy in PDT protocols and its dual role, also considering its interrelationship with apoptosis, the preferential cell death program triggered in the photodynamic process.

  15. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He AR


    Full Text Available Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the function of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs. Liver CSCs have emerged as an important therapeutic target against HCC. Numerous surface markers for liver CSCs have been identified, and include CD133, CD90, CD44, CD13, and epithelial cell adhesion molecules. These surface markers serve not only as tools for identifying and isolating liver CSCs but also as therapeutic targets for eradicating these cells. In studies of animal models and large-scale genomic analyses of human HCC samples, many signaling pathways observed in normal stem cells have been found to be altered in liver CSCs, which accounts for the stemness and aggressive behavior of these cells. Antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the signaling pathways have been evaluated at different levels of preclinical and clinical development. Another strategy is to promote the differentiation of liver CSCs to less aggressive HCC that is sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. Disruption of the tumor niche essential for liver CSC homeostasis has become a novel strategy in cancer treatment. To overcome the challenges in developing treatment for liver CSCs, more research into the genetic makeup of patient tumors that respond to treatment may lead to more effective therapy. Standardization of HCC CSC tumor markers would be helpful for measuring the CSC response to these agents. Herein, we review the current strategies for developing treatment to eradicate liver CSCs and to improve the outcome for patients with

  16. Tracing Dynamics and Clonal Heterogeneity of Cbx7-Induced Leukemic Stem Cells by Cellular Barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klauke, Karin; Broekhuis, Mathilde J. C.; Weersing, Ellen; Dethmers-Ausema, Albertina; Ritsema, Martha; Gonzalez, Marta Vila; Zwart, Erik; Bystrykh, Leonid V.; de Haan, Gerald


    Accurate monitoring of tumor dynamics and leukemic stem cell (LSC) heterogeneity is important for the development of personalized cancer therapies. In this study, we experimentally induced distinct types of leukemia in mice by enforced expression of Cbx7. Simultaneous cellular barcoding allowed for

  17. Raman spectral dynamics of single cells in the early stages of growth factor stimulation. (United States)

    Takanezawa, Sota; Morita, Shin-ichi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Sako, Yasushi


    Cell fates change dynamically in response to various extracellular signals, including growth factors that stimulate differentiation and proliferation. The processes underlying cell-fate decisions are complex and often include large cell-to-cell variations, even within a clonal population in the same environment. To understand the origins of these cell-to-cell variations, we must detect the internal dynamics of single cells that reflect their changing chemical milieu. In this study, we used the Raman spectra of single cells to trace their internal dynamics during the early stages of growth factor stimulation. This method allows nondestructive and inclusive time-series analyses of chemical compositions of the same single cells. Applying a Gaussian mixture model to the major principal components of the single-cell Raman spectra, we detected the dynamics of the chemical states in MCF-7 cancer-derived cells in the absence and presence of differentiation and proliferation factors. The dynamics displayed characteristic variations according to the functions of the growth factors. In the differentiation pathway, the chemical composition changed directionally between multiple states, including both reversible and irreversible state transitions. In contrast, in the proliferation pathway, the chemical composition was homogenized into a single state. The differentiation factor also stimulated fluctuations in the chemical composition, whereas the proliferation factor did not. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of dynamic risk stratification in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer. (United States)

    Sohn, Seo Young; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Hye In; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon


    There has been increasing interest in a risk-adopted management strategy known as dynamic risk stratification following the revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for differentiated thyroid cancer. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic risk stratification for predicting structural disease in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 130 pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients (≤19 years) who were treated between 1996 and 2015 at Samsung Medical Center. Patients were stratified according to three American Thyroid Association initial risk group (low, intermediate, or high risk) and four dynamic risk stratification group (excellent, indeterminate, biochemical incomplete, or structural incomplete). Based on dynamic risk stratification strategy, structural disease was identified 3.9% in the excellent group, 9.7% in the indeterminate group, 76.9% in the biochemical incomplete group, and 100% in the structural incomplete group. The hazard ratios of the structural disease were 18.10 (P < 0.001) in the biochemical incomplete group, and 19.583 (P < 0.001) in the structural incomplete group compared to the excellent group. The prevalence of structural disease also increased as American Thyroid Association initial risk classification increased (5.9% in the low-risk group, 13.6% in the intermediate-risk group, and 45% in the high-risk group). The hazard ratios of structural disease in the high-risk group was 10.296 (P < 0.001) in compared to the low-risk group. Dynamic risk stratification based on patient responses to initial therapy was able to effectively predict the risk of structural disease in a pediatric population, and as a follow-up strategy, may work as well in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients as it does in adult differentiated thyroid cancer patients.

  19. Why Do CD8 + T Cells Become Indifferent To Tumors: A Dynamic Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eCampbell


    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells have the potential to influence the outcome of cancer pathogenesis, including complete tumor eradication or selection of malignant tumor escape variants. The Simian virus 40 large T-antigen oncoprotein promotes tumor formation in T-antigen transgenic mice and also provides multiple target determinants (sites for responding CD8+ T cells in C57BL/6 (H-2b mice. To understand the in vivo quantitative dynamics of CD8+ T cells after encountering T-antigen, we constructed a dynamic model from in vivo-generated data to simulate the interactions between T-antigen expressing cells and CD8+ T cells in distinct scenarios including immunization of wild type C57BL/6 mice and of T-antigen transgenic mice that develop various tumors. In these scenarios the model successfully reproduces the dynamics of both the T-antigen-expressing cells and antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses. The model predicts that the tolerance of the site-specific T cells is dependent on their apoptosis rates and that the net growth of CD8+ T cells is altered in transgenic mice. We experimentally validate both predictions. Our results indicate that site-specific CD8+ T cells have tissue-specific apoptosis rates affecting their tolerance to the tumor antigen. Moreover, the model highlights differences in apoptosis rates that contribute to compromised CD8+ T cell responses and tumor progression, knowledge of which is essential for development of cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Distinct metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer stem cell line. (United States)

    Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Wang, Lijuan; McDonald, John F; Styczynski, Mark P


    Cancer metabolism is emerging as an important focus area in cancer research. However, the in vitro cell culture conditions under which much cellular metabolism research is performed differ drastically from in vivo tumor conditions, which are characterized by variations in the levels of oxygen, nutrients like glucose, and other molecules like chemotherapeutics. Moreover, it is important to know how the diverse cell types in a tumor, including cancer stem cells that are believed to be a major cause of cancer recurrence, respond to these variations. Here, in vitro environmental perturbations designed to mimic different aspects of the in vivo environment were used to characterize how an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived, isogenic cancer stem cells metabolically respond to environmental cues. Mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite levels in response to in vitro environmental perturbations. Docetaxel, the chemotherapeutic used for this experiment, caused significant metabolic changes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in ovarian cancer cells, but had virtually no metabolic effect on isogenic ovarian cancer stem cells. Glucose deprivation, hypoxia, and the combination thereof altered ovarian cancer cell and cancer stem cell metabolism to varying extents for the two cell types. Hypoxia had a much larger effect on ovarian cancer cell metabolism, while glucose deprivation had a greater effect on ovarian cancer stem cell metabolism. Core metabolites and pathways affected by these perturbations were identified, along with pathways that were unique to cell types or perturbations. The metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived isogenic cancer stem cells differ greatly under most conditions, suggesting that these two cell types may behave quite differently in an in vivo tumor microenvironment. While cancer metabolism and cancer stem cells are each promising potential therapeutic targets, such varied behaviors in vivo would need to

  1. Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis Suppresses Cancer Cell Blebbing and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Roland Holst


    Full Text Available Cellular blebbing, caused by local alterations in cell-surface tension, has been shown to increase the invasiveness of cancer cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms balancing cell-surface dynamics and bleb formation remain elusive. Here, we show that an acute reduction in cell volume activates clathrin-independent endocytosis. Hence, a decrease in surface tension is buffered by the internalization of the plasma membrane (PM lipid bilayer. Membrane invagination and endocytosis are driven by the tension-mediated recruitment of the membrane sculpting and GTPase-activating protein GRAF1 (GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 to the PM. Disruption of this regulation by depleting cells of GRAF1 or mutating key phosphatidylinositol-interacting amino acids in the protein results in increased cellular blebbing and promotes the 3D motility of cancer cells. Our data support a role for clathrin-independent endocytic machinery in balancing membrane tension, which clarifies the previously reported role of GRAF1 as a tumor suppressor.

  2. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention (United States)


    abrogated by small interfering RNA to PTEN, indicating PTEN-dependence. Using FACS analysis , we showed that GEN induced cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase...isolated from WT (PND 100) and Tg (PND75) mice. The percentage of mammary SCs was quantified by Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of...fruits and vegetables in breast cancer prevention due to their phytochemical components, yet mechanisms underlying their presumed anti-tumor activities

  3. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hu


    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  4. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki


    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...... history of their successful use in revealing the importance of various members of the network. However, modeling of covert, terrorist or criminal networks through social graph dose not really provide the hierarchical structure which exist in these networks as these networks are composed of leaders...... and followers etc. In this research we analyze and predict the most likely role a particular node can adapt once a member of the network is either killed or caught. The adaptation is based on computing Bayes posteriori probability of each node and the level of the said node in the network structure....

  5. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of crude and dichloromethane fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and. L929). Methods: A. sieberi was extracted with methanol and further purification was carried out using liquid-.

  6. Germ cell cancer and disorders of spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N


    Why is there a small peak of germ cell tumours in the postnatal period and a major peak in young age, starting at puberty? And, paradoxically, small risk in old age, although spermatogenesis is a lifelong process? Why is this type of cancer more common in individuals with maldeveloped gonads...

  7. Cancer stem cells: the challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Jan Paul


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed as the driving force of tumorigenesis and the seeds of metastases. However, their existence and role remain a topic of intense debate. Recently, the identification of CSCs in endogenously developing mouse tumours has provided further support for this

  8. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H


    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...

  9. DNA repair of cancer stem cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathews, Lesley A; Cabarcas, Stephanie M; Hurt, Elaine M


    ... leukemia by John E. Dick from the University of Toronto. The heterogeneity of human leukemia and the presence of stem cells in cancer was further translated into solid tumors by Al-Hajj et al. when they published a provocative paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences discussing the ability to distinguish tumorigenic (tumor-initi...

  10. Optical imaging of cancer and cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Bangwen


    The aim of the work included in this PhD thesis was to explore the diverse application possibility of using NIR fluorescent probes with specific properties to visualize and characterize cancer and cell death. In this thesis, we mainly focus on optical imaging and its application, both at microscopic

  11. Ciprofloxacin mediates cancer stem cell phenotypes in lung cancer cells through caveolin-1-dependent mechanism. (United States)

    Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee; Kiratipaiboon, Chayanin; Chanvorachote, Pithi


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with high aggressive behaviors, have been identified in many types of cancer including lung cancer as one of the key mediators driving cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we have reported for the first time that ciprofloxacin (CIP), a widely used anti-microbial drug, has a potentiating effect on CSC-like features in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. CIP treatment promoted CSC-like phenotypes, including enhanced anchorage-independent growth and spheroid formation. The known lung CSC markers: CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 were found to be significantly increased, while the factors involving in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT): Slug and Snail, were depleted. Also, self-renewal transcription factors Oct-4 and Nanog were found to be up-regulated in CIP-treated cells. The treatment of CIP on CSC-rich populations obtained from secondary spheroids resulted in the further increase of CSC markers. In addition, we have proven that the mechanistic insight of the CIP induced stemness is through Caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-dependent mechanism. The specific suppression of Cav-1 by stably transfected Cav-1 shRNA plasmid dramatically reduced the effect of CIP on CSC markers as well as the CIP-induced spheroid formation ability. Cav-1 was shown to activate protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in CSC-rich population; however, such an effect was rarely found in the main lung cancer cells population. These findings reveal a novel effect of CIP in positively regulating CSCs in lung cancer cells via the activation of Cav-1, Akt and ERK, and may provoke the awareness of appropriate therapeutic strategy in cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa


    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  13. Gigantol Suppresses Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Bhummaphan


    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs contribute to malignancy, metastasis, and relapse of cancers, potential of compound in inhibition of CSCs has garnered most attention in the cancer research as well as drug development fields recently. Herein, we have demonstrated for the first time that gigantol, a pure compound isolated from Dendrobium draconis, dramatically suppressed stem-like phenotypes of human lung cancer cells. Gigantol at nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth and survival of the cancer cells. Importantly, gigantol significantly reduced the ability of the cancer cells to form tumor spheroids, a critical hallmark of CSCs. Concomitantly, the treatment of the compound was shown to reduce well-known lung CSCs markers, including CD133 and ALDH1A1. Moreover, we revealed that gigantol decreased stemness in the cancer cells by suppressing the activation of protein kinase B (Akt signal which in turn decreased the cellular levels of pluripotency and self-renewal factors Oct4 and Nanog. In conclusion, gigantol possesses CSCs suppressing activity which may facilitate the development of this compound for therapeutic approaches by targeting CSCs.

  14. The origin of stroma surrounding epithelial ovarian cancer cells. (United States)

    Akahane, Tomoko; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Fumio; Nishimura, Sadako; Tanaka, Hideo; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Chiyoda, Tatsuyuki; Iguchi, Yoko; Yamagami, Wataru; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke


    Cancer stroma is thought to play an important role in tumor behavior, including invasion or metastasis and response to therapy. Cancer stroma is generally thought either to be non-neoplastic cells, including tissue-marrow or bone-marrow-derived fibroblasts, or to originate in epithelial mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the status of the p53 gene in both the cancer cells and the cancer stroma in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) to elucidate the origin of the stroma. Samples from 16 EOC patients were included in this study. Tumor cells and adjacent nontumor stromal cells were microdissected and DNA was extracted separately. We analyzed p53 sequences (exons 5-8) of both cancer and stromal tissues in all cases. Furthermore, we examined p53 protein expression in all cases. Mutations in p53 were detected in 9 of the 16 EOCs: in 8 of these cases, the mutations were detected only in cancer cells. In 1 case, the same mutation (R248Q) was detected in both cancer and stromal tissues, and p53 protein expression was detected in both the cancer cells and the cancer stroma. Most cancer stroma in EOC is thought to originate from non-neoplastic cells, but some parts of the cancer stroma might originate from cancer cells.

  15. Natural Compounds As Modulators of Non-apoptotic Cell Death in Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Guamán-Ortiz, Luis Miguel; Orellana, Maria Isabel Ramirez; Ratovitski, Edward A


    Cell death is an innate capability of cells to be removed from microenvironment, if and when they are damaged by multiple stresses. Cell death is often regulated by multiple molecular pathways and mechanism, including apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. The molecular network underlying these processes is often intertwined and one pathway can dynamically shift to another one acquiring certain protein components, in particular upon treatment with various drugs. The strategy to treat human cancer ultimately relies on the ability of anticancer therapeutics to induce tumor-specific cell death, while leaving normal adjacent cells undamaged. However, tumor cells often develop the resistance to the drug-induced cell death, thus representing a great challenge for the anticancer approaches. Numerous compounds originated from the natural sources and biopharmaceutical industries are applied today in clinics showing advantageous results. However, some exhibit serious toxic side effects. Thus, novel effective therapeutic approaches in treating cancers are continued to be developed. Natural compounds with anticancer activity have gained a great interest among researchers and clinicians alike since they have shown more favorable safety and efficacy then the synthetic marketed drugs. Numerous studies in vitro and in vivo have found that several natural compounds display promising anticancer potentials. This review underlines certain information regarding the role of natural compounds from plants, microorganisms and sea life forms, which are able to induce non-apoptotic cell death in tumor cells, namely autophagy and necroptosis.

  16. Role of epigenetic mechanisms in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Nickel, Annina; Stadler, Sonja C


    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process during normal development that allows dynamic and reversible shifts between epithelial and mesenchymal cell states. Cancer cells take advantage of the complex, interrelated cellular networks that regulate EMT to promote their migratory and invasive capabilities. During the past few years, evidence has accumulated that indicates that genetic mutations and changes to epigenetic mechanisms are key drivers of EMT in cancer cells. Recent studies have begun to shed light on the epigenetic reprogramming in cancer cells that enables them to switch from a noninvasive form to an invasive, metastatic form. The authors review the current knowledge of alterations of epigenetic machinery, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome remodeling and expression of microRNAs, associated with EMT and tumor progression of breast cancer cells. Last, existing and upcoming drug therapies targeting epigenetic regulators and their potential benefit for developing novel treatment strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Folic acid functionalized ZnO quantum dots for targeted cancer cell imaging (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Ying; Ding, Hui; Xiong, Huan-Ming


    Aqueous stable luminescent ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were successfully synthesized with primary amine groups on the surface, which were designed to conjugate with folic acid (FA) to produce the final ZnO-FA QDs. Such ZnO-FA QDs were able to target some specific cancer cells with overexpressed FA receptors on the membranes and thus differentiate the MCF-7 cancer cells from the normal 293T cells. The nanoparticle uptaking experiments by different cells were carried out in parallel and tracked by confocal laser microscopy dynamically. The results confirmed the specificity of our ZnO-FA QDs towards the FA-receptor overexpressed cancer cells, which had potential for diagnosing cancers in vitro.

  18. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Jung-Hyun; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Eunsu; Jae-Wook, Oh; Lee, Seung Yoon; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi


    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs). In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells) and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP). The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells) and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells). These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells. PMID:27973444

  19. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jung Choi


    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP. The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells. These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells.

  20. Levobuipivacaine-Induced Dissemination of A549 Lung Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Chan, Shun-Ming; Lin, Bo-Feng; Wong, Chih-Shung; Chuang, Wen-Ting; Chou, Yu-Ting; Wu, Zhi-Fu


    While anaesthetics are frequently used on cancer patients during surgical procedures, their consequence on cancer progression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to investigate the influence of local anesthetics on lung cancer cell dissemination in vitro and in vivo. A549 human non-small lung cancer cells were treated with various local anaesthetics including ropivacaine, lidocaine, levobupivacaine and bupivacaine. Cell barrier property was assessed using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of treated cells was studied by immunofluorescence staining. In vitro and in vivo cancer cell dissemination were investigated.Gene expression microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qrt-PCR) assays were used to identify the genes responsible for levobupivacaine-mediated cancer cell dissemination.The results illustrated that only levobupivacaine induced EMT in the treated cells and also caused the dissemination of cancer cells in vitro. In addition, after intravenous injection, levobupivacaine encouraged cancer cell dissemination in vivo. Gene expression microarray, qrt-PCR and immunoblotting revealed that after levobupivacaine treatment, the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)- 2α gene was upregulated in cancer cells. Our findings suggest that levobupivacaine may induce A549 lung cancer cell dissemination both in vitro and in vivo. More specifically, HIF-2α signaling possibly contributes to levobupivacaine-mediated A549 lung cancer cell dissemination.

  1. Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Hereditary kidney cancer (renal cell cancer) syndromes include von Hippel-Lindau disease, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and hereditary papillary renal carcinoma. Learn about the genetics, clinical manifestations, and management of these hereditary cancer syndromes in this expert-reviewed summary.

  2. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer. (United States)

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O


    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette

  3. Dendritic Cells in the Cancer Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ma, Galina V. Shurin, Zhu Peiyuan, Michael R. Shurin


    Full Text Available The complexity of the tumor immunoenvironment is underscored by the emergence and discovery of different subsets of immune effectors and regulatory cells. Tumor-induced polarization of immune cell differentiation and function makes this unique environment even more intricate and variable. Dendritic cells (DCs represent a special group of cells that display different phenotype and activity at the tumor site and exhibit differential pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions. DCs play a key role in inducing and maintaining the antitumor immunity, but in the tumor environment their antigen-presenting function may be lost or inefficient. DCs might be also polarized into immunosuppressive/tolerogenic regulatory DCs, which limit activity of effector T cells and support tumor growth and progression. Although various factors and signaling pathways have been described to be responsible for abnormal functioning of DCs in cancer, there are still no feasible therapeutic modalities available for preventing or reversing DC malfunction in tumor-bearing hosts. Thus, better understanding of DC immunobiology in cancer is pivotal for designing novel or improved therapeutic approaches that will allow proper functioning of DCs in patients with cancer.

  4. Are All Highly Malignant Cancer Cells Identical? (United States)


    ADA3665 ARE AL HIGHL MAGNANTCANCER CELLS DENOIALU) PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA DEPT OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY G NIGET AL 199 N00014-ACA026 UNCLASFE...embryo cells or even the original fertilized ovum . If this speculation has validity, the carcinogenesis and differentiation have the same destinies but...F/G /5 N 1111 2Z111117 1 125iiI 1 1. 1111_L6. -11 O=M 1 MrCROCOP RErSOLUTICN TEST CHART N, APoP SN A’ ,- ARE ALL HIGHLY MALIGNANT CANCER CELLS

  5. Near infrared photoimmunotherapy rapidly elicits specific host immunity against cancer cells (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka


    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new molecularly-targeted cancer photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate induces a highly-selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death (ICD) only in target-positive, mAb-IR700-bound cancer cells. This cell death occurs as early as 1 minute after exposure to NIR light. Meanwhile, immediately adjacent target-negative cells are unharmed. Dynamic 3D-microscopy of live tumor cells undergoing NIR-PIT showed rapid swelling in treated cells immediately after light exposure, followed by irreversible morphologic changes such as bleb formation, and rupture of vesicles within several minutes. Furthermore, biological markers of ICD including relocation of HSP70/90 and calreticulin, and release of ATP and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), were clearly detected immediately after NIR-PIT. When NIR-PIT was performed in a mixture of cancer cells and immature dendritic cells, maturation of immature dendritic cells was strongly induced rapidly after NIR-PIT. Alternatively, NIR-PIT can also target negative regulatory immune cells such as Treg only in the tumor bed. Treg targeting NIR-PIT against CD25 can deplete >80% of Treg in tumor bed within 20 min that induces activation of tumor cell-specific CD8+-T and NK cells within 1.5 hour, and then these activated cells killed cancer cells in local tumor within 1 day and also in distant tumors of the same cell origin within 2 days. In summary, cancer cell-targeting and immuno-suppressor cell-targeting NIR-PITs effectively induce innate and acquired immunity specifically against cancer cells growing in patients, respectively.

  6. Choline kinase overexpression increases invasiveness and drug resistance of human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Shah, Tariq; Wildes, Flonne; Penet, Marie-France; Winnard, Paul T; Glunde, Kristine; Artemov, Dmitri; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Gimi, Barjor; Kakkad, Samata; Raman, Venu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M


    A direct correlation exists between increased choline kinase (Chk) expression, and the resulting increase of phosphocholine levels, and histological tumor grade. To better understand the function of Chk and choline phospholipid metabolism in breast cancer we have stably overexpressed one of the two isoforms of Chk-alpha known to be upregulated in malignant cells, in non-invasive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Dynamic tracking of cell invasion and cell metabolism were studied with a magnetic resonance (MR) compatible cell perfusion assay. The MR based invasion assay demonstrated that MCF-7 cells overexpressing Chk-alpha (MCF-7-Chk) exhibited an increase of invasion relative to control MCF-7 cells (0.84 vs 0.3). Proton MR spectroscopy studies showed significantly higher phosphocholine and elevated triglyceride signals in Chk overexpressing clones compared to control cells. A test of drug resistance in MCF-7-Chk cells revealed that these cells had an increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil and higher expression of thymidylate synthase compared to control MCF-7 cells. To further characterize increased drug resistance in these cells, we performed rhodamine-123 efflux studies to evaluate drug efflux pumps. MCF-7-Chk cells effluxed twice as much rhodamine-123 compared to MCF-7 cells. Chk-alpha overexpression resulted in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells acquiring an increasingly aggressive phenotype, supporting the role of Chk-alpha in mediating invasion and drug resistance, and the use of phosphocholine as a biomarker of aggressive breast cancers.

  7. Gastrin releasing peptide GRP(14-27) in human breast cancer cells and in small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A J; Andersen, E V; Nedergaard, L


    Immunoreactivity related to the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) precursor was detected in four different human breast cancer cell lines. The amounts and the characteristics in extracts from different breast carcinoma cells were compared with cell extracts from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells...

  8. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer (United States)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.


    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  9. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1) (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto


    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  10. Peroxisome dynamics in cultured mammalian cells. (United States)

    Huybrechts, Sofie J; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Brees, Chantal; Mannaerts, Guy P; Los, Georgyi V; Fransen, Marc


    Despite the identification and characterization of various proteins that are essential for peroxisome biogenesis, the origin and the turnover of peroxisomes are still unresolved critical issues. In this study, we used the HaloTag technology as a new approach to examine peroxisome dynamics in cultured mammalian cells. This technology is based on the formation of a covalent bond between the HaloTag protein--a mutated bacterial dehalogenase which is fused to the protein of interest--and a synthetic haloalkane ligand that contains a fluorophore or affinity tag. By using cell-permeable ligands of distinct fluorescence, it is possible to image distinct pools of newly synthesized proteins, generated from a single genetic HaloTag-containing construct, at different wavelengths. Here, we show that peroxisomes display an age-related heterogeneity with respect to their capacity to incorporate newly synthesized proteins. We also demonstrate that these organelles do not exchange their protein content. In addition, we present evidence that the matrix protein content of pre-existing peroxisomes is not evenly distributed over new organelles. Finally, we show that peroxisomes in cultured mammalian cells, under basal growth conditions, have a half-life of approximately 2 days and are mainly degraded by an autophagy-related mechanism. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus (United States)

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar


    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  12. Biological Therapy Following Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Cancer (United States)


    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  13. Myc mediates cancer stem-like cells and EMT changes in triple negative breast cancers cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Yin

    Full Text Available Women with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC have poor prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. There were several reports indicating racial disparity in breast cancer outcomes between African American (AA and European American (EA women. For example, the mortality rates of AA breast cancer patients were three times higher than of EA patients, even though, the incidence is lower in AA women. Our in vitro studies indicate that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs derived from AA TNBC cell lines have significantly higher self-renewal potential (mammosphere formation than CSCs derived from EA cell lines. TNBC tumors express high levels of Myc compared to luminal A or HER2 expressing breast cancers. We studied the effects of c-Myc overexpression on CSCs and chemotherapy in AA, and EA derived TNBC cell line(s. Overexpression of c-Myc in AA derived MDA-MB-468 (Myc/MDA-468 cells resulted in a significant increase in CSCs and with minimal changes in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT compared to the control group. In contrast, overexpression of c-Myc in EA derived MDA-MB-231(Myc/MDA-231 cells led to increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, with a minimal increase in CSCs compared to the control group. Myc/MDA-468 cells were resistant to standard chemotherapeutic treatments such as iniparib (PARP inhibitor plus cisplatin, / iniparib, cisplatin, paclitaxel and docetaxel. However, Myc/MDA-231 cells, which showed EMT changes responded to iniparib with cisplatin, but were resistant to other drugs, such as iniparib, cisplatin, paclitaxel and docetaxel. Collectively, our results indicate that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to the breast cancer disparities.

  14. Guidelines on renal cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mickisch, G; Carballido, J; Hellsten, S; Schuize, H; Mensink, H

    Objectives., On behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU), Guidelines for Diagnosis, Therapy and. Follow Up of Renal. Cell Carcinoma Patients were established. Criteria for recommendations were evidence based and included aspects of cost-effectiveness and clinical feasibility. Method: A

  15. Decreased Iron in Cancer Cells and Their Microenvironment Improves Cytolysis of Breast Cancer Cells by Natural Killer Cells. (United States)

    Jiang, Xian-Peng; Elliott, Robert L


    The association of iron with anticancer immunity is unclear. In order to determine the role of iron in anticancer immunity, we manipulated intracellular iron levels of the human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, and measured cytolysis of breast cancer cells by the natural killer cell line NK-92MI, nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) production and gene expression of ferritin heavy chain (FTH1). We found that NK-92MI increased synthesis and release of NO and TNFα into the medium during co-culturing of NK-92MI cells with MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cells. Addition of iron inhibited the cytolysis of the breast cancer cell lines. The iron chelator deferoxamine (DFOM) increased NK-92MI cytolysis to MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cells. Iron reversed cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells induced by NO, released from S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (NO donor). Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that iron up-regulated the expression of FTH1 and iron chelator DFOM reduced FTH1 expression of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, increased iron in cancer cells and their microenvironment protects cancer cells from natural killer cell cytolysis by antagonizing NO- and TNFα-associated cytotoxicity and by up-regulation of ferritin expression in breast cancer cells. Conversely, a decrease in iron concentration caused by DFOM improves natural killer cytolysis of tumor cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer (United States)


    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  17. The NANIVID: a new device for cancer cell migration studies (United States)

    Raja, Waseem K.; Cady, Nathaniel C.; Castracane, James; Gligorijevic, Bojana; van Rheenen, Jacobus W.; Condeelis, John S.


    Cancerous tumors are dynamic microenvironments that require unique analytical tools for their study. Better understanding of tumor microenvironments may reveal mechanisms behind tumor progression and generate new strategies for diagnostic marker development, which can be used routinely in histopathological analysis. Previous studies have shown that cell invasion and intravasation are related to metastatic potential and have linked these activities to gene expression patterns seen in migratory and invasive tumor cells in vivo. Existing analytical methods for tumor microenvironments include collection of tumor cells through a catheter needle loaded with a chemical or protein attractant (chemoattractant). This method has some limitations and restrictions, including time constraints of cell collection, long term anesthetization, and in vivo imaging inside the catheter. In this study, a novel implantable device was designed to replace the catheter-based method. The 1.5mm x 0.5mm x 0.24mm device is designed to controllably release chemoattractants for stimulation of tumor cell migration and subsequent cell capture. Devices were fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques and have been shown to mediate controlled release of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes have been incorporated into the device for impedance-based measurement of cell density and have been shown to be compatible with in vivo multi-photon imaging of cell migration.

  18. Induction of iPS cells and of cancer stem cells: the stem cell or reprogramming hypothesis of cancer? (United States)

    Trosko, James E


    This article as designed to examine whether the "stoichiometric" or "elite models" of the origin of the "induced pluripotent stem" (iPS) cells fits some experiment facts from the developmental biology of adult stem cells and from the field of cancer research. In brief, since the evidence presented to support the stoichiometric model failed to recognize the factual existence of adult organ specific stem cells, the model has not been rigorously tested. In addition, the demonstration of a subset of cells (MUSE cells) in normal primary in vitro cultures of human fibroblasts (the usual source of iPS cells) seems to be the origin of the iPS cells. Moreover, from the field of carcinogenesis, the "stem cell" versus "de-differentiation" or "reprogramming" hypotheses were examined. Again, using the role of glycolysis, known to be associated with the Warburg effect in cancer cells, a list of experiments showing that (a) normal stem cells, which have few mitochondria, metabolize via glycolysis; (b) the stem cells are targets for "initiation" or "immortalization" or the blockage of differentiation and apoptosis of the stem cells by "immortalizing viruses"; (c) Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), when expressed, is associated with glycolysis and therefore, must be expressed in normal adult stem cells, as well as in cancer cells; and (d) p53, depleted or rendered dysfunctional by SV40 Large T antigen, is associated with the reduction of mitochondrial function and mass and is associated with the Warburg effect. Together, these observations from the iPS and "cancer stem cell" fields support the idea that both iPS cells and cancer stem cell are derived from adult organ-specific stem cells that do not restore or switch their metabolism of glucose from oxidative metabolism to glycolysis but, rather, in both cases, the adult stem cell, which metabolizes by glycolysis, is prevented from differentiation or from metabolizing by oxidative phosphorylation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals

  19. The Anti-Cancer Effect of Polyphenols against Breast Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdal Dayem


    Full Text Available The high incidence of breast cancer in developed and developing countries, and its correlation to cancer-related deaths, has prompted concerned scientists to discover novel alternatives to deal with this challenge. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of polyphenol structures and classifications, as well as on the carcinogenic process. The biology of breast cancer cells will also be discussed. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-cancer activities of numerous polyphenols, against a wide range of breast cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo, will be explained in detail. The interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the anti-cancer activity of polyphenols will also be highlighted. In addition, the potential of polyphenols to target cancer stem cells (CSCs via various mechanisms will be explained. Recently, the use of natural products as chemotherapeutics and chemopreventive drugs to overcome the side effects and resistance that arise from using chemical-based agents has garnered the attention of the scientific community. Polyphenol research is considered a promising field in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

  20. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, A., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Bankart, M.J.G. [Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)


    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) and in differentiating organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ-confined ({>=}T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ confined ({>=}T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  1. Calcium wave signaling in cancer cells (United States)



    Ca2+ functions as an important signaling messenger right from beginning of the life to final moment of the end of the life. Ca2+ is needed at several steps of the cell cycle such as early G1, at the G1/S, and G2/M transitions. The Ca2+ signals in the form of time-dependent changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, are presented as brief spikes organized into regenerative Ca2+ waves. Ca2+-mediated signaling pathways have also been shown to play important roles in carcinogenesis such as transformation of normal cells to cancerous cells, tumor formation and growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Since the global Ca2+ oscillations arise from Ca2+ waves initiated locally, it results in stochastic oscillations because although each cell has many IP3Rs and Ca2+ ions, the law of large numbers does not apply to the initiating event which is restricted to very few IP3Rs due to steep Ca2+ concentration gradients. The specific Ca2+ signaling information is likely to be encoded in a calcium code as the amplitude, duration, frequency, waveform or timing of Ca2+ oscillations and decoded again at a later stage. Since Ca2+ channels or pumps involved in regulating Ca2+ signaling pathways show altered expression in cancer, one can target these Ca2+ channels and pumps as therapeutic options to decrease proliferation of cancer cells and to promote their apoptosis. These studies can provide novel insights into alterations in Ca2+ wave patterns in carcinogenesis and lead to development of newer technologies based on Ca2+ waves for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. PMID:20875431

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2: A Role in Cancer Stem Cell Survival and Repopulation of Cancer Cells during Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Pang


    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is an inducible form of the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of prostanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a major mediator of inflammation and angiogenesis. COX-2 is overexpressed in cancer cells and is associated with progressive tumour growth, as well as resistance of cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These therapies are often delivered in multiple doses, which are spaced out to allow the recovery of normal tissues between treatments. However, surviving cancer cells also proliferate during treatment intervals, leading to repopulation of the tumour and limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. Tumour cell repopulation is a major cause of treatment failure. The central dogma is that conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy selects resistant cancer cells that are able to reinitiate tumour growth. However, there is compelling evidence of an active proliferative response, driven by increased COX-2 expression and downstream PGE2 release, which contribute to the repopulation of tumours and poor patient outcome. In this review, we will examine the evidence for a role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell biology and as a mediator of tumour repopulation that can be molecularly targeted to overcome resistance to therapy.

  3. Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment. (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H


    Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression.

  4. Advances in Lung Stem Cells and Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing YIN


    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are emerging as a hot topic for cancer research. Lung CSCs share many characteristics with normal lung stem cells (SCs, including self-renewal and multi-potency for differentiation. Many molecular markers expressed in various types of CSCs were also found in lung CSCs, such as CD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2. Similarly, proliferation and expansion of lung CSCs are regulated not only by signal transduction pathways functioning in normal lung SCs, such as Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, but also by those acting in tumor cells, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K pathways. As CSC plays an critical role in tumor recurrence, metastasis and drug-resistance, understanding the difference between lung CSCs and normal lung SCs, identifying and targeting CSC markers or related signaling pathways may increase the efficacy of therapy on lung cancer and improved survival of lung cancer patients.

  5. Internalization: acute apoptosis of breast cancer cells using herceptin-immobilized gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinaraj P


    Full Text Available Pierson Rathinaraj,1 Ahmed M Al-Jumaily,1 Do Sung Huh21Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Nano science and Engineering, Inje University, Gimhea, South KoreaAbstract: Herceptin, the monoclonal antibody, was successfully immobilized on gold nanoparticles (GNPs to improve their precise interactions with breast cancer cells (SK-BR3. The mean size of the GNPs (29 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering, enlarged to 82 nm after herceptin immobilization. The in vitro cell culture experiment indicated that human skin cells (FB proliferated well in the presence of herceptin-conjugated GNP (GNP–Her, while most of the breast cancer cells (SK-BR3 had died. To elucidate the mechanism of cell death, the interaction of breast cancer cells with GNP–Her was tracked by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Consequently, GNP–Her was found to be bound precisely to the membrane of the breast cancer cell, which became almost saturated after 6 hours incubation. This shows that the progression signal of SK-BR3 cells is retarded completely by the precise binding of antibody to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 receptor of the breast cancer cell membrane, causing cell death.Keywords: herceptin, gold nanoparticles, SK-BR3 cells, intracellular uptake

  6. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bin, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Mercy Cancer Center, Mercy Medical Center-North Iowa, Mason City, IA 50401 (United States); Ouyang, Ruoyun [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410011 (China); Huang, Chenghui [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Liu, Franklin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Neill, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Li, Chuanyuan [Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) {gamma}H2AX immunostaining to detect {gamma}H2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and

  7. Induction of artificial cancer stem cells from tongue cancer cells by defined reprogramming factors. (United States)

    Harada, Koji; Ferdous, Tarannum; Cui, Dan; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Takuya; Ikeda, Eiji; Okano, Hideyuki; Ueyama, Yoshiya


    The cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subpopulation of cells in tumor are responsible for the tumor initiation, growth, recurrence and metastasis of cancer, as well as resistance of cancers to drugs or radiotherapy. CSCs are an important target for the development of novel strategies in cancer treatment. However, CSCs-targeted new anti-cancer drug discovery is currently hindered by the lack of easy and reliable methods for isolating, collecting and maintaining sufficient number of CSCs. Here, we examined whether introduction of defined reprogramming factors (Oct4, shp53, Sox2, Klf4, l-Myc and Lin28) into HSC2 tongue cancer cells could transform the HSC2 into HSC2 with CSCs properties. We introduced the defined reprogramming factors into HSC2 tongue cancer cells via episomal vectors by electroporation method to generate transfectant cells. We investigated the malignant properties of the transfectant cells by cell proliferation assay, migration assay, wound healing assay, sphere formation assay, chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity assay in vitro; and also examined the tumorigenic potential of the transfectants in vivo. The transfectant cells (HSC2/hOCT3/4-shp53-F, HSC2/hSK, HSC2/hUL, HSC2/hOCT3/4-shp53-F + hSK, HSC2/hOCT3/4-shp53-F + hUL, HSC2/hSK + hUL, HSC2/hOCT3/4-shp53-F + hSK + hUL) displayed a malignant phenotype in culture and form tumors on the back of nude mice more efficiently than parental HSC2 and control HSC2/EGFP transfectant cells. They exhibited increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents; 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, docetaxel, trifluorothymidine, zoledronic acid, cetuximab, bortezomib and radiation when compared with HSC2 and HSC2/EGFP. Among all the transfected cells, HSC2/hOCT3/4-shp53-F + hSK + hUL cell containing all of the reprogramming factors showed the most aggressive and malignant properties and presented the highest number of spheres in the culture medium containing human recombinant fibroblast Growth Factor

  8. Transcription profiles of non-immortalized breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland James F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searches for differentially expressed genes in tumours have made extensive use of array technology. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Here we compare cultures of non-immortalized breast cancer cells, normal non-immortalized breast cells and immortalized normal and breast cancer cells to identify which elements of a defined set of well-known cancer-related genes are differentially expressed. Methods Cultures of cells from pleural effusions or ascitic fluids from breast cancer patients (MSSMs were used in addition to commercially-available normal breast epithelial cells (HMECs, established breast cancer cell lines (T-est and established normal breast cells (N-est. The Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 cDNA expression array was employed. The data obtained were analysed using widely-available statistical and clustering software and further validated through real-time PCR. Results According to Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM and AtlasImage software, 48 genes differed at least 2-fold in adjusted intensities between HMECs and MSSMs (p Conclusion The expression profiles of 1176 genes were determined in finite life-span cultures of metastatic breast cancer cells and of normal breast cells. Significant differences were detected between the finite life-span breast cancer cell cultures and the established breast cancer cell lines. These data suggest caution in extrapolating information from established lines for application to clinical cancer research.

  9. Natural killer cells enhance the immune surveillance of cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faisal Nouroz


    Sep 11, 2015 ... All the cells of the immune sys- tem cooperatively work against infectious agents and cancerous cells but Natural killer (NK) cells ..... Cancer stem cells (CSCs) retain the growth of tumor and resist chemotherapy [25]. ... radiation therapy and mushroom beta glucans showed only 1 nodule. The experiments ...

  10. Cancer stem cells in solid tumors: elusive or illusive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrach Hans R


    Full Text Available Abstract During the past years in vivo transplantation experiments and in vitro colony-forming assays indicated that tumors arise only from rare cells. These cells were shown to bear self-renewal capacities and the ability to recapitulate all cell types within an individual tumor. Due to their phenotypic resemblance to normal stem cells, the term "cancer stem cells" is used. However, some pieces of the puzzle are missing: (a a stringent definition of cancer stem cells in solid tumors (b specific markers that only target cells that meet the criteria for a cancer stem cell in a certain type of tumor. These missing parts started an ongoing debate about which is the best method to identify and characterize cancer stem cells, or even if their mere existence is just an artifact caused by the experimental procedures. Recent findings query the cancer stem cell hypothesis for solid tumors itself since it was shown in xenograft transplantation experiments that under appropriate conditions tumor-initiating cells are not rare. In this review we critically discuss the challenges and prospects of the currently used major methods to identify cancer stem cells. Further on, we reflect the present discussion about the existence of cancer stem cells in solid tumors as well as the amount and characteristics of tumor-initiating cells and finally provide new perspectives like the correlation of cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent cells.

  11. Modelling circulating tumour cells for personalised survival prediction in metastatic breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Ascolani


    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers among women, and the main cause of death is the formation of metastases. The development of metastases is caused by cancer cells that migrate from the primary tumour site (the mammary duct through the blood vessels and extravasating they initiate metastasis. Here, we propose a multi-compartment model which mimics the dynamics of tumoural cells in the mammary duct, in the circulatory system and in the bone. Through a branching process model, we describe the relation between the survival times and the four markers mainly involved in metastatic breast cancer (EPCAM, CD47, CD44 and MET. In particular, the model takes into account the gene expression profile of circulating tumour cells to predict personalised survival probability. We also include the administration of drugs as bisphosphonates, which reduce the formation of circulating tumour cells and their survival in the blood vessels, in order to analyse the dynamic changes induced by the therapy. We analyse the effects of circulating tumour cells on the progression of the disease providing a quantitative measure of the cell driver mutations needed for invading the bone tissue. Our model allows to design intervention scenarios that alter the patient-specific survival probability by modifying the populations of circulating tumour cells and it could be extended to other cancer metastasis dynamics.

  12. Cancer treatment scheduling and dynamic heterogeneity in social dilemmas of tumour acidity and vasculature. (United States)

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Vander Velde, Robert; Scott, Jacob G; Basanta, David


    Tumours are diverse ecosystems with persistent heterogeneity in various cancer hallmarks like self-sufficiency of growth factor production for angiogenesis and reprogramming of energy metabolism for aerobic glycolysis. This heterogeneity has consequences for diagnosis, treatment and disease progression. We introduce the double goods game to study the dynamics of these traits using evolutionary game theory. We model glycolytic acid production as a public good for all tumour cells and oxygen from vascularisation via vascular endothelial growth factor production as a club good benefiting non-glycolytic tumour cells. This results in three viable phenotypic strategies: glycolytic, angiogenic and aerobic non-angiogenic. We classify the dynamics into three qualitatively distinct regimes: (1) fully glycolytic; (2) fully angiogenic; or (3) polyclonal in all three cell types. The third regime allows for dynamic heterogeneity even with linear goods, something that was not possible in prior public good models that considered glycolysis or growth factor production in isolation. The cyclic dynamics of the polyclonal regime stress the importance of timing for anti-glycolysis treatments like lonidamine. The existence of qualitatively different dynamic regimes highlights the order effects of treatments. In particular, we consider the potential of vascular normalisation as a neoadjuvant therapy before follow-up with interventions like buffer therapy.

  13. A stochastic model for cancer stem cell origin in metastatic colon cancer. (United States)

    Odoux, Christine; Fohrer, Helene; Hoppo, Toshitaka; Guzik, Lynda; Stolz, Donna Beer; Lewis, Dale W; Gollin, Susanne M; Gamblin, T Clark; Geller, David A; Lagasse, Eric


    Human cancers have been found to include transformed stem cells that may drive cancer progression to metastasis. Here, we report that metastatic colon cancer contains clonally derived tumor cells with all of the critical properties expected of stem cells, including self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into mature colon cells. Additionally, when injected into mice, these cells initiated tumors that closely resemble human cancer. Karyotype analyses of parental and clonally derived tumor cells expressed many consistent (clonal) along with unique chromosomal aberrations, suggesting the presence of chromosomal instability in the cancer stem cells. Thus, this new model for cancer origin and metastatic progression includes features of both the hierarchical model for cancerous stem cells and the stochastic model, driven by the observation of chromosomal instability.

  14. Surgery for nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Lang-Lazdunski


    Full Text Available Surgery remains the best curative option in patients with early stage lung cancer (stage I and II. Developments in minimally invasive techniques now allow surgeons to perform lung resections on elderly patients, patients with poor pulmonary function or significant cardiopulmonary comorbidities. New techniques, such as stereotactic radiotherapy and ablative procedures, are being evaluated in early-stage lung cancer and may represent an alternative to surgery in patients unfit for lung resection. Perioperative mortality rates have dropped significantly at most institutions in the past two decades and complications are managed more efficiently. Progress in imaging and staging techniques have helped cut futile thoracotomy rates and offer patients the most adequate treatment options. Large randomised trials have helped clarify the role of neoadjuvant, induction and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as radiotherapy. Surgery remains an essential step in the multimodality therapy of selected patients with advanced-stage lung cancer (stage III and IV. Interventional and endoscopic techniques have reduced the role of surgery in the diagnosis and staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer, but surgery remains an important tool in the palliation of advanced-stage lung cancer. Large national/international surgical databases have been developed and predictive risk-models for surgical mortality/morbidity published by learned surgical societies. Nonetheless, lung cancer overall survival rates remain deceptively low and it is hoped that early detection/screening, better understanding of tumour biology and development of biomarkers, and development of efficient targeted therapies will help improve the prognosis of lung cancer patients in the next decade.

  15. Uptake of DNA by cancer cells without a transfection reagent. (United States)

    Kong, Yanping; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhao, Yongliang; Xue, Yanfang; Zhang, Ye


    Cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of glucose uptake and may obtain pre-formed, diet-derived fatty acids from the bloodstream to boost their rapid growth; they may also use nucleic acid from their microenvironment. The study of processing nucleic acid by cancer cells will help improve the understanding of the metabolism of cancer. DNA is commonly packaged into a viral or lipid particle to be transferred into cells; this process is called transfection in laboratory. Cancer cells are known for having gene mutations and the evolving ability of endocytosis. Their uptake of DNAs might be different from normal cells; they may take in DNAs directly from the environment. In this report, we studied the uptake of DNAs in cancer cells without a transfection reagent. A group of DNA fragments were prepared with PCR and labeled with isotope phosphorous-32 to test their uptake by Huh 7 (liver cancer) and THLE3 (normal liver cells) after incubation overnight by counting radioactivity of the cells' genomic DNA. Multiple cell lines including breast cancer and lung cancer were tested with the same method. DNA molecules were also labeled with fluorescence to test the location in the cells using a kit of "label it fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)" from Mirus (USA). The data demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess the ability to take in large DNA fragments directly without a transfection reagent whereas normal liver cells cannot. Huh7 and MDA-MB231 cells displayed a significantly higher Rhodamine density in the cytoplasmic phagosomes and this suggests that the mechanism of uptake of large DNA by cancer cells is likely endocytosis. The efficacy of uptake is related to the DNA's size. Some cell lines of lung cancer and breast cancer also showed similar uptake of DNA. In the present study, we have revealed the evidence that some cancer cells, but not nontumorigenic cells, can take DNA fragments directly from the environment without the aid of the transfecting

  16. Calcium, cancer and killing: the role of calcium in killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (United States)

    Schwarz, Eva C; Qu, Bin; Hoth, Markus


    Killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and by natural killer (NK) cells is of vital importance. Cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis depend on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and the expression of numerous ion channels with the ability to control intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations has been correlated with cancer. A rise of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations is also required for efficient CTL and NK cell function and thus for killing their targets, in this case cancer cells. Here, we review the data on Ca(2+)-dependent killing of cancer cells by CTL and NK cells. In addition, we discuss emerging ideas and present a model how Ca(2+) may be used by CTL and NK cells to optimize their cancer cell killing efficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  18. Optical imaging of cancer and cell death


    Xie, Bangwen


    The aim of the work included in this PhD thesis was to explore the diverse application possibility of using NIR fluorescent probes with specific properties to visualize and characterize cancer and cell death. In this thesis, we mainly focus on optical imaging and its application, both at microscopic and macroscopic level. Because we believe optical imaging in particular represents a technology that has unique potential to exploit further our knowledge in preclinical research. First, we imaged...

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Therapy for Prostate Cancer (United States)


    14 4 1. Introduction Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer- related deaths in American men...internalization by MSCs (red (DiI) - MPs, green ( cholera toxin) - cell membrane, blue (Hoechst) - cell nucleus). (d) To assess drug release from G114 MP-loaded

  20. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Anticancer Phytochemicals on Cancer Stem Cells. (United States)

    Oh, Jisun; Hlatky, Lynn; Jeong, Yong-Seob; Kim, Dohoon


    Understanding how to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) may provide helpful insights for the development of therapeutic or preventive strategies against cancers. Dietary phytochemicals with anticancer properties are promising candidates and have selective impact on CSCs. This review summarizes the influence of phytochemicals on heterogeneous cancer cell populations as well as on specific targeting of CSCs.

  1. Novel regulators of prostate cancer stem cells and tumor aggressiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoni, E.


    In the past decade it became increasingly clear that tumor heterogeneity represents one of the major problems for cancer treatment, also in prostate cancer. The identification of the molecular properties of highly aggressive cells (Cancer Stem Cells, CSCs) dispersed within the tumor represents a

  2. Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Cells by Using Flexible Fluorescent Polymers (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Dutta, Rinku; Haldar, Manas K.; Guo, Bin; Friesner, Daniel L.; Mallik, Sanku


    Using water soluble, fluorescent, flexible polymers, we have devised a novel methodology for identification and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. By using a step-wise linear discriminant analysis we demonstrate that the differential modulations of the polymer emission intensities in the presence of conditioned cell culture media can be used to distinguish between prostate cancer subtypes and between cancerous and non-cancer cells. The differences in the compositions of the conditioned cell culture media are likely contributing to different fluorescence spectral patterns of the polymers. This in vitro approach may provide a novel platform for the development of an alternative prostate cancer diagnostic and subtyping technique. PMID:22148518

  3. Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Tumor Suppressor Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy W. Hwang-Verslues


    Full Text Available Studies of breast cancer stem cells are in their infancy and many fundamental questions have yet to be fully addressed. The molecular distinction between normal and cancerous breast stem cells is not clear. While there have been recent breakthroughs in mouse mammary stem cells and lineage determination in mammary glands, little has been determined in human cells. Microarray analyses have provided molecular categorization of breast cancer. However, the cellular origin of different types of breast cancer is largely unknown. In addition, the relationship between breast cancer stem cells and mammary progenitor cells has yet to be clarified. One of the key questions is how a normal mammary stem cell becomes a breast cancer stem cell. Importantly, the existence of different types of human breast cancers with distinct pathologic and molecular signatures suggests the possibility that different types of breast cancer stem cells may exist. Here, we aim to review the current evidence for the existence of different subtypes of breast cancer stem cells and provide further insight into how tumor suppressors might be involved in the initiation of breast cancer stem cells.

  4. Telmisartan inhibits human urological cancer cell growth through early apoptosis (United States)



    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used as hypertensive therapeutic agents. In addition, studies have provided evidence that ARBs have the potential to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer cells. It was reported that telmisartan (a type of ARB) has peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activation activity. We previously reported that the PPAR-γ ligand induces growth arrest in human urological cancer cells through apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of telmisartan and other ARBs on cell proliferation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and testicular cancer (TC) cell lines. The inhibitory effects of telmisartan and other ARBs (candesartan, valsartan, irbesartan and losartan) on the growth of the RCC, BC, PC and TC cell lines was investigated using an MTT assay. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to determine whether the ARBs induced apoptosis. Telmisartan caused marked growth inhibition in the urological cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Urological cancer cells treated with 100 μM telmisartan underwent early apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. However, the other ARBs had no effect on cell proliferation in any of the urological cancer cell lines. Telmisartan may mediate potent anti-proliferative effects in urological cancer cells through PPAR-γ. Thus, telmisartan is a potent target for the prevention and treatment of human urological cancer. PMID:22993542

  5. Cell-ECM Interactions During Cancer Invasion (United States)

    Jiang, Yi

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), a fibrous material that forms a network in a tissue, significantly affects many aspects of cellular behavior, including cell movement and proliferation. Transgenic mouse tumor studies indicate that excess collagen, a major component of ECM, enhances tumor formation and invasiveness. Clinically, tumor associated collagen signatures are strong markers for breast cancer survival. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear since the properties of ECM are complex, with diverse structural and mechanical properties depending on various biophysical parameters. We have developed a three-dimensional elastic fiber network model, and parameterized it with in vitro collagen mechanics. Using this model, we study ECM remodeling as a result of local deformation and cell migration through the ECM as a network percolation problem. We have also developed a three-dimensional, multiscale model of cell migration and interaction with ECM. Our model reproduces quantitative single cell migration experiments. This model is a first step toward a fully biomechanical cell-matrix interaction model and may shed light on tumor associated collagen signatures in breast cancer. This work was partially supported by NIH-U01CA143069.

  6. Single-cell characterization of in vitro migration and interaction dynamics of T cells expanded with IL-2 and IL-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Maria Tauriainen


    Full Text Available T cells are pivotal in the immune defense against cancers and infectious agents. To mount an effector response against cancer cells, T cells need to migrate to the cancer-site, engage in contacts with cancer cells and perform their effector functions. Adoptive T cell therapy is an effective strategy as treatment of complications such as relapse or opportunistic infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. This requires a sufficient amount of cells that are able to expand and respond to tumor or viral antigens. The cytokines interleukin (IL-2 and IL-7 drive T cell differentiation, proliferation and survival and are commonly used to expand T cells ex vivo. Here, we have used microchip-based live-cell imaging to follow the migration of individual T cells, their interactions with allogeneic monocytes, cell division and apoptosis for extended periods of time; something that cannot be achieved by commonly used methods. Our data indicate that cells grown in IL-7 + IL-2 had similar migration and contact dynamics as cells grown in IL-2 alone. However, the addition of IL-7 decreased cell death creating a more viable cell population, which should be beneficial when preparing cells for immunotherapy.

  7. CGGBP1 regulates cell cycle in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrbom Lene


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CGGBP1 is a CGG-triplet repeat binding protein, which affects transcription from CGG-triplet-rich promoters such as the FMR1 gene and the ribosomal RNA gene clusters. Earlier, we reported some previously unknown functions of CGGBP1 in gene expression during heat shock stress response. Recently we had found CGGBP1 to be a cell cycle regulatory midbody protein required for normal cytokinetic abscission in normal human fibroblasts, which have all the cell cycle regulatory mechanisms intact. Results In this study we explored the role of CGGBP1 in the cell cycle in various cancer cell lines. CGGBP1 depletion by RNA interference in tumor-derived cells caused an increase in the cell population at G0/G1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase. CGGBP1 depletion also increased the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes CDKN1A and GAS1, associated with reductions in histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in their promoters. By combining RNA interference and genetic mutations, we found that the role of CGGBP1 in cell cycle involves multiple mechanisms, as single deficiencies of CDKN1A, GAS1 as well as TP53, INK4A or ARF failed to rescue the G0/G1 arrest caused by CGGBP1 depletion. Conclusions Our results show that CGGBP1 expression is important for cell cycle progression through multiple parallel mechanisms including the regulation of CDKN1A and GAS1 levels.

  8. Breast cancer stem cells, cytokine networks, and the tumor microenvironment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korkaya, Hasan; Liu, Suling; Wicha, Max S


    .... These cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regulated by complex interactions with the components of the tumor microenvironment - including mesenchymal stem cells, adipocytes, tumor associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune...

  9. Stemness in Cancer: Stem Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Their Microenvironment. (United States)

    Aponte, Pedro M; Caicedo, Andrés


    Stemness combines the ability of a cell to perpetuate its lineage, to give rise to differentiated cells, and to interact with its environment to maintain a balance between quiescence, proliferation, and regeneration. While adult Stem Cells display these properties when participating in tissue homeostasis, Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) behave as their malignant equivalents. CSCs display stemness in various circumstances, including the sustaining of cancer progression, and the interaction with their environment in search for key survival factors. As a result, CSCs can recurrently persist after therapy. In order to understand how the concept of stemness applies to cancer, this review will explore properties shared between normal and malignant Stem Cells. First, we provide an overview of properties of normal adult Stem Cells. We thereafter elaborate on how these features operate in CSCs. We then review the organization of microenvironment components, which enables CSCs hosting. We subsequently discuss Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs), which, although their stemness properties are limited, represent essential components of the Stem Cell niche and tumor microenvironment. We next provide insights of the therapeutic strategies targeting Stem Cell properties in tumors and the use of state-of-the-art techniques in future research. Increasing our knowledge of the CSCs microenvironment is key to identifying new therapeutic solutions.

  10. Rice callus suspension culture inhibits growth of cell lines of multiple cancer types and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cell line. (United States)

    Rahman, Nafeesa; Dhadi, Surendar Reddy; Deshpande, Aparna; Ramakrishna, Wusirika


    Cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality. Even though efficient drugs are being produced to treat cancer, conventional medicines are costly and have adverse effects. As a result, alternative treatments are being tried due to their low cost and little or no adverse effects. Our previous study identified one such alternative in rice callus suspension culture (RCSC) which was more efficient than Taxol® and Etoposide, in reducing the viability of human colon and renal cancer cells in culture with minimal or no effect on a normal cell line. In this study, we tested the effect of RCSC by studying the dynamics of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H460 and A549), breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and colorectal cancer cell lines (SW620 and Caco-2) as well as their normal-prototypes. Complementary analysis for evaluating membrane integrity was performed by estimating LDH release in non-lysed cells and cell viability with WST-1 assay. Fluorescence microscopy with stains targeting nucleus and cell membrane as well as caspase 3/7 and Annexin V assays were performed. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed to evaluate expression of 92 genes associated with molecular mechanisms of cancer in RCSC treated ling cancer cell line, NCI-H460 and its normal prototype, MRC-5. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to collect RCSC fractions, which were evaluated on NCI-H460 for their anti-cancer activity. Lower dilutions of RCSC showed maximum reduction in total LDH indicating reduced viability in majority of the cancer cell lines tested with minimal or no effect on normal cell lines compared to the control. Complementary analysis based on LDH release in non-lysed cells and WST-1 assay mostly supported total LDH results. RCSC showed the best effect on the lung non-small carcinoma cell line, NCI-H460. Fluorescence microscopy analyses suggested apoptosis as the most likely event in NCI-H460 treated with RCSC. Gene expression

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  12. Esophageal Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  13. Stages of Gallbladder Cancer (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  14. NCI Designated Cancer Centers (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  15. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  16. Esophageal Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  17. Stages of Vulvar Cancer (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  18. Effect of lycopene on cell viability and cell cycle progression in human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Anderson


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lycopene, a major carotenoid component of tomato, has a potential anticancer activity in many types of cancer. Epidemiological and clinical trials rarely provide evidence for mechanisms of the compound’s action, and studies on its effect on cancer of different cell origins are now being done. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of lycopene on cell cycle and cell viability in eight human cancer cell lines. Methods Human cell lines were treated with lycopene (1–5 μM for 48 and 96 h. Cell viability was monitored using the method of MTT. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and apoptotic cells were identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick labeling (TUNEL and by DAPI. Results Our data showed a significant decrease in the number of viable cells in three cancer cells lines (HT-29, T84 and MCF-7 after 48 h treatment with lycopene, and changes in the fraction of cells retained in different cell cycle phases. Lycopene promoted also cell cycle arrest followed by decreased cell viability in majority of cell lines after 96 h, as compared to controls. Furthermore, an increase in apoptosis was observed in four cell lines (T-84, HT-29, MCF-7 and DU145 when cells were treated with lycopene. Conclusions Our findings show the capacity of lycopene to inhibit cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle in different phases and increase apoptosis, mainly in breast, colon and prostate lines after 96 h. These observations suggest that lycopene may alter cell cycle regulatory proteins depending on the type of cancer and the dose of lycopene administration. Taken together, these data indicated that the antiproliferative effect of lycopene was cellular type, time and dose-dependent.

  19. Spheroid body-forming cells in the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 possess cancer stem cell properties. (United States)

    Liu, Jianming; Ma, Lilin; Xu, Junfei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Jie; Chen, Ruixin; Zhou, Youlang


    The cancer stem cell theory hypothesizes that cancer stem cells (CSCs), which possess self-renewal and other stem cell properties, are regarded as the cause of tumor formation, recurrence and metastasis. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. In this study, we enriched gastric cancer stem cells through spheroid body formation by cultivating the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 in defined serum-free medium. The stemness characteristics of spheroid body-forming cells, including self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the MKN-45 spheroid body-forming cells were evaluated, and the expression levels of stemness genes and related proteins in the MKN-45 spheroid body-forming cells were assessed. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining for the stem cell markers on spheroid body-forming cells was examined to evaluate the association between stemness factors (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog) and the proposed CSC marker CD44. Our data demonstrated that non-adherent spheroid body-forming cells from the gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 cultured in stem cell-conditioned medium possessed gastric CSC properties, such as persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, high tumorigenic capacity and overexpression of CSC-related genes and proteins (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44), compared with the parental cells. More importantly, CD44-positive cells co-expressing the pluripotency genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog may represent gastric CSCs. Further experiments using more refined selection criteria such as a combination of two or multiple markers would be useful to specifically identify and purify CSCs.

  20. Cancer stem cell-like side population cells in clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line 769P. (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Huang, Yi Jun; Yao, Zhi Jun; Chen, Xu; Guo, Sheng Jie; Mao, Xiao Peng; Wang, Dao Hu; Chen, Jun Xing; Qiu, Shao Peng


    Although cancers are widely considered to be maintained by stem cells, the existence of stem cells in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has seldom been reported, in part due to the lack of unique surface markers. We here identified cancer stem cell-like cells with side population (SP) phenotype in five human RCC cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 769P, a human clear cell RCC cell line, contained the largest amount of SP cells as compared with other four cell lines. These 769P SP cells possessed characteristics of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation, as well as strong resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that were possibly related to the ABCB1 transporter. In vivo experiments with serial tumor transplantation in mice also showed that 769P SP cells formed tumors in NOD/SCID mice. Taken together, these results indicate that 769P SP cells have the properties of cancer stem cells, which may play important roles in tumorigenesis and therapy-resistance of RCC.

  1. Autonomous stimulation of cancer cell plasticity by the human NKG2D lymphocyte receptor coexpressed with its ligands on cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    Full Text Available The stimulatory NKG2D receptor on lymphocytes promotes tumor immune surveillance by targeting ligands selectively induced on cancer cells. Progressing tumors counteract by employing tactics to disable lymphocyte NKG2D. This negative dynamic is escalated as some human cancer cells co-opt expression of NKG2D, thereby complementing the presence of its ligands for autonomous stimulation of oncogenic signaling. Clinical association data imply relationships between cancer cell NKG2D and metastatic disease. Here we show that NKG2D promotes cancer cell plasticity by induction of phenotypic, molecular, and functional signatures diagnostic of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and of stem-like traits via induction of Sox9, a key transcriptional regulator of breast stem cell maintenance. These findings obtained with model breast tumor lines and xenotransplants were recapitulated by ex vivo cancer cells from primary invasive breast carcinomas. Thus, NKG2D may have the capacity to drive high malignancy traits underlying metastatic disease.

  2. Omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid induces pyroptosis cell death in triple-negative breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Pizato, Nathalia; Luzete, Beatriz Christina; Kiffer, Larissa Fernanda Melo Vasconcelos; Corrêa, Luís Henrique; de Oliveira Santos, Igor; Assumpção, José Antônio Fagundes; Ito, Marina Kiyomi; Magalhães, Kelly Grace


    The implication of inflammation in pathophysiology of several type of cancers has been under intense investigation. Omega-3 fatty acids can modulate inflammation and present anticancer effects, promoting cancer cell death. Pyroptosis is an inflammation related cell death and so far, the function of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pyroptosis cell death has not been described. This study investigated the role of DHA in triggering pyroptosis activation in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were supplemented with DHA and inflammation cell death was analyzed. DHA-treated breast cancer cells triggered increased caspase-1and gasdermin D activation, enhanced IL-1β secretion, translocated HMGB1 towards the cytoplasm, and membrane pore formation when compared to untreated cells, suggesting DHA induces pyroptosis programmed cell death in breast cancer cells. Moreover, caspase-1 inhibitor (YVAD) could protect breast cancer cells from DHA-induced pyroptotic cell death. In addition, membrane pore formation showed to be a lysosomal damage and ROS formation-depended event in breast cancer cells. DHA triggered pyroptosis cell death in MDA-MB-231by activating several pyroptosis markers in these cells. This is the first study that shows the effect of DHA triggering pyroptosis programmed cell death in breast cancer cells and it could improve the understanding of the omega-3 supplementation during breast cancer treatment.

  3. Metformin against Cancer Stem Cells through the Modulation of Energy Metabolism: Special Considerations on Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hun Kim


    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among women worldwide and is presumed to result from the presence of ovarian cancer stem cells. To overcome the limitation of current anticancer agents, another anticancer strategy is necessary to effectively target cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer. In many types of malignancies, including ovarian cancer, metformin, one of the most popular antidiabetic drugs, has been demonstrated to exhibit chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy with respect to incidence and overall survival rates. Thus, the metabolic reprogramming of cancer and cancer stem cells driven by genetic alterations during carcinogenesis and cancer progression could be therapeutically targeted. In this review, the potential efficacy and anticancer mechanisms of metformin against ovarian cancer stem cells will be discussed.

  4. Renal cell cancer among African Americans: an epidemiologic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K


    Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease...

  5. Integrins in mammary-stem-cell biology and breast-cancer progression – a role in cancer stem cells? (United States)

    Pontier, Stephanie M.; Muller, William J.


    Summary Cancer cells with stem cell-like properties (cancer stem cells) are believed to drive cancer and are associated with poor prognosis. Data from mouse models have demonstrated that integrins, the major cellular receptors for extracellular-matrix components, have essential roles both during cancer initiation and progression, and during cell differentiation in normal development. By presenting an overview of the role of integrins in stem-cell biology and in cancer progression, this Commentary aims to present evidence for a role of integrins in the biology of cancer stem cells. Given the recent interest in the role of integrins in breast-cancer initiation and progression, we focus on the role of the members of the integrin family and their coupled signaling pathways in mammary-gland development and tumorigenesis. PMID:19118213

  6. Integrins in mammary-stem-cell biology and breast-cancer progression--a role in cancer stem cells? (United States)

    Pontier, Stephanie M; Muller, William J


    Cancer cells with stem cell-like properties (cancer stem cells) are believed to drive cancer and are associated with poor prognosis. Data from mouse models have demonstrated that integrins, the major cellular receptors for extracellular-matrix components, have essential roles both during cancer initiation and progression, and during cell differentiation in normal development. By presenting an overview of the role of integrins in stem-cell biology and in cancer progression, this Commentary aims to present evidence for a role of integrins in the biology of cancer stem cells. Given the recent interest in the role of integrins in breast-cancer initiation and progression, we focus on the role of the members of the integrin family and their coupled signaling pathways in mammary-gland development and tumorigenesis.

  7. LGR5 receptor promotes cell-cell adhesion in stem cells and colon cancer cells via the IQGAP1-Rac1 pathway. (United States)

    Carmon, Kendra S; Gong, Xing; Yi, Jing; Wu, Ling; Thomas, Anthony; Moore, Catherine M; Masuho, Ikuo; Timson, David J; Martemyanov, Kirill A; Liu, Qingyun J


    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) is a bona fide marker of adult stem cells in several epithelial tissues, most notably in the intestinal crypts, and is highly up-regulated in many colorectal, hepatocellular, and ovarian cancers. LGR5 activation by R-spondin (RSPO) ligands potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vitro; however, deletion of LGR5 in stem cells has little or no effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling or cell proliferation in vivo Remarkably, modulation of LGR5 expression has a major impact on the actin cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion in the absence of RSPO stimulation, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that LGR5 interacts with IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), an effector of Rac1/CDC42 GTPases, in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell-cell adhesion. Specifically, LGR5 decreased levels of IQGAP1 phosphorylation at Ser-1441/1443, leading to increased binding of Rac1 to IQGAP1 and thus higher levels of cortical F-actin and enhanced cell-cell adhesion. LGR5 ablation in colon cancer cells and crypt stem cells resulted in loss of cortical F-actin, reduced cell-cell adhesion, and disrupted localization of adhesion-associated proteins. No evidence of LGR5 coupling to any of the four major subtypes of heterotrimeric G proteins was found. These findings suggest that LGR5 primarily functions via the IQGAP1-Rac1 pathway to strengthen cell-cell adhesion in normal adult crypt stem cells and colon cancer cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Interactions of tumour-derived micro(nano)vesicles with human gastric cancer cells. (United States)

    Stec, Małgorzata; Szatanek, Rafał; Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Baran, Jarosław; Zembala, Maria; Barbasz, Jakub; Waligórska, Agnieszka; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Mytar, Bożenna; Szczepanik, Antoni; Siedlar, Maciej; Drabik, Grażyna; Urbanowicz, Barbara; Zembala, Marek


    Tumour cells release membrane micro(nano)fragments called tumour-derived microvesicles (TMV) that are believed to play an important role in cancer progression. TMV suppress/modify antitumour response of the host, but there is also some evidence for their direct interaction with cancer cells. In cancer patients TMV are present in body fluid and tumour microenvironment. The present study aimed at characterization of whole types/subpopulations, but not only exosomes, of TMV from newly established gastric cancer cell line (called GC1415) and to define their interactions with autologous cells. TMV were isolated from cell cultures supernatants by centrifugation at 50,000×g and their phenotype was determined by flow cytometry. The size of TMV was analysed by dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, while morphology by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Interactions of TMV with cancer cells were visualized using fluorescence-activated cell sorter, confocal and atomic force microscopy, biological effects by xenografts in NOD SCID mice. Isolated TMV showed expression of CD44H, CD44v6 (hyaluronian receptors), CCR6 (chemokine receptor) and HER-2/neu molecules, exhibited different shapes and sizes (range 60-900 nm, highest frequency of particles with size range of 80-120 nm). TMV attached to autologous cancer cells within 2 h and then were internalized by them at 24 h. CD44H, CD44v6 and CCR6 molecules may play a role in attachment of TMV to cancer cells, while HER-2 associated with CD24 be involved in promoting cancer cells growth. Pre-exposure of cancer cells to TMV resulted in enhancement of tumour growth and cancer cell-induced angiogenesis in NOD SCID mice model. TMV interact directly with cancer cells serving as macro-messengers and molecular cargo transfer between gastric cancer cells resulting in enhancement of tumour growth. TMV should be considered in future as target of anticancer therapy.

  9. Immuno Nanoparticles Integrated Electrical Control of Targeted Cancer Cell Development Using Whole Cell Bioelectronic Device (United States)

    Hondroulis, Evangelia; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Chengxiao; Chen, Chunying; Ino, Kosuke; Matsue, Tomokazu; Li, Chen-Zhong


    Electrical properties of cells determine most of the cellular functions, particularly ones which occur in the cell's membrane. Manipulation of these electrical properties may provide a powerful electrotherapy option for the treatment of cancer as cancerous cells have been shown to be more electronegative than normal proliferating cells. Previously, we used an electrical impedance sensing system (EIS) to explore the responses of cancerous SKOV3 cells and normal HUVEC cells to low intensity (electrotherapy for clinical and drug delivery applications. PMID:25057316

  10. Comparison of viscoelastic properties of cancer and normal thyroid cells on different stiffness substrates. (United States)

    Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred


    We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique to measure the viscoelastic response of cancer and normal thyroid cells on different stiffness polyacrylamide gels. After applying a step in contact we recorded the stress relaxation of cells in order to measure their viscous and elastic properties. With the help of an extended version of the Hertz model, we could quantify for the first time by AFM the elastic modulus and the dynamic viscosity of cells on substrates with different stiffnesses. We have cultured anaplastic carcinoma and normal thyroid cells on three different substrates: polyacrylamide gels with elastic modulus in a range of 3-5 and 30-40 kPa and "infinitely" stiff Petri dishes. Whereas normal thyroid cells adapted their mechanical properties to different stiffness substrates, cancer cells were less affected by the surrounding stiffness. Normal cells changed the elastic modulus from 1.2 to 1.6 and to 2.6 kPa with increasing substrate stiffness; the dynamic viscosity values varied from 230 to 515 and to 470 Pa·s, accordingly. By contrast, the values for cancer cells were rather constant regardless of substrate stiffness (in average the elastic modulus was 1.3 kPa and the dynamic viscosity was 300 Pa·s). This difference in sensing and reacting to the mechanical properties of the substrate shows that normal and cancer cells interact differently with the neighboring tissue, which may be related to the ability of cancer cells to form metastases.

  11. Peptide hydrogelation and cell encapsulation for 3D culture of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Huang, Hongzhou; Ding, Ying; Sun, Xiuzhi S; Nguyen, Thu A


    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture plays an invaluable role in tumor biology by providing in vivo like microenviroment and responses to therapeutic agents. Among many established 3D scaffolds, hydrogels demonstrate a distinct property as matrics for 3D cell culture. Most of the existing pre-gel solutions are limited under physiological conditions such as undesirable pH or temperature. Here, we report a peptide hydrogel that shows superior physiological properties as an in vitro matrix for 3D cell culture. The 3D matrix can be accomplished by mixing a self-assembling peptide directly with a cell culture medium without any pH or temperature adjustment. Results of dynamic rheological studies showed that this hydrogel can be delivered multiple times via pipetting without permanently destroying the hydrogel architecture, indicating the deformability and remodeling ability of the hydrogel. Human epithelial cancer cells, MCF-7, are encapsulated homogeneously in the hydrogel matrix during hydrogelation. Compared with two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture, cells residing in the hydrogel matrix grow as tumor-like clusters in 3D formation. Relevant parameters related to cell morphology, survival, proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed using MCF-7 cells in 3D hydrogels. Interestingly, treatment of cisplatin, an anti-cancer drug, can cause a significant decrease of cell viability of MCF-7 clusters in hydrogels. The responses to cisplatin were dose- and time-dependent, indicating the potential usage of hydrogels for drug testing. Results of confocal microscopy and Western blotting showed that cells isolated from hydrogels are suitable for downstream proteomic analysis. The results provided evidence that this peptide hydrogel is a promising 3D cell culture material for drug testing.

  12. Plasma HER2 amplification in cell-free DNA during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Troels; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Pallisgaard, Niels


    Measurement of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is an evolving technique in breast cancer, enabling liquid biopsies and treatment monitoring. The present study investigated the dynamics of plasma HER2 gene copy number and amplification...

  13. Stochastic dynamics and the evolution of mutations in stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingli David


    Full Text Available Abstract Stem cells are the target of mutations that can lead to life threatening diseases. However, stem cell populations tend to be small and therefore clonal expansion of mutant cells is highly sensitive to stochastic fluctuations. The evolutionary dynamics of mutations in these cells is discussed, taking into consideration the impact of such mutations on the reproductive fitness of cells. We show how stochastic effects can explain clinical observations, including extinction of acquired clonal stem cell disorders.

  14. Metabolic orchestration between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment as a co-evolutionary source of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer: a therapeutic implication. (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Boyun; Song, Yong Sang


    Our group reported a significant association between hexokinase II overexpression and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer, suggesting that aerobic glycolysis in the so-called Warburg effect might contribute to cancer progression. However, a growing body of evidence indicates contradictory findings with regard to the Warburg effect, such as high mitochondrial activity in highly invasive tumors and low ATP contribution of glycolysis in ovarian cancer. As a solution for the dilemma of the Warburg effect, the "reverse Warburg effect" was proposed in which aerobic glycolysis might occur in the stromal compartment of the tumor rather than in the cancer cells, indicating that the glycolytic tumor stroma feed the cancer cells through a type of symbiotic relationship. The reverse Warburg effect acting on the relationship between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts has evolved into dynamic interplay between cancer cells and multiple tumor stromal compartments, including cancer-associated fibroblasts, the extracellular matrix, endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, adipocytes, and tumor-associated macrophages. Peritoneal cavities including ascites and the omentum also form a unique environment that is highly receptive for carcinomatosis in the advanced stages of ovarian cancer. The complicated but ingeniously orchestrated stroma-mediated cancer metabolism in ovarian cancer provides great heterogeneity in tumors with chemoresistance, which makes the disease thus far difficult to cure by single stromal-targeting agents. This review will discuss the experimental and clinical evidence of the cross-talk between cancer cells and various components of tumor stroma in terms of heterogeneous chemoresistance with focal points for therapeutic intervention in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells correlates with recurrence in early-stage ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Alvero, Ayesha B; Yang, Yingkui


    Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells (EOC stem cells) have been associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. CD44 and CK18 are highly expressed in cancer stem cells and function as tools for their identification and characterization. We investigated the association between the number of CD44......+ EOC stem cells in ovarian cancer tumors and progression-free survival. EOC stem cells exist as clusters located close to the stroma forming the cancer stem cell "niche". 17.1% of the samples reveled high number of CD44+ EOC stem cells (>20% positive cells). In addition, the number of CD44+ EOC stem...... cells was significantly higher in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (FIGO I/II), and it was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.026). This study suggests that quantification of the number of EOC stem cells in the tumor can be used as a predictor of disease and could...

  16. Breast cancer cells with acquired antiestrogen resistance are sensitized to cisplatin-induced cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christina Westmose; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E


    with parental MCF-7 cells. Our data show that Bcl-2 can protect antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells from cisplatin-induced cell death, indicating that the reduced expression of Bcl-2 in the antiestrogen-resistant cells plays a role in sensitizing the cells to cisplatin treatment....... for future breast cancer treatment. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the chemotherapeutic compound cisplatin using a panel of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cell lines established from the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We show that the antiestrogen-resistant cells...

  17. Translational potential of cancer stem cells: A review of the detection of cancer stem cells and their roles in cancer recurrence and cancer treatment. (United States)

    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells with many clinical implications in most cancer types. One important clinical implication of CSCs is their role in cancer metastases, as reflected by their ability to initiate and drive micro and macro-metastases. The other important contributing factor for CSCs in cancer management is their function in causing treatment resistance and recurrence in cancer via their activation of different signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Hedgehog, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT pathways. Thus, many different therapeutic approaches are being tested for prevention and treatment of cancer recurrence. These may include treatment strategies targeting altered genetic signalling pathways by blocking specific cell surface molecules, altering the cancer microenvironments that nurture cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation of CSCs, immunotherapy based on CSCs associated antigens, exploiting metabolites to kill CSCs, and designing small interfering RNA/DNA molecules that especially target CSCs. Because of the huge potential of these approaches to improve cancer management, it is important to identify and isolate cancer stem cells for precise study and application of prior the research on their role in cancer. Commonly used methodologies for detection and isolation of CSCs include functional, image-based, molecular, cytological sorting and filtration approaches, the use of different surface markers and xenotransplantation. Overall, given their significance in cancer biology, refining the isolation and targeting of CSCs will play an important role in future management of cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Case of heterochronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer)]. (United States)

    Okumura, Akiou; Tsuritani, Shinji; Takagawa, Kiyoshi; Fuse, Hideki


    We report a case of a 73-year-old male with heterochronous triple urogenital cancer. The patient was referred to our hospital because serum PSA was elevated (7.0 ng/ml) in 1998. Prostatic needle biopsy revealed prostatic cancer in the right lobe, and total prostatectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (TlcNOMO). Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) was detected during an examination for microhematuria in 2002. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) procedure was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 urothelial carcinoma (pTa). A right renal mass was detected incidentally on follow-up CT for bladder cancer in 2008. Renal enucleation was performed in 2009. The histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (pTlaNXMO). NMIBC was detected on follow-up urethrocystoscopy in 2011. The TURBT procedure was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 urothelial carcinoma (pTa). On follow-up for urogenital cancer patients, it is important to investigate recurrence of the primary cancer and also heterochronous canceration of other urogenital organs.

  19. From gametogenesis and stem cells to cancer: common metabolic themes. (United States)

    Pereira, Sandro L; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Sousa, Maria Inês; Correia, Marcelo; Perestrelo, Tânia; Ramalho-Santos, João


    Both pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and cancer cells have been described as having similar metabolic pathways, most notably a penchant for favoring glycolysis even under aerobiosis, suggesting common themes that might be explored for both stem cell differentiation and anti-oncogenic purposes. A search of the scientific literature available in the PubMed/Medline was conducted for studies on metabolism and mitochondrial function related to gametogenesis, early development, stem cells and cancers in the reproductive system, notably breast, prostate, ovarian and testicular cancers. Both PSCs and some types of cancer cells, particularly reproductive cancers, were found to obtain energy mostly by glycolysis, often reducing mitochondrial activity and oxidative phosphorylation. This strategy links proliferating cells, allowing for the biosynthesis reactions necessary for cell division. Interventions that affect metabolic pathways, and force cells to change their preferences, can lead to shifts in cell status, increasing either pluripotency or differentiation of stem cells, and causing cancer cells to become more or less aggressive. Interestingly metabolic changes in many cases seemed to lead to cell transformation, not necessarily follow it, suggesting a direct role of metabolic choices in influencing the (epi)genetic program of different cell types. There are uncanny similarities between PSCs and cancer cells at the metabolic level. Furthermore, metabolism may also play a direct role in cell status and targeting metabolic pathways could therefore be a promising strategy for both the control of cancer cell proliferation and the regulation of stem cell physiology, in terms of manipulating stem cells toward relevant phenotypes that may be important for tissue engineering, or making cancer cells become less tumorigenic. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For

  20. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia


    to determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood......, an emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  1. Oct-4 expression maintained stem cell properties in prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study is to isolate cancerous stem-like cells from normal healthy volunteers and prostate cancer patients (CD133+) which also express MDR1 and to ascertain the influence of Oct-4 on 'stem-ness' and differentiation of these CD133+ cells towards epithelium. Methods: CD133+ cells were isolated ...

  2. Cytotoxicity of Sambucus ebulus on cancer cell lines and protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity of Sambucus ebulus on cancer cell lines and protective effects of vitamins C and E against its cytotoxicity on normal cell lines. ... Cytotoxicity of SEE on cancer (HepG2 and CT26) and normal (CHO and rat fibroblast) cell lines was evaluated by MTT assay. IC50 of SEE on ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  3. Targeting Apoptotic Activity Against Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska


    Full Text Available Numerous data suggest that an increase of cancer stem cells (CSCs in tumor mass can be the reason for failure of conventional therapies because of their resistance. CD44+/CD24− cells are a putative cancer stem cells subpopulation in prostate cancer. TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand is an activator of apoptosis in tumor cells. However, some tumors are TRAIL-resistant. Cancer cells can be re-sensitized to TRAIL induced apoptosis by a combination of TRAIL and taxanes. The aim of this work was to analyze the enhancement of the anticancer effect of TRAIL by paclitaxel, cabazitaxel and docetaxel in the whole population of PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, but also in CD44+/CD24− prostate cancer stem cells. We examined the apoptotic effect of TRAIL and taxanes using flow cytometry and Annexin-V-PE staining. The co-treatment with taxanes and TRAIL enhanced significantly the apoptosis in CD44+/CD24− cells only in PC3 cell line but not in DU145 cells. We discovered also that taxanes can increase the expression of death receptor TRAIL-R2 in PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of our study show that treatment with paclitaxel, cabazitaxel and docetaxel is able to enhance the apoptosis induced by TRAIL even in prostate cancer stem cells.

  4. Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. (United States)

    Tate, Patricia L; Bibb, Robert; Larcom, Lyndon L


    Concern has been expressed about the fact that cows' milk contains estrogens and could stimulate the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors. In this study, organic cows' milk and two commercial substitutes were digested in vitro and tested for their effects on the growth of cultures of prostate and breast cancer cells. Cows' milk stimulated the growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in each of 14 separate experiments, producing an average increase in growth rate of over 30%. In contrast, almond milk suppressed the growth of these cells by over 30%. Neither cows' milk nor almond milk affected the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells or AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells significantly. Soy milk increased the growth rate of the breast cancer cells. These data indicate that prostate and breast cancer patients should be cautioned about the possible promotional effects of commercial dairy products and their substitutes.

  5. Role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity of grape seed extract in human bladder cancer cells. (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Tyagi, Alpna; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla


    In present study, we evaluated grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy against bladder cancer and associated mechanism in two different bladder cancer cell lines T24 and HTB9. A significant inhibitory effect of GSE on cancer cell viability was observed, which was due to apoptotic cell death. Cell death events were preceded by vacuolar appearance in cytoplasm, which under electron microscopy was confirmed as swollen mitochondrial organelle and autophagosomes. Through detailed in vitro studies, we established that GSE generated oxidative stress that initiated an apoptotic response as indicated by the reversal of GSE-mediated apoptosis when the cells were pre-treated with antioxidants prior to GSE. However, parallel to a strong apoptotic cell death event, GSE also caused a pro-survival autophagic event as evidenced by tracking the dynamics of LC3-II within the cells. Since the pro-death apoptotic response was stronger than the pro-survival autophagy induction within the cells, cell eventually succumbed to cellular death after GSE exposure. Together, the findings in the present study are both novel and highly significant in establishing, for the first time, that GSE-mediated oxidative stress causes a strong programmed cell death in human bladder cancer cells, suggesting and advocating the effectiveness of this non-toxic agent against this deadly malignancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutic Approaches to Target Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Arlhee, E-mail:; Leon, Kalet [Department of Systems Biology, Center of Molecular Immunology, 216 Street, PO Box 16040, Atabey, Havana 11600 (Cuba)


    The clinical relevance of cancer stem cells (CSC) remains a major challenge for current cancer therapies, but preliminary findings indicate that specific targeting may be possible. Recent studies have shown that these tumor subpopulations promote tumor angiogenesis through the increased production of VEGF, whereas the VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab specifically inhibits CSC growth. Moreover, nimotuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with a potent antiangiogenic activity, has been shown by our group to reduce the frequency of CSC-like subpopulations in mouse models of brain tumors when combined with ionizing radiation. These studies and subsequent reports from other groups support the relevance of approaches based on molecular-targeted therapies to selectively attack CSC. This review discusses the relevance of targeting both the EGFR and angiogenic pathways as valid approaches to this aim. We discuss the relevance of identifying better molecular markers to develop drug screening strategies that selectively target CSC.

  7. Advanced Merkel cell cancer and the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bird, B R


    BACKGROUND: Merkel cell cancer (MCC) is an uncommon neuroendocrine skin cancer occurring predominantly in elderly Caucasians. It tends to metastasize to regional lymph nodes and viscera and is sensitive to chemotherapy but recurs rapidly. AIM: To report one such case, its response to chemotherapy and briefly review the literature. METHODS: A 73-year-old male with a fungating primary lesion on his left knee and ulcerated inguinal lymph nodes was diagnosed with MCC and treated with chemotherapy. The two largest case series and reviews of case reports were summarised. RESULTS: His ulcer healed after two cycles of carboplatin and etoposide with improvement in quality of life. Overall response rates of nearly 60% to chemotherapy are reported but median survival is only nine months with metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy should be considered for fit elderly patients with MCC who have recurrent or advanced disease.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Human Natural Killer Cell Response at Single-Cell Resolution in B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheli Sarkar


    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are phenotypically and functionally diverse lymphocytes that recognize and kill cancer cells. The susceptibility of target cancer cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity depends on the strength and balance of regulatory (activating/inhibitory ligands expressed on target cell surface. We performed gene expression arrays to determine patterns of NK cell ligands associated with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (b-NHL. Microarray analyses revealed significant upregulation of a multitude of NK-activating and costimulatory ligands across varied b-NHL cell lines and primary lymphoma cells, including ULBP1, CD72, CD48, and SLAMF6. To correlate genetic signatures with functional anti-lymphoma activity, we developed a dynamic and quantitative cytotoxicity assay in an integrated microfluidic droplet generation and docking array. Individual NK cells and target lymphoma cells were co-encapsulated in picoliter-volume droplets to facilitate monitoring of transient cellular interactions and NK cell effector outcomes at single-cell level. We identified significant variability in NK-lymphoma cell contact duration, frequency, and subsequent cytolysis. Death of lymphoma cells undergoing single contact with NK cells occurred faster than cells that made multiple short contacts. NK cells also killed target cells in droplets via contact-independent mechanisms that partially relied on calcium-dependent processes and perforin secretion, but not on cytokines (interferon-γ or tumor necrosis factor-α. We extended this technique to characterize functional heterogeneity in cytolysis of primary cells from b-NHL patients. Tumor cells from two diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients showed similar contact durations with NK cells; primary Burkitt lymphoma cells made longer contacts and were lysed at later times. We also tested the cytotoxic efficacy of NK-92, a continuously growing NK cell line being investigated as an antitumor therapy, using our droplet

  9. Antiproliferative Effects of Selected Chemotherapeutics in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Caltová


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effect of selected cytostatics on a human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 as a model system for ovarian cancer treatment. This cell line is considered cisplatin-sensitive. Panel of tested cytostatics included cisplatin, paclitaxel, carboplatin, gemcitabine, topotecan and etoposide. These cytostatics have a different mechanism of action. To evaluate cytotoxic potential of the tested compounds, the methods measuring various toxicological endpoints were employed including morphological studies, MTT assay, dynamic monitoring of cell proliferation with xCELLigence, cell cycle analysis, caspase 3 activity and expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell death. The A270 cell line showed different sensitivity towards the selected cytostatics, the highest cytotoxic effect was associated with paclitaxel and topotecan.

  10. Adult stromal cells derived from human adipose tissue provoke pancreatic cancer cell death both in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Cousin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal tissue homeostasis is maintained by dynamic interactions between epithelial cells and their microenvironment. Disrupting this homeostasis can induce aberrant cell proliferation, adhesion, function and migration that might promote malignant behavior. Indeed, aberrant stromal-epithelial interactions contribute to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC spread and metastasis, and this raises the possibility that novel stroma-targeted therapies represent additional approaches for combating this malignant disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of human stromal cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSC on pancreatic tumor cell proliferation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Co-culturing pancreatic tumor cells with ADSC and ADSC-conditioned medium sampled from different donors inhibited cancer cell viability and proliferation. ADSC-mediated inhibitory effect was further extended to other epithelial cancer-derived cell lines (liver, colon, prostate. ADSC conditioned medium induced cancer cell necrosis following G1-phase arrest, without evidence of apoptosis. In vivo, a single intra-tumoral injection of ADSC in a model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced a strong and long-lasting inhibition of tumor growth. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that ADSC strongly inhibit PDAC proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo and induce tumor cell death by altering cell cycle progression. Therefore, ADSC may constitute a potential cell-based therapeutic alternative for the treatment of PDAC for which no effective cure is available.

  11. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rie Ø; Strauch, Louise S; Sandgaard, Michael


    The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the use of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography (DCE-CT) in patients with pancreatic cancer. This study was composed according to the PRISMA guidelines 2009. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library...... tissue, compared with measurements in pancreatic tissue outside of tumor, or normal pancreatic tissue in control groups of healthy volunteers. The studies were heterogeneous in the number of patients enrolled and scan protocols. Perfusion parameters measured and analyzed by DCE-CT might be useful...

  12. Amygdalin Influences Bladder Cancer Cell Adhesion and Invasion In Vitro


    Jasmina Makarević; Jochen Rutz; Eva Juengel; Silke Kaulfuss; Igor Tsaur; Karen Nelson; Jesco Pfitzenmaier; Axel Haferkamp; Blaheta, Roman A


    The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as...

  13. Spheroid Cultures of Primary Urothelial Cancer Cells: Cancer Tissue-Originated Spheroid (CTOS) Method. (United States)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Endo, Hiroko; Inoue, Masahiro


    Increasingly, it has been recognized that studying cancer samples from individual patients is important for the development of effective therapeutic strategies and in endeavors to overcome therapy resistance. Primary cultures of cancer cells acutely dissected from individual patients can provide a platform that enables the study and characterization of individual tumors. To that end, we have developed a method for preparing cancer cells in the form of multi-cellular spheroids. The cells can be derived from patient tumors (primary cells), from patient-derived xenografts, or from genetically- or chemically induced animal tumors. This method of culturing spheroids composed of cells derived from cancer tissues can be applied to various types of cancer, including urothelial cancer. The method is based on the principle of retaining cell-cell contact throughout cancer cell preparation and culturing. The first step is a partial digestion of the tumor specimen into small fragments; these fragments spontaneously form spheroidal shapes within several hours. The spheroid is referred to as a cancer tissue-originated spheroid (CTOS). The advantage of the CTOS method is that it allows one to prepare pure cancer cells at high yield. CTOSs can be stably cultured in serum-free conditions. The CTOS method can be applied to drug sensitivity assays, drug screening, and analyses of intracellular signaling. Moreover, the CTOS method provides a platform for studying the nature of cancer cell clusters.

  14. Doxycycline inhibits the cancer stem cell phenotype and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Fengchun; Vlashi, Erina


    Experimental evidence suggest that breast tumors originate from breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and that mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for the anchorage-independent clonal expansion and survival of CSCs, thus rendering mitochondria a significant target for novel treatment approaches. One of the recognized side effects of the FDA-approved drug, doxycycline is the inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we investigate the mechanism by which doxycycline exerts its inhibitory effects on the properties of breast cancer cells and BCSCs, such as mammosphere forming efficiency, invasion, migration, apoptosis, the expression of stem cell markers and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related markers of breast cancer cells. In addition, we explored whether autophagy plays a role in the inhibitory effect of doxycycline on breast cancer cells. We find that doxycyline can inhibit the viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells and BCSCs, decrease mammosphere forming efficiency, migration and invasion, and EMT of breast cancer cells. Expression of stem cell factors Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44 were also significantly downregulated after doxycycline treatment. Moreover, doxycycline could down-regulate the expression of the autophagy marker LC-3BI and LC-3BII, suggesting that inhibiting autophagy may be responsible in part for the observed effects on proliferation, EMT and stem cell markers. The potent inhibition of EMT and cancer stem-like characteristics in breast cancer cells by doxycycline treatment suggests that this drug can be repurposed as an anti-cancer drug in the treatment of breast cancer patients in the clinic.

  15. Implications of Cancer Stem Cell Theory for Cancer Chemoprevention by Natural Dietary Compounds (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wicha, Max S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin


    The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anti-cancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally-occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anti-cancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine, and vitamin D3, are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival. PMID:21295962

  16. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhai, Suodi [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Hua, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Quan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China)


    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  17. Single-cell analysis reveals a stem-cell program in human metastatic breast cancer cells (United States)

    Lawson, Devon A.; Bhakta, Nirav R.; Kessenbrock, Kai; Prummel, Karin D.; Yu, Ying; Takai, Ken; Zhou, Alicia; Eyob, Henok; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Wang, Chih-Yang; Yaswen, Paul; Goga, Andrei; Werb, Zena


    Despite major advances in understanding the molecular and genetic basis of cancer, metastasis remains the cause of >90% of cancer-related mortality1. Understanding metastasis initiation and progression is critical to developing new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent metastatic disease. Prevailing theories hypothesize that metastases are seeded by rare tumour cells with unique properties, which may function like stem cells in their ability to initiate and propagate metastatic tumours2–5. However, the identity of metastasis-initiating cells in human breast cancer remains elusive, and whether metastases are hierarchically organized is unknown2. Here we show at the single-cell level that early stage metastatic cells possess a distinct stem-like gene expression signature. To identify and isolate metastatic cells from patient-derived xenograft models of human breast cancer, we developed a highly sensitive fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based assay, which allowed us to enumerate metastatic cells in mouse peripheral tissues. We compared gene signatures in metastatic cells from tissues with low versus high metastatic burden. Metastatic cells from low-burden tissues were distinct owing to their increased expression of stem cell, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, pro-survival, and dormancy-associated genes. By contrast, metastatic cells from high-burden tissues were similar to primary tumour cells, which were more heterogeneous and expressed higher levels of luminal differentiation genes. Transplantation of stem-like metastatic cells from low-burden tissues showed that they have considerable tumour-initiating capacity, and can differentiate to produce luminal-like cancer cells. Progression to high metastatic burden was associated with increased proliferation and MYC expression, which could be attenuated by treatment with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. These findings support a hierarchical model for metastasis, in which metastases are

  18. Risk of spilling cancer cells during total laparoscopic hysterectomy in low-risk endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Shinohara


    Conclusion: We conclude that fallopian tubal cauterization is sufficient to provide protection from the dissemination of cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity at the time of TLH for endometrial cancers in early stages.

  19. Cancer Stem Cell Plasticity as Tumor Growth Promoter and Catalyst of Population Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Poleszczuk


    Full Text Available It is increasingly argued that cancer stem cells are not a cellular phenotype but rather a transient state that cells can acquire, either through intrinsic signaling cascades or in response to environmental cues. While cancer stem cell plasticity is generally associated with increased aggressiveness and treatment resistance, we set out to thoroughly investigate the impact of different rates of plasticity on early and late tumor growth dynamics and the response to therapy. We develop an agent-based model of cancer stem cell driven tumor growth, in which plasticity is defined as a spontaneous transition between stem and nonstem cancer cell states. Simulations of the model show that plasticity can substantially increase tumor growth rate and invasion. At high rates of plasticity, however, the cells get exhausted and the tumor will undergo spontaneous remission in the long term. In a series of in silico trials, we show that such remission can be facilitated through radiotherapy. The presented study suggests that stem cell plasticity has rather complex, nonintuitive implications on tumor growth and treatment response. Further theoretical, experimental, and integrated studies are needed to fully decipher cancer stem cell plasticity and how it can be harnessed for novel therapeutic approaches.

  20. Metabolic Plasticity of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells: Adaptation to Changes in the Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui V. Simões


    Full Text Available Cancer cells adapt their metabolism during tumorigenesis. We studied two isogenic breast cancer cells lines (highly metastatic 4T1; nonmetastatic 67NR to identify differences in their glucose and glutamine metabolism in response to metabolic and environmental stress. Dynamic magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 13C-isotopomers showed that 4T1 cells have higher glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle flux than 67NR cells and readily switch between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS in response to different extracellular environments. OXPHOS activity increased with metastatic potential in isogenic cell lines derived from the same primary breast cancer: 4T1 > 4T07 and 168FARN (local micrometastasis only > 67NR. We observed a restricted TCA cycle flux at the succinate dehydrogenase step in 67NR cells (but not in 4T1 cells, leading to succinate accumulation and hindering OXPHOS. In the four isogenic cell lines, environmental stresses modulated succinate dehydrogenase subunit A expression according to metastatic potential. Moreover, glucose-derived lactate production was more glutamine dependent in cell lines with higher metastatic potential. These studies show clear differences in TCA cycle metabolism between 4T1 and 67NR breast cancer cells. They indicate that metastases-forming 4T1 cells are more adept at adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental stress than isogenic, nonmetastatic 67NR cells. We suggest that the metabolic plasticity and adaptability are more important to the metastatic breast cancer phenotype than rapid cell proliferation alone, which could 1 provide a new biomarker for early detection of this phenotype, possibly at the time of diagnosis, and 2 lead to new treatment strategies of metastatic breast cancer by targeting mitochondrial metabolism.

  1. Cancer Stem Cells and Their Microenvironment: Biology and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Yuen-Ting Lau


    Full Text Available Tumor consists of heterogeneous cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs that can terminally differentiate into tumor bulk. Normal stem cells in normal organs regulate self-renewal within a stem cell niche. Likewise, accumulating evidence has also suggested that CSCs are maintained extrinsically within the tumor microenvironment, which includes both cellular and physical factors. Here, we review the significance of stromal cells, immune cells, extracellular matrix, tumor stiffness, and hypoxia in regulation of CSC plasticity and therapeutic resistance. With a better understanding of how CSC interacts with its niche, we are able to identify potential therapeutic targets for the development of more effective treatments against cancer.

  2. Dynamic volume perfusion CT in patients with lung cancer: Baseline perfusion characteristics of different histological subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jingyun, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine (China); Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schmid-Bindert, Gerald, E-mail: [Division of Surgical Oncology and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Sudarski, Sonja, E-mail: [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Pilz, Lothar R., E-mail: [Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Liu, Bo, E-mail: [Siemens Healthcare, No. 278, Zhouzhu Road, Shanghai, 201318 (China); Haberland, Ulrike, E-mail: [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Klotz, Ernst, E-mail: [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); and others


    Objective: To evaluate dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) tumor baseline characteristics of three different subtypes of lung cancer in untreated patients. Materials and methods: 173 consecutive patients (131 men, 42 women; mean age 61 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed lung cancer underwent dVPCT prior to biopsy. Tumor permeability, blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantitatively assessed as well as tumor diameter and volume. Tumor subtypes were histologically determined and compared concerning their dVPCT results. dVPCT results were correlated to tumor diameter and volume. Results: Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 88, squamous cell carcinoma in 54 and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 31 patients. Tumor permeability was significantly differing between adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC (all p < 0.05). Tumor BF and BV were higher in adenocarcinomathan in SCLC (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively). BV was also higher in squamous cell carcinoma compared to SCLC (p = 0.01). MTT was not differing between tumor subtypes. Regarding all tumors, tumor diameter did not correlate with any of the dVPCT parameters, whereas tumor volume was negatively associated with permeability, BF and BV (r = −0.22, −0.24, −0.24, all p < 0.05). In squamous cell carcinoma, tumor diameter und volume correlated with BV (r = 0.53 and r = −0.40, all p < 0.05). In SCLC, tumor diameter und volume correlated with MTT (r = 0.46 and r = 0.39, all p < 0.05). In adenocarcinoma, no association between morphological and functional tumor characteristics was observed. Conclusions: dVPCT parameters are only partially related to tumor diameter and volume and are significantly differing between lung cancer subtypes.

  3. Differentiation of prostate cancer cells using flexible fluorescent polymers. (United States)

    Scott, Michael D; Dutta, Rinku; Haldar, Manas K; Guo, Bin; Friesner, Daniel L; Mallik, Sanku


    Using water-soluble, fluorescent, flexible polymers, we have devised a novel methodology for identification and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis, we demonstrate that the differential modulations of the polymer emission intensities in the presence of conditioned cell culture media can be used to distinguish between prostate cancer subtypes and between cancerous and noncancer cells. The differences in the compositions of the conditioned cell culture media are likely contributing to different fluorescence spectral patterns of the polymers. This in vitro approach may provide a novel platform for the development of an alternative prostate cancer diagnostic and subtyping technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Visualization and targeting of LGR5(+) human colon cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Shimokawa, Mariko; Ohta, Yuki; Nishikori, Shingo; Matano, Mami; Takano, Ai; Fujii, Masayuki; Date, Shoichi; Sugimoto, Shinya; Kanai, Takanori; Sato, Toshiro


    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory highlights a self-renewing subpopulation of cancer cells that fuels tumour growth. The existence of human CSCs is mainly supported by xenotransplantation of prospectively isolated cells, but their clonal dynamics and plasticity remain unclear. Here, we show that human LGR5(+) colorectal cancer cells serve as CSCs in growing cancer tissues. Lineage-tracing experiments with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre knock-in allele of LGR5 reveal the self-renewal and differentiation capacity of LGR5(+) tumour cells. Selective ablation of LGR5(+) CSCs in LGR5-iCaspase9 knock-in organoids leads to tumour regression, followed by tumour regrowth driven by re-emerging LGR5(+) CSCs. KRT20 knock-in reporter marks differentiated cancer cells that constantly diminish in tumour tissues, while reverting to LGR5(+) CSCs and contributing to tumour regrowth after LGR5(+) CSC ablation. We also show that combined chemotherapy potentiates targeting of LGR5(+) CSCs. These data provide insights into the plasticity of CSCs and their potential as a therapeutic target in human colorectal cancer.

  5. The ratio of cancer cells to stroma after induction therapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. (United States)

    Goto, Masaki; Naito, Masahito; Saruwatari, Koichi; Hisakane, Kakeru; Kojima, Motohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuwata, Takeshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Nomura, Shogo; Aokage, Keiju; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Junji; Yokoi, Kohei; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ishii, Genichiro


    Induction therapy induces degenerative changes of various degrees in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effect of induction therapy on histological characteristics, in particular the ratio of residual cancer cells to non-cancerous components, is unknown. Seventy-four NSCLC patients treated with induction therapy followed by surgery were enrolled. Residual cancer cells were identified using anti-pan-cytokeratin antibody (AE1/AE3). We analyzed and quantified the following three factors via digital image analysis; (1) the tumor area containing cancer cells and non-cancerous components (TA), (2) the total area of AE1/AE3 positive cancer cells (TACC), (3) the percentage of TACC to TA (%TACC). These factors were also analyzed in a matched control group (surgery alone, n = 80). The median TACC of the induction therapy group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p induction therapy group (5.9 %) was significantly lower than that of the control group (58.6 %) (p induction therapy group. Conversely, TACC had a strong positive correlation with %TACC in the induction therapy group (r = 0.95), but not in the control group. Unlike the control group, the smaller the total area of residual cancer cells, the higher residual tumor contained non-cancerous components in the induction group, which may be the characteristic histological feature of NSCLC after induction therapy.

  6. Application of single-cell technology in cancer research. (United States)

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Fu, Li-Wu


    In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. The future prospects now are to bring single-cell technology into the clinical arena. We believe that the clinical application of single-cell technology will be beneficial in cancer diagnostics and treatment, and ultimately improve survival in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The cancer-germline antigen SSX2 causes cell cycle arrest and DNA damage in cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Katrine Buch Vidén; Lindgreen, Jonas; Terp, Mikkel Green


    , we show that SSX2 is involved in regulation of cancer cell growth. We found that ectopic expression of SSX2 in melanoma and colon cancer cells strongly reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro. Importantly, in a xenograft mouse model, the growth of tumors derived from SSX2 overexpressing...... dependent. The growth reduction was similar in isogenic colon cancer cells with and without p53, indicating that SSX2 is able to inhibit the growth of cancer cells, even in absence of functional p53. Our results show that SSX2 acts as an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation, possibly through replicative...... stress, and therefore have important implications for the use of SSX2 as a target for cancer therapy....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Udalova


    Full Text Available Affine chromatography was used to isolate Lec antibodies from the sera of a healthy female donor with the high titers of these anti- bodies, which were labeled with biotin. The study enrolled 51 patients with primary breast cancer (BC. Antigen expression was found by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. With these two techniques being used, the detection rate of Lec expression in BC cells was 65% (33/51; the antigen was most frequently found by flow cytometry as compared with immunohistochemistry: 72 and 58% of cases, respectively.

  9. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo


    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  10. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, C; Achiam, M P; Federspiel, B


    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic examinat...... with dysphagia, weight loss, and an endoscopically malignant tumor, but surgery was not performed until after 9 and 10 months, respectively, and then in order to get a diagnosis. At the last follow-up, both patients were without any recurrence of the disease....

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Baicalin and Baicalein on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary O. Rankin


    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is one of the primary causes of death for women all through the Western world. Baicalin and baicalein are naturally occurring flavonoids that are found in the roots and leaves of some Chinese medicinal plants and are thought to have antioxidant activity and possible anti-angiogenic, anti-cancer, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. Two kinds of ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3 and CP-70 cell lines and a normal ovarian cell line (IOSE-364 were selected to be investigated in the inhibitory effect of baicalin and baicalein on cancer cells. Largely, baicalin and baicalein inhibited ovarian cancer cell viability in both ovarian cancer cell lines with LD50 values in the range of 45–55 µM for baicalin and 25–40 µM for baicalein. On the other hand, both compounds had fewer inhibitory effects on normal ovarian cells viability with LD50 values of 177 µM for baicalin and 68 µM for baicalein. Baicalin decreased expression of VEGF (20 µM, cMyc (80 µM, and NFkB (20 µM; baicalein decreased expression of VEGF (10 µM, HIF-1α (20 µM, cMyc (20 µM, and NFkB (40 µM. Therefore baicalein is more effective in inhibiting cancer cell viability and expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, cMyc, and NFκB in both ovarian cancer cell lines. It seems that baicalein inhibited cancer cell viability through the inhibition of cancer promoting genes expression including VEGF, HIF-1α, cMyc, and NFκB. Overall, this study showed that baicalein and baicalin significantly inhibited the viability of ovarian cancer cells, while generally exerting less of an effect on normal cells. They have potential for chemoprevention and treatment of ovarian cancers.

  12. Identification of genes involved in breast cancer and breast cancer stem cells


    Apostolou P; Toloudi M; Papasotiriou I


    Panagiotis Apostolou, Maria Toloudi, Ioannis Papasotiriou Research and Development Department, Research Genetic Cancer Centre Ltd, Florina, Greece Abstract: Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Great progress has been made in its treatment but relapse is common. One hypothesis to account for the high recurrence rates is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple malignant cell types. This study aimed t...

  13. Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Collectively Invade Collagen by Following a Glucose Gradient (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Austin, Robert; Liu, Liyu; Duclos, Guillaume; Lee, Jeongseog; Wu, Amy; Kam, Yooseok; Sontag, Eduardo; Stone, Howard; Sturm, James; Gatenby, Robert


    We show that MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells collectively invade a three dimensional collagen matrix by following a glucose gradient. We observe that due to the 3D physical deformation of the matrix, as measured by the displacement of reporter beads within the matrix, there exists a long range deformation mechanical field inside the matrix which serves to couple the motions of the invading metastatic cell. The invasion front of the cells is a dynamic one, with different cells assuming the lead on a time scale of 24 hours due to certain cells having higher speeds of penetration, which are not sustained. The front cell leadership is dynamic presumably due to metabolic costs associated with the long range strain field which proceeds the invading cell front, which we have imaged using confocal imaging and marker beads imbedded in the collagen matrix. Sponsored by the NCI/NIH Physical Sciences Oncology Centers

  14. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Geng, Chang-Xin; Sun, Xin; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Xie, Xiang-Jun


    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, the expression and functional role of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) was investigated. Tissue specimens were obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n=56) or chronic pancreatitis (CP; n=10), who underwent pancreatic resection, and from normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=10). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the localization and expression of ALCAM in pancreatic tissues. Subsequently, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied to assess the expression of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc‑1 and T3M4 cells, as well as in PSCs. An enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure ALCAM levels in cell culture medium stimulated by hypoxia, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and transforming growth factor‑β. Silencing of ALCAM was performed using ALCAM small interfering (si)RNA and immunocytochemistry was used to analyze the inhibition efficiency. An invasion assay and a cell interaction assay were performed to assess the invasive ability and co‑cultured adhesive potential of Panc‑1 and T3M4 cells, as well as PSCs. Histologically, ALCAM expression was generally weak or absent in pancreatic cancer cells, but was markedly upregulated in PSCs in pancreatic cancer tissues. ALCAM was highly expressed in PSCs from CP tissues and PSCs surrounding pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as in pancreatic cancer cells. ALCAM mRNA was highly expressed in PSCs, with a low to moderate expression in T3M4 and Panc‑1 cells. Similar to the mRNA expression, immunoblotting demonstrated that ALCAM protein levels were high in PSCs and T3M4 cells, but low in Panc‑1 cells. The expression of TNF‑α increased, while hypoxia decreased the secretion of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc

  15. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas (United States)


    chose to make new medulloblastoma models with oncogenic PIK3CA (PIK3CAH1047R). However, this change caused major delay in our progress since we have not...these tumors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS cancer stem cells, medulloblastoma, targeted therapy, therapy resistance , pediatric cancer, brain tumor, Notch1...Keywords……………………………………………………………. 4 3. Accomplishments………..………………………………………….. 4 4. Impact…………………………...…………………………………… 8 5. Changes /Problems

  16. Cancer cells mimic in vivo spatial-temporal cell-cycle phase distribution and chemosensitivity in 3-dimensional Gelfoam® histoculture but not 2-dimensional culture as visualized with real-time FUCCI imaging. (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Miwa, Shinji; Mii, Sumiyuki; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Uehara, Fuminaru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Ming; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M


    The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We previously reported monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor, intravitally in live mice, using a fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G0/G1 phase. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after cessation of chemotherapy. These results suggested why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G2/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. In the present report, we used FUCCI imaging and Gelfoam® collagen-sponge-gel histoculture, to demonstrate in real time, that the cell-cycle phase distribution of cancer cells in Gelfoam® and in vivo tumors is highly similar, whereby only the surface cells proliferate and interior cells are quiescent in G0/G1. This is in contrast to 2D culture where most cancer cells cycle. Similarly, the cancer cells responded similarly to toxic chemotherapy in Gelfoam® culture as in vivo, and very differently than cancer cells in 2D culture which were much more chemosensitive. Gelfoam® culture of FUCCI-expressing cancer cells offers the opportunity to image the cell cycle of cancer cells continuously and to screen for novel effective therapies to target quiescent cells, which are the majority in a tumor and which would have a strong probability to be effective in vivo.

  17. Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: From Tumor Genomics to Cancer Therapeutics (United States)

    Gandara, David R.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Sos, Martin L.; Lara, Primo N.; Hirsch, Fred R.


    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) represents an area of unmet need in lung cancer research. For the last several years, therapeutic progress in SCC has lagged behind the now more common NSCLC histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. However, recent efforts to define the complex biology underlying SCC have begun to bear fruit in a multitude of ways, including characterization of previously unknown genomic and signaling pathways, delineation of new potentially actionable molecular targets, and subsequent development of a large number of agents directed against unique SCC-associated molecular abnormalities. For the first time, SCC-specific prognostic gene signatures and predictive biomarkers of new therapeutic agents are emerging. In addition, recent and ongoing clinical trials, including the Lung-MAP master protocol, have been designed to facilitate approval of targeted therapy-biomarker combinations. In this comprehensive review we describe the current status of SCC therapeutics, recent advances in the understanding of SCC biology and prognostic gene signatures, and the development of innovative new clinical trials, all of which offer new hope for patients with advanced SCC. PMID:25979930

  18. Multispectral fingerprinting for improved in vivo cell dynamics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cameron HJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracing cell dynamics in the embryo becomes tremendously difficult when cell trajectories cross in space and time and tissue density obscure individual cell borders. Here, we used the chick neural crest (NC as a model to test multicolor cell labeling and multispectral confocal imaging strategies to overcome these roadblocks. Results We found that multicolor nuclear cell labeling and multispectral imaging led to improved resolution of in vivo NC cell identification by providing a unique spectral identity for each cell. NC cell spectral identity allowed for more accurate cell tracking and was consistent during short term time-lapse imaging sessions. Computer model simulations predicted significantly better object counting for increasing cell densities in 3-color compared to 1-color nuclear cell labeling. To better resolve cell contacts, we show that a combination of 2-color membrane and 1-color nuclear cell labeling dramatically improved the semi-automated analysis of NC cell interactions, yet preserved the ability to track cell movements. We also found channel versus lambda scanning of multicolor labeled embryos significantly reduced the time and effort of image acquisition and analysis of large 3D volume data sets. Conclusions Our results reveal that multicolor cell labeling and multispectral imaging provide a cellular fingerprint that may uniquely determine a cell's position within the embryo. Together, these methods offer a spectral toolbox to resolve in vivo cell dynamics in unprecedented detail.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty eSchwartz


    Full Text Available Newly emerging data highlight obesity as an important risk factor for developing certain types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Although evidence supports a link between the two, the mechanisms responsible for this relationship have not yet been fully elucidated. Hypertrophied and dysfunctional adipose tissue of the obese state is characterized by low-grade inflammation. Adipokines and cytokines secreted from adipocytes, together with the abundant availability of lipids from adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment, promote adhesion, migration, and invasion of tumor cells and support tumor progression and uncontrolled growth. One of the predisposed targets of the deleterious effects exerted by secretions from adipose tissue in obesity are the activities associated with the cellular mitochondria. Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism plays a key role in meeting cells' energetic demands by oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos. Here we discuss: (a the dynamic relationship between glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and OxPhos; (b the evidence for impaired OxPhos (i.e. mitochondrial dysfunction in colon cancer; (c the mechanisms by which mitochondrial dysfunction can predispose to cancer. We propose that impaired OxPhos increases susceptibility to colon cancer since OxPhos is sensitive to a large number of factors that are intrinsic to the host (e.g. inflammation.Given that adipocytes are a major source of adipokines and energy for the cancer cell, understanding the mechanisms of metabolic symbiosis between cancer cells and adipocytes should reveal new therapeutic possibilities.

  20. Examining the pathogenesis of breast cancer using a novel agent-based model of mammary ductal epithelium dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Chapa

    Full Text Available The study of the pathogenesis of breast cancer is challenged by the long time-course of the disease process and the multi-factorial nature of generating oncogenic insults. The characterization of the longitudinal pathogenesis of malignant transformation from baseline normal breast duct epithelial dynamics may provide vital insight into the cascading systems failure that leads to breast cancer. To this end, extensive information on the baseline behavior of normal mammary epithelium and breast cancer oncogenesis was integrated into a computational model termed the Ductal Epithelium Agent-Based Model (DEABM. The DEABM is composed of computational agents that behave according to rules established from published cellular and molecular mechanisms concerning breast duct epithelial dynamics and oncogenesis. The DEABM implements DNA damage and repair, cell division, genetic inheritance and simulates the local tissue environment with hormone excretion and receptor signaling. Unrepaired DNA damage impacts the integrity of the genome within individual cells, including a set of eight representative oncogenes and tumor suppressors previously implicated in breast cancer, with subsequent consequences on successive generations of cells. The DEABM reproduced cellular population dynamics seen during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, and demonstrated the oncogenic effect of known genetic factors associated with breast cancer, namely TP53 and Myc, in simulations spanning ∼40 years of simulated time. Simulations comparing normal to BRCA1-mutant breast tissue demonstrated rates of invasive cancer development similar to published epidemiologic data with respect to both cumulative incidence over time and estrogen-receptor status. Investigation of the modeling of ERα-positive (ER+ tumorigenesis led to a novel hypothesis implicating the transcription factor and tumor suppressor RUNX3. These data suggest that the DEABM can serve as a potentially valuable framework to

  1. Tracking the Evolution of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Wilson, Gareth A.; McGranahan, Nicholas


    Background Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), data on intratumor heterogeneity and cancer genome evolution have been limited to small retrospective cohorts. We wanted to prospectively investigate intratumor heterogeneity in relation to clinical outcome and to determine...... as a prognostic predictor. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and others; TRACERx number, NCT01888601 .)....

  2. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism (United States)

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate tha...

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer) (United States)

    ... inside of the lungs. Enlarge Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their ... Cell Lung Cancer Tobacco (includes help with quitting) Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit Secondhand Smoke and Cancer For general cancer information and other ...

  4. Cell culture arrays using magnetic force-based cell patterning for dynamic single cell analysis. (United States)

    Ino, Kosuke; Okochi, Mina; Konishi, Nao; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Imai, Rentaro; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Akira; Honda, Hiroyuki


    In order to understand the behavior of individual cells, single cell analyses have attracted attention since most cell-based assays provide data with values averaged across a large number of cells. Techniques for the manipulation and analysis of single cells are crucial for understanding the behavior of individual cells. In the present study, we have developed single cell culture arrays using magnetic force and a pin holder, which enables the allocation of the magnetically labeled cells on arrays, and have analyzed their dynamics. The pin holder was made from magnetic soft iron and contained more than 6000 pillars on its surface. The pin holder was placed on a magnet to concentrate the magnetic flux density above the pillars. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts that were labeled with magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) were seeded into a culture dish, and the dish was placed over the pin holder with the magnet. The magnetically labeled cells were guided on the surface where the pillars were positioned and allocated on the arrays with a high resolution. Single-cell patterning was achieved by adjusting the number of cells seeded, and the target cell was collected by a micromanipulator after removing the pin holder with the magnet. Furthermore, change in the morphology of magnetically patterned cells was analyzed by microscopic observation, and cell spreading on the array was observed with time duration. Magnetic force-based cell patterning on cell culture arrays would be a suitable technique for the analysis of cell behavior in studies of cell-cell variation and cell-cell interactions.

  5. The Molecular Architecture of Cell Adhesion: Dynamic Remodeling Revealed by Videonanoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauld eSergé


    Full Text Available The plasma membrane delimits the cell, which is the basic unit of living organisms, and is also a privileged site for cell communication with the environment. Cell adhesion can occur through cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. Adhesion proteins such as integrins and cadherins also constitute receptors for inside-out and outside-in signaling within proteolipidic platforms. Adhesion molecule targeting and stabilization relies on specific features such as preferential segregation by the sub-membrane cytoskeleton meshwork and within membrane proteolipidic microdomains. This review presents an overview of the recent insights brought by the latest developments in microscopy, to unravel the molecular remodeling occurring at cell contacts. The dynamic aspect of cell adhesion was recently highlighted by super-resolution videomicroscopy, also named videonanoscopy. By circumventing the diffraction limit of light, nanoscopy has allowed the monitoring of molecular localization and behavior at the single-molecule level, on fixed and living cells. Accessing molecular-resolution details such as quantitatively monitoring components entering and leaving cell contacts by lateral diffusion and reversible association has revealed an unexpected plasticity. Adhesion structures can be highly specialized, such as focal adhesion in motile cells, as well as immune and neuronal synapses. Spatiotemporal reorganization of adhesion molecules, receptors and adaptors directly relates to structure/function modulation. Assembly of these supramolecular complexes is continuously balanced by dynamic events, remodeling adhesions on various timescales, notably by molecular conformation switches, lateral diffusion within the membrane and endo/exocytosis. Pathological alterations in cell adhesion are involved in cancer evolution, through cancer stem cell interaction with stromal niches, growth, extravasation and metastasis.

  6. [Expression of a new lung cancer drug resistance-related gene in lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell strains]. (United States)

    Liu, Ling-Zhi; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Zhou, Xiang-Dong


    A new drug resistance-related gene fragment which was 494 bp long was found using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and its full-length cDNA fragment was cloned by the authors. This study was designed to determine the expression of this lung cancer drug resistance-related gene (LCDRG) in lung cancer tissues, juxtacancerous tissues, and five lung cancer cell strains. The expression of LCDRG was determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method in 38 lung cancer tissues,12 juxtacancerous tissues, and 5 lung cancer cell strains. The expression of LCDRG in cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in juxtacancerous tissue (Pcancer cell strains, the expression levels of LCDRG in adenocarcinoma cell strains SPC-A-1 and A549, big cell lung cancer cell strain H460, small cell lung cancer cell strains H446 and SH77 were decreased gradually. LCDRG is closely related to lung cancer and may be involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  7. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Expression of Key Molecules in Inflammatory Breast Cancer


    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis A.; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F.


    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell–cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy...

  8. Colon cancer stem cells dictate tumor growth and resist cell death by production of interleukin-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todaro, Matilde; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Di Stefano, Anna B.; Cammareri, Patrizia; Vermeulen, Louis; Iovino, Flora; Tripodo, Claudio; Russo, Antonio; Gulotta, Gaspare; Medema, Jan Paul; Stassi, Giorgio


    A novel paradigm in tumor biology suggests that cancer growth is driven by stem-like cells within a tumor. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of such cells from colon carcinomas using the stem cell marker CD133 that accounts around 2% of the cells in human colon cancer. The

  9. Role of the Microenvironment in Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier


    Full Text Available Despite recent progresses in cancer therapy and increased knowledge in cancer biology, ovarian cancer remains a challenging condition. Among the latest concepts developed in cancer biology, cancer stem cells and the role of microenvironment in tumor progression seem to be related. Indeed, cancer stem cells have been described in several solid tumors including ovarian cancers. These particular cells have the ability to self-renew and reconstitute a heterogeneous tumor. They are characterized by specific surface markers and display resistance to therapeutic regimens. During development, specific molecular cues from the tumor microenvironment can play a role in maintaining and expanding stemness of cancer cells. The tumor stroma contains several compartments: cellular component, cytokine network, and extracellular matrix. These different compartments interact to form a permissive niche for the cancer stem cells. Understanding the molecular cues underlying this crosstalk will allow the design of new therapeutic regimens targeting the niche. In this paper, we will discuss the mechanisms implicated in the interaction between ovarian cancer stem cells and their microenvironment.

  10. Adhesion dynamics of circulating tumor cells under shear flow in a bio-functionalized microchannel (United States)

    Siu-Lun Cheung, Luthur; Zheng, Xiangjun; Wang, Lian; Baygents, James C.; Guzman, Roberto; Schroeder, Joyce A.; Heimark, Ronald L.; Zohar, Yitshak


    The adhesion dynamics of circulating tumor cells in a bio-functionalized microchannel under hydrodynamic loading is explored experimentally and analyzed theoretically. EpCAM antibodies are immobilized on the microchannel surface to specifically capture EpCAM-expressing target breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 from a homogeneous cell suspension in shear flow. In the cross-stream direction, gravity is the dominant physical mechanism resulting in continuous interaction between the EpCAM cell receptors and the immobilized surface anti-EpCAM ligands. Depending on the applied shear rate, three dynamic states have been characterized: firm adhesion, rolling adhesion and free rolling. The steady-state velocity under adhesion- and free-rolling conditions as well as the time-dependent velocity in firm adhesion has been characterized experimentally, based on video recordings of target cell motion in functionalized microchannels. A previously reported theoretical model, utilizing a linear spring to represent the specific receptor-ligand bonds, has been adopted to analyze adhesion dynamics including features such as the cell-surface binding force and separation gap. By fitting theoretical predictions to experimental measurements, a unified exponential decay function is proposed to describe the target cell velocity evolution during capture; the fitting parameters, velocity and time scales, depend on the particular cell-surface system.

  11. Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy of single cancer cells

    KAUST Repository

    Patel, Imran


    Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy is a next generation novel imaging technique allowing high resolution spectral imaging of cells. We show after spectral pre-processing, identification of different cancer cell populations within minutes.

  12. Protective mechanism against cancer found in progeria patient cells (United States)

    NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi

  13. Mathematical models in cell biology and cancer chemotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eisen, Martin


    The purpose of this book is to show how mathematics can be applied to improve cancer chemotherapy. Unfortunately, most drugs used in treating cancer kill both normal and abnormal cells. However, more cancer cells than normal cells can be destroyed by the drug because tumor cells usually exhibit different growth kinetics than normal cells. To capitalize on this last fact, cell kinetics must be studied by formulating mathematical models of normal and abnormal cell growth. These models allow the therapeutic and harmful effects of cancer drugs to be simulated quantitatively. The combined cell and drug models can be used to study the effects of different methods of administering drugs. The least harmful method of drug administration, according to a given criterion, can be found by applying optimal control theory. The prerequisites for reading this book are an elementary knowledge of ordinary differential equations, probability, statistics, and linear algebra. In order to make this book self-contained, a chapter on...

  14. The complexity of the complicity of mast cells in cancer. (United States)

    Nechushtan, Hovav


    Mast cells are evolutionarly ancient cells of the immune cells which can secrete a variety of effector molecules. Animal and pathologic studies suggest that mast cells may promote tumor growth in some cancer types but may act in an opposite manner in others. In several mouse models a critical role of mast cells for tumor promotion was demonstrated. In humans mast cells are dependent upon the tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit. This receptor is inhibited by many of the new anti-cancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors including Pazopanib, Imatinib and Masitinib. These drugs probably ablate some tumor mast cells, in addition to their other known antitumor effects. Understanding the complex roles of mast cells in cancer should aid in understanding mechanisms of current tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and the development of innovative anti-cancer therapies. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of Mutant Cells in Hierarchical Organized Tissues (United States)

    Werner, Benjamin; Dingli, David; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Traulsen, Arne


    Most tissues in multicellular organisms are maintained by continuous cell renewal processes. However, high turnover of many cells implies a large number of error-prone cell divisions. Hierarchical organized tissue structures with stem cell driven cell differentiation provide one way to prevent the accumulation of mutations, because only few stem cells are long lived. We investigate the deterministic dynamics of cells in such a hierarchical multi compartment model, where each compartment represents a certain stage of cell differentiation. The dynamics of the interacting system is described by ordinary differential equations coupled across compartments. We present analytical solutions for these equations, calculate the corresponding extinction times and compare our results to individual based stochastic simulations. Our general compartment structure can be applied to different tissues, as for example hematopoiesis, the epidermis, or colonic crypts. The solutions provide a description of the average time development of stem cell and non stem cell driven mutants and can be used to illustrate general and specific features of the dynamics of mutant cells in such hierarchically structured populations. We illustrate one possible application of this approach by discussing the origin and dynamics of PIG-A mutant clones that are found in the bloodstream of virtually every healthy adult human. From this it is apparent, that not only the occurrence of a mutant but also the compartment of origin is of importance. PMID:22144884

  16. Dynamics of mutant cells in hierarchical organized tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Werner


    Full Text Available Most tissues in multicellular organisms are maintained by continuous cell renewal processes. However, high turnover of many cells implies a large number of error-prone cell divisions. Hierarchical organized tissue structures with stem cell driven cell differentiation provide one way to prevent the accumulation of mutations, because only few stem cells are long lived. We investigate the deterministic dynamics of cells in such a hierarchical multi compartment model, where each compartment represents a certain stage of cell differentiation. The dynamics of the interacting system is described by ordinary differential equations coupled across compartments. We present analytical solutions for these equations, calculate the corresponding extinction times and compare our results to individual based stochastic simulations. Our general compartment structure can be applied to different tissues, as for example hematopoiesis, the epidermis, or colonic crypts. The solutions provide a description of the average time development of stem cell and non stem cell driven mutants and can be used to illustrate general and specific features of the dynamics of mutant cells in such hierarchically structured populations. We illustrate one possible application of this approach by discussing the origin and dynamics of PIG-A mutant clones that are found in the bloodstream of virtually every healthy adult human. From this it is apparent, that not only the occurrence of a mutant but also the compartment of origin is of importance.

  17. Targeting therapy-resistant cancer stem cells by hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oei, A L; Vriend, L E M; Krawczyk, P M


    Eradication of all malignant cells is the ultimate but challenging goal of anti-cancer treatment; most traditional clinically-available approaches fail because there are cells in a tumour that either escape therapy or become therapy-resistant. A subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells...... are limited. Here, we argue that hyperthermia - a therapeutic approach based on local heating of a tumour - is potentially beneficial for targeting CSCs in solid tumours. First, hyperthermia has been described to target cells in hypoxic and nutrient-deprived tumour areas where CSCs reside and ionising...

  18. Cancer metabolism: the volatile signature of glycolysis-in vitro model in lung cancer cells. (United States)

    Feinberg, Tali; Herbig, Jens; Kohl, Ingrid; Las, Guy; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Ilouze, Maya; Haick, Hossam; Peled, Nir


    Discovering the volatile signature of cancer cells is an emerging approach in cancer research, as it may contribute to a fast and simple diagnosis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. One of the main contributors to such a volatile signature is hyperglycolysis, which characterizes the cancerous cell. The metabolic perturbation in cancer cells is known as the Warburg effect; glycolysis is preferred over oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), even in the presence of oxygen. The precise mitochondrial alterations that underlie the increased dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis for energy generation have remained a mystery. We aimed to profile the volatile signature of the glycolysis activity in lung cancer cells. For that an in vitro model, using lung cancer cell line cultures (A549, H2030, H358, H322), was developed. The volatile signature was measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry under normal conditions and glycolysis inhibition. Glycolysis inhibition and mitochondrial activity were also assessed by mitochondrial respiration capacity measurements. Cells were divided into two groups upon their glycolytic profile (PET positive and PET negative). Glycolysis blockade had a unique characteristic that was shared by all cells. Furthermore, each group had a characteristic volatile signature that enabled us to discriminate between those sub-groups of cells. In conclusion, lung cancer cells may have different subpopulations of cells upon low and high mitochondrial capacity. In both groups, glycolysis blockade induced a unique volatile signature.

  19. Implications of cancer stem cell theory for cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary compounds. (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wicha, Max S; Schwartz, Steven J; Sun, Duxin


    The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anticancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anticancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine and vitamin D(3), are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor-initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of regulatory networks in gastrin-treated adenocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Doni Jayavelu

    Full Text Available Understanding gene transcription regulatory networks is critical to deciphering the molecular mechanisms of different cellular states. Most studies focus on static transcriptional networks. In the current study, we used the gastrin-regulated system as a model to understand the dynamics of transcriptional networks composed of transcription factors (TFs and target genes (TGs. The hormone gastrin activates and stimulates signaling pathways leading to various cellular states through transcriptional programs. Dysregulation of gastrin can result in cancerous tumors, for example. However, the regulatory networks involving gastrin are highly complex, and the roles of most of the components of these networks are unknown. We used time series microarray data of AR42J adenocarcinoma cells treated with gastrin combined with static TF-TG relationships integrated from different sources, and we reconstructed the dynamic activities of TFs using network component analysis (NCA. Based on the peak expression of TGs and activity of TFs, we created active sub-networks at four time ranges after gastrin treatment, namely immediate-early (IE, mid-early (ME, mid-late (ML and very late (VL. Network analysis revealed that the active sub-networks were topologically different at the early and late time ranges. Gene ontology analysis unveiled that each active sub-network was highly enriched in a particular biological process. Interestingly, network motif patterns were also distinct between the sub-networks. This analysis can be applied to other time series microarray datasets, focusing on smaller sub-networks that are activated in a cascade, allowing better overview of the mechanisms involved at each time range.

  1. Dynamics of regulatory networks in gastrin-treated adenocarcinoma cells. (United States)

    Doni Jayavelu, Naresh; Bar, Nadav


    Understanding gene transcription regulatory networks is critical to deciphering the molecular mechanisms of different cellular states. Most studies focus on static transcriptional networks. In the current study, we used the gastrin-regulated system as a model to understand the dynamics of transcriptional networks composed of transcription factors (TFs) and target genes (TGs). The hormone gastrin activates and stimulates signaling pathways leading to various cellular states through transcriptional programs. Dysregulation of gastrin can result in cancerous tumors, for example. However, the regulatory networks involving gastrin are highly complex, and the roles of most of the components of these networks are unknown. We used time series microarray data of AR42J adenocarcinoma cells treated with gastrin combined with static TF-TG relationships integrated from different sources, and we reconstructed the dynamic activities of TFs using network component analysis (NCA). Based on the peak expression of TGs and activity of TFs, we created active sub-networks at four time ranges after gastrin treatment, namely immediate-early (IE), mid-early (ME), mid-late (ML) and very late (VL). Network analysis revealed that the active sub-networks were topologically different at the early and late time ranges. Gene ontology analysis unveiled that each active sub-network was highly enriched in a particular biological process. Interestingly, network motif patterns were also distinct between the sub-networks. This analysis can be applied to other time series microarray datasets, focusing on smaller sub-networks that are activated in a cascade, allowing better overview of the mechanisms involved at each time range.

  2. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Lincan [Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming (China); Shen, Hongmei [Cancer Center of Integrative Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming (China); Zhao, Guangqiang [Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming (China); Yang, Runxiang [Cancer Chemotherapy Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming (China); Cai, Xinyi [Colorectal Cancer Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming (China); Zhang, Lijuan [Department of Pathology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming (China); Jin, Congguo [Cancer Institute, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming (China); Huang, Yunchao, E-mail: [Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming (China)


    Highlights: • Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. • Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. • Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. • Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity: Implications for Multi-Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella D’Eliseo


    Full Text Available Cancer is a major disease worldwide. Despite progress in cancer therapy, conventional cytotoxic therapies lead to unsatisfactory long-term survival, mainly related to development of drug resistance by tumor cells and toxicity towards normal cells. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, can exert anti-neoplastic activity by inducing apoptotic cell death in human cancer cells either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. Indeed, n-3 PUFAs potentially increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to conventional therapies, possibly improving their efficacy especially against cancers resistant to treatment. Moreover, in contrast to traditional therapies, n-3 PUFAs appear to cause selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells with little or no toxicity on normal cells. This review focuses on studies investigating the cytotoxic activity of n-3 PUFAs against cancer cells via apoptosis, analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying this effective and selective activity. Here, we highlight the multiple molecules potentially targeted by n-3 PUFAs to trigger cancer cell apoptosis. This analysis can allow a better comprehension of the potential cytotoxic therapeutic role of n-3 PUFAs against cancer, providing specific information and support to design future pre-clinical and clinical studies for a better use of n-3 PUFAs in cancer therapy, mainly combinational therapy.

  4. Cytokines in immunogenic cell death: Applications for cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Showalter, Anne; Limaye, Arati; Oyer, Jeremiah L; Igarashi, Robert; Kittipatarin, Christina; Copik, Alicja J; Khaled, Annette R


    Despite advances in treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy, metastatic cancer remains a leading cause of death for cancer patients. While many chemotherapeutic agents can efficiently eliminate cancer cells, long-term protection against cancer is not achieved and many patients experience cancer recurrence. Mobilizing and stimulating the immune system against tumor cells is one of the most effective ways to protect against cancers that recur and/or metastasize. Activated tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can seek out and destroy metastatic tumor cells and reduce tumor lesions. Natural Killer (NK) cells are a front-line defense against drug-resistant tumors and can provide tumoricidal activity to enhance tumor immune surveillance. Cytokines like IFN-γ or TNF play a crucial role in creating an immunogenic microenvironment and therefore are key players in the fight against metastatic cancer. To this end, a group of anthracyclines or treatments like photodynamic therapy (PDT) exert their effects on cancer cells in a manner that activates the immune system. This process, known as immunogenic cell death (ICD), is characterized by the release of membrane-bound and soluble factors that boost the function of immune cells. This review will explore different types of ICD inducers, some in clinical trials, to demonstrate that optimizing the cytokine response brought about by treatments with ICD-inducing agents is central to promoting anti-cancer immunity that provides long-lasting protection against disease recurrence and metastasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Dynamical Mechanisms of the Cell Cycle Size Checkpoint (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Fu; Yan, Jie; Liu, Zeng-Rong; Yang, Ling


    Cell division must be tightly coupled to cell growth in order to maintain cell size, whereas the mechanisms of how initialization of mitosis is regulated by cell size remain to be elucidated. We develop a mathematical model of the cell cycle, which incorporates cell growth to investigate the dynamical properties of the size checkpoint in embryos of Xenopus laevis. We show that the size checkpoint is naturally raised from a saddle-node bifurcation, and in a mutant case, the cell loses its size control ability due to the loss of this saddle-node point.

  6. Clozapine Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Yin


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia have a lower incidence of cancer than the general population, and several antipsychotics have been demonstrated to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these results remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clozapine, which is often used to treat patients with refractory schizophrenia, on the growth of non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines and to examine whether autophagy contributes to its effects. Methods: A549 and H1299 cells were treated with clozapine, and cell cytotoxicity, cell cycle and autophagy were then assessed. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and siRNA-targeted Atg7 were used to determine the role of autophagy in the effect of clozapine. Results: Clozapine inhibited A549 and H1299 proliferation and increased p21 and p27 expression levels, leading to cell cycle arrest. Clozapine also induced a high level of autophagy, but not apoptosis, in both cell lines, and the growth inhibitory effect of clozapine was blunted by treatment with the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or with an siRNA targeting atg7. Conclusions: Clozapine inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death in two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. These findings may provide insights into the relationship between clozapine use and the lower incidence of lung cancer among patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Exploring Neural Cell Dynamics with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre


    In this talk, I will present how digital holographic microscopy, as a powerful quantitative phase technique, can non-invasively measure cell dynamics and especially resolve local neuronal network activity through simultaneous multiple site optical recording.

  8. Oncogene-directed alterations in cancer cell metabolism. (United States)

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Malvi, Parmanand; Wajapeyee, Narendra


    Oncogenes are key drivers of tumor growth. Although several cancer-driving mechanisms have been identified, the role of oncogenes in shaping metabolic patterns in cancer cells is only beginning to be appreciated. Recent studies show that oncogenes directly regulate critical metabolic enzymes and metabolic signaling pathways. Here, we present evidence for oncogene-directed cancer metabolic regulation and discuss the importance of identifying underlying mechanisms that can be targeted for developing precision cancer therapies.

  9. Prognostic Value of Homotypic Cell Internalization by Nonprofessional Phagocytic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Schwegler


    Full Text Available Background. In this study, we investigated the prognostic role of homotypic tumor cell cannibalism in different cancer types. Methods. The phenomenon of one cell being internalized into another, which we refer to as “cell-in-cell event,” was assessed in 416 cases from five head and neck cancer cohorts, as well as one anal and one rectal cancer cohort. The samples were processed into tissue microarrays and immunohistochemically stained for E-cadherin and cleaved caspase-3 to visualize cell membranes and apoptotic cell death. Results. Cell-in-cell events were found in all of the cohorts. The frequency ranged from 0.7 to 17.3 cell-in-cell events per mm2. Hardly any apoptotic cells were found within the cell-in-cell structures, although apoptotic cell rates were about 1.6 to two times as high as cell-in-cell rates of the same tissue sample. High numbers of cell-in-cell events showed adverse effects on patients’ survival in the head and neck and in the rectal cancer cohorts. In multivariate analysis, high frequency was an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with head and neck cancer (p=0.008. Conclusion. Cell-in-cell events were found to predict patient outcomes in various types of cancer better than apoptosis and proliferation and might therefore be used to guide treatment strategies.

  10. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  11. Modeling selective elimination of quiescent cancer cells from bone marrow. (United States)

    Cavnar, Stephen P; Rickelmann, Andrew D; Meguiar, Kaille F; Xiao, Annie; Dosch, Joseph; Leung, Brendan M; Cai Lesher-Perez, Sasha; Chitta, Shashank; Luker, Kathryn E; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D


    Patients with many types of malignancy commonly harbor quiescent disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow. These cells frequently resist chemotherapy and may persist for years before proliferating as recurrent metastases. To test for compounds that eliminate quiescent cancer cells, we established a new 384-well 3D spheroid model in which small numbers of cancer cells reversibly arrest in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle when cultured with bone marrow stromal cells. Using dual-color bioluminescence imaging to selectively quantify viability of cancer and stromal cells in the same spheroid, we identified single compounds and combination treatments that preferentially eliminated quiescent breast cancer cells but not stromal cells. A treatment combination effective against malignant cells in spheroids also eliminated breast cancer cells from bone marrow in a mouse xenograft model. This research establishes a novel screening platform for therapies that selectively target quiescent tumor cells, facilitating identification of new drugs to prevent recurrent cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytotoxic effect of TDZ on human cervical cancer cells. (United States)

    Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan; Pandurangan, Muthuraman


    The present study investigates the anticancer activity of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Anticancer activity of TDZ was evaluated in cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells). Sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay indicates that TDZ was about 100 times more toxic to the cancer cell than normal cells. TUNEL assay showed TDZ induced DNA damage in tumor cells. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in cancer cells was observed following TDZ treatment. The Bax and bcl-2 gene expression ratio are highly responsible for the regulation of MMP balance, and these ratio was significantly altered following TDZ treatment. The p53 and caspase-3 expressions were increased in cancer cells following treatment. Caspase-3 activation is the key factor for apoptosis. Cytotoxicity of TDZ on HeLa cells was 100 times higher than normal kidney cell (MDCK cells). Moreover, the anticancer activity of TDZ was tested by DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, some gene expression and caspase-3 inhibition in silico. TDZ detected has higher ability on early apoptosis of cancer cell through DNA damage. Additionally, cancer cellular MMP was significantly reduced under inoculation of TDZ. In silico assay confirmed that TDZ was able to bind with the active site of the capase-3 protein. Therefore, taking all these data together it is suggested that the TDZ may be a potential agent to act against cervical cancer cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 18, 2011 ... To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells. (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No.

  14. Sensitizing Cancer Cells: Is It Really All about U?


    Stover, Patrick J.; Weiss, Robert S.


    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hu et al. report that TMPK and RNR, two key enzymes in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis, co-localize to damaged DNA and produce nucleotides necessary for DNA repair while suppressing uracil incorporation. TMPK inhibition disrupts this balance and selectively sensitizes cancer cells to low-dose chemotherapy.

  15. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Coosemans, An; Vergote, Ignace; Van Gool, Stefaan W


    Worldwide, 80% of patients with ovarian cancer die of the disease. New treatments for this aggressive disease are therefore being intensively searched. Although dendritic cell-based vaccines against gynecological malignancies are in their infancy, this immunotherapeutic approach holds much promise. Here, we present our view on an optimal dendritic cell-based immunotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  16. Intravital characterization of tumor cell migration in pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerling, Evelyne; Oosterom, Ilse; Voest, Emile E; Lolkema, Martijn P; van Rheenen, Jacco


    Curing pancreatic cancer is difficult as metastases often determine the poor clinical outcome. To gain more insight into the metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer cells, we characterized migratory cells in primary pancreatic tumors using intravital microscopy. We visualized the migratory behavior

  17. Vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer cell pulsed autologous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No severe toxicity ...

  18. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  19. Protein dynamics in individual human cells: experiment and theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Aharon Cohen

    Full Text Available A current challenge in biology is to understand the dynamics of protein circuits in living human cells. Can one define and test equations for the dynamics and variability of a protein over time? Here, we address this experimentally and theoretically, by means of accurate time-resolved measurements of endogenously tagged proteins in individual human cells. As a model system, we choose three stable proteins displaying cell-cycle-dependant dynamics. We find that protein accumulation with time per cell is quadratic for proteins with long mRNA life times and approximately linear for a protein with short mRNA lifetime. Both behaviors correspond to a classical model of transcription and translation. A stochastic model, in which genes slowly switch between ON and OFF states, captures measured cell-cell variability. The data suggests, in accordance with the model, that switching to the gene ON state is exponentially distributed and that the cell-cell distribution of protein levels can be approximated by a Gamma distribution throughout the cell cycle. These results suggest that relatively simple models may describe protein dynamics in individual human cells.

  20. F-pili dynamics by live-cell imaging


    Clarke, Margaret; Maddera, Lucinda; Harris, Robin L.; Silverman, Philip M.


    Bacteria have evolved numerous mechanisms for cell–cell communication, many of which have important consequences for human health. Among these is conjugation, the direct transfer of DNA from one cell to another. For Gram-negative bacteria, conjugation requires thin, flexible filaments (conjugative pili) that are elaborated by DNA donor cells. The structure, function, and especially the dynamics of conjugative pili are poorly understood. Here, we have applied live-cell imaging to characterize ...

  1. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplasia


    Nora Manoukian Forones; Ana Paula Souza Carvalho; Oswaldo Giannotti-Filho; Laércio Gomes Lourenço; Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima


    BACKGROUND: Higher proliferation is commonly observed in cancer cells. Apoptosis can be a useful measure of a tumor cell kinetic. Alteration of the balance between proliferation and apoptosis is associated with cancer. AIM: To study proliferation and apoptosis on gastric cancer and in intestinal metaplasia. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two samples from gastric adenocarcinomas and 22 biopsies from intestinal metaplasia were studied. The apoptotic bodies in hematoxylin-eosin slides and the expression of...

  2. Renal cell cancer among African Americans: an epidemiologic review (United States)


    Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. This excess dates back to the 1970s, despite less access among blacks to imaging procedures in the past. In contrast, mortality rates for this cancer have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990s, despite the fact that nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, are lower among blacks than among whites. These observations suggest that renal cell cancer may be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. We have reviewed the epidemiology of renal cell cancer, with emphasis on factors which may potentially play a role in the observed differences in incidence and mortality patterns of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites. To date, the factors most consistently, albeit modestly, associated with increased renal cell cancer risk in epidemiologic studies among whites - obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking - likely account for less than half of these cancers, and there is virtually no epidemiologic evidence in the literature pertaining to their association with renal cell cancer among blacks. There is a long overdue need for detailed etiologic cohort and case-control studies of renal cell cancer among blacks, as they now represent the population at highest risk in the United States. In particular, investigation of the influence on renal cell cancer development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, both of which occur substantially more frequently among blacks, is warranted, as well as investigations into the biology and natural history of this cancer among blacks. PMID:21486465

  3. An overview of concepts for cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Yin; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Liu, Shih-Ping; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong


    For many years, cancer research has focused on the adult stem cells present in malignant tumors. It is believed that current cancer treatments sometimes fail because they do not target these cells. According to classic models of carcinogenesis, these events can occur in any cell. In contrast, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis states that the preferential targets of oncogenic transformation are tissue stem cells or early progenitor cells that have acquired the potential for self-renewal. These tumor-initiating cells, or CSCs, in turn, are characterized by their ability to undergo self-renewal, a process that drives tumorigenesis and differentiation, which contributes to the cellular heterogeneity of tumors. Herein, we discuss the definitions and properties of CSCs in the major human cancers.

  4. Endothelial cells activate the cancer stem cell-associated NANOGP8 pathway in colorectal cancer cells in a paracrine fashion. (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Bhattacharya, Rajat; Ye, Xiangcang; Fan, Fan; Boulbes, Delphine R; Xia, Ling; Ellis, Lee M


    In colorectal cancer (CRC), cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been hypothesized to mediate cell survival and chemoresistance. Previous studies from our laboratory described a role for liver parenchymal endothelial cells (LPECs) in mediating the CSC phenotype in CRC cells in a paracrine/angiocrine fashion. The objectives of this study were to determine whether endothelial cells (ECs) from different organs can induce the CSC phenotype in CRC cells and to elucidate the signaling pathways involved. We treated a newly developed CRC cell line (HCP-1) and established CRC cell lines (HT29 and SW480) with conditioned medium (CM) from primary ECs isolated from nonmalignant liver, lung, colon mucosa, and kidney. Our results showed that CM from ECs from all organs increased the number of CSCs, as determined by sphere formation, and protein levels of NANOG and OCT4 in CRC cells. With the focus of further elucidating the role of the liver vascular network in mediating the CSC phenotype, we demonstrated that CM from LPECs increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil in CRC cells. Moreover, we showed that LPEC CM specifically induced NANOGP8 expression in CRC cells by specific enzyme digestion and a luciferase reporter assay using a vector containing the NANOGP8 promoter. Lastly, we found that LPEC CM-induced NANOGP8 expression and sphere formation were mediated by AKT activation. Our studies demonstrated a paracrine role for ECs in regulating the CSC phenotype and chemoresistance in CRC cells by AKT-mediated induction of NANOGP8. These studies suggest a more specific approach to target CSCs by blocking the expression of NANOGP8 in cancer cells. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Attenuation of LDHA expression in cancer cells leads to redox-dependent alterations in cytoskeletal structure and cell migration. (United States)

    Arseneault, Robert; Chien, Andrew; Newington, Jordan T; Rappon, Tim; Harris, Richard; Cumming, Robert C


    Aerobic glycolysis, the preferential use of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen to meet cellular metabolic demands, is a near universal feature of cancer. This unique type of metabolism is thought to protect cancer cells from damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria. Using the cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 it is shown that shRNA mediated knockdown of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis, results in elevated mitochondrial ROS production and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation and motility. Redox-sensitive proteins affected by oxidative stress associated with LDHA knockdown were identified by Redox 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. In particular, tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms Tm4, Tm5NM1 and Tm5NM5, proteins involved in cell migration and cytoskeletal dynamics, exhibited changes in disulfide bonding and co-localized with peri-nuclear actin aggregates in LDHA knockdown cells. In contrast, treatment with the thiol-based antioxidant N-acetylcysteine promoted the relocalization of Tms to cortical actin microfilaments and partially rescued the migration defects associated with attenuated LDHA expression. These results suggest that aerobic glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial ROS production create an environment conducive to cytoskeletal remodeling; key events linked to the high cell motility associated with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

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    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Yan, Y.Q. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, F.X. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)


    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic