WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer cell motility

  1. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  2. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  3. Cancer cell motility: lessons from migration in confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Colin D.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo. Understanding cancer cell locomotion through physiologically relevant confining tracks could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to combat metastasis. PMID:27909339

  4. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3’-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  5. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3'-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action.

  6. Daucus carota Pentane/Diethyl Ether Fraction Inhibits Motility and Reduces Invasion of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Perla; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohamad; Nasrallah, Anita; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2014-01-01

    Daucus carota (DC) is a herb used in folklore medicine in Lebanon to treat numerous diseases including cancer. Recent studies in our laboratory on DC oil and its fractions revealed potent anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the most potent DC fraction, pentane/diethyl ether (50:50), on lung, skin, breast and glioblastoma cancer cell motility and invasion. Upon treatment, a pronounced decrease in cancer cell motility was observed in the 4 cell lines. The treatment also led to a decrease in cancer cell invasion and an increased cell adhesion. Additionally, the DC fraction caused a decrease in the activation of the ρ-GTPases Rac and CDC42, a finding that may partially explain the treatment-induced decrease in cell motility. The current study demonstrates a crucial effect of the DC pentane/diethyl ether fraction on cancer cell motility and metastasis, making it a potential candidate for cancer therapy specifically targeting cancer motility and metastasis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Inhibitory Activity of (+-Usnic Acid against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. With the aim of screening new anti-cancer agents that inhibit cancer cell motility, we tested the inhibitory activity of seven lichen species collected from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains against migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-metastatic activity. Among them, Alectoria samentosa, Flavocetraria nivalis, Alectoria ochroleuca, and Usnea florida showed significant inhibitory activity against motility of human lung cancer cells. HPLC results showed that usnic acid is the main compound in these lichens, and (+-usnic acid showed similar inhibitory activity that crude extract have. Mechanistically, β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity and KITENIN-mediated AP-1 activity were decreased by (+-usnic acid treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The quantitative real-time PCR data showed that (+-usnic acid decreased the mRNA level of CD44, Cyclin D1 and c-myc, which are the downstream target genes of both β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1. Also, Rac1 and RhoA activities were decreased by treatment with (+-usnic acid. Interestingly, higher inhibitory activity for cell invasion was observed when cells were treated with (+-usnic acid and cetuximab. These results implied that (+-usnic acid might have potential activity in inhibition of cancer cell metastasis, and (+-usnic acid could be used for anti-cancer therapy with a distinct mechanisms of action.

  8. The role of the tissue microenvironment in the regulation of cancer cell motility and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brábek Jan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During malignant neoplastic progression the cells undergo genetic and epigenetic cancer-specific alterations that finally lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and restructuring of the microenvironment. The invasion of cancer cells through connective tissue is a crucial prerequisite for metastasis formation. Although cell invasion is foremost a mechanical process, cancer research has focused largely on gene regulation and signaling that underlie uncontrolled cell growth. More recently, the genes and signals involved in the invasion and transendothelial migration of cancer cells, such as the role of adhesion molecules and matrix degrading enzymes, have become the focus of research. In this review we discuss how the structural and biomechanical properties of extracellular matrix and surrounding cells such as endothelial cells influence cancer cell motility and invasion. We conclude that the microenvironment is a critical determinant of the migration strategy and the efficiency of cancer cell invasion.

  9. Glycolysis is the primary bioenergetic pathway for cell motility and cytoskeletal remodeling in human prostate and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takumi; Verdone, James E.; Huang, Jessie; Kahlert, Ulf D.; Hernandez, James R.; Torga, Gonzalo; Zarif, Jelani C.; Epstein, Tamir; Gatenby, Robert; McCartney, Annemarie; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.; Mooney, Steven M.; An, Steven S.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of a cancer cell to detach from the primary tumor and move to distant sites is fundamental to a lethal cancer phenotype. Metabolic transformations are associated with highly motile aggressive cellular phenotypes in tumor progression. Here, we report that cancer cell motility requires increased utilization of the glycolytic pathway. Mesenchymal cancer cells exhibited higher aerobic glycolysis compared to epithelial cancer cells while no significant change was observed in mitochondrial ATP production rate. Higher glycolysis was associated with increased rates of cytoskeletal remodeling, greater cell traction forces and faster cell migration, all of which were blocked by inhibition of glycolysis, but not by inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Thus, our results demonstrate that cancer cell motility and cytoskeleton rearrangement is energetically dependent on aerobic glycolysis and not oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial derived ATP is insufficient to compensate for inhibition of the glycolytic pathway with regard to cellular motility and CSK rearrangement, implying that localization of ATP derived from glycolytic enzymes near sites of active CSK rearrangement is more important for cell motility than total cellular ATP production rate. These results extend our understanding of cancer cell metabolism, potentially providing a target metabolic pathway associated with aggressive disease. PMID:25426557

  10. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sec...

  11. Laminin-332 Cleavage by Matriptase Alters Motility Parameters of Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manisha; Potdar, Alka A.; Yamashita, Hironobu; Weidow, Brandy; Cummings, Peter T.; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Quaranta, Vito

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Matriptase, a type II transmembrane serine protease, has been linked to initiation and promotion of epidermal carcinogenesis in a murine model, suggesting that deregulation of its role in epithelia contributes to transformation. In human prostate cancer, matriptase expression correlates with progression. It is therefore of interest to determine how matriptase may contribute to epithelial neoplastic progression. One approach for studying this is to identify potential matriptase substrates involved in epithelial integrity and/or transformation like the extracellular matrix macromolecule, laminin-332 (Ln-332), which is found in the basement membrane of many epithelia, including prostate. Proteolytic processing of Ln-332 regulates cell motility of both normal and transformed cells, which has implications in cancer progression. METHODS In vitro cleavage experiments were performed with purified Ln-332 protein and matriptase. Western blotting, enzyme inhibition assays, and mass spectrometry were used to confirm cleavage events. Matriptase overexpressing LNCaP prostate cancer cells were generated and included in Transwell migration assays and single cell motility assays, along with other prostate cells. RESULTS We report that matriptase proteolytically cleaves Ln-332 in the β3 chain. Substrate specificity was confirmed by blocking cleavage with the matriptase inhibitor, Kunitz domain-1. Transwell migration assays showed that DU145 cell motility was significantly enhanced when plated on matriptase-cleaved Ln-332. Similarly, Transwell migration of matriptase-overexpressing LNCaP cells was significantly increased on Ln-332 and, as determined by live single-cell microscopy, two motility parameters of this cell line, speed and directional persistence, were also higher. CONCLUSIONS Proteolytic processing of Ln-332 by matriptase enhances speed and directional persistence of prostate cancer cells. PMID:20672321

  12. CUB domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1) modulates adhesion and motility in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard-Webb, David J; Lee, Thong Chuan; Cook, Graham P; Blair, G Eric

    2014-10-09

    Deregulated expression of the transmembrane glycoprotein CDCP1 (CUB domain-containing protein-1) has been detected in several cancers including colon, lung, gastric, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas. CDCP1 has been proposed to either positively or negatively regulate tumour metastasis. In this study we assessed the role of CDCP1 in properties of cells that are directly relevant to metastasis, namely adhesion and motility. In addition, association between CDCP1 and the tetraspanin protein CD9 was investigated. CDCP1 and CD9 protein expression was measured in a series of colon cancer cell lines by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Adhesion of Colo320 and SW480 cells was determined using a Matrigel adhesion assay. The chemotactic motility of SW480 cells in which CDCP1 expression had been reduced by RNA interference was analysed using the xCELLigence system Real-Time Cell Analyzer Dual Plates combined with 8 μm pore filters. Detergent-resistant membrane fractions were generated following density gradient centrifugation and the CDCP1 and CD9 protein composition of these fractions was determined by Western blotting. The potential association of the CDCP1 and CD9 proteins was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. Engineered CDCP1 expression in Colo320 cells resulted in a reduction in cell adhesion to Matrigel. Treatment of SW480 cells with CDCP1 siRNA reduced serum-induced chemotaxis. CDCP1 and CD9 cell-surface protein and mRNA levels showed a positive correlation in colon cancer cell lines and the proteins formed a low-level, but detectable complex as judged by co-sedimentation of detergent lysates of HT-29 cells in sucrose gradients as well as by co-immunoprecipitation in SW480 cell lysates. A number of recent studies have assigned a potentially important role for the cell-surface protein CDCP1 in invasion and metastasis of a several types of human cancer cells. In this study, CDCP1 was shown to modulate cell-substratum adhesion and motility in colon cancer cell

  13. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  14. Moscatilin Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion via Suppression of Endogenous Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkarawut Kowitdamrong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among cancer patients worldwide, and most of them have died from metastasis. Migration and invasion are prerequisite processes associated with high metastasis potential in cancers. Moscatilin, a bibenzyl derivative isolated from the Thai orchid Dendrobium pulchellum, has been shown to have anticancer effect against numerous cancer cell lines. However, little is known regarding the effect of moscatilin on cancer cell migration and invasion. The present study demonstrates that nontoxic concentrations of moscatilin were able to inhibit human nonsmall cell lung cancer H23 cell migration and invasion. The inhibitory effect of moscatilin was associated with an attenuation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, in which hydroxyl radical (OH∙ was identified as a dominant species in the suppression of filopodia formation. Western blot analysis also revealed that moscatilin downregulated activated focal adhesion kinase (phosphorylated FAK, Tyr 397 and activated ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase (phosphorylated Akt, Ser 473, whereas their parental counterparts were not detectable changed. In conclusion, our results indicate the novel molecular basis of moscalitin-inhibiting lung cancer cell motility and invasion and demonstrate a promising antimetastatic potential of such an agent for lung cancer therapy.

  15. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  16. Physical models of cell motility

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book surveys the most recent advances in physics-inspired cell movement models. This synergetic, cross-disciplinary effort to increase the fidelity of computational algorithms will lead to a better understanding of the complex biomechanics of cell movement, and stimulate progress in research on related active matter systems, from suspensions of bacteria and synthetic swimmers to cell tissues and cytoskeleton.Cell motility and collective motion are among the most important themes in biology and statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems, and crucial for morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response in eukaryotic organisms. It is also relevant for the development of effective treatment strategies for diseases such as cancer, and for the design of bioactive surfaces for cell sorting and manipulation. Substrate-based cell motility is, however, a very complex process as regulatory pathways and physical force generation mechanisms are intertwined. To understand the interplay between adhesion, force ...

  17. Piperine inhibits the growth and motility of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenshields, Anna L; Doucette, Carolyn D; Sutton, Kimberly M; Madera, Laurence; Annan, Henry; Yaffe, Paul B; Knickle, Allison F; Dong, Zhongmin; Hoskin, David W

    2015-02-01

    Piperine, an alkaloid from black pepper, is reported to have anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of piperine on the growth and motility of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Piperine inhibited the in vitro growth of TNBC cells, as well as hormone-dependent breast cancer cells, without affecting normal mammary epithelial cell growth. Exposure to piperine decreased the percentage of TNBC cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, G1- and G2-associated protein expression was decreased and p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression was increased in piperine-treated TNBC cells. Piperine also inhibited survival-promoting Akt activation in TNBC cells and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, combined treatment with piperine and γ radiation was more cytotoxic for TNBC cells than γ radiation alone. The in vitro migration of piperine-treated TNBC cells was impaired and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 mRNA was decreased, suggesting an antimetastatic effect by piperine. Finally, intratumoral administration of piperine inhibited the growth of TNBC xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that piperine may be useful in the treatment of TNBC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    Full Text Available Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+ supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa, its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+ levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  19. Loss of myoferlin redirects breast cancer cell motility towards collective migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonithas I Volakis

    Full Text Available Cell migration plays a central role in the invasion and metastasis of tumors. As cells leave the primary tumor, they undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT and migrate as single cells. Epithelial tumor cells may also migrate in a highly directional manner as a collective group in some settings. We previously discovered that myoferlin (MYOF is overexpressed in breast cancer cells and depletion of MYOF results in a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET and reduced invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM. However, the biomechanical mechanisms governing cell motility during MYOF depletion are poorly understood. We first demonstrated that lentivirus-driven shRNA-induced MYOF loss in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (MDA-231(MYOF-KD leads to an epithelial morphology compared to the mesenchymal morphology observed in control (MDA-231(LTVC and wild-type cells. Knockdown of MYOF led to significant reductions in cell migration velocity and MDA-231(MYOF-KD cells migrated directionally and collectively, while MDA-231(LTVC cells exhibited single cell migration. Decreased migration velocity and collective migration were accompanied by significant changes in cell mechanics. MDA-231(MYOF-KD cells exhibited a 2-fold decrease in cell stiffness, a 2-fold increase in cell-substrate adhesion and a 1.5-fold decrease in traction force generation. In vivo studies demonstrated that when immunocompromised mice were implanted with MDA-231(MYOF-KD cells, tumors were smaller and demonstrated lower tumor burden. Moreover, MDA-231(MYOF-KD tumors were highly circularized and did not invade locally into the adventia in contrast to MDA-231(LTVC-injected animals. Thus MYOF loss is associated with a change in tumor formation in xenografts and leads to smaller, less invasive tumors. These data indicate that MYOF, a previously unrecognized protein in cancer, is involved in MDA-MB-231 cell migration and contributes to biomechanical alterations. Our results indicate

  20. Tetrathiomolybdate inhibits head and neck cancer metastasis by decreasing tumor cell motility, invasiveness and by promoting tumor cell anoikis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merajver Sofia D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metastatic spread of solid tumors is directly or indirectly responsible for most cancer-related deaths. Tumor metastasis is very complex and this process requires a tumor cell to acquire enhanced motility, invasiveness and anoikis resistance to successfully establish a tumor at a distal site. Metastatic potential of tumor cells is directly correlated with the expression levels of several angiogenic cytokines. Copper is a mandatory cofactor for the function of many of these angiogenic mediators as well as other proteins that play an important role in tumor cell motility and invasiveness. We have previously shown that tetrathiomolybdate (TM is a potent chelator of copper and it mediates its anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. However, very little is known about the effect of TM on tumor cell function and tumor metastasis. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying TM-mediated inhibition of tumor metastasis. Results We used two in vivo models to examine the effects of TM on tumor metastasis. Animals treated with TM showed a significant decrease in lung metastasis in both in vivo models as compared to the control group. In addition, tumor cells from the lungs of TM treated animals developed significantly smaller colonies and these colonies had significantly fewer tumor cells. TM treatment significantly decreased tumor cell motility and invasiveness by inhibiting lysyl oxidase (LOX activity, FAK activation and MMP2 levels. Furthermore, TM treatment significantly enhanced tumor cell anoikis by activating p38 MAPK cell death pathway and by downregulating XIAP survival protein expression. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that TM is a potent suppressor of head and neck tumor metastasis by modulating key regulators of tumor cell motility, invasiveness and anoikis resistance.

  1. A Mathematical Model Quantifies Proliferation and Motility Effects of TGF-β on Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Emily Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor (TGF-β is known to have properties of both a tumour suppressor and a tumour promoter. While it inhibits cell proliferation, it also increases cell motility and decreases cell–cell adhesion. Coupling mathematical modelling and experiments, we investigate the growth and motility of oncogene-expressing human mammary epithelial cells under exposure to TGF-β. We use a version of the well-known Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, and prescribe a procedure for its parametrisation. We quantify the simultaneous effects of TGF-β to increase the tendency of individual cells and cell clusters to move randomly and to decrease overall population growth. We demonstrate that in experiments with TGF-β treated cells in vitro, TGF-β increases cell motility by a factor of 2 and decreases cell proliferation by a factor of 1/2 in comparison with untreated cells.

  2. All-trans-retinoic Acid Modulates the Plasticity and Inhibits the Motility of Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Adriana; Affatato, Roberta; Centritto, Floriana; Fratelli, Maddalena; Kurosaki, Mami; Barzago, Maria Monica; Bolis, Marco; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Paroni, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a natural compound proposed for the treatment/chemoprevention of breast cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that aberrant regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a determinant of the cancer cell invasive and metastatic behavior. The effects of ATRA on EMT are largely unknown. In HER2-positive SKBR3 and UACC812 cells, showing co-amplification of the ERBB2 and RARA genes, ATRA activates a RARα-dependent epithelial differentiation program. In SKBR3 cells, this causes the formation/reorganization of adherens and tight junctions. Epithelial differentiation and augmented cell-cell contacts underlie the anti-migratory action exerted by the retinoid in cells exposed to the EMT-inducing factors EGF and heregulin-β1. Down-regulation of NOTCH1, an emerging EMT modulator, is involved in the inhibition of motility by ATRA. Indeed, the retinoid blocks NOTCH1 up-regulation by EGF and/or heregulin-β1. Pharmacological inhibition of γ-secretase and NOTCH1 processing also abrogates SKBR3 cell migration. Stimulation of TGFβ contributes to the anti-migratory effect of ATRA. The retinoid switches TGFβ from an EMT-inducing and pro-migratory determinant to an anti-migratory mediator. Inhibition of the NOTCH1 pathway not only plays a role in the anti-migratory action of ATRA; it is relevant also for the anti-proliferative activity of the retinoid in HCC1599 breast cancer cells, which are addicted to NOTCH1 for growth/viability. This effect is enhanced by the combination of ATRA and the γ-secretase inhibitor N-(N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl)-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, supporting the concept that the two compounds act at the transcriptional and post-translational levels along the NOTCH1 pathway. PMID:26018078

  3. Interstitial flows promote amoeboid over mesenchymal motility of breast cancer cells revealed by a three dimensional microfluidic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu Ling; Tung, Chih-Kuan; Zheng, Anqi; Kim, Beum Jun; Wu, Mingming

    2015-11-01

    Malignant tumors are often associated with an elevated fluid pressure due to the abnormal growth of vascular vessels, and thus an increased interstitial flow out of the tumors. Recent in vitro works revealed that interstitial flows critically regulated tumor cell migration within a three dimensional biomatrix, and breast cancer cell migration behavior depended sensitively on the cell seeding density, chemokine availability and flow rates. In this paper, we focus on the role of interstitial flows in modulating the heterogeneity of cancer cell motility phenotype within a three dimensional biomatrix. Using a newly developed microfluidic model, we show that breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) embedded in a 3D type I collagen matrix exhibit both amoeboid and mesenchymal motility, and interstitial flows promote the cell population towards the amoeboid motility phenotype. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous adhesion molecules (fibronectin) within the extracellular matrix (type I collagen) partially rescues the mesenchymal phenotype in the presence of the flow. Quantitative analysis of cell tracks and cell shapes shows distinct differential migration characteristics of amoeboid and mesenchymal cells. Notably, the fastest moving cells belong to the subpopulation of amoeboid cells. Together, these findings highlight the important role of biophysical forces in modulating tumor cell migration heterogeneity and plasticity, as well as the suitability of microfluidic models in interrogating tumor cell dynamics at single-cell and subpopulation level.

  4. Up-regulation of METCAM/MUC18 promotes motility, invasion, and tumorigenesis of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Shao-xi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting research has identified METCAM/MUC18, an integral membrane cell adhesion molecule (CAM in the Ig-like gene super-family, as both a tumor promoter and a tumor suppressor in the development of breast cancer. To resolve this, we have re-investigated the role of this CAM in the progression of human breast cancer cells. Methods Three breast cancer cell lines were used for the tests: one luminal-like breast cancer cell line, MCF7, which did not express any METCAM/MUC18, and two basal-like breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, which expressed moderate levels of the protein. MCF7 cells were transfected with the human METCAM/MUC18 cDNA to obtain G418-resistant clones which expressed the protein and were used for testing effects of human METCAM/MUC18 expression on in vitro motility and invasiveness, and in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis. Both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells already expressed METCAM/MUC18. They were directly used for in vitro tests in the presence and absence of an anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody. Results In MCF7 cells, enforced METCAM/MUC18 expression increased in vitro motility, invasiveness, anchorage-independent colony formation (in vitro tumorigenesis, and in vivo tumorigenesis. In both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody inhibited both motility and invasiveness. Though both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells established a disorganized growth in 3D basement membrane culture assay, the introduction of the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody completely destroyed their growth in the 3D culture. Conclusion These findings support the notion that human METCAM/MUC18 expression promotes the progression of human breast cancer cells by increasing their motility, invasiveness and tumorigenesis.

  5. The Interplay between Signaling and Metabolism in Breast Cancer Cell Motility and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarfaty, Ilan

    2013-03-01

    The initiation and growth of tumor metastases require tumor cells go through a transition between collective-to-individual cell migration. Understanding the molecular, cellular and physical mechanisms of these different migration modes is limited. We focus on the tumor cell migration induced by Hepatocyte Growth Factor / Scatter Factor (HGF/SF) - Met-signaling, a master regulator of cell motility in normal and malignant processes. Met has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis and several Met targeting agents have been introduced into the clinic, and are currently in all phases of clinical trials Our analysis demonstrates that Met signaling dramatically alter the morpho-kinetic dynamics of collective migration of tumor cells. It induce a ``wave'' of increasing velocities that propagates back from the leading edge, increases cells' orientation and cooperation capabilities. In parallel Met signaling induces amoeboid cell motility that increased cell individuality. The decision making regarding the motility mode is dependent on the extent of activation of unique signal and metabolic cues. We present a combination of molecular imaging, conceptual and modeling framework for the analysis and assessment of the collective mesenchymal to epithelial versus amoeboid motility. Combined together our analysis can contribute to the understanding of metastasis and personalizing anti Met targeted therapy.

  6. Pancreatic Fibroblasts Stimulate the Motility of Pancreatic Cancer Cells through IGF1/IGF1R Signaling under Hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Hirakawa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is characterized by its hypovascularity, with an extremely poor prognosis because of its highly invasive nature. PDAC proliferates with abundant stromal cells, suggesting that its invasive activity might be controlled by intercellular interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts. Using four PDAC cell lines and two pancreas cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1 and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R was evaluated by RT-PCR, FACScan, western blot, or ELISA. Correlation between IGF1R and the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 was examined by immunohistochemical staining of 120 pancreatic specimens. The effects of CAFs, IGF1, and IGF1R inhibitors on the motility of cancer cells were examined by wound-healing assay or invasion assay under normoxia (20% O2 and hypoxia (1% O2. IGF1R expression was significantly higher in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells than in Panc-1 cells. Hypoxia increased the expression level of IGF1R in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells. CA9 expression was correlated with IGF1R expression in pancreatic specimens. CAFs produced IGF1 under hypoxia, but PDAC cells did not. A conditioned medium from CAFs, which expressed αSMA, stimulated the migration and invasion ability of MiaPaCa-2, RWP-1, and OCUP-AT cells. The motility of all PDAC cells was greater under hypoxia than under normoxia. The motility-stimulating ability of CAFs was decreased by IGF1R inhibitors. These findings might suggest that pancreas CAFs stimulate the invasion activity of PDAC cells through paracrine IGF1/IGF1R signaling, especially under hypoxia. Therefore the targeting of IGF1R signaling might represent a promising therapeutic approach in IGF1R-dependent PDAC.

  7. Pancreatic Fibroblasts Stimulate the Motility of Pancreatic Cancer Cells through IGF1/IGF1R Signaling under Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Toshiki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Doi, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Morisaki, Tamami; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by its hypovascularity, with an extremely poor prognosis because of its highly invasive nature. PDAC proliferates with abundant stromal cells, suggesting that its invasive activity might be controlled by intercellular interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts. Using four PDAC cell lines and two pancreas cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) was evaluated by RT-PCR, FACScan, western blot, or ELISA. Correlation between IGF1R and the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) was examined by immunohistochemical staining of 120 pancreatic specimens. The effects of CAFs, IGF1, and IGF1R inhibitors on the motility of cancer cells were examined by wound-healing assay or invasion assay under normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (1% O2). IGF1R expression was significantly higher in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells than in Panc-1 cells. Hypoxia increased the expression level of IGF1R in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells. CA9 expression was correlated with IGF1R expression in pancreatic specimens. CAFs produced IGF1 under hypoxia, but PDAC cells did not. A conditioned medium from CAFs, which expressed αSMA, stimulated the migration and invasion ability of MiaPaCa-2, RWP-1, and OCUP-AT cells. The motility of all PDAC cells was greater under hypoxia than under normoxia. The motility-stimulating ability of CAFs was decreased by IGF1R inhibitors. These findings might suggest that pancreas CAFs stimulate the invasion activity of PDAC cells through paracrine IGF1/IGF1R signaling, especially under hypoxia. Therefore the targeting of IGF1R signaling might represent a promising therapeutic approach in IGF1R-dependent PDAC.

  8. Istaroxime Inhibits Motility and Down-Regulates Orai1 Expression, SOCE and FAK Phosphorylation in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Julian Stagno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Istaroxime is a validated inotropic Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of various cardiac conditions. Recent findings established that this steroidal drug exhibits potent apoptotic responses in prostate tumors in vitro and in vivo, by affecting key signaling orchestrating proliferation and apoptosis, such as c-Myc and caspase 3, Rho GTPases and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. In the present study we examined whether istaroxime is affecting cell motility and analyzed the underlying mechanism in prostate tumor cells. Methods: Migration was assessed by transwell and wound healing assays, Orai1 and Stim1 abundance by RT-PCR and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Fura-2 fluorescence was utilized to determine intracellular Ca2+ and Western blotting for FAK/pFAK measurements. Results: We observed strong inhibition of cell migration in istaroxime treated DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Istaroxime further decreased Orai1 and Stim1 transcript levels and downregulated Orai1 protein expression. Moreover, SOCE was significantly decreased upon istaroxime treatment. Furthermore, istaroxime strikingly diminished phosphorylated FAK levels. Interestingly, the efficacy of istaroxime on the inhibition of DU-145 cell migration was further enhanced by blocking Orai1 with 2-APB and FAK with the specific inhibitor PF-00562271. These results provide strong evidence that istaroxime prevents cell migration and motility of DU-145 prostate tumor cells, an effect at least partially attributed to Orai1 downregulation and FAK de-activation. Conclusion: Collectively our results indicate that this enzyme inhibitor, besides its pro-apoptotic action, affects motility of cancer cells, supporting its potential role as a strong candidate for further clinical cancer drug development.

  9. Stochastic models of cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradinaru, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Cell motility and migration are central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, and errors during this process can lead to major diseases. Consequently, the mechanisms and phenomenology of cell motility are currently under intense study. In recent years, a new...... interdisciplinary field focusing on the study of biological processes at the nanoscale level, with a range of technological applications in medicine and biological research, has emerged. The work presented in this thesis is at the interface of cell biology, image processing, and stochastic modeling. The stochastic...... models introduced here are based on persistent random motion, which I apply to real-life studies of cell motility on flat and nanostructured surfaces. These models aim to predict the time-dependent position of cell centroids in a stochastic manner, and conversely determine directly from experimental...

  10. Quantum dot-based cell motility assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J; Boudreau, Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2003-12-01

    Motility and migration are measurable characteristics of cells that are classically associated with the invasive potential of cancer cells, but in vitro assays of invasiveness have been less than perfect. We previously developed an assay to monitor cell motility and migration using water-soluble CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals; cells engulf the fluorescent nanocrystals as they crawl across them and leave behind a fluorescent-free trail. We show here that semiconductor nanocrystals can also be used as a sensitive two-dimensional in vitro invasion assay. We used this assay to compare the behavior of seven different adherent human cell lines, including breast epithelial MCF 10A, breast tumor MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435S, MCF 7, colon tumor SW480, lung tumor NCI H1299, and bone tumor Saos-2, and observed two distinct behaviors of cancer cells that can be used to further categorize these cells. Some cancer cell lines demonstrate fibroblastic behaviors and leave long fluorescent-free trails as they migrate across the dish, whereas other cancer cells leave clear zones of varying sizes around their periphery. This assay uses fluorescence detection, requires no processing, and can be used in live cell studies. These features contribute to the increased sensitivity of this assay and make it a powerful new tool for discriminating between non-invasive and invasive cancer cell lines.

  11. Overexpression of WISP-1 down-regulated motility and invasion of lung cancer cells through inhibition of Rac activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Lilian L; Yie, Ting-An; Shvarts, Anita; Levine, Arnold J; Su, Fei; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng

    2003-03-28

    Wnt-induced-secreted-protein-1 (WISP-1) is a cysteine-rich, secreted factor belonging to the CCN family. These proteins have been implicated in the inhibition of metastasis; however, the mechanisms involved have not been described. We demonstrated that overexpression of WISP-1 in H460 lung cancer cells inhibited lung metastasis and in vitro cell invasion and motility. We investigated the possibility that WISP-1 may regulate activation of Rac, a small GTPase important for cytoskeletal reorganizations during motility. In an indirect assay, WISP-1-expressing cells exhibited marked reduction in Rac activation compared with control cells. Blocking antibodies to alpha(v)beta(5) and alpha(1) integrins restored Rac activation in WISP-1 cells, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of WISP-1 on Rac lies downstream of integrins. Constitutively activated Rac mutant (RacG12V) was transfected into WISP-1 cells to restore Rac activation and these WISP-1/RacG12V transfectants were used for further studies. We performed microarray and real-time PCR analyses to identify genes involved in invasion that may be differentially regulated by WISP-1. Here, we showed decreased expression of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in WISP-1 cells compared with controls but increased expression in WISP-1/RacG12V cells. In an invasion assay across collagen I, an MMP-1 target matrix, WISP-1 cells were significantly less invasive compared with controls, whereas WISP-1/RacG12V cells showed elevated invasion levels. This work illustrates a negatively regulated pathway by WISP-1 involving integrins and Rac in the down-regulation of invasion.

  12. Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate-dependent nuclear calcium signals regulate angiogenesis and cell motility in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Guimarães

    Full Text Available Increases in nuclear calcium concentration generate specific biological outcomes that differ from those resulting from increased cytoplasmic calcium. Nuclear calcium effects on tumor cell proliferation are widely appreciated; nevertheless, its involvement in other steps of tumor progression is not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated whether nuclear calcium is essential in other additional stages of tumor progression, including key steps associated with the formation of the primary tumor or with the metastatic cascade. We found that nuclear calcium buffering impaired 4T1 triple negative breast cancer growth not just by decreasing tumor cell proliferation, but also by enhancing tumor necrosis. Moreover, nuclear calcium regulates tumor angiogenesis through a mechanism that involves the upregulation of the anti-angiogenic C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10-IP10. In addition, nuclear calcium buffering regulates breast tumor cell motility, culminating in less cell invasion, likely due to enhanced vinculin expression, a focal adhesion structural protein. Together, our results show that nuclear calcium is essential for triple breast cancer angiogenesis and cell migration and can be considered as a promising strategic target for triple negative breast cancer therapy.

  13. Huaier aqueous extract inhibits ovarian cancer cell motility via the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yan

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine has gained popularity due to its ability to kill tumor cells. Recently, the apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Trametes robiniophila murr (Huaier have been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on cell mobility and tumor growth in ovarian cancer. Cell viability and motility were measured using SRB, scratch and migration assays. Cell apoptosis was analysed by annexin V/PI staining. Using a reverse-phase protein array (RPPA assay, we analyzed the levels of 153 proteins and/or phosphorylations in Huaier-treated and untreated cells. Huaier inhibited cell viability and induced both early and late apoptosis in SKOV3, SKOV3.ip1 and Hey cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell invasiveness and migration were also suppressed significantly. The RPPA results showed significant differences (of at least 30%; P <0.05 in the levels of 7 molecules in SKOV3 cells and 10 in SKOV3.ip1 cells between the untreated and treated cells. Most of the molecules identified play roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis or cell adhesion/invasion. Western blot analysis further validated that Huaier treatment resulted in decreased AKT phosphorylation, enhanced expression of total GSK3β, inhibition of the phosphorylation of GSK3β on S9, reduction of both cytoplasmic β-catenin expression and nuclear β-catenin translocation, and transcriptional repression of several Wnt/β-catenin target genes (DIXDC1, LRP6, WNT5A, and cyclin D1. After knocking down GSK3β, β-catenin expression could not be inhibited by Huaier. Finally, Huaier inhibited the growth of ovarian tumor xenografts in vivo. These studies indicate that Huaier inhibits tumor cell mobility in ovarian cancer via the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  14. Novel protein kinase D inhibitors cause potent arrest in prostate cancer cell growth and motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazo John S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase D (PKD has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes and pathological conditions including cancer. However, targeting PKD therapeutically and dissecting PKD-mediated cellular responses remains difficult due to lack of a potent and selective inhibitor. Previously, we identified a novel pan-PKD inhibitor, CID755673, with potency in the upper nanomolar range and high selectivity for PKD. In an effort to further enhance its selectivity and potency for potential in vivo application, small molecule analogs of CID755673 were generated by modifying both the core structure and side-chains. Results After initial activity screening, five analogs with equal or greater potencies as CID755673 were chosen for further analysis: kb-NB142-70, kb-NB165-09, kb-NB165-31, kb-NB165-92, and kb-NB184-02. Our data showed that modifications to the aromatic core structure in particular significantly increased potency while retaining high specificity for PKD. When tested in prostate cancer cells, all compounds inhibited PMA-induced autophosphorylation of PKD1, with kb-NB142-70 being most active. Importantly, these analogs caused a dramatic arrest in cell proliferation accompanying elevated cytotoxicity when applied to prostate cancer cells. Cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by these analogs with varying potencies that correlated to their cellular activity. Conclusions Throughout the battery of experiments, the compounds kb-NB142-70 and kb-NB165-09 emerged as the most potent and specific analogs in vitro and in cells. These compounds are undergoing further testing for their effectiveness as pharmacological tools for dissecting PKD function and as potential anti-cancer agents in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell growth and motility via up-regulation of let-7a in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Cao, Tong; Huang, Hua; Lian, Chaoqun; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhiwei; Ma, Jia; Xia, Jun

    2017-10-05

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been reported to exert its anti-cancer activities in human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of ATO-triggered anti-tumor activity has not been fully elucidated. Recently, multiple studies demonstrated that ATO could regulate miRNAs in human cancers. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether ATO regulated let-7a in breast cancer cells. We found that ATO upregulated let-7a level in breast cancer cells. We also found that up-regulation of let-7a inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis and retarded cell migration and invasion. We also observed that up-regulation of let-7a enhanced cell growth inhibition and invasion suppression induced by ATO treatment. Our findings suggest that ATO suppressed cell growth, stimulated apoptosis, and retarded cell invasion partly via upregulation of let-7a in breast cancer cells. Our study provides a new anti-tumor mechanism of ATO treatment in breast cancer.

  16. Fluid shear stress activates YAP1 to promote cancer cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Diaz, Miguel F; Price, Katherine M; Ozuna, Joyce A; Zhang, Songlin; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Hagan, John P; Wenzel, Pamela L

    2017-01-18

    Mechanical stress is pervasive in egress routes of malignancy, yet the intrinsic effects of force on tumour cells remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that frictional force characteristic of flow in the lymphatics stimulates YAP1 to drive cancer cell migration; whereas intensities of fluid wall shear stress (WSS) typical of venous or arterial flow inhibit taxis. YAP1, but not TAZ, is strictly required for WSS-enhanced cell movement, as blockade of YAP1, TEAD1-4 or the YAP1-TEAD interaction reduces cellular velocity to levels observed without flow. Silencing of TEAD phenocopies loss of YAP1, implicating transcriptional transactivation function in mediating force-enhanced cell migration. WSS dictates expression of a network of YAP1 effectors with executive roles in invasion, chemotaxis and adhesion downstream of the ROCK-LIMK-cofilin signalling axis. Altogether, these data implicate YAP1 as a fluid mechanosensor that functions to regulate genes that promote metastasis.

  17. Src Family Kinases Mediate Betel Quid-Induced Oral Cancer Cell Motility and Could Be a Biomarker for Early Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Yi-Fu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9 presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs. Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01. These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  18. Expression of the hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor RHAMM in tumor budding cells identifies aggressive colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelzer, Viktor Hendrik; Huber, Bettina; Mele, Valentina; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Trippel, Mafalda; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Expression of the hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM, CD168) predicts adverse clinicopathological features and decreased survival for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Using full tissue sections, we investigated the expression of RHAMM in tumor budding cells of 103 primary CRCs to characterize the biological processes driving single-cell invasion and early metastatic dissemination. RHAMM expression in tumor buds was analyzed with clinicopathological data, molecular features and survival. Tumor budding cells at the invasive front of CRC expressed RHAMM in 68% of cases. Detection of RHAMM-positive tumor budding cells was significantly associated with poor survival outcome (P = .0312), independent of TNM stage and adjuvant therapy in multivariate analysis (P = .0201). RHAMM-positive tumor buds were associated with frequent lymphatic invasion (P = .0007), higher tumor grade (P = .0296), and nodal metastasis (P = .0364). Importantly, the prognostic impact of RHAMM expression in tumor buds was maintained independently of the number of tumor buds found in an individual case (P = .0246). No impact of KRAS/BRAF mutation, mismatch repair deficiency and CpG island methylation was observed. RHAMM expression identifies an aggressive subpopulation of tumor budding cells and is an independent adverse prognostic factor for CRC patients. These data support ongoing efforts to develop RHAMM as a target for precision therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. RAGE mediates S100A4-induced cell motility via MAPK/ERK and hypoxia signaling and is a prognostic biomarker for human colorectal cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Mathias; Okhrimenko, Anna; Marcinkowski, Patrick; Osterland, Marc; Herrmann, Pia; Smith, Janice; Heizmann, Claus W.; Schlag, Peter M.; Stein, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Survival of colorectal cancer patients is strongly dependent on development of distant metastases. S100A4 is a prognostic biomarker and inducer for colorectal cancer metastasis. Besides exerting intracellular functions, S100A4 is secreted extracellularly. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is one of its interaction partners. The impact of the S100A4-RAGE interaction for cell motility and metastasis formation in colorectal cancer has not been elucidated so far. Here we demonstrate the RAGE-dependent increase in migratory and invasive capabilities of colorectal cancer cells via binding to extracellular S100A4. We show the direct interaction of S100A4 and RAGE, leading to hyperactivated MAPK/ERK and hypoxia signaling. The S100A4-RAGE axis increased cell migration (PRAGE and RAGE-specific antibodies. In colorectal cancer patients, not distantly metastasized at surgery, high RAGE expression in primary tumors correlated with metachronous metastasis, reduced overall (P=0.022) and metastasis-free survival (P=0.021). In summary, interaction of S100A4-RAGE mediates S100A4-induced colorectal cancer cell motility. RAGE by itself represents a biomarker for prognosis of colorectal cancer. Thus, therapeutic approaches targeting RAGE or intervening in S100A4-RAGE-dependent signaling early in tumor progression might represent alternative strategies restricting S100A4-induced colorectal cancer metastasis. PMID:24952599

  20. Tenascin-C enhances pancreatic cancer cell growth and motility and affects cell adhesion through activation of the integrin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Paron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC is characterized by an abundant fibrous tissue rich in Tenascin-C (TNC, a large ECM glycoprotein mainly synthesized by pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs. In human pancreatic tissues, TNC expression increases in the progression from low-grade precursor lesions to invasive cancer. Aim of this study was the functional characterization of the effects of TNC on biologic relevant properties of pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: Proliferation, migration and adhesion assays were performed on pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with TNC or grown on a TNC-rich matrix. Stable transfectants expressing the large TNC splice variant were generated to test the effects of endogenous TNC. TNC-dependent integrin signaling was investigated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and pharmacological inhibition. RESULTS: Endogenous TNC promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth and migration. A TNC-rich matrix also enhanced migration as well as the adhesion to the uncoated growth surface of poorly differentiated cell lines. In contrast, adhesion to fibronectin was significantly decreased in the presence of TNC. The effects of TNC on cell adhesion were paralleled by changes in the activation state of paxillin and Akt. CONCLUSION: TNC affects proliferation, migration and adhesion of poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cell lines and might therefore play a role in PDAC spreading and metastasis in vivo.

  1. A novel circular invasion assay mimics in vivo invasive behavior of cancer cell lines and distinguishes single-cell motility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Lourdes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical in vitro wound-healing assays and other techniques designed to study cell migration and invasion have been used for many years to elucidate the various mechanisms associated with metastasis. However, many of these methods are limited in their ability to achieve reproducible, quantitative results that translate well in vivo. Such techniques are also commonly unable to elucidate single-cell motility mechanisms, an important factor to be considered when studying dissemination. Therefore, we developed and applied a novel in vitro circular invasion assay (CIA in order to bridge the translational gap between in vitro and in vivo findings, and to distinguish between different modes of invasion. Method Our method is a modified version of a standard circular wound-healing assay with an added matrix barrier component (Matrigel™, which better mimics those physiological conditions present in vivo. We examined 3 cancer cell lines (MCF-7, SCOV-3, and MDA-MB-231, each with a different established degree of aggressiveness, to test our assay's ability to detect diverse levels of invasiveness. Percent wound closure (or invasion was measured using time-lapse microscopy and advanced image analysis techniques. We also applied the CIA technique to DLD-1 cells in the presence of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, a bioactive lipid that was recently shown to stimulate cancer cell colony dispersal into single migratory cells, in order to validate our method's ability to detect collective and individual motility. Results CIA method was found to be highly reproducible, with negligible levels of variance measured. It successfully detected the anticipated low, moderate, and high levels of invasion that correspond to in vivo findings for cell lines tested. It also captured that DLD-1 cells exhibit individual migration upon LPA stimulation, and collective behavior in its absence. Conclusion Given its ability to both determine pseudo-realistic invasive

  2. Metastasis Suppressor Gene Inactivates Actin-Based Mechanism of Tumor Cell Motility | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastasis is responsible for up to 90 percent of all cancer-related deaths. Though proteins derived from nearly a dozen metastasis suppressor genes have been discovered over the past 15 years, strategies for exploiting the proteins in metastasis-prevention therapies has been hampered by the lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the proteins’ interactions with other proteins.

  3. B-Myb Is Up-Regulated and Promotes Cell Growth and Motility in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuelei; Zhu, Huifang; Cai, Wei; Fan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yitao; Niu, Yulong; Song, Fangzhou; Bu, Youquan

    2017-05-27

    B-Myb is a transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancers. However, its potential implication in lung cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we have for the first time investigated the expression profile of B-Myb and its functional impact in lung cancer. Expression analysis by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that B-Myb expression is aberrantly overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and positively correlated with pathologic grade and clinical stage of NSCLC. A gain-of-function study revealed that overexpression of B-Myb significantly increases lung cancer cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Conversely, a loss-of-function study showed that knockdown of B-Myb decreases cell growth, migration, and invasion. B-Myb overexpression also promoted tumor growth in vivo in a NSCLC xenograft nude mouse model. A molecular mechanistic study by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed that B-Myb overexpression causes up-regulation of various downstream genes (e.g., COL11A1, COL6A1, FN1, MMP2, NID1, FLT4, INSR, and CCNA1) and activation of multiple critical pathways (e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and phosphorylated-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways) involved in cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Collectively, our results indicate a tumor-promoting role for B-Myb in NSCLC and thus imply its potential as a target for the diagnosis and/or treatment of NSCLC.

  4. Overexpression of L1 cell adhesion molecule correlates with aggressive tumor progression of patients with breast cancer and promotes motility of breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Fei; Ding, Yong; Zhen, Linlin; Han, Xuedong; Jiao, Feng; Tang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) has been observed to be aberrantly expressed and implicated in progression of several types of human cancers. However, its roles in breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of L1CAM in human breast cancer and to validate whether it participates in cancer cell migration and invasion. Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of 100 breast cancer and matched non-cancerous ...

  5. Reversing cells and oscillating motility proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardy, Simone; Bulyha, Iryna; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2008-10-01

    Cells of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus organize into two types of patterns depending on their nutritional status, i.e. in the presence of nutrients cells form spreading colonies and in the absence of nutrients cells form fruiting bodies. Formation of both patterns depends on directed cell movements, which, in turn, depend on regulation of motility. M. xanthus cells harbor two motility machines, type IV pili and the A-engine, which act synergistically to generate motive force in the same direction. Periodically, the individual cells reverse their direction of movement. During a reversal the two motility machines switch polarity to generate force in the opposite direction. Recent evidence shows that at the molecular level, reversals involve pole-to-pole oscillations of motility proteins. Between reversals, these proteins localize to the cell poles to stimulate motility and in parallel with a reversal they relocalize between the poles. For two proteins, FrzS and RomR, which are part of the type IV pili and A-engine, respectively, it was directly demonstrated that they oscillate independently of each other but in synchrony, thus, providing evidence that the two motility machines switch polarity independently but synchronously. Protein oscillations are regulated and synchronized by the Frz chemosensory signal transduction system. The correct polarity of the motility systems is likely established by the MglA protein, which is a member of the Ras/Rac/Rho superfamily of small GTPases. In this scenario, MglA establishes the correct polarity of the two motility machines and the Frz-induced synchronized polarity switching maintains the correct polarity of the two motility machines.

  6. Cell motility as random motion: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, Dávid; Li, Liwen; Pedersen, Leif

    2008-01-01

    The historical co-evolution of biological motility models with models of Brownian motion is outlined. Recent results for how to derive cell-type-specific motility models from experimental cell trajectories are reviewed. Experimental work in progress, which tests the generality of this phenomenolo...... of this phenomenological model building is reported. So is theoretical work in progress, which explains the characteristic time scales and correlations of phenomenological models in terms of the dynamics of cytoskeleton, lamellipodia, and pseudopodia.......The historical co-evolution of biological motility models with models of Brownian motion is outlined. Recent results for how to derive cell-type-specific motility models from experimental cell trajectories are reviewed. Experimental work in progress, which tests the generality...

  7. Characterizing motility dynamics in human RPE cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Furu; Miller, Donald T.

    2017-02-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are vital to health of the outer retina, however, are often compromised in ageing and ocular diseases that lead to blindness. Early manifestation of RPE disruption occurs at the cellular level, but while in vivo biomarkers at this scale hold considerable promise, RPE cells have proven extremely challenging to image in the living human eye. Recently we addressed this problem by using organelle motility as a novel contrast agent to enhance the RPE cell in conjunction with 3D resolution of adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) to section the RPE layer. In this study, we expand on the central novelty of our method - organelle motility - by characterizing the dynamics of the motility in individual RPE cells, important because of its direct link to RPE physiology. To do this, AO-OCT videos of the same retinal patch were acquired at approximately 1 min intervals or less, time stamped, and registered in 3D with sub-cellular accuracy. Motility was quantified by an exponential decay time constant, the time for motility to decorrelate the speckle field across an RPE cell. In two normal subjects, we found the decay time constant to be just 3 seconds, thus indicating rapid motility in normal RPE cells.

  8. Overexpression of L1 cell adhesion molecule correlates with aggressive tumor progression of patients with breast cancer and promotes motility of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Fei; Ding, Yong; Zhen, Linlin; Han, Xuedong; Jiao, Feng; Tang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) has been observed to be aberrantly expressed and implicated in progression of several types of human cancers. However, its roles in breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of L1CAM in human breast cancer and to validate whether it participates in cancer cell migration and invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of 100 breast cancer and matched non-cancerous breast tissues was performed to detect the expression and sub-cellular localization of L1CAM protein. Its associations with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients were statistically analyzed and its phenotypic effects were also evaluated in vitro. Of the 100 breast cancer patients, 89 (89.0%) were positive for L1CAM immunostaining localized in the membrane of cancer cells. The immunoreactive scores of L1CAM protein in breast cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in matched non-cancerous breast tissues (Pbreast cancer patients. Moreover, we found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of L1CAM could inhibit the migration and invasion abilities of breast cancer cells in vitro. Our results suggest that the overexpression of L1CAM may be related to several established markers of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. L1CAM might be a potential therapeutic target against metastatic breast cancer.

  9. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin R Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required

  10. Mechanism of shape determination in motile cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Kinneret; Pincus, Zachary; Allen, Greg M; Barnhart, Erin L; Marriott, Gerard; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A

    2008-05-22

    The shape of motile cells is determined by many dynamic processes spanning several orders of magnitude in space and time, from local polymerization of actin monomers at subsecond timescales to global, cell-scale geometry that may persist for hours. Understanding the mechanism of shape determination in cells has proved to be extremely challenging due to the numerous components involved and the complexity of their interactions. Here we harness the natural phenotypic variability in a large population of motile epithelial keratocytes from fish (Hypsophrys nicaraguensis) to reveal mechanisms of shape determination. We find that the cells inhabit a low-dimensional, highly correlated spectrum of possible functional states. We further show that a model of actin network treadmilling in an inextensible membrane bag can quantitatively recapitulate this spectrum and predict both cell shape and speed. Our model provides a simple biochemical and biophysical basis for the observed morphology and behaviour of motile cells.

  11. Rac1 activation driven by 14-3-3ζ dimerization promotes prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Goc

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed dimeric adaptor proteins that have emerged as key mediators of many cell signaling pathways in multiple cell types. Its effects are mainly mediated by binding to selective phosphoserine/threonine proteins. The importance of 14-3-3 proteins in cancer have only started to become apparent and its exact role in cancer progression as well as the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins mediate cancer cell function remain unknown. While protein 14-3-3σ is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor, 14-3-3ζ, β and γ isoforms have been shown to have tumor promoting effects. Despite the importance of 14-3-3 family in mediating various cell processes, the exact role and mechanism of 14-3-3ζ remain unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the role of protein 14-3-3ζ in prostate cancer cell motility and transendothelial migration using biochemical, molecular biology and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing approaches as well as cell based functional assays. Our study indicated that expression with wild-type protein 14-3-3ζ significantly enhanced Rac activity in PC3 cells. In contrast, expression of dimer-resistant mutant of protein 14-3-3ζ (DM-14-3-3 inhibited Rac activity and associated phosphorylation of p21 activated kinase-1 and 2. Expression with wild-type 14-3-3ζ or constitutively active Rac1 enhanced extracellular matrix recognition, lamellipodia formation, cell migration and trans-endothelial migration by PC3 cells. In contrast, expression with DM 14-3-3ζ or DN-Rac1 in PC3 cells significantly inhibited these cell functions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 14-3-3ζ enhances prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration in vitro via activation of Rac1-GTPase and is an important target for therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.

  12. MicroRNA networks regulated by all-trans retinoic acid and Lapatinib control the growth, survival and motility of breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Mami; Paroni, Gabriela; Zanetti, Adriana; Gianni, Maurizio; Bolis, Marco; Lupi, Monica; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J.; Garattini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    SKBR3-cells, characterized by ERBB2/RARA co-amplification, represent a subgroup of HER2+ breast-cancers sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and Lapatinib. In this model, the two agents alone or in combination modulate the expression of 174 microRNAs (miRs). These miRs and predicted target-transcripts are organized in four interconnected modules (Module-1 to -4). Module-1 and Module-3 consist of ATRA/Lapatinib up-regulated and potentially anti-oncogenic miRs, while Module-2 contains ATRA/Lapatinib down-regulated and potentially pro-oncogenic miRs. Consistent with this, the expression levels of Module-1/-3 and Module-2 miRs are higher and lower, respectively, in normal mammary tissues relative to ductal-carcinoma-in-situ, invasive-ductal-carcinoma and metastases. This indicates associations between tumor-progression and the expression profiles of Module-1 to -3 miRs. Similar associations are observed with tumor proliferation-scores, staging, size and overall-survival using TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data. Forced expression of Module-1 miRs, (miR-29a-3p; miR-874-3p) inhibit SKBR3-cell growth and Module-3 miRs (miR-575; miR-1225-5p) reduce growth and motility. Module-2 miRs (miR-125a; miR-193; miR-210) increase SKBR3 cell growth, survival and motility. Some of these effects are of general significance, being replicated in other breast cancer cell lines representing the heterogeneity of this disease. Finally, our study demonstrates that HIPK2-kinase and the PLCXD1-phospholipase-C are novel targets of miR-193a-5p/miR-210-3p and miR-575/miR-1225-5p, respectively. PMID:25961594

  13. The Motile Breast Cancer Phenotype Roles of Proteoglycans/Glycosaminoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikitovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The consecutive stages of cancer growth and dissemination are obligatorily perpetrated through specific interactions of the tumor cells with their microenvironment. Importantly, cell-associated and tumor microenvironment glycosaminoglycans (GAGs/proteoglycan (PG content and distribution are markedly altered during tumor pathogenesis and progression. GAGs and PGs perform multiple functions in specific stages of the metastatic cascade due to their defined structure and ability to interact with both ligands and receptors regulating cancer pathogenesis. Thus, GAGs/PGs may modulate downstream signaling of key cellular mediators including insulin growth factor receptor (IGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, estrogen receptors (ERs, or Wnt members. In the present review we will focus on breast cancer motility in correlation with their GAG/PG content and critically discuss mechanisms involved. Furthermore, new approaches involving GAGs/PGs as potential prognostic/diagnostic markers or as therapeutic agents for cancer-related pathologies are being proposed.

  14. The ErbB4 CYT2 variant protects EGFR from ligand-induced degradation to enhance cancer cell motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuchi, Tai; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Monypenny, James; Matthews, Daniel R; Nguyen, Lan K; Barbeau, Jody; Coban, Oana; Lawler, Katherine; Burford, Brian; Rolfe, Daniel J; de Rinaldis, Emanuele; Dafou, Dimitra; Simpson, Michael A; Woodman, Natalie; Pinder, Sarah; Gillett, Cheryl E; Devauges, Viviane; Poland, Simon P; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Marra, Pierfrancesco; Boersma, Ykelien L; Plückthun, Andreas; Gullick, William J; Yarden, Yosef; Santis, George; Winn, Martyn; Kholodenko, Boris N; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa L; Parker, Peter; Tutt, Andrew; Ameer-Beg, Simon M; Ng, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family that can promote the migration and proliferation of breast cancer cells. Therapies that target EGFR can promote the dimerization of EGFR with other ErbB receptors, which is associated with the development of drug resistance.

  15. Acidosis Promotes Metastasis Formation by Enhancing Tumor Cell Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, A; Schneider, B; Gündel, D; Stock, C; Gekle, M; Thews, O

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is characterized by hypoxia, acidosis as well as other metabolic and biochemical alterations. Its role in cancer progression is increasingly appreciated especially on invasive capacity and the formation of metastasis. The effect of acidosis on metastasis formation of two rat carcinoma cell lines was studied in the animal model. In order to analyze the pH dependency of different steps of metastasis formation, invasiveness, cell adhesion and migration of AT-1 prostate cancer cells as well as possible underlying cell signaling pathways were studied in vitro. Acidosis significantly increased the formation of lung metastases of both tumor cell lines in vivo. In vitro, extracellular acidosis neither enhanced invasiveness nor affected cell adhesion to a plastic or to an endothelial layer. However, cellular motility was markedly elevated at pH 6.6 and this effect was sustained even when extracellular pH was switched back to pH 7.4. When analyzing the underlying mechanism, a prominent role of ROS in the induction of migration was observed. Signaling through the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38 as well as Src family kinases was not involved. Thus, cancer cells in an acidic microenvironment can acquire enhanced motility, which is sustained even if the tumor cells leave their acidic microenvironment e.g. by entering the blood stream. This increase depended on elevated ROS production and may contribute to the augmented formation of metastases of acidosis-primed tumor cells in vivo.

  16. Multiple scale model for cell migration in monolayers: Elastic mismatch between cells enhances motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Benoit; Bresler, Yony; Wirtz, Denis; Grant, Martin

    2015-07-02

    We propose a multiscale model for monolayer of motile cells that comprise normal and cancer cells. In the model, the two types of cells have identical properties except for their elasticity; cancer cells are softer and normal cells are stiffer. The goal is to isolate the role of elasticity mismatch on the migration potential of cancer cells in the absence of other contributions that are present in real cells. The methodology is based on a phase-field description where each cell is modeled as a highly-deformable self-propelled droplet. We simulated two types of nearly confluent monolayers. One contains a single cancer cell in a layer of normal cells and the other contains normal cells only. The simulation results demonstrate that elasticity mismatch alone is sufficient to increase the motility of the cancer cell significantly. Further, the trajectory of the cancer cell is decorated by several speed "bursts" where the cancer cell quickly relaxes from a largely deformed shape and consequently increases its translational motion. The increased motility and the amplitude and frequency of the bursts are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments.

  17. BubR1 Acts as a Promoter in Cellular Motility of Human Oral Squamous Cancer Cells through Regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Kit Chou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BubR1 is a critical component of spindle assembly checkpoint, ensuring proper chromatin segregation during mitosis. Recent studies showed that BubR1 was overexpressed in many cancer cells, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC. However, the effect of BubR1 on metastasis of OSCC remains unclear. This study aimed to unravel the role of BubR1 in the progression of OSCC and confirm the expression of BubR1 in a panel of malignant OSCC cell lines with different invasive abilities. The results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA level of BubR1 was markedly increased in four OSCC cell lines, Ca9-22, HSC3, SCC9 and Cal-27 cells, compared to two normal cells, normal human oral keratinocytes (HOK and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF. Moreover, the expression of BubR1 in these four OSCC cell lines was positively correlated with their motility. Immunofluorescence revealed that BubR1 was mostly localized in the cytosol of human gingival carcinoma Ca9-22 cells. BubR1 knockdown significantly decreased cellular invasion but slightly affect cellular proliferation on both Ca9-22 and Cal-27 cells. Consistently, the activities of metastasis-associated metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 were attenuated in BubR1 knockdown Ca9-22 cells, suggesting the role of BubR1 in promotion of OSCC migration. Our present study defines an alternative pathway in promoting metastasis of OSCC cells, and the expression of BubR1 could be a prognostic index in OSCC patients.

  18. PRL-3 promotes the motility, invasion, and metastasis of LoVo colon cancer cells through PRL-3-integrin β1-ERK1/2 and-MMP2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3 plays a causative role in tumor metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In our previous study, we observed that PRL-3 could decrease tyrosine phosphorylation of integrin β1 and enhance activation of ERK1/2 in HEK293 cells. Herein we aim to explore the association of PRL-3 with integrin β1 signaling and its functional implications in motility, invasion, and metastasis of colon cancer cell LoVo. Methods Transwell chamber assay and nude mouse model were used to study motility and invasion, and metastsis of LoVo colon cancer cells, respectively. Knockdown of integrin β1 by siRNA or lentivirus were detected with Western blot and RT-PCR. The effect of PRL-3 on integrin β1, ERK1/2, and MMPs that mediate motility, invasion, and metastasis were measured by Western blot, immunofluorencence, co-immunoprecipitation and zymographic assays. Results We demonstrated that PRL-3 associated with integrin β1 and its expression was positively correlated with ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer tissues. Depletion of integrin β1 with siRNA, not only abrogated the activation of ERK1/2 stimulated by PRL-3, but also abolished PRL-3-induced motility and invasion of LoVo cells in vitro. Similarly, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 or MMP activity with GM6001 also impaired PRL-3-induced invasion. In addition, PRL-3 promoted gelatinolytic activity of MMP2, and this stimulation correlated with decreased TIMP2 expression. Moreover, PRL-3-stimulated lung metastasis of LoVo cells in a nude mouse model was inhibited when integrin β1 expression was interfered with shRNA. Conclusion Our results suggest that PRL-3's roles in motility, invasion, and metastasis in colon cancer are critically controlled by the integrin β1-ERK1/2-MMP2 signaling.

  19. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-15

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  20. Cell motility as persistent random motion: Theories from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, D.; Mosler, S.; Hagedorn, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental time series for trajectories of motile cells may contain so much information that a systematic analysis will yield cell-type- specific motility models. Here we demonstrate how, using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as examples. The two resulting models reflect the cells' different...

  1. Computational and Modeling Strategies for Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Adalsteinsson, David; Elston, Timothy C.; Jacobson, Ken; Kapustina, Maryna; Forest, M. Gregory

    A predictive simulation of the dynamics of a living cell remains a fundamental modeling and computational challenge. The challenge does not even make sense unless one specifies the level of detail and the phenomena of interest, whether the focus is on near-equilibrium or strongly nonequilibrium behavior, and on localized, subcellular, or global cell behavior. Therefore, choices have to be made clear at the outset, ranging from distinguishing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, specificity within each of these types, whether the cell is "normal," whether one wants to model mitosis, blebs, migration, division, deformation due to confined flow as with red blood cells, and the level of microscopic detail for any of these processes. The review article by Hoffman and Crocker [48] is both an excellent overview of cell mechanics and an inspiration for our approach. One might be interested, for example, in duplicating the intricate experimental details reported in [43]: "actin polymerization periodically builds a mechanical link, the lamellipodium, connecting myosin motors with the initiation of adhesion sites, suggesting that the major functions driving motility are coordinated by a biomechanical process," or to duplicate experimental evidence of traveling waves in cells recovering from actin depolymerization [42, 35]. Modeling studies of lamellipodial structure, protrusion, and retraction behavior range from early mechanistic models [84] to more recent deterministic [112, 97] and stochastic [51] approaches with significant biochemical and structural detail. Recent microscopic-macroscopic models and algorithms for cell blebbing have been developed by Young and Mitran [116], which update cytoskeletal microstructure via statistical sampling techniques together with fluid variables. Alternatively, whole cell compartment models (without spatial details) of oscillations in spreading cells have been proposed [35, 92, 109] which show positive and negative feedback

  2. Molecular Analysis of Motility in Metastatic Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    elements of epidermoid carcinoma (A43 1) cells. J. Cell. Biol. 103: 87-94 Winkler, M. (1988). Translational regulation in sea urchin eggs: a complex...response range of changes in cell motility and morphology after stimulation with EGF using time-lapse video microscopy. This determines the appropriate...importance in mediating changes in cell motility or morphology after stimulation, and identify or acquire clones for the rat gene for the most important proten

  3. Melanosome Motility in Fish Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Smith, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Several model systems have been developed to investigate mechanism and regulation of intracellular organelle motility. The fish retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell represents a novel yet simple system for the study of organelle motility. Primary cultures of dissociated RPE cells are easily prepared and amenable to motility studies. In vivo, melanin-containing pigment granules (melanosomes) within fish RPE migrate distances up to 100 μm in response to light flux. When dissociated from the epithelial layer and cultured in vitro, RPE cells attach to the substrate with the apical projections extending radially from the central cell body. Melanosomes can be chemically triggered to aggregate or disperse throughout the projections, and are easily observed using phase contrast microscopy. Melanosome migration in RPE apical projections is dependent on actin filaments, and thus renders this model system useful for investigations of actin-dependent organelle motility.

  4. Motile hepatocellular carcinoma cells preferentially secret sugar metabolism regulatory proteins via exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lu, Shaohua; Zhou, Ye; Meng, Kun; Chen, Zhipeng; Cui, Yizhi; Shi, Yunfeng; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are deliverers of critically functional proteins, capable of transforming target cells in numerous cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesize that the motility of HCC cells can be featured by comparative proteome of exosomes. Hence, we performed the super-SILAC-based MS analysis on the exosomes secreted by three human HCC cell lines, including the non-motile Hep3B cell, and the motile 97H and LM3 cells. More than 1400 exosomal proteins were confidently quantified in each MS analysis with highly biological reproducibility. We justified that 469 and 443 exosomal proteins represented differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the 97H/Hep3B and LM3/Hep3B comparisons, respectively. These DEPs focused on sugar metabolism-centric canonical pathways per ingenuity pathway analysis, which was consistent with the gene ontology analysis on biological process enrichment. These pathways included glycolysis I, gluconeogenesis I and pentose phosphate pathways; and the DEPs enriched in these pathways could form a tightly connected network. By analyzing the relative abundance of proteins and translating mRNAs, we found significantly positive correlation between exosomes and cells. The involved exosomal proteins were again focusing on sugar metabolism. In conclusion, motile HCC cells tend to preferentially export more sugar metabolism-associated proteins via exosomes that differentiate them from non-motile HCC cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cancer-associated upregulation of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation promotes cell motility in vitro and drives tumor formation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuhki; Hieda, Miki; Nishioka, Yu; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Higashi, Satomi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Mori, Masaki; Matsuura, Shuji; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2013-07-01

    Global histone modification patterns correlate with tumor phenotypes and prognostic factors in multiple tumor types. Recent studies suggest that aberrant histone modifications play an important role in cancer. However, the effects of global epigenetic rearrangements on cell functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase SUV39H1 is clearly involved in regulating cell migration in vitro. Overexpression of wild-type SUV39H1, but not enzymatically inactive SUV39H1, activated migration in breast and colorectal cancer cells. Inversely, migration was reduced by knockdown of SUV39H1 or chemical inhibition by chaetocin. In addition, H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) was specifically increased in invasive regions of colorectal cancer tissues. Moreover, the presence of H3K9me3 positively correlated with lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Furthermore, overexpression of SUV39H1 drove tumorigenesis in mouse, resulting in a considerable decrease in survival rate. These data indicate that H3K9 trimethylation plays an important role in human colorectal cancer progression, possibly by promoting collective cell invasion. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Intestinal mast cells in gut inflammation and motility disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Benedicte Y.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells may be regarded as prototypes of innate immune cells that can be controlled by neuronal mediators. Their activation has been implicated in many types of neuro-inflammatory responses, and related disturbances of gut motility, via direct or indirect mechanisms that involve several

  7. Galectin-3 facilitates cell motility in gastric cancer by up-regulating protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 is known to regulate cancer metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism has not been defined. Through the DNA microarray studies after galectin-3 silencing, we demonstrated here that galectin-3 plays a key role in up-regulating the expressions of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 PAR-1 thereby promoting gastric cancer metastasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the expression levels of Galectin-3, PAR-1, and MMP-1 in gastric cancer patient tissues and also the effects of silencing these proteins with specific siRNAs and of over-expressing them using specific lenti-viral constructs. We also employed zebrafish embryo model for analysis of in vivo gastric cancer cell invasion. These studies demonstrated that: a galectin-3 silencing decreases the expression of PAR-1. b galectin-3 over-expression increases cell migration and invasion and this increase can be reversed by PAR-1 silencing, indicating that galectin-3 increases cell migration and invasion via PAR-1 up-regulation. c galectin-3 directly interacts with AP-1 transcriptional factor, and this complex binds to PAR-1 promoter and drives PAR-1 transcription. d galectin-3 also amplifies phospho-paxillin, a PAR-1 downstream target, by increasing MMP-1 expression. MMP-1 silencing blocks phospho-paxillin amplification and cell invasion caused by galectin-3 over-expression. e Silencing of either galectin-3, PAR-1 or MMP-1 significantly reduced cell migration into the vessels in zebrafish embryo model. f Galectin-3, PAR-1, and MMP-1 are highly expressed and co-localized in malignant tissues from gastric cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Galectin-3 plays the key role of activating cell surface receptor through production of protease and boosts gastric cancer metastasis. Galectin-3 has the potential to serve as a useful pharmacological target for prevention of gastric cancer metastasis.

  8. Post-radiation increase in VEGF enhances glioma cell motility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil Whoon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is among the most lethal of all human tumors, with frequent local recurrences after radiation therapy (RT. The mechanism accounting for such a recurrence pattern is unclear. It has classically been attributed to local recurrence of treatment-resistant cells. However, accumulating evidence suggests that additional mechanisms exist that involve the migration of tumor or tumor stem cells from other brain regions to tumor bed. VEGFs are well-known mitogens and can be up-regulated after RT. Here, we examine the effect of irradiation-induced VEGF on glioma cell motility. Materials and methods U251 and LN18 cell lines were used to generate irradiated-conditioned medium (IR-CM. At 72 h after irradiation, the supernatants were harvested. VEGF level in IR-CM was quantified by ELISA, and expression levels for VEGF mRNA were detected by RT-PCR. In vitro cancer cell motility was measured in chambers coated with/without Matrigel and IR-CM as a cell motility enhancer and a VEGF antibody as a neutralizer of VEGF bioactivity. Immunoblots were performed to evaluate the activity of cell motility-related kinases. Proliferation of GBM cells after treatment was measured by flow cytometry. Results Irradiation increased the level of VEGF mRNA that was mitigated by pre-RT exposure to Actinomycin D. U251 glioma cell motility (migration and invasion was enhanced by adding IR-CM to un-irradiated cells (174.9 ± 11.4% and 334.2 ± 46% of control, respectively. When we added VEGF antibody to IR-CM, this enhanced cell motility was negated (110.3 ± 12.0% and 105.7 ± 14.0% of control, respectively. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IR-CM increased phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2 secondary to an increase in VEGF, with a concomitant increase of phosphorylation of the downstream targets (Src and FAK. Increased phosphorylation was mitigated by adding VEGF antibody to IR-CM. There was no difference in the mitotic index of

  9. Mechanical stress as a regulator of cell motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putelat, T.; Recho, P.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-01-01

    The motility of a cell can be triggered or inhibited not only by an applied force but also by a mechanically neutral force couple. This type of loading, represented by an applied stress and commonly interpreted as either squeezing or stretching, can originate from extrinsic interaction of a cell with its neighbors. To quantify the effect of applied stresses on cell motility we use an analytically transparent one-dimensional model accounting for active myosin contraction and induced actin turnover. We show that stretching can polarize static cells and initiate cell motility while squeezing can symmetrize and arrest moving cells. We show further that sufficiently strong squeezing can lead to the loss of cell integrity. The overall behavior of the system depends on the two dimensionless parameters characterizing internal driving (chemical activity) and external loading (applied stress). We construct a phase diagram in this parameter space distinguishing between static, motile, and collapsed states. The obtained results are relevant for the mechanical understanding of contact inhibition and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  10. BRCA1 deficiency in ovarian cancer is associated with alteration in expression of several key regulators of cell motility - A proteomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, David M; Lesnock, Jamie L; Hood, Brian L; Bhargava, Rohit; Sun, Mai; Darcy, Kathleen; Luthra, Soumya; Chandran, Uma; Conrads, Thomas P; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Krivak, Thomas C; Roy, Partha

    2015-01-01

    Functional loss of expression of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1(BRCA1) has been implicated in genomic instability and cancer progression. There is emerging evidence that BRCA1 gene product (BRCA1) also plays a role in cancer cell migration. We performed a quantitative proteomics study of EOC patient tumor tissues and identified changes in expression of several key regulators of actin cytoskeleton/cell adhesion and cell migration (CAPN1, 14-3-3, CAPG, PFN1, SPTBN1, CFN1) associated with loss of BRCA1 function. Gene expression analyses demonstrate that several of these proteomic hits are differentially expressed between early and advanced stage EOC thus suggesting clinical relevance of these proteins to disease progression. By immunohistochemistry of ovarian tumors with BRCA1(+/+) and BRCA1(null) status, we further verified our proteomic-based finding of elevated PFN1 expression associated with BRCA1 deficiency. Finally, we established a causal link between PFN1 and BRCA1-induced changes in cell migration thus uncovering a novel mechanistic basis for BRCA1-dependent regulation of ovarian cancer cell migration. Overall, findings of this study open up multiple avenues by which BRCA1 can potentially regulate migration and metastatic phenotype of EOC cells.

  11. The role of versican G3 domain in regulating breast cancer cell motility including effects on osteoblast cell growth and differentiation in vitro – evaluation towards understanding breast cancer cell bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du William

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Versican is detected in the interstitial tissues at the invasive margins of breast carcinoma, is predictive of relapse, and negatively impacts overall survival rates. The versican G3 domain is important in breast cancer cell growth, migration and bone metastasis. However, mechanistic studies evaluating versican G3 enhanced breast cancer bone metastasis are limited. Methods A versican G3 construct was exogenously expressed in the 66c14 and the MC3T3-E1 cell line. Cells were observed through light microscopy and viability analyzed by Coulter Counter or determined with colorimetric proliferation assays. The Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptotic activity. Modified Chemotactic Boyden chamber migration invasion assays were applied to observe tumor migration and invasion to bone stromal cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP staining and ALP ELISA assays were performed to observe ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. Results In the four mouse breast cancer cell lines 67NR, 66c14, 4T07, and 4T1, 4T1 cells expressed higher levels of versican, and showed higher migration and invasion ability to MC3T3-E1 cells and primary bone stromal cells. 4T1 conditioned medium (CM inhibited MC3T3-E1 cell growth, and even lead to apoptosis. Only 4T1 CM prevented MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation, noted by inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. We exogenously expressed a versican G3 construct in a cell line that expresses low versican levels (66c14, and observed that the G3-expressing 66c14 cells showed enhanced cell migration and invasion to bone stromal and MC3T3-E1 cells. This observation was prevented by selective EGFR inhibitor AG1478, selective MEK inhibitor PD 98059, and selective AKT inhibitor Triciribine, but not by selective JNK inhibitor SP 600125. Versican G3 enhanced breast cancer cell invasion to bone stromal cells or osteoblast cells appears to occur through enhancing EGFR/ERK or AKT signaling

  12. The role of versican G3 domain in regulating breast cancer cell motility including effects on osteoblast cell growth and differentiation in vitro - evaluation towards understanding breast cancer cell bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, William Weidong; Fang, Ling; Yang, Weining; Sheng, Wang; Zhang, Yaou; Seth, Arun; Yang, Burton B; Yee, Albert J

    2012-08-03

    Versican is detected in the interstitial tissues at the invasive margins of breast carcinoma, is predictive of relapse, and negatively impacts overall survival rates. The versican G3 domain is important in breast cancer cell growth, migration and bone metastasis. However, mechanistic studies evaluating versican G3 enhanced breast cancer bone metastasis are limited. A versican G3 construct was exogenously expressed in the 66c14 and the MC3T3-E1 cell line. Cells were observed through light microscopy and viability analyzed by Coulter Counter or determined with colorimetric proliferation assays. The Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptotic activity. Modified Chemotactic Boyden chamber migration invasion assays were applied to observe tumor migration and invasion to bone stromal cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP ELISA assays were performed to observe ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. In the four mouse breast cancer cell lines 67NR, 66c14, 4T07, and 4T1, 4T1 cells expressed higher levels of versican, and showed higher migration and invasion ability to MC3T3-E1 cells and primary bone stromal cells. 4T1 conditioned medium (CM) inhibited MC3T3-E1 cell growth, and even lead to apoptosis. Only 4T1 CM prevented MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation, noted by inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. We exogenously expressed a versican G3 construct in a cell line that expresses low versican levels (66c14), and observed that the G3-expressing 66c14 cells showed enhanced cell migration and invasion to bone stromal and MC3T3-E1 cells. This observation was prevented by selective EGFR inhibitor AG1478, selective MEK inhibitor PD 98059, and selective AKT inhibitor Triciribine, but not by selective JNK inhibitor SP 600125. Versican G3 enhanced breast cancer cell invasion to bone stromal cells or osteoblast cells appears to occur through enhancing EGFR/ERK or AKT signaling. G3 expressing MC3T3-E1 cells showed inhibited cell

  13. The role of versican G3 domain in regulating breast cancer cell motility including effects on osteoblast cell growth and differentiation in vitro – evaluation towards understanding breast cancer cell bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Versican is detected in the interstitial tissues at the invasive margins of breast carcinoma, is predictive of relapse, and negatively impacts overall survival rates. The versican G3 domain is important in breast cancer cell growth, migration and bone metastasis. However, mechanistic studies evaluating versican G3 enhanced breast cancer bone metastasis are limited. Methods A versican G3 construct was exogenously expressed in the 66c14 and the MC3T3-E1 cell line. Cells were observed through light microscopy and viability analyzed by Coulter Counter or determined with colorimetric proliferation assays. The Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptotic activity. Modified Chemotactic Boyden chamber migration invasion assays were applied to observe tumor migration and invasion to bone stromal cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP ELISA assays were performed to observe ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. Results In the four mouse breast cancer cell lines 67NR, 66c14, 4T07, and 4T1, 4T1 cells expressed higher levels of versican, and showed higher migration and invasion ability to MC3T3-E1 cells and primary bone stromal cells. 4T1 conditioned medium (CM) inhibited MC3T3-E1 cell growth, and even lead to apoptosis. Only 4T1 CM prevented MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation, noted by inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. We exogenously expressed a versican G3 construct in a cell line that expresses low versican levels (66c14), and observed that the G3-expressing 66c14 cells showed enhanced cell migration and invasion to bone stromal and MC3T3-E1 cells. This observation was prevented by selective EGFR inhibitor AG1478, selective MEK inhibitor PD 98059, and selective AKT inhibitor Triciribine, but not by selective JNK inhibitor SP 600125. Versican G3 enhanced breast cancer cell invasion to bone stromal cells or osteoblast cells appears to occur through enhancing EGFR/ERK or AKT signaling. G3 expressing MC3T3-E1

  14. Effects of Roundabout 5 on adhesion, invasion and potential motility of human tongue carcinoma Tb cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Li-jing; Li, Wei-ping

    2011-08-01

    Roundabout 5 (R5) is a monoclonal antibody which can neutralize the binding of Roundabout 1 (Robo1) to Slit2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma angiogenesis was significantly inhibited when R5 blocked slit-robo signaling pathway. However, the effect of R5 on the invasion of tongue cancer cells has not been investigated clearly. In this study, we treated human brain metastasis of tongue cancer cell lines (Tb cells) with R5 at different concentrations, and the control Tb cells were treated with 10 mg/ml immunoglobin G 2b (IgG2b). The effect of R5 on the proliferation, adhension, invasion and motility of Tb cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell attachment assay on fibronectin (FN), wound assay and chemotaxis assay, respectively. And gelatin-incorporated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to investigate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). R5 had no effect on the proliferation of Tb cells. However, R5 could significantly inhibit the motility, attachment and chemotaxis of Tb cells to FN, and it could also significantly inhibit the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 in Tb cells. R5 can inhibit the adhesion, invasion and motility of human tongue carcinoma Tb cells.

  15. Effect of laminin 332 on motility and invasion in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Gu Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the correlation between laminin 332 and malignancy in bladder cancer patients, and, using a strain of invasive bladder cancer cells, determined whether laminin 332 causes bladder cancer motility and invasion. To investigate the correlation between laminin 332 g2 distribution and patient outcome, we performed a semiquantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 35 paraffin-embedded samples using the antibody D4B5, which is specific for the laminin 5 γ2 chain. To evaluate the role of laminin 332 in NBT-II cell motility and invasion, we used a scratch assay and the Boyden chamber chemoinvasion system. Tumor stage and grade were significantly correlated with a loss of laminin 332 γ2 chain from the basement membrane (p = 0.001 and its retention in the cytoplasm (p = 0.001 (Kruskal–Wallis test. Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed an association between the risk of progression and cytoplasmic retention of the laminin 332 γ2 chain. In addition, an in vitro scratch assay showed an increase in the migration of cells treated with laminin 332 from their cluster. The Boyden chamber assay showed that laminin 332 potentiated NBT-II cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry results showed that bladder cancer patients with a higher malignancy expressed more laminin 332. The in vitro scratch and invasion assay showed that laminin 332 stimulated the motility and invasion of bladder cancer cells. The invasion assay explains the correlation between laminin 332 expression and bladder cancer malignancy.

  16. HES6 enhances the motility of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, Caroline M [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Domaschenz, Renae [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Gene Regulation and Chromatin Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN (United Kingdom); Amagase, Yoko [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women' s College of Liberal Arts, Kodo, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan); Williamson, Daniel [Molecular Cytogenetics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Paul O' Gorman Building, Medical School, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Missiaglia, Edoardo; Shipley, Janet [Molecular Cytogenetics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Murai, Kasumi [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Philip H, E-mail: phj20@cam.ac.uk [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Absract: HES6, a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors, plays multiple roles in myogenesis. It is a direct target of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD and has been shown to regulate the formation of the myotome in development, myoblast cell cycle exit and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the expression and function of HES6 in rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft tissue tumor which expresses myogenic genes but fails to differentiate into muscle. We show that HES6 is expressed at high levels in the subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas expressing PAX/FOXO1 fusion genes (ARMSp). Knockdown of HES6 mRNA in the ARMSp cell line RH30 reduces proliferation and cell motility. This phenotype is rescued by expression of mouse Hes6 which is insensitive to HES6 siRNA. Furthermore, expression microarray analysis indicates that the HES6 knockdown is associated with a decrease in the levels of Transgelin, (TAGLN), a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of TAGLN decreases cell motility, whilst TAGLN overexpression rescues the motility defect resulting from HES6 knockdown. These findings indicate HES6 contributes to the pathogenesis of ARMSp by enhancing both proliferation and cell motility.

  17. Regulation of Cell Polarity in Motility and Cell Division in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2017-09-08

    Rod-shaped Myxococcus xanthus cells are polarized with proteins asymmetrically localizing to specific positions. This spatial organization is important for regulation of motility and cell division and changes over time. Dedicated protein modules regulate motility independent of the cell cycle, and cell division dependent on the cell cycle. For motility, a leading-lagging cell polarity is established that is inverted during cellular reversals. Establishment and inversion of this polarity are regulated hierarchically by interfacing protein modules that sort polarized motility proteins to the correct cell poles or cause their relocation between cell poles during reversals akin to a spatial toggle switch. For division, a novel self-organizing protein module that incorporates a ParA ATPase positions the FtsZ-ring at midcell. This review covers recent findings concerning the spatiotemporal regulation of motility and cell division in M. xanthus and illustrates how the study of diverse bacteria may uncover novel mechanisms involved in regulating bacterial cell polarity.

  18. Optical Investigations of Endothelial Cell Motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Ninna Struck

    A monolayer of endothelial cells lines the entire circulatory system and create a barrier between the circulatory system and the tissues. To create and maintain an intact barrier, the individual cells have to connect tightly with their neighbors, which causes a highly correlated motion between...... the cells within the monolayer. The cells have to maintain this barrier while apoptotic cells are being replaced and even while new blood vessels are being created. Meanwhile they are constantly exposed to a shear stress from the ow of blood through the vessels. These extreme micro-environmental conditions....... Below is a summary of the thesis' general outline to give an overview of the thesis and provide the structure of how the di erent projects described in individual chapters relate to each other. Each chapter describes a separate project and will contain a small introduction that address the issues...

  19. ANDROGENS REGULATE T47D CELLS MOTILITY AND INVASION THROUGH ACTIN CYTOSKELETON REMODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Montt-Guevara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgens receptor (AR is expressed in approximately 70% to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodelling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER, while the non aromatizable androgen – DHT only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer, and eventually to develop new strategies for treatment of breast cancer.

  20. The influence of electric field and confinement on cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Samorajski, Justin; Kreimer, Rachel; Searson, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D.

  1. Targeting the MAP kinase pathway in astrocytoma cells using a recombinant anthrax lethal toxin as a way to inhibit cell motility and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dimassi, Saleh; Salloum, Gilbert; Saykali, Bechara; Khoury, Oula; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H; Abi-Habib, Ralph; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2016-05-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are highly invasive into adjacent and distant regions of the normal brain. Understanding and targeting cancer cell invasion is an important therapeutic approach. Cell invasion is a complex process that replies on many signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK). In many cell lines, the use of MAPK-targeted drugs proved to be a potential method to inhibit cancer cell motility. In the present study, we use a recombinant anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx), which selectively inhibits the MAPK pathway, in order to target invasion. LeTx proved ineffective on cell survival in astrocytoma (as well as normal cells). However, astrocytoma cells that were treated with LeTx showed a significant decrease in cell motility as seen by wound healing as well as random 2D motility in serum. The cells also showed a decrease in invasion across a collagen matrix. The effect of LeTx on cell migration was mediated though the deregulation of Rho GTPases, which play a role in cell motility. Finally, the effect of LeTx on cell migration and Rho GTPases was mimicked by the inhibition of the MAPK pathway. In this study, we describe for the first time the effect of the LeTx on cancer cell motility and invasion not cell survival making it a potentially selective brain tumor invasion inhibitor.

  2. Modelling cell motility and chemotaxis with evolving surface finite elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charles M; Stinner, Björn; Venkataraman, Chandrasekhar

    2012-11-07

    We present a mathematical and a computational framework for the modelling of cell motility. The cell membrane is represented by an evolving surface, with the movement of the cell determined by the interaction of various forces that act normal to the surface. We consider external forces such as those that may arise owing to inhomogeneities in the medium and a pressure that constrains the enclosed volume, as well as internal forces that arise from the reaction of the cells' surface to stretching and bending. We also consider a protrusive force associated with a reaction-diffusion system (RDS) posed on the cell membrane, with cell polarization modelled by this surface RDS. The computational method is based on an evolving surface finite-element method. The general method can account for the large deformations that arise in cell motility and allows the simulation of cell migration in three dimensions. We illustrate applications of the proposed modelling framework and numerical method by reporting on numerical simulations of a model for eukaryotic chemotaxis and a model for the persistent movement of keratocytes in two and three space dimensions. Movies of the simulated cells can be obtained from http://homepages.warwick.ac.uk/∼maskae/CV_Warwick/Chemotaxis.html.

  3. Modeling invasion of brain tissue by glioblastoma cells: ECM alignment and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    A key stage in the development of highly malignant brain tumors (Glioblastoma Multiforme) is invasion of normal brain tissue by motile cells moving through a crowded, complex environment. Evidence from in vitro experiments suggests the cell motion is accompanied by considerable deformation and alignment of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) of the brain. In the case of breast cancer, alignment effects of this sort have been seen in vivo. We have modeled features of this system including stress confinement in the non-linear elasticity of the ECM and contact guidance of the cell motion.

  4. Immobilization of motile bacterial cells via dip-pen nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamjav, Dorjderem; Holz, Richard C [Department of Chemistry, Loyola University-Chicago, 1068 N. Sheridan Road, Chicago, IL 60626 (United States); Rozhok, Sergey, E-mail: rholz1@luc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan, Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    A strategy to bind bacterial cells to surfaces in a directed fashion via dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is presented. Cellular attachment to pre-designed DPN generated microarrays was found to be dependent on the shape and size of the surface feature. While this observation is likely due in part to a dense, well formed mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) monolayer generated via DPN, it may also simply be due to the physical shape of the surface structure. Motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells were observed to bind to DPN generated mercaptohexadecanoic acid/poly-L-lysine (MHA/PLL) line patterns, 'blocks' made up of eight lines with 100 nm spacings, with {approx} 80% occupancy. Cellular binding to these 'block' surface structures occurs via an electrostatic interaction between negatively charged groups on the bacterial cell surface and positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL) assemblies. These data indicate that these DPN generated 'block' surface structures provide a promising footprint for the attachment of motile bacterial cells that may find utility in cell based biosensors or single cell studies.

  5. Somatostatin and somatostatin analogues reduce PDGF-induced endometrial cell proliferation and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Marta; Luque, Raul M; Durán-Prado, Mario; Baragli, Alessandra; Grande, Cristina; Volante, Marco; Gahete, Manuel D; Deltetto, Francesco; Camanni, Marco; Ghigo, Ezio; Castaño, Justo P; Granata, Riccarda

    2012-07-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by ectopic implantation of endometrial cells, which show increased proliferation and migration. Somatostatin (SST) and its analogues inhibit normal and cancer cell growth and motility through the SST receptors, sst1-5. Cortistatin (CST), which displays high structural and functional homology with SST, binds all ssts, as well as MrgX2. Our objective was to investigate the gene expression of the SST/CST system and to determine the effect of SST and its analogues on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and motility in telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cell (T HESC) line and in primary endometrial stromal cell (ESCs) isolated from human endometriotic tissues. Ectopic endometrial tissues were collected from women (n= 23) undergoing laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis (Stage III/IV). Gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR, cell motility by wound healing assay, protein expression and β-actin rearrangement by immunofluorescence, cell proliferation by the Alamar blue assay and ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation by western blot. Human endometriotic tissues, primary ESCs and T HESCs expressed SST, CST and ssts. SST, its analogues SOM230 and octreotide, as well as CST, counteracted PDGF-induced proliferation and migration in both ESCs and T HESCs. SST also inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor and metalloprotease-2 mRNA expression, and reduced basal and PDGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These results indicate that the SST/CST system is expressed in endometriotic tissues and cells. The inhibitory effects of SST and its analogues on PDGF-induced proliferation and motility suggest that these peptides may represent promising tools in the treatment of endometriosis.

  6. Mechanosensitive Adhesion Explains Stepping Motility in Amoeboid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copos, Calina A; Walcott, Sam; Del Álamo, Juan C; Bastounis, Effie; Mogilner, Alex; Guy, Robert D

    2017-06-20

    Cells employing amoeboid motility exhibit repetitive cycles of rapid expansion and contraction and apply coordinated traction forces to their environment. Although aspects of this process are well studied, it is unclear how the cell controls the coordination of cell length changes with adhesion to the surface. Here, we develop a simple model to mechanistically explain the emergence of periodic changes in length and spatiotemporal dynamics of traction forces measured in chemotaxing unicellular amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. In contrast to the biochemical mechanisms that have been implicated in the coordination of some cellular processes, we show that many features of amoeboid locomotion emerge from a simple mechanochemical model. The mechanism for interaction with the environment in Dictyostelium is unknown and thus, we explore different cell-environment interaction models to reveal that mechanosensitive adhesions are necessary to reproduce the spatiotemporal adhesion patterns. In this modeling framework, we find that the other motility modes, such as smooth gliding, arise naturally with variations in the physical properties of the surface. Thus, our work highlights the prominent role of biomechanics in determining the emergent features of amoeboid locomotion. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-cycle-dependent regulation of cell motility and determination of the role of Rac1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmod, Peter S.; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Prag, S.

    2004-01-01

    To study cell motility in different phases of the cell cycle, time-lapse recording by computer-assisted microscopy of unsynchronised cells from three mammalian cell lines (L929, BT4Cn, HeLa) was used for the determination of the displacements of individual cells. The displacements were used...... for calculation of three key parameters describing cell motility: speed, persistence time and rate of diffusion. All investigated cell lines demonstrated a lower cell displacement in the G2 phase than in the G1/S phases. This was caused by a decrease in speed and/or persistence time. The decrease in motility...... comparable to those of control cells in G1. In contrast, transfection with dominant-negative Rac1 reduced cell speed and resulted in cellular displacements, which were identical in G1 and G2. These observations indicate that migration of cultured cells is regulated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner...

  8. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 regulates IGF-I-induced cell motility and invasion of urothelial carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Genua

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor receptor I (IGF-IR plays an essential role in transformation by promoting cell growth and protecting cancer cells from apoptosis. We have recently demonstrated that the IGF-IR is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer tissues and promotes motility and invasion of urothelial carcinoma cells. These effects require IGF-I-induced Akt- and MAPK-dependent activation of paxillin. The latter co-localizes with focal adhesion kinases (FAK at dynamic focal adhesions and is critical for promoting motility of urothelial cancer cells. FAK and its homolog Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 modulate paxillin activation; however, their role in regulating IGF-IR-dependent signaling and motility in bladder cancer has not been established. In this study we demonstrate that FAK was not required for IGF-IR-dependent signaling and motility of invasive urothelial carcinoma cells. On the contrary, Pyk2, which was strongly activated by IGF-I, was critical for IGF-IR-dependent motility and invasion and regulated IGF-I-dependent activation of the Akt and MAPK pathways. Using immunofluorescence and AQUA analysis we further discovered that Pyk2 was overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues as compared to normal tissue controls. Significantly, in urothelial carcinoma tissues there was increased Pyk2 localization in the nuclei as compared to normal tissue controls. These results provide the first evidence of a specific Pyk2 activity in regulating IGF-IR-dependent motility and invasion of bladder cancer cells suggesting that Pyk2 and the IGF-IR may play a critical role in the invasive phenotype in urothelial neoplasia. In addition, Pyk2 and the IGF-IR may serve as novel biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic significance in bladder cancer.

  9. Keratins regulate β-cell mitochondrial morphology, motility, and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvander, Jonas S G; Kvarnström, Sofie M; Kumari-Ilieva, Angeli; Shrestha, Anup; Alam, Catharina M; Toivola, Diana M

    2017-10-01

    Loss of the epithelial intermediate filament protein keratin 8 (K8) in murine β cells leads to irregular insulin vesicles and decreased insulin levels. Because mitochondria are central in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, the relationship between keratins and β-cell mitochondrial function and morphology was investigated. β cells in murine K8-knockout (K8(-/-)) islets of Langerhans have increased numbers of mitochondria, which are rounder and have diffuse cristae, as seen by electron microscopy. The mitochondrial network in primary cultured K8(-/-) β cells is more fragmented compared with K8(+/+) mitochondria, correlating with decreased levels of mitofusin 2 and the mitofusin 2- and keratin-binding protein trichoplein. K8(-/-) β-cell mitochondria have decreased levels of total and mitochondrial cytochrome c, which correlates with a reduction in electron transport complexes I and IV. This provokes loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduction of ATP and insulin amount, as seen in K8(-/-) β cells. Mitochondria in K8 wild-type β cells and MIN6 insulinoma cells overexpressing K8 and 18 are more stationary compared with mitochondria in keratin-deficient cells. In conclusion, keratins, likely through trichoplein-mitofusin interactions, regulate both structural and dynamic functions of β-cell mitochondria, which could have implications for downstream insulin secretion.-Silvander, J. S. G., Kvarnström, S. M., Kumari-Ilieva, A., Shrestha, A., Alam, C. M., Toivola, D. M. Keratins regulate β-cell mitochondrial morphology, motility, and homeostasis. © FASEB.

  10. The contribution of cell-cell signaling and motility to bacterial biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrout, Joshua D; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many bacteria grow attached to a surface as biofilms. Several factors dictate biofilm formation, including responses by the colonizing bacteria to their environment. Here we review how bacteria use cell-cell signaling (also called quorum sensing) and motility during biofilm formation. Specifically...... gene expression important to the production of polysaccharides, rhamnolipid, and other virulence factors. Surface motility affects the assembly and architecture of biofilms, and some aspects of motility are also influenced by quorum sensing. While some genes and their function are specific to P....... aeruginosa, many aspects of biofilm development can be used as a model system to understand how bacteria differentially colonize surfaces....

  11. Role of extracellular cations in cell motility, polarity, and chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soll D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available David R Soll1, Deborah Wessels1, Daniel F Lusche1, Spencer Kuhl1, Amanda Scherer1, Shawna Grimm1,21Monoclonal Antibody Research Institute, Developmental Studies, Hybridoma Bank, Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City; 2Mercy Medical Center, Surgical Residency Program, Des Moines, Iowa, USAAbstract: The concentration of cations in the aqueous environment of free living organisms and cells within the human body influence motility, shape, and chemotaxis. The role of extracellular cations is usually perceived to be the source for intracellular cations in the process of homeostasis. The role of surface molecules that interact with extracellular cations is believed to be that of channels, transporters, and exchangers. However, the role of Ca2+ as a signal and chemoattractant and the discovery of the Ca2+ receptor have demonstrated that extracellular cations can function as signals at the cell surface, and the plasma membrane molecules they interact with can function as bona fide receptors that activate coupled signal transduction pathways, associated molecules in the plasma membrane, or the cytoskeleton. With this perspective in mind, we have reviewed the cationic composition of aqueous environments of free living cells and cells that move in multicellular organisms, most notably humans, the range of molecules interacting with cations at the cell surface, the concept of a cell surface cation receptor, and the roles extracellular cations and plasma membrane proteins that interact with them play in the regulation of motility, shape, and chemotaxis. Hopefully, the perspective of this review will increase awareness of the roles extracellular cations play and the possibility that many of the plasma membrane proteins that interact with them could also play roles as receptors.Keywords: extracellular cations, chemotaxis, transporters, calcium, receptors

  12. Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E.; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers. PMID:25121722

  13. Beta-cryptoxanthin reduced lung tumor multiplicity and inhibited lung cancer cell motility by downregulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the consistent association between a higher intake of the provitamin A carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin (BCX) and a lower risk of lung cancer among smokers, potential mechanisms supporting BCX as a chemopreventive agent are needed. We first examined the effects of BCX on 4-[methyl nitrosamino]-...

  14. The effect of human papillomavirus infection on sperm cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y M; Lee, J F; Huang, H Y; Soong, Y K; Yang, F P; Pao, C C

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in human sperm cells and to evaluate potential effects of HPV on the sperm functions. A descriptive clinical study. Specimens of semen were collected from 24 randomly selected patients who attended the fertility clinics at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The presence of HPV DNA and RNA were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Semen quality and sperm cell function were analyzed by computer-aided autoanalyzer. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and RNA were found in 6 (25%) and 2 (8%) of the sperm cells specimens, respectively. Human papillomavirus type 18 DNA and RNA were present in 11 (46%) and 5 (21%) of the same sperm cells specimens, respectively. Incidence of asthenozoospermia among patients infected with either HPV was significantly higher than in those without HPV in their sperm cells (75% versus 8%). Although performance of curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, and mean amplitude of lateral head displacement was significantly lower in HPV-infected specimens, the differences of linearity, beat cross frequency, and straightness were not statistically significant. These results suggest that human papillomavirus can be found in human sperm cells and that certain HPV-specific genes are actively transcribed. Sperm motility parameters seem to be affected by the presence of HPV in the sperm cells, and also the incidence of asthenozoospermia may be associated with HPV infection.

  15. Bisphenol A Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Reduces the Motile Potential of Murine LM8 Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidani, Teruki; Yasuda, Rie; Miyawaki, Joji; Oshima, Yusuke; Miura, Hiromasa; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the proliferation and motility potential of murine LM8 osteosarcoma cells. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with or without 80 μM BPA. The effect of BPA on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study. Ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) to visualize cell morphology. Cell motility was assayed using inserts with uncoated membranes in invasion chambers. Expression of cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) was determined by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. BPA reduced the DNA content of cultures and the number of BrdU-positive cells. BPA induced a change in morphology from cuboidal with multiple filopodia on the cell surface to spindle-shaped with a smooth cell surface. BPA-treated cells expressed less CDC42 and were less motile than untreated cells. BPA inhibited DNA replication and cell proliferation. BPA inhibited filopodia formation and motile potential by inhibiting CDC42 expression in LM8 cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Paxillin controls directional cell motility in response to physical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sero, Julia E; German, Alexandra E; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    Physical cues from the extracellular environment that influence cell shape and directional migration are transduced into changes in cytoskeletal organization and biochemistry through integrin-based cell adhesions to extracellular matrix (ECM). Paxillin is a focal adhesion (FA) scaffold protein that mediates integrin anchorage to the cytoskeleton, and has been implicated in regulation of FA assembly and cell migration. To determine whether paxillin is involved in coupling mechanical distortion with directional movement, cell shape was physically constrained by culturing cells on square-shaped fibronectin-coated adhesive islands surrounded by non-adhesive barrier regions that were created with a microcontact printing technique. Square-shaped cells preferentially formed FAs and extended lamellipodia from their corner regions when stimulated with PDGF, and loss of paxillin resulted in loss of this polarized response. Selective expression of the N- and C-terminal domains of paxillin produced opposite, but complementary, effects on suppressing or promoting lamellipodia formation in different regions of square cells, which corresponded to directional motility defects in vitro. Paxillin loss or mutation was also shown to affect the formation of circular dorsal ruffles, and this corresponded to changes in cell invasive behavior in 3D. This commentary addresses the implications of these findings in terms of how a multifunctional FA scaffold protein can link physical cues to cell adhesion, protrusion and membrane trafficking so as to control directional migration in 2D and 3D. We also discuss how microengineered ECM islands and in vivo model systems can be used to further elucidate the functions of paxillin in directional migration.

  17. Hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity in oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pratik Rajeev; Charles, Silvania Emlit; D'Souza, Zinia Charlotte; Vaidya, Milind Murlidhar

    2017-11-15

    BPAG1e and Plectin are hemidesmosomal linker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins to the cell surface through β4 integrin. Recent reports indicate that these proteins play a role in various cellular processes apart from their known anchoring function. However, the available literature is inconsistent. Further, the previous study from our laboratory suggested that Keratin8/18 pair promotes cell motility and tumor progression by deregulating β4 integrin signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that linker proteins may have a role in neoplastic progression of OSCC. Downregulation of hemidesmosomal linker proteins in OSCC derived cells resulted in reduced cell migration accompanied by alterations in actin organization. Further, decreased MMP9 activity led to reduced cell invasion in linker proteins knockdown cells. Moreover, loss of these proteins resulted in reduced tumorigenic potential. SWATH analysis demonstrated upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in linker proteins downregulated cells as compared to vector control cells. Further, the defects in phenotype upon linker proteins ablation were rescued upon loss of NDRG1 in linker proteins knockdown background. These data together indicate that hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity possibly through NDRG1 in OSCC derived cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 17β-Estradiol enhances α integrin subunit gene expression through ERα–Sp1 interaction and reduces cell motility and invasion of ERα-positive breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sisci, Diego; Middea, Emilia; Morelli, Catia; Lanzino, Marilena; Aquila, Saveria; Rizza, Pietro; Catalano, Stefania; Casaburi, Ivan; Maggiolini, Marcello; Andò, Sebastiano

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In breast tumors the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) is known to be associated with a more favorable prognosis. ER? expression has been reported to reduce the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. Recently, we have observed that extracellular matrix proteins activate ER? and that both liganded and unliganded receptor modulate cell invasiveness acting at nuclear level. To explain the mechanisms by which ER? regulates cell adhesion, we have evaluated the e...

  19. Cell motility, morphology, viability and proliferation in response to nanotopography on silicon black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Gradinaru, Cristian; Wierzbicki, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    standard measurements of cell viability, proliferation, and morphology on various surfaces. We also analyzed the motility of cells on the same surfaces, as recorded in time lapse movies of sparsely populated cell cultures. We find that motility and morphology vary strongly with nano-patterns, while...... viability and proliferation show little dependence on substrate type. We conclude that motility analysis can show a wide range of cell responses e. g. over a factor of two in cell speed to different nano-topographies, where standard assays, such as viability or proliferation, in the tested cases show much...

  20. Influence of Helical Cell Shape on Motility of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Joseph; Martinez, Laura; Salama, Nina; Bansil, Rama; Boston University Collaboration; University of Washington Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria's body shape plays an important role in motility by effecting chemotaxis, swimming mechanisms, and swimming speed. A prime example of this is the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori;whose helical shape has long been believed to provide an advantage in penetrating the viscous mucus layer protecting the stomach lining, its niche environment. To explore this we have performed bacteria tracking experiments of both wild-type bacteria along with mutants, which have a straight rod shape. A wide distribution of speeds was found. This distribution reflects both a result of temporal variation in speed and different shape morphologies in the bacterial population. Our results show that body shape plays less role in a simple fluid. However, in a more viscous solution the helical shape results in increased swimming speeds. In addition, we use experimentally obtained cell shape measurements to model the hydrodynamic influence of cell shape on swimming speed using resistive force theory. The results agree with the experiment, especially when we fold in the temporal distribution. Interestingly, our results suggest distinct wild-type subpopulations with varying number of half helices can lead to different swimming speeds. NSF PHY

  1. Silibinin inhibits fibronectin induced motility, invasiveness and survival in human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells via targeting integrin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deep, Gagan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induce motile morphology in PC3 cells. • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induced migration and invasion in PC3 cells. • Silibinin targets fibronectin-induced integrins and downstream signaling molecule. - Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCA) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Preventing or inhibiting metastasis-related events through non-toxic agents could be a useful approach for lowering high mortality among PCA patients. We have earlier reported that natural flavonoid silibinin possesses strong anti-metastatic efficacy against PCA however, mechanism/s of its action still remains largely unknown. One of the major events during metastasis is the replacement of cell–cell interaction with integrins-based cell–matrix interaction that controls motility, invasiveness and survival of cancer cells. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on advanced human PCA PC3 cells’ interaction with extracellular matrix component fibronectin. Silibinin (50–200 μM) treatment significantly decreased the fibronectin (5 μg/ml)-induced motile morphology via targeting actin cytoskeleton organization in PC3 cells. Silibinin also decreased the fibronectin-induced cell proliferation and motility but significantly increased cell death in PC3 cells. Silibinin also inhibited the PC3 cells invasiveness in Transwell invasion assays with fibronectin or cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serving as chemoattractant. Importantly, PC3-luc cells cultured on fibronectin showed rapid dissemination and localized in lungs following tail vein injection in athymic male nude mice; however, in silibinin-treated PC3-luc cells, dissemination and lung localization was largely compromised. Molecular analyses revealed that silibinin treatment modulated the fibronectin-induced expression of integrins (α5, αV, β1 and β3), actin-remodeling (FAK, Src, GTPases, ARP2 and cortactin), apoptosis (cPARP and

  2. Control of exoenzyme production, motility and cell differentiation in Serratia liquefaciens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Michael Christian; Eberl, Leo; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Serratia liquefaciens secretes a broad spectrum of hydrolytic enzymes to the surrounding medium and possesses the ability to differentiate into specialized swarmer cells capable of rapid surface motility. Control of exoenzyme production and swarming motility is governed by similar regulatory...... components, including a quorum-sensing mechanism and the flagellar master operon flhDC....

  3. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mężyk-Kopeć

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC. When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i single-cell motility, (ii cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  4. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wyroba, Barbara; Stalińska, Krystyna; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Wiatrowska, Karolina; Kilarski, Witold W; Swartz, Melody A; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i) single-cell motility, (ii) cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii) their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  5. The Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Blocks Cell Motility, Chemotaxis and Development in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Kyle J.; Nakajima, Akihiko; Ilacqua, April N.; Shimada, Nao; Sawai, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Catechins, flavanols found at high levels in green tea, have received significant attention due to their potential health benefits related to cancer, autoimmunity and metabolic disease, but little is known about the mechanisms by which these compounds affect cellular behavior. Here, we assess whether the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum is a useful tool with which to characterize the effects of catechins. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant and potent catechin in green tea, has significant effects on the Dictyostelium life cycle. In the presence of EGCG aggregation is delayed, cells do not stream and development is typically stalled at the loose aggregate stage. The developmental effects very likely result from defects in motility, as EGCG reduces both random movement and chemotaxis of Dictyostelium amoebae. These results suggest that catechins and their derivatives may be useful tools with which to better understand cell motility and development in Dictyostelium and that this organism is a useful model to further characterize the activities of catechins. PMID:23516620

  6. Variability and Order in Cytoskeletal Dynamics of Motile Amoeboid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Westendorf, Christian; Gholami, Azam; Pumir, Alain; Tarantola, Marco; Beta, Carsten

    2017-10-01

    The chemotactic motion of eukaryotic cells such as leukocytes or metastatic cancer cells relies on membrane protrusions driven by the polymerization and depolymerization of actin. Here we show that the response of the actin system to a receptor stimulus is subject to a threshold value that varies strongly from cell to cell. Above the threshold, we observe pronounced cell-to-cell variability in the response amplitude. The polymerization time, however, is almost constant over the entire range of response amplitudes, while the depolymerization time increases with increasing amplitude. We show that cell-to-cell variability in the response amplitude correlates with the amount of Arp2 /3 , a protein that enhances actin polymerization. A time-delayed feedback model for the cortical actin concentration is consistent with all our observations and confirms the role of Arp2 /3 in the observed cell-to-cell variability. Taken together, our observations highlight robust regulation of the actin response that enables a reliable timing of cell movement.

  7. Rapamycin inhibits IGF-1 stimulated cell motility through PP2A pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A has been implicated as a novel component of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Recently we have demonstrated that mTOR regulates cell motility in part through p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1 pathways. Little is known about the role of PP2A in the mTOR-mediated cell motility. Here we show that rapamycin inhibited the basal or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1-induced motility of human Ewing sarcoma (Rh1 and rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30 cells. Treatment of the cells with rapamycin activated PP2A activity, and concurrently inhibited IGF-1 stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Inhibition of Erk1/2 with PD98059 did not significantly affect the basal mobility of the cells, but dramatically inhibited IGF-1-induced cell motility. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A with okadaic acid significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 as well as cell motility. Consistently, expression of dominant negative PP2A conferred resistance to IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell motility. Expression of constitutively active MKK1 also attenuated rapamycin inhibition of IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell motility. The results suggest that rapamycin inhibits cell motility, in part by targeting PP2A-Erk1/2 pathway.

  8. Live Imaging of Influenza Infection of the Trachea Reveals Dynamic Regulation of CD8+ T Cell Motility by Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert Emo, Kris; Hyun, Young-Min; Reilly, Emma; Barilla, Christopher; Gerber, Scott; Fowell, Deborah; Kim, Minsoo; Topham, David J

    2016-01-01

    ... an experimental model system using the trachea as a site where live imaging can be performed. CD8+ T cell motility was dynamic with marked changes in motility on different days of the infection...

  9. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Is Involved in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-Enhanced Cell Motility and Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 Expression in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the primary malignancy of bone that is characterized by a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, and is therefore associated with poor prognoses. Chondrosarcoma further shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small molecule in the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcome of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma cell lines had significantly higher cell motility and BDNF expression compared to normal chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased cell motility and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human chondrosarcoma cells. BDNF-mediated cell motility and MMP-1 up-regulation were attenuated by Trk inhibitor (K252a), ASK1 inhibitor (thioredoxin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38 inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, BDNF also promoted Sp1 activation. Our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration and invasion activity of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, ASK1, JNK/p38, and Sp1. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:23892595

  10. The anti-motility signaling mechanism of TGFβ3 that controls cell traffic during skin wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Han

    2012-09-01

    When skin is wounded, migration of epidermal keratinocytes at the wound edge initiates within hours, whereas migration of dermal fibroblasts toward the wounded area remains undetectable until several days later. This “cell type traffic” regulation ensures proper healing of the wound, as disruptions of the regulation could either cause delay of wound healing or result in hypertrophic scars. TGFβ3 is the critical traffic controller that selectively halts migration of the dermal, but not epidermal, cells to ensure completion of wound re-epithelialization prior to wound remodeling. However, the mechanism of TGFβ3's anti-motility signaling has never been investigated. We report here that activated TβRII transmits the anti-motility signal of TGFβ3 in full to TβRI, since expression of the constitutively activated TβRI-TD mutant was sufficient to replace TGFβ3 to block PDGF-bb-induced dermal fibroblast migration. Second, the three components of R-Smad complex are all required. Individual downregulation of Smad2, Smad3 or Smad4 prevented TGFβ3 from inhibiting dermal fibroblast migration. Third, Protein Kinase Array allowed us to identify the protein kinase A (PKA as a specific downstream effector of R-Smads in dermal fibroblasts. Activation of PKA alone blocked PDGF-bb-induced dermal fibroblast migration, just like TGFβ3. Downregulation of PKA's catalytic subunit nullified the anti-motility signaling of TGFβ3. This is the first report on anti-motility signaling mechanism by TGFβ family cytokines. Significance of this finding is not only limited to wound healing but also to other human disorders, such as heart attack and cancer, where the diseased cells have often managed to avoid the anti-motility effect of TGFβ.

  11. Individual cell motility studied by time-lapse video recording: influence of experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, R; Walmod, P S; Berezin, A

    2000-01-01

    line. Cellular morphology and organization of filamentous actin were assessed by means of phase-contrast and confocal laser scanning microscopy and compared to the corresponding motility data. RESULTS: Cell dissociation procedure, seeding density, time of cultivation, and substrate concentration were...... shown to affect cellular speed significantly. pH and temperature of the medium most profoundly influenced cell motility and morphology. Thus, the mean cell speed was 40% lower at pH 7.25 than at pH 7.6; at 29 degrees C, it was approximately four times lower than at 39 degrees C. CONCLUSION......: Of the parameters evaluated, cell motility was most strongly affected by changes in pH and temperature. In general, changes in cell speed were accompanied by alterations in cell morphology and organization of filamentous actin, although no consistent phenotypic characteristics could be demonstrated for cells...

  12. Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarsky, Ivan; Lyb, Yunbo; Weaver, Westbrook; Su, Ting-Wei; Mudanyali, Onur; Ozcan, Aydogan; di Carlo, Dino

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative cell motility studies are necessary for understanding biophysical processes, developing models for cell locomotion and for drug discovery. Such studies are typically performed by controlling environmental conditions around a lens-based microscope, requiring costly instruments while still remaining limited in field-of-view. Here we present a compact cell monitoring platform utilizing a wide-field (24 mm2) lensless holographic microscope that enables automated single-cell tracking of large populations that is compatible with a standard laboratory incubator. We used this platform to track NIH 3T3 cells on polyacrylamide gels over 20 hrs. We report that, over an order of magnitude of stiffness values, collagen IV surfaces lead to enhanced motility compared to fibronectin, in agreement with biological uses of these structural proteins. The increased throughput associated with lensfree on-chip imaging enables higher statistical significance in observed cell behavior and may facilitate rapid screening of drugs and genes that affect cell motility.

  13. Heterogeneity in sarcoma cell lines reveals enhanced motility of tetraploid versus diploid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaà, Mohamed; Abdallah, Samer; Lledo, Gwendaline; Perrot, Gaelle; Lesluyes, Tom; Teyssier, Catherine; Roux, Pierre; van Dijk, Juliette; Chibon, Frederic; Abrieu, Ariane; Morin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas with complex genomics are very heterogeneous tumors lacking simple prognosis markers or targeted therapies. Overexpression of a subset of mitotic genes from a signature called CINSARC is of bad prognosis, but the significance of this signature remains elusive. Here we precisely measure the cell cycle and mitosis duration of sarcoma cell lines and we found that the mitotic gene products overexpression does not reflect variation in the time spent during mitosis or G2/M. We also found that the CINSARC cell lines, we studied, are composed of a mixture of aneuploid, diploid, and tetraploid cells that are highly motile in vitro. After sorting diploid and tetraploid cells, we showed that the tetraploid cell clones do not possess a proliferative advantage, but are strikingly more motile and invasive than their diploid counterparts. This is correlated with higher levels of mitotic proteins overexpression. Owing that mitotic proteins are almost systematically degraded at the end of mitosis, we propose that it is the abnormal activity of the mitotic proteins during interphase that boosts the sarcoma cells migratory properties by affecting their cytoskeleton. To test this hypothesis, we designed a screen for mitotic or cytoskeleton protein inhibitors affecting the sarcoma cell migration potential independently of cytotoxic activities. We found that inhibition of several mitotic kinases drastically impairs the CINSARC cell invasive and migratory properties. This finding could provide a handle by which to selectively inhibit the most invasive cells. PMID:28035071

  14. Bacterial cell motility of Burkholderia gut symbiont is required to colonize the insect gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Beom; Byeon, Jin Hee; Jang, Ho Am; Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Yoo, Jin Wook; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-09-14

    We generated a Burkholderia mutant, which is deficient of an N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase, AmiC, involved in peptidoglycan degradation. When non-motile ΔamiC mutant Burkholderia cells harboring chain form were orally administered to Riptortus insects, ΔamiC mutant cells were unable to establish symbiotic association. But, ΔamiC mutant complemented with amiC gene restored in vivo symbiotic association. ΔamiC mutant cultured in minimal medium restored their motility with single-celled morphology. When ΔamiC mutant cells harboring single-celled morphology were administered to the host insect, this mutant established normal symbiotic association, suggesting that bacterial motility is essential for the successful symbiosis between host insect and Burkholderia symbiont. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interleukin-32 stimulates osteosarcoma cell invasion and motility via AKT pathway-mediated MMP-13 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanhong; Hu, Zhaohui; Li, Ningning; Jiang, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-32 (IL-32) is reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression. However, its effects on the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of IL-32 in osteosarcoma cells using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The results showed that IL-32 stimulation dose-dependently promoted the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells. Knockdown of endogenous IL-32 by siRNA inhibited osteosarcoma cell invasion and motility. Moreover, IL-32 induced the activation of AKT in a time-dependent manner. IL-32 stimulation was also capable of increasing the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, which is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. In addition, blockade of AKT activation suppressed IL-32-mediated invasion, motility and MMP-13 upregulation in osteosarcoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-32 stimulation promotes the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells, possibly via the activation of AKT and the upregulation of MMP-13 expression. Thus, IL-32 may serve as a marker for diagnosis, as well as for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  16. Sphingosine 1-phosphate, a specific endogenous signaling molecule controlling cell motility and tumor cell invasiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadahira, Y; Ruan, F.; Hakomori, S; Igarashi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (Sph-1-P), the initial product of Sph degradation by Sph kinase, was shown to be a strong inhibitor of cell motility and phagokinesis of B16 melanoma and other types of cells at 10-100 nM concentration. It also inhibited "chemoinvasion" of tumor cells through a thick layer of Matrigel on a filter membrane. Such inhibitory effects were produced minimally or not at all by Sph, N-methyl derivatives of Sph, or other related sphingolipids and phospholipids. Sph-1-P did not ...

  17. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  18. Mechanisms of pyruvate kinase M2 isoform inhibits cell motility in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Ling; Song, Jun-Jiao; Chen, Xiao-Chun; Xu, Wei; Zhi, Qiang; Liu, Yun-Peng; Xu, Hong-Zhi; Pan, Jin-Shui; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-08-14

    To investigate biological mechanisms underlying pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) regulation of cell migration and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. HepG2 and Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were stably transfected and cultured in DMEM (HyClone, Logan, UT, United States). To investigate the effects of PKM2 on cellular proliferation, hepatocellular carcinoma cells were subjected to the Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo, Kamimashiki-gun, Kumamoto, Japan). And investigate the effects of PKM2 on cell signal pathway related with migration and invasion, Western immunoblotting were used to find out the differential proteins. All the antibody used was purchaseed from Cell Signal Technology. In order to explore cell motility used Transwell invasion and wound healing assays. The transwell plate with 0.5 mg/mL collagen type I (BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA)-coated filters. The wound-healing assay was performed in 6-well plates. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, CA, United States) and then reverse transcription was conducted. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed with the ABI 7500 real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We further use digital gene expression tag profiling and identification of differentially expressed genes. The cells seeded in four 96-well plates were measured OD450 by conducted Cell Counting Kit-8. From this conduction we observed that both HepG2 and Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells with silenced PKM2 turn on a proliferate inhibition; however, cell migration and invasion were enhanced compared with the control upon stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Our results indicate that the knockdown of PKM2 decreased the expression of E-cadherin and enhanced the activity of the EGF/EGFR signaling pathway, furthermore up-regulate the subsequent signal molecular the PLCγ1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 expression in the hepatocellular carcinoma

  19. A modified single-cell electroporation method for molecule delivery into a motile protist, Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmachi, Masashi; Fujiwara, Yoshie; Muramatsu, Shuki; Yamada, Koji; Iwata, Osamu; Suzuki, Kengo; Wang, Dan Ohtan

    2016-11-01

    Single-cell transfection is a powerful technique for delivering chemicals, drugs, or probes into arbitrary, specific single cells. This technique is especially important when the analysis of molecular function and cellular behavior in individual microscopic organisms such as protists requires the precise identification of the target cell, as fluorescence labeling of bulk populations makes tracking of individual motile protists virtually impossible. Herein, we have modified current single-cell electroporation techniques for delivering fluorescent markers into single Euglena gracilis, a motile photosynthetic microalga. Single-cell electroporation introduced molecules into individual living E. gracilis cells after a negative pressure was applied through a syringe connected to the micropipette to the target cell. The new method achieves high transfection efficiency and viability after electroporation. With the new technique, we successfully introduced a variety of molecules such as GFP, Alexa Fluor 488, and exciton-controlled hybridization-sensitive fluorescent oligonucleotide (ECHO) RNA probes into individual motile E. gracilis cells. We demonstrate imaging of endogenous mRNA in living E. gracilis without interfering with their physiological functions, such as swimming or division, over an extended period of time. Thus the modified single-cell electroporation technique is suitable for delivering versatile functional molecules into individual motile protists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective inhibition of KCa3.1 channels mediates adenosine regulation of the motility of human T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimote, Ameet A.; Hajdu, Peter; Kucher, Vladimir; Boiko, Nina; Kuras, Zerrin; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Yun, Yeo-Heung; Conforti, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine, a purine nucleoside, is present at high concentrations in tumors where it contributes to the failure of immune cells to eliminate cancer cells. The mechanisms responsible for the immunosuppressive properties of adenosine are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine’s immunosuppressive functions in human T lymphocytes are in part mediated via modulation of ion channels. The activity of T lymphocytes relies on ion channels. KCa3.1 and Kv1.3 channels control cytokine release and, together with TRPM7, regulate T cell motility. Adenosine selectively inhibited KCa3.1, but not Kv1.3 and TRPM7, in activated human T cells. This effect of adenosine was mainly mediated by A2A receptors as KCa3.1 inhibition was reversed by SCH58261 (selective A2A receptor antagonist), but not by MRS1754 (A2B receptor antagonist) and it was mimicked by the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680. Furthermore, it was mediated by the cAMP/PKAI signaling pathway as adenylyl-cyclase and PKAI inhibition prevented adenosine effect on KCa3.1. The functional implication of the effect of adenosine on KCa3.1 was determined by measuring T cell motility on ICAM-1 surfaces. Adenosine and CGS21680 inhibited T cell migration. Comparable effects were obtained by KCa3.1 blockade with TRAM-34. Furthermore, the effect of adenosine on cell migration was abolished by pre-exposure to TRAM-34. Additionally, adenosine suppresses IL-2 secretion via KCa3.1 inhibition. Our data indicate that adenosine inhibits KCa3.1 in human T cells via A2A receptor and PKAI thereby resulting in decreased T cell motility and cytokine release. This mechanism is likely to contribute to decreased immune surveillance in solid tumors. PMID:24227782

  1. Mannose-binding lectin impairs Leptospira activity through the inhibitory effect on the motility of cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Guo, Yijie; Nakamura, Shuichi; Islam, Md Shafiqul; Tomioka, Rintaro; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

    2015-02-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays key role in lectin pathway of innate immunity, and shows the ability of triggering opsonization intermediately. Substantial increase in the serum level of MBL has been confirmed during leptospirosis, which caused by a pathogenic spirochete, Leptospira. Leptospira has a fascinating locomotion pattern, which simultaneously gyrating and swimming forward, such motility enables that Leptospira is difficult to be captured by immune cells if without any assistance. In this study, the effect of mannose-binding lectin to Leptospira was quantitatively investigated by measuring some kinematic parameters, to discover the mechanism behind MBL-mediated immune responses during leptospiral infection. The results showed that mannose-binding lectin is capable of inhibiting the motility of Leptospira by transforming free swimming cells to tumbled rotating cells, resulted in the increase number of rotating cells. Otherwise, decrease in rotation rate of rotating cell has been observed. However, the swimming speed of swimming Leptospira cells showed no observable change under the effect of MBL. The inhibitory effect were only valid in a relatively short period, Leptospira cells regained their original motility after 2 h. This raises an interesting topic that Leptospira is somehow able to escape from the inhibitory effect of MBL by dragging such unfavorable molecules toward to the cell end and eventually throwing it out. The inhibitory effect of MBL on the motility of Leptospira is expected to provide a new insight into lectin pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantifying the roles of random motility and directed motility using advection-diffusion theory for a 3T3 fibroblast cell migration assay stimulated with an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J; Lo, Kai-Yin; Sun, Yung-Shin

    2017-03-17

    Directed cell migration can be driven by a range of external stimuli, such as spatial gradients of: chemical signals (chemotaxis); adhesion sites (haptotaxis); or temperature (thermotaxis). Continuum models of cell migration typically include a diffusion term to capture the undirected component of cell motility and an advection term to capture the directed component of cell motility. However, there is no consensus in the literature about the form that the advection term takes. Some theoretical studies suggest that the advection term ought to include receptor saturation effects. However, others adopt a much simpler constant coefficient. One of the limitations of including receptor saturation effects is that it introduces several additional unknown parameters into the model. Therefore, a relevant research question is to investigate whether directed cell migration is best described by a simple constant tactic coefficient or a more complicated model incorporating saturation effects. We study directed cell migration using an experimental device in which the directed component of the cell motility is driven by a spatial gradient of electric potential, which is known as electrotaxis. The electric field (EF) is proportional to the spatial gradient of the electric potential. The spatial variation of electric potential across the experimental device varies in such a way that there are several subregions on the device in which the EF takes on different values that are approximately constant within those subregions. We use cell trajectory data to quantify the motion of 3T3 fibroblast cells at different locations on the device to examine how different values of the EF influences cell motility. The undirected (random) motility of the cells is quantified in terms of the cell diffusivity, D, and the directed motility is quantified in terms of a cell drift velocity, v. Estimates D and v are obtained under a range of four different EF conditions, which correspond to normal

  3. Endothelial cell-initiated extravasation of cancer cells visualized in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Kanada, Masamitsu; Zhang, Jinyan; Libo YAN; Sakurai, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The extravasation of cancer cells, a key step for distant metastasis, is thought to be initiated by disruption of the endothelial barrier by malignant cancer cells. An endothelial covering-type extravasation of cancer cells in addition to conventional cancer cell invasion-type extravasation was dynamically visualized in a zebrafish hematogenous metastasis model. The inhibition of VEGF-signaling impaired the invasion-type extravasation via inhibition of cancer cell polarization and motility re...

  4. Organization and polarity of actin filament networks in cells: implications for the mechanism of myosin-based cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, L P

    1999-01-01

    Force arising from myosin activity drives a number of different types of motility in eukaryotic cells. Outside of muscle tissue, the precise mechanism of myosin-based cell motility is for the most part theoretical. A large part of the problem is that, aside from cell surface features such as lamellipodia and microvilli, relatively little is known about the structural organization of potential actin substrates for myosin in non-muscle motile cells. Several groups [Cramer, Siebert and Mitchison (1997) J. Cell Biol. 136, 1287-1305; Guild, Connelly, Shaw and Tilney (1997) J. Cell Biol. 138, 783-797; Svitkina, Verkhovsky, McQuade and Borisy (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 397-415] have begun to address this issue by determining actin organization throughout entire non-muscle motile cells. These studies reveal that a single motile cell comprises up to four distinct structural groups of actin organization, distinguished by differences in actin filament polarity: alternating, uniform, mixed or graded. The relative abundance and spatial location in cells of a particular actin organization varies with cell type. The existence in non-muscle motile cells of alternating-polarity actin filament bundles, the organization of muscle sarcomeres, provides direct structural evidence that some forms of motility in non-muscle cells are based on sarcomeric contraction, a recurring theory in the literature since the early days of muscle research. In this scenario, as in muscle sarcomeres, myosin generates isometric force, which is ideally suited to driving symmetrical types of motility, e.g. healing of circular wounds in coherent groups of cells. In contrast, uniform-polarity actin filament bundles and oriented meshworks in cells allow oriented movement of myosin, potentially over relatively long distances. In this simple 'transport-based' scenario, the direction in which myosin generates force is inherently polarized, and is well placed for driving asymmetrical or polarized types of motility

  5. The role of filament-packing dynamics in powering amoeboid cell motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, L.; Vanderlinde, O.; Liu, J.; Grant, R.P.; Wouterse, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841390; Shimabukuro, K.; Philipse, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073532894; Stewart, M.; Roberts, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Although several models have been proposed to account for how cytoskeleton polymerization drives protrusion in cell motility, the precise mechanism remains controversial. Here, we show that, in addition to force exerted directly against the membrane by growing filaments, the way elongating filaments

  6. Cell migration in schizophrenia: Patient-derived cells do not regulate motility in response to extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jing Yang; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Fan, Yongjun; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder linked to a large number of risk genes. The function of these genes in disease etiology is not fully understood but pathway analyses of genomic data suggest developmental dysregulation of cellular processes such as neuronal migration and axon guidance. Previous studies of patient-derived olfactory cells show them to be more motile than control-derived cells when grown on a fibronectin substrate, motility that is dependent on focal adhesion kinase signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patient-derived cells are responsive to other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that bind integrin receptors. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells from nine patients and nine matched controls were grown on ECM protein substrates at increasing concentrations and their movement was tracked for 24h using automated high-throughput imaging. Control-derived cells increased their motility as the ECM substrate concentration increased, whereas patient-derived cell motility was little affected by ECM proteins. Patient and control cells had appropriate integrin receptors for these ECM substrates and detected them as shown by increases in focal adhesion number and size in response to ECM proteins, which also induced changes in cell morphology and cytoskeleton. These observations indicate that patient cells failed to translate the detection of ECM proteins into appropriate changes in cell motility. In a sense, patient cells act like a moving car whose accelerator is jammed, moving at the same speed without regard to the external environment. This focuses attention on cell motility regulation rather than speed as key to impairment of neuronal migration in the developing brain in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer treatments transform residual cancer cell phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harless William W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiologic wound repair and tissue regeneration are associated with distinct cellular behaviors triggered by tissue damage. Normally quiescent stem cells proliferate to regenerate damaged tissue, while relatively immobile epithelial cells can transform into a motile, tissue invasive phenotype through a partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These distinct cellular behaviors may have particular relevance to how cancer cells can be predicted to behave after treatments damaging a tumor. Presentation of the hypothesis Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy trigger highly conserved wound healing pathways that: (1 facilitate the phenotypic transformation of surviving cancer cells into a highly mobile, metastatic phenotype through an EMT or epithelial-mesenchymal transition and (2 induce residual cancer stem cell proliferation. Testing the hypothesis Tissue damage caused by cancer treatments will trigger the release of distinct cytokines with established roles in physiologic wound healing, EMT induction, and stem cell activation. They will be released rapidly after treatment and detectable in the patient's blood. Careful histologic evaluation of cancerous tissue before and after treatment will reveal cellular changes suggestive of EMT induction (down regulation of cytokeratin expression and cancer stem cell enrichment (stem cell markers upregulated. Implications of the hypothesis Cancer cells surviving treatment will be more capable of metastasis and resistant to conventional therapies than the pre-treatment population of cancer cells. These changes will develop rapidly after treatment and, in distinct contrast to selection pressures fostering such changes, be triggered by highly conserved wound repair signals released after tissue damage. This pattern of tissue (tumor repair may be amenable to treatment intervention at the time it is upregulated.

  8. Extracellular Vesicles from Vascular Endothelial Cells Promote Survival, Proliferation and Motility of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kurachi

    Full Text Available We previously examined the effect of brain microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC transplantation on rat white matter infarction, and found that MVEC transplantation promoted remyelination of demyelinated axons in the infarct region and reduced apoptotic death of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs. We also found that the conditioned medium (CM from cultured MVECs inhibited apoptosis of cultured OPCs. In this study, we examined contribution of extracellular vesicles (EVs contained in the CM to its inhibitory effect on OPC apoptosis. Removal of EVs from the CM by ultracentrifugation reduced its inhibitory effect on OPC apoptosis. To confirm whether EVs derived from MVECs are taken up by cultured OPCs, we labeled EVs with PKH67, a fluorescent dye, and added them to OPC cultures. Many vesicular structures labeled with PKH67 were found within OPCs immediately after their addition. Next we examined the effect of MVEC-derived EVs on OPC behaviors. After 2 days in culture with EVs, there was significantly less pyknotic and more BrdU-positive OPCs when compared to control. We also examined the effect of EVs on motility of OPCs. OPCs migrated longer in the presence of EVs when compared to control. To examine whether these effects on cultured OPCs are shared by EVs from endothelial cells, we prepared EVs from conditioned media of several types of endothelial cells, and tested their effects on cultured OPCs. EVs from all types of endothelial cells we examined reduced apoptosis of OPCs and promoted their motility. Identification of the molecules contained in EVs from endothelial cells may prove helpful for establishment of effective therapies for demyelinating diseases.

  9. Improved Method for the Quantification of Motility in Glia and Other Morphologically Complex Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sild, Mari; Chatelain, Robert P.; Ruthazer, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Cells such as astrocytes and radial glia with many densely ramified, fine processes pose particular challenges for the quantification of structural motility. Here we report the development of a method to calculate a motility index for individual cells with complex, dynamic morphologies. This motility index relies on boxcar averaging of the difference images generated by subtraction of images collected at consecutive time points. An image preprocessing step involving 2D projection, edge detection, and dilation of the raw images is first applied in order to binarize the images. The boxcar averaging of difference images diminishes the impact of artifactual pixel fluctuations while accentuating the group-wise changes in pixel values which are more likely to represent real biological movement. Importantly, this provides a value that correlates with mean process elongation and retraction rates without requiring detailed reconstructions of very complex cells. We also demonstrate that additional increases in the sensitivity of the method can be obtained by denoising images using the temporal frequency power spectra, based on the fact that rapid intensity fluctuations over time are mainly due to imaging artifact. The MATLAB programs implementing these motility analysis methods, complete with user-friendly graphical interfaces, have been made publicly available for download. PMID:24349799

  10. The natural antimicrobial carvacrol inhibits Campylobacter jejuni motility and infection of epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke B van Alphen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural compounds with anti-microbial properties are attractive reagents to reduce the use of conventional antibiotics. Carvacrol, the main constituent of oregano oil, inhibits the growth of a variety of bacterial foodborne pathogens. As concentrations of carvacrol may vary in vivo or when used in animal feed, we here investigated the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of the compound on major virulence traits of the principal bacterial foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Motility assays revealed that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol inhibited the motility of C. jejuni without affecting bacterial growth. Immunoblotting and electron microscopy showed that carvacrol-treated C. jejuni still expressed flagella. The loss of motility was not caused by reduced intracellular ATP levels. In vitro infection assays demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol also abolished C. jejuni invasion of human epithelial cells. Bacterial uptake of invasive Escherichia coli was not blocked by carvacrol. Exposure of C. jejuni to carvacrol prior to infection also inhibited cellular infection, indicating that the inhibition of invasion was likely caused by an effect on the bacteria rather than inhibition of epithelial cell function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bacterial motility and invasion of eukaryotic cells are considered key steps in C. jejuni infection. Our results indicate that subinhibitory concentrations of carvacrol effectively block these virulence traits by interfering with flagella function without disturbing intracellular ATP levels. These results broaden the spectrum of anti-microbial activity of carvacrol and support the potential of the compound for use in novel infection prevention strategies.

  11. Vanillin Suppresses Cell Motility by Inhibiting STAT3-Mediated HIF-1α mRNA Expression in Malignant Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ji Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α in A2058 and A375 human malignant melanoma cells. Immunoblotting and quantitative real time (RT-PCR analysis revealed that vanillin down-regulates HIF-1α protein accumulation and the transcripts of HIF-1α target genes related to cancer metastasis including fibronectin 1 (FN1, lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2, and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. It was also found that vanillin significantly suppresses HIF-1α mRNA expression and de novo HIF-1α protein synthesis. To understand the suppressive mechanism of vanillin on HIF-1α expression, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed. Consequently, it was found that vanillin causes inhibition of promoter occupancy by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, on HIF1A. Furthermore, an in vitro migration assay revealed that the motility of melanoma cells stimulated by hypoxia was attenuated by vanillin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vanillin might be a potential anti-metastatic agent that suppresses metastatic gene expression and migration activity under hypoxia via the STAT3-HIF-1α signaling pathway.

  12. A case of cervical cancer expressed three mRNA variant of Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ruíz, Vanessa; Salcedo, Mauricio; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; de Oca, Edén V Montes; Román-Basaure, Edgar; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Dávila-Borja, Víctor M; Juárez-Méndez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second malignancy in Mexico, little is known about the prognostic factors associated with this disease. Several cellular components are important in their transformation and progression. Alternative mRNA splice is an important mechanism for generating protein diversity, nevertheless, in cancer unknown mRNA diversity is expressed. Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR, RHAMM, CD168) is a family member of proteins, hyaluronan acid dependent, and has been associated with different malignant processes such as: angiogenesis, cell invasiveness, proliferation, metastasis and poor outcome in some tumors. In the present study we identified expression of HMMR in cervical cancer by means of RT-PCR and sequencing. Our results indicate co-expression of two HMMR variants in all samples, and one case expressed three alternative HMMR splice transcripts. These results showed the heterogeneity of mRNA transcripts of HMMR that could express in cancer and the expression of HMMR could be marker of malignancy in CC. PMID:24966934

  13. Automated characterization of cell shape changes during amoeboid motility by skeletonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Douglas N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of a cell to change shape is crucial for the proper function of many cellular processes, including cell migration. One type of cell migration, referred to as amoeboid motility, involves alternating cycles of morphological expansion and retraction. Traditionally, this process has been characterized by a number of parameters providing global information about shape changes, which are insufficient to distinguish phenotypes based on local pseudopodial activities that typify amoeboid motility. Results We developed a method that automatically detects and characterizes pseudopodial behavior of cells. The method uses skeletonization, a technique from morphological image processing to reduce a shape into a series of connected lines. It involves a series of automatic algorithms including image segmentation, boundary smoothing, skeletonization and branch pruning, and takes into account the cell shape changes between successive frames to detect protrusion and retraction activities. In addition, the activities are clustered into different groups, each representing the protruding and retracting history of an individual pseudopod. Conclusions We illustrate the algorithms on movies of chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells and show that our method makes it possible to capture the spatial and temporal dynamics as well as the stochastic features of the pseudopodial behavior. Thus, the method provides a powerful tool for investigating amoeboid motility.

  14. Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Atsushi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems associated with osteosarcoma is the frequent formation of micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis because the development of metastatic lesions often causes a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases during the early stage of tumor development is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. In Japan, soy is consumed in a wide variety of forms, such as miso soup and soy sauce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of genistein, an isoflavone found in soy, on the invasive and motile potential of osteosarcoma cells. Methods LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of genistein. The effect of genistein on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation study. The assays of cell invasion and motility were performed using the cell culture inserts with either matrigel-coated membranes or uncoated membranes in the invasion chambers. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry and gelatin zymography. The subcellular localization and cellular level of β-catenin were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. For examining cell morphology, the ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Genistein dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. Genistein-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were lower in the genistein-treated cultures than in the untreated cultures. β-Catenin in untreated cells was located in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus, while in genistein-treated cells it was translocated near to the plasma membrane. The level of β-catenin was higher in genistein-treated cells than in untreated cells

  15. Confinement-Optimized 3-Dimensional T cell Amoeboid Motility is Modulated via Myosin IIA-Regulated Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobelli, Jordan; Friedman, Rachel S.; Conti, Mary Anne; Lennon-Dumenil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu; Sorensen, Caitlin M.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2010-01-01

    During trafficking through tissues, T cells fine-tune their motility to balance the extent and duration of cell-surface contacts with the need to traverse an entire organ. In vivo, Myosin-IIA-deficient T cells exhibited a triad of defects including over-adherence to high-endothelial venules, reduced interstitial migration, and inefficient completion of recirculation through lymph nodes. Spatiotemporal analysis of 3-dimensional motility in microchannels revealed that the degree of confinement and Myosin-IIA function, rather than integrin adhesion as proposed by the haptokinetic model, optimize motility rate. This occurs via a Myosin-IIA-dependent rapid ‘walking’ motility mode using multiple small and simultaneous adhesions to the substrate, which prevent spurious and prolonged adhesions. Adhesion discrimination provided by Myosin-IIA is thus necessary for optimizing motility through complex tissues. PMID:20835229

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of the mechanisms that enable migrating cells to sustain motility upon changes in matrix environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozluoglu, Melda; Mao, Yanlan; Bates, Paul A; Sahai, Erik

    2015-05-06

    Cells can move through extracellular environments with varying geometries and adhesive properties. Adaptation to these differences is achieved by switching between different modes of motility, including lamellipod-driven and blebbing motility. Further, cells can modulate their level of adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) depending on both the level of force applied to the adhesions and cell intrinsic biochemical properties. We have constructed a computational model of cell motility to investigate how motile cells transition between extracellular environments with varying surface continuity, confinement and adhesion. Changes in migration strategy are an emergent property of cells as the ECM geometry and adhesion changes. The transition into confined environments with discontinuous ECM fibres is sufficient to induce shifts from lamellipod-based to blebbing motility, while changes in confinement alone within a continuous geometry are not. The geometry of the ECM facilitates plasticity, by inducing shifts where the cell has high marginal gain from a mode change, and conserving persistency where the cell can continue movement regardless of the motility mode. This regulation of cell motility is independent of global changes in cytoskeletal properties, but requires locally higher linkage between the actin network and the plasma membrane at the cell rear, and changes in internal cell pressure. In addition to matrix geometry, we consider how cells might transition between ECM of different adhesiveness. We find that this requires positive feedback between the forces cells apply on the adhesion points, and the strength of the cell-ECM adhesions on those sites. This positive feedback leads to the emergence of a small number of highly adhesive cores, similar to focal adhesions. While the range of ECM adhesion levels the cell can invade is expanded with this feedback mechanism; the velocities are lowered for conditions where the positive feedback is not vital. Thus

  17. Direct Correlation between Motile Behavior and Protein Abundance in Single Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann S Dufour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how stochastic molecular fluctuations affect cell behavior requires the quantification of both behavior and protein numbers in the same cells. Here, we combine automated microscopy with in situ hydrogel polymerization to measure single-cell protein expression after tracking swimming behavior. We characterized the distribution of non-genetic phenotypic diversity in Escherichia coli motility, which affects single-cell exploration. By expressing fluorescently tagged chemotaxis proteins (CheR and CheB at different levels, we quantitatively mapped motile phenotype (tumble bias to protein numbers using thousands of single-cell measurements. Our results disagreed with established models until we incorporated the role of CheB in receptor deamidation and the slow fluctuations in receptor methylation. Beyond refining models, our central finding is that changes in numbers of CheR and CheB affect the population mean tumble bias and its variance independently. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the degree of phenotypic diversity of a population by adjusting the global level of expression of CheR and CheB while keeping their ratio constant, which, as shown in previous studies, confers functional robustness to the system. Since genetic control of protein expression is heritable, our results suggest that non-genetic diversity in motile behavior is selectable, supporting earlier hypotheses that such diversity confers a selective advantage.

  18. Effect of Propionibacterium freudenreichii on Salmonella multiplication, motility, and association with avian epithelial cells1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V T Nair, Divek; Kollanoor-Johny, A

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effects of a probiotic bacterium, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, on Salmonella multiplication, motility, and association to and invasion of avian epithelial cells in vitro. Two subspecies of P. freudenreichii (P. freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii) were tested against 3 Salmonella serotypes in poultry, namely, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Heidelberg, using co-culture-, motility, multiplication, cell association, and invasion assays. Both strains of P. freudenreichii were effective in reducing or inhibiting multiplication of all 3 Salmonella serotypes in co-culture and turkey cecal contents (P ≤ 0.05). P. freudenreichii significantly reduced Salmonella motility (P ≤ 0.05). Cell culture studies revealed that P. freudenreichii associated with the avian epithelial cells effectively and reduced S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium cell association in the range of 1.0 to 1.6 log10 CFU/mL, and invasion in the range of 1.3 to 1.5 log10 CFU/mL (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. Our current in vitro results indicate the potential of P. freudenreichii against Salmonella in poultry. Follow-up in vivo studies are underway to evaluate this possibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Simvastatin affects cell motility and actin cytoskeleton distribution of microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, HF; Rappert, Angelika A.C.; Mommaas, AM; Van Haastert, ES; Van der Valk, P; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, KPH; Van den Elsen, PJ

    2006-01-01

    Statin treatment is proposed to be a new potential therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The effects of statin treatment on brain cells, however, are hardly understood. We therefore evaluated the effects of simvastatin treatment on

  20. Simulated Hypergravity Alters Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shameka; Bettis, Barika; Harris-Hooker, Sandra; Sanford, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    The cellular effects of gravity are poorly understood due to its constancy and nonavailability of altered gravitational models. Such an understanding is crucial for prolonged space flights. In these studies, we assessed the influence of centrifugation at 6G (HGrav) on vascular smooth muscle (SMC) mobility and proliferation. Cells were: (a) plated at low density and subjected to HGrav for 24-72 hr for proliferation studies, or (b) grown to confluency, subjected to HGrav, mechanically denuded and monitored for cell movement into the denuded area. Controls were maintained under normogravity. SMC showed a 50% inhibition of growth under HGrav and 10% serum; HGrav and low serum resulted in greater growth inhibition. The rate of movement of SMC into the denuded area was 2-3-fold higher under HGrav in low serum compared to controls, but similar in 10% serum. These studies show that HGrav has significant effects on SMC growth and mobility, which are dependent on serum levels.

  1. Keratins mediate localization of hemidesmosomes and repress cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Kristin; Roth, Wera; Kröger, Cornelia; Loschke, Fanny; Lederer, Marcell; Hüttelmaier, Stefan; Magin, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    The keratin (K)-hemidesmosome (HD) interaction is crucial for cell-matrix adhesion and migration in several epithelia, including the epidermis. Mutations in constituent proteins cause severe blistering skin disorders by disrupting the adhesion complex. Despite extensive studies, the role of keratins in HD assembly and maintenance is only partially understood. Here we address this issue in keratinocytes in which all keratins are depleted by genome engineering. Unexpectedly, such keratinocytes maintain many characteristics of their normal counterparts. However, the absence of the entire keratin cytoskeleton leads to loss of plectin from the hemidesmosomal plaque and scattering of the HD transmembrane core along the basement membrane zone. To investigate the functional consequences, we performed migration and adhesion assays. These revealed that, in the absence of keratins, keratinocytes adhere much faster to extracellular matrix substrates and migrate approximately two times faster compared with wild-type cells. Reexpression of the single keratin pair K5 and K14 fully reversed the above phenotype. Our data uncover a role of keratins, which to our knowledge is previously unreported, in the maintenance of HDs upstream of plectin, with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. They support the view that the downregulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition supports the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells.

  2. Dental pulp stem cell-derived chondrogenic cells demonstrate differential cell motility in type I and type II collagen hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Flynn, Nikol

    2018-02-13

    Advances in the development of biomaterials and stem cell therapy provide a promising approach to regenerating degenerated discs. The normal nucleus pulposus (NP) cells exhibit the similar phenotype as chondrocytes. Because dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be differentiated into chondrogenic cells, the DPSCs and DPSCs-derived chondrogenic cells encapsulated in type I and type II collagen hydrogels can potentially be transplanted into degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) to repair damaged tissue. The motility of transplanted cells is critical because the cells need to migrate away from the hydrogels containing the cells of high density and disperse into the NP tissue after implantation. The purpose of this study was to determine the motility of DPSC and DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells in type I and type II collagen hydrogels. The time lapse imaging that recorded cell migration was analyzed to quantify the cell migration velocity and distance. The cell viability of DPSCs in native or 4S-StarPEG - crosslinked type I and type II collagen hydrogels was determined using LIVE/DEAD ® cell viability assay and AlamarBlue® assay. DPSCs were differentiated into chondrogenic cells. The migration of DPSCs and DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells in these hydrogels was recorded using a time lapse imaging system. This study was funded by Regional Institute on Aging and Wichita Medical Research and Education Foundation and the authors declare no competing interest. DPSCs showed high cell viability in non-crosslinked and crosslinked collagen hydrogels. DPSCs migrated in collagen hydrogels, and the cell migration speed was not significantly different in either type I collagen or type II collagen hydrogels. The migration speed of DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells was higher in type I collagen hydrogel than in type II collagen hydrogel. Crosslinking of type I collagen with 4S-StarPEG significantly reduced the cell migration speed of DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells. After implantation of

  3. ARHGAP42 is activated by Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation to promote cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weifeng; Janoštiak, Radoslav; Tolde, Ondřej; Ryzhova, Larisa M; Koudelková, Lenka; Dibus, Michal; Brábek, Jan; Hanks, Steven K; Rosel, Daniel

    2017-07-15

    The tyrosine kinase Src acts as a key regulator of cell motility by phosphorylating multiple protein substrates that control cytoskeletal and adhesion dynamics. In an earlier phosphotyrosine proteomics study, we identified a novel Rho-GTPase activating protein, now known as ARHGAP42, as a likely biologically relevant Src substrate. ARHGAP42 is a member of a family of RhoGAPs distinguished by tandem BAR-PH domains lying N-terminal to the GAP domain. Like other family members, ARHGAP42 acts preferentially as a GAP for RhoA. We show that Src principally phosphorylates ARHGAP42 on tyrosine 376 (Tyr-376) in the short linker between the BAR-PH and GAP domains. The expression of ARHGAP42 variants in mammalian cells was used to elucidate its regulation. We found that the BAR domain is inhibitory toward the GAP activity of ARHGAP42, such that BAR domain deletion resulted in decreased active GTP-bound RhoA and increased cell motility. With the BAR domain intact, ARHGAP42 GAP activity could be activated by phosphorylation of Tyr-376 to promote motile cell behavior. Thus, phosphorylation of ARHGAP42 Tyr-376 is revealed as a novel regulatory event by which Src can affect actin dynamics through RhoA inhibition. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Cell motility is controlled by SF2/ASF through alternative splicing of the Ron protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigna, Claudia; Giordano, Silvia; Shen, Haihong; Benvenuto, Federica; Castiglioni, Fabio; Comoglio, Paolo Maria; Green, Michael R; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2005-12-22

    Ron, the tyrosine kinase receptor for the Macrophage-stimulating protein, is involved in cell dissociation, motility, and matrix invasion. DeltaRon, a constitutively active isoform that confers increased motility to expressing cells, is generated through the skipping of exon 11. We show that abnormal accumulation of DeltaRon mRNA occurs in breast and colon tumors. Skipping of exon 11 is controlled by a silencer and an enhancer of splicing located in the constitutive exon 12. The strength of the enhancer parallels the relative abundance of DeltaRon mRNA and depends on a sequence directly bound by splicing factor SF2/ASF. Overexpression and RNAi experiments demonstrate that SF2/ASF, by controlling the production of DeltaRon, activates epithelial to mesenchymal transition leading to cell locomotion. The effect of SF2/ASF overexpression is reverted by specific knockdown of DeltaRon mRNA. This demonstrates a direct link between SF2/ASF-regulated splicing and cell motility, an activity important for embryogenesis, tissue formation, and tumor metastasis.

  5. Effect of cell physicochemical characteristics and motility on bacterial transport in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.W.; Collins, S.A.; Metge, D.W.; Harvey, R.W.; Shapiro, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of physicochemical characteristics and motility on bacterial transport in groundwater were examined in flow-through columns. Four strains of bacteria isolated from a crystalline rock groundwater system were investigated, with carboxylate-modified and amidine-modified latex microspheres and bromide as reference tracers. The bacterial isolates included a gram-positive rod (ML1), a gram-negative motile rod (ML2), a nonmotile mutant of ML2 (ML2m), and a gram-positive coccoid (ML3). Experiments were repeated at two flow velocities, in a glass column packed with glass beads, and in another packed with iron-oxyhydroxide coated glass beads. Bacteria breakthrough curves were interpreted using a transport equation that incorporates a sorption model from microscopic observation of bacterial deposition in flow-cell experiments. The model predicts that bacterial desorption rate will decrease exponentially with the amount of time the cell is attached to the solid surface. Desorption kinetics appeared to influence transport at the lower flow rate, but were not discernable at the higher flow rate. Iron-oxyhydroxide coatings had a lower-than-expected effect on bacterial breakthrough and no effect on the microsphere recovery in the column experiments. Cell wall type and shape also had minor effects on breakthrough. Motility tended to increase the adsorption rate, and decrease the desorption rate. The transport model predicts that at field scale, desorption rate kinetics may be important to the prediction of bacteria transport rates. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. GAR22β regulates cell migration, sperm motility, and axoneme structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamper, Ivonne; Fleck, David; Barlin, Meltem; Spehr, Marc; El Sayad, Sara; Kleine, Henning; Maxeiner, Sebastian; Schalla, Carmen; Aydin, Gülcan; Hoss, Mareike; Litchfield, David W; Lüscher, Bernhard; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Spatiotemporal cytoskeleton remodeling is pivotal for cell adhesion and migration. Here we investigated the function of Gas2-related protein on chromosome 22 (GAR22β), a poorly characterized protein that interacts with actin and microtubules. Primary and immortalized GAR22β(-/-) Sertoli cells moved faster than wild-type cells. In addition, GAR22β(-/-) cells showed a more prominent focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β overexpression or its reexpression in GAR22β(-/-) cells reduced cell motility and focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β-actin interaction was stronger than GAR22β-microtubule interaction, resulting in GAR22β localization and dynamics that mirrored those of the actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, GAR22β interacted with the regulator of microtubule dynamics end-binding protein 1 (EB1) via a novel noncanonical amino acid sequence, and this GAR22β-EB1 interaction was required for the ability of GAR22β to modulate cell motility. We found that GAR22β is highly expressed in mouse testes, and its absence resulted in reduced spermatozoa generation, lower actin levels in testes, and impaired motility and ultrastructural disorganization of spermatozoa. Collectively our findings identify GAR22β as a novel regulator of cell adhesion and migration and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of diverse cytoskeleton-dependent processes. © 2016 Gamper et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Effect of Gum Chewing on Bowel Motility in Patients with Colorectal Cancer after Open Colectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherdsak Duangchan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative ileus (POI usually delays the postoperative recovery after open colectomy. Gum chewing may facilitate bowel motility through cephalic-vagal stimulation. Bowel sounds, the time to first postoperative flatus and defecation, the common nursing outcomes of bowel motility, has not been investigated in Thai patients. This study examines the effect of gum chewing on bowel motility in colorectal cancer patients after open colectomy. Methods: A single blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with 32 patients in experimental and 32 patients in control groups. The experimental group chewed a piece of sugar-free gum with a fruity flavor for 20 minutes each time, three times a day starting from the first postoperative day till the date of first oral liquid received, while the control group receive routine care. Results: The bowel sounds of the experimental group after chewing gum significantly increased more than those of the control group (p = 0.00. The time to the first postoperative flatus in the experimental group was significantly shorter than that in the control group; likewise the first postoperative defecation was also shorter (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively. Conclusion: Gum chewing is helpful in stimulating bowel motility measured by an increase in bowel sounds and in reduced times to first postoperative flatus and defecation. This nursing intervention may be used for stimulating bowel motility in patients with colorectal cancer after an open colectomy.

  8. A bacterial extracellular DNA inhibits settling of motile progeny cells within a biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Cécile; Kysela, David T; Brun, Yves V

    2010-08-01

    In natural systems, bacteria form complex, surface-attached communities known as biofilms. This lifestyle presents numerous advantages compared with unattached or planktonic life, such as exchange of nutrients, protection from environmental stresses and increased tolerance to biocides. Despite such benefits, dispersal also plays an important role in escaping deteriorating environments and in successfully colonizing favourable, unoccupied habitat patches. The α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus produces a motile swarmer cell and a sessile stalked cell at each cell division. We show here that C. crescentus extracellular DNA (eDNA) inhibits the ability of its motile cell type to settle in a biofilm. eDNA binds to the polar holdfast, an adhesive structure required for permanent surface attachment and biofilm formation, thereby inhibiting cell attachment. Because stalked cells associate tightly with the biofilm through their holdfast, we hypothesize that this novel mechanism acts on swarmer cells born in a biofilm, where eDNA can accumulate to a sufficient concentration to inhibit their ability to settle. By targeting a specific cell type in a biofilm, this mechanism modulates biofilm development and promotes dispersal without causing a potentially undesirable dissolution of the existing biofilm. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Second-harmonic generation scattering directionality predicts tumor cell motility in collagen gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kathleen A.; Dawes, Ryan P.; Cheema, Mehar K.; Van Hove, Amy; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Perry, Seth W.; Brown, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) allows for the analysis of tumor collagen structural changes throughout metastatic progression. SHG directionality, measured through the ratio of the forward-propagating to backward-propagating signal (F/B ratio), is affected by collagen fibril diameter, spacing, and disorder of fibril packing within a fiber. As tumors progress, these parameters evolve, producing concurrent changes in F/B. It has been recently shown that the F/B of highly metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) breast tumors is significantly different from less metastatic tumors. This suggests a possible relationship between the microstructure of collagen, as measured by the F/B, and the ability of tumor cells to locomote through that collagen. Utilizing in vitro collagen gels of different F/B ratios, we explored the relationship between collagen microstructure and motility of tumor cells in a “clean” environment, free of the myriad cells, and signals found in in vivo. We found a significant relationship between F/B and the total distance traveled by the tumor cell, as well as both the average and maximum velocities of the cells. Consequently, one possible mechanism underlying the observed relationship between tumor F/B and metastatic output in IDC patient samples is a direct influence of collagen structure on tumor cell motility. PMID:25625899

  10. Second-harmonic generation scattering directionality predicts tumor cell motility in collagen gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kathleen A.; Dawes, Ryan P.; Cheema, Mehar K.; Van Hove, Amy; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Perry, Seth W.; Brown, Edward

    2015-05-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) allows for the analysis of tumor collagen structural changes throughout metastatic progression. SHG directionality, measured through the ratio of the forward-propagating to backward-propagating signal (F/B ratio), is affected by collagen fibril diameter, spacing, and disorder of fibril packing within a fiber. As tumors progress, these parameters evolve, producing concurrent changes in F/B. It has been recently shown that the F/B of highly metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) breast tumors is significantly different from less metastatic tumors. This suggests a possible relationship between the microstructure of collagen, as measured by the F/B, and the ability of tumor cells to locomote through that collagen. Utilizing in vitro collagen gels of different F/B ratios, we explored the relationship between collagen microstructure and motility of tumor cells in a "clean" environment, free of the myriad cells, and signals found in in vivo. We found a significant relationship between F/B and the total distance traveled by the tumor cell, as well as both the average and maximum velocities of the cells. Consequently, one possible mechanism underlying the observed relationship between tumor F/B and metastatic output in IDC patient samples is a direct influence of collagen structure on tumor cell motility.

  11. Gliding motility driven by individual cell-surface movements in a multicellular filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aggregans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Shun-Ichi; Morohoshi, Sho; Hanada, Satoshi; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

    2016-04-01

    Chloroflexus aggregans is an unbranched multicellular filamentous bacterium having the ability of gliding motility. The filament moves straightforward at a constant rate, ∼3 μm sec(-1) on solid surface and occasionally reverses the moving direction. In this study, we successfully detected movements of glass beads on the cell-surface along long axis of the filament indicating that the cell-surface movement was the direct force for gliding. Microscopic analyses found that the cell-surface movements were confined to a cell of the filament, and each cell independently moved and reversed the direction. To understand how the cellular movements determine the moving direction of the filament, we proposed a discrete-time stochastic model; sum of the directions of the cellular movements determines the moving direction of the filament only when the filament pauses, and after moving, the filament keeps the same directional movement until all the cells pause and/or move in the opposite direction. Monte Carlo simulation of this model showed that reversal frequency of longer filaments was relatively fixed to be low, but the frequency of shorter filaments varied widely. This simulation result appropriately explained the experimental observations. This study proposed the relevant mechanism adequately describing the motility of the multicellular filament in C. aggregans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cell motility is inhibited by the antiepileptic compound, valproic acid and its teratogenic analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmod, P S; Foley, A; Berezin, A

    1998-01-01

    analysis, and it was found that VPA and selected VPA-analogues inhibited individual cell motility of L-cells in a dose-dependent manner. The compounds caused a decrease in the root-mean-square speed, S, and in the rate of diffusion, R, but an increase in the time of persistence in direction, P. Using short......Valproic acid (VPA) is an established human teratogen that causes neural tube defects in 1-2% of human foetuses exposed to the drug during early pregnancy. In this study, individual cell motility was evaluated using short- and long-term time-lapse video-recording and computer assisted image...... the neuronal marker NCAM and in the neuronal cell line N2a. Furthermore, the observed effect was independent of culture substratum, being observed for L-cells grown on fibronectin as well as on plastic. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that VPA-treatment of mouse L-cells caused a redistribution of F...

  13. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  14. By activating matrix metalloproteinase-7, shear stress promotes chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and lung colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Pei-Pei; Yu, Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yue; Wang, Tao; Li, Jia-Yi; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhan-You; Wang, Pu

    2015-04-20

    Interstitial fluid flow and associated shear stress are relevant mechanical signals in cartilage and bone (patho)physiology. However, their effects on chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. Using human SW1353, HS.819.T and CH2879 chondrosarcoma cell lines as model systems, we found that fluid shear stress induces the accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which in turn markedly enhance chondrosarcoma cell motility and invasion via the induction of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7). Specifically, shear-induced cAMP and IL-1β activate PI3-K, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, which lead to the synthesis of MMP-7 via transactivating NF-κB and c-Jun in human chondrosarcoma cells. Importantly, MMP-7 upregulation in response to shear stress exposure has the ability to promote lung colonization of chondrosarcomas in vivo. These findings offer a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MMP-7 activation in shear-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells, and provide insights on designing new therapeutic strategies to interfere with chondrosarcoma invasion and metastasis.

  15. Merlin, a "magic" linker between extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell motility, proliferation, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, Ivan; Yu, Qin

    2010-09-01

    Genetic alterations of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene lead to the development of schwannomas, meningiomas, and ependymomas. Mutations of NF2 gene were also found in thyroid cancer, mesothelioma, and melanoma, suggesting that it functions as a tumor suppressor in a wide spectrum of cells. The product of NF2 gene is merlin (moesin-ezrin-radixin-like protein), a member of the Band 4.1 superfamily proteins. Merlin shares significant sequence homology with the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family proteins and serves as a linker between transmembrane proteins and the actin-cytoskeleton. Merlin is a multifunctional protein and involved in integrating and regulating the extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways that control cell fate, shape, proliferation, survival, and motility. Recent studies showed that merlin regulates the cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions and functions of the cell surface adhesion/extracellular matrix receptors including CD44 and that merlin and CD44 antagonize each other's function and work upstream of the mammalian Hippo signaling pathway. Furthermore, merlin plays important roles in stabilizing the contact inhibition of proliferation and in regulating activities of several receptor tyrosine kinases. Accumulating data also suggested an emerging role of merlin as a negative regulator of growth and progression of several non-NF2 associated cancer types. Together, these recent advances have improved our basic understanding about merlin function, its regulation, and the major signaling pathways regulated by merlin and provided the foundation for future translation of these findings into the clinic for patients bearing the cancers in which merlin function and/or its downstream signaling pathways are impaired or altered.

  16. CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling impacts enamel progenitor cell proliferation and motility in the dental stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohama-Tamaki, Tamaki; Otsu, Keishi; Harada, Hidemitsu; Shibata, Shunichi; Obara, Nobuko; Irie, Kazuharu; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi; Nagasawa, Takashi; Aoki, Kazunari; Caliari, Steven R; Weisgerber, Daniel W; Harley, Brendan A C

    2015-12-01

    Dental stem cells are located at the proximal ends of rodent incisors. These stem cells reside in the dental epithelial stem cell niche, termed the apical bud. We focused on identifying critical features of a chemotactic signal in the niche. Here, we report that CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling impacts enamel progenitor cell proliferation and motility in dental stem cell niche cells. We report cells in the apical bud express CXCR4 mRNA at high levels while expression is restricted in the basal epithelium (BE) and transit-amplifying (TA) cell regions. Furthermore, the CXCL12 ligand is present in mesenchymal cells adjacent to the apical bud. We then performed gain- and loss-of-function analyses to better elucidate the role of CXCR4 and CXCL12. CXCR4-deficient mice contain epithelial cell aggregates, while cell proliferation in mutant incisors was also significantly reduced. We demonstrate in vitro that dental epithelial cells migrate toward sources of CXCL12, whereas knocking down CXCR4 impaired motility and resulted in formation of dense cell colonies. These results suggest that CXCR4 expression may be critical for activation of enamel progenitor cell division and that CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling may control movement of epithelial progenitors from the dental stem cell niche.

  17. A Genome-wide RNAi Screen for Microtubule Bundle Formation and Lysosome Motility Regulation in Drosophila S2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L. Jolly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance intracellular transport of organelles, mRNA, and proteins (“cargo” occurs along the microtubule cytoskeleton by the action of kinesin and dynein motor proteins, but the vast network of factors involved in regulating intracellular cargo transport are still unknown. We capitalize on the Drosophila melanogaster S2 model cell system to monitor lysosome transport along microtubule bundles, which require enzymatically active kinesin-1 motor protein for their formation. We use an automated tracking program and a naive Bayesian classifier for the multivariate motility data to analyze 15,683 gene phenotypes and find 98 proteins involved in regulating lysosome motility along microtubules and 48 involved in the formation of microtubule filled processes in S2 cells. We identify innate immunity genes, ion channels, and signaling proteins having a role in lysosome motility regulation and find an unexpected relationship between the dynein motor, Rab7a, and lysosome motility regulation.

  18. CCN5 modulates the antiproliferative effect of heparin and regulates cell motility in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellot John J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC hyperplasia plays an important role in both chronic and acute vascular pathologies including atherosclerosis and restenosis. Considerable work has focused on the mechanisms regulating VSMC proliferation and motility. Earlier work in our lab revealed a novel growth arrest-specific (gas gene induced in VSMC exposed to the antiproliferative agent heparin. This gene is a member of the CCN family and has been given the name CCN5. The objective of the present study is to elucidate the function of CCN5 protein and to explore its mechanism of action in VSMC. Results Using RNA interference (RNAi, we first demonstrate that CCN5 is required for the antiproliferative effect of heparin in VSMC. We also use this gene knockdown approach to show that CCN5 is an important negative regulator of motility. To explore the mechanism of action of CCN5 on VSMC motility, we use RNAi to demonstrate that knock down of CCN5 up regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, an important stimulator of motility in VSMC. In addition, forced expression of CCN5 via adenovirus results in reduced MMP-2 activity, this also corroborates the gene knock down results. Finally, we show that loss of CCN5 expression in VSMC causes changes in VSMC morphology and cytoskeletal organization, including a reduction in the amount and macromolecular assembly of smooth muscle cell α-actin. Conclusions This work provides important new insights into the regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and motility by CCN5 and may aid the development of therapies for vascular diseases.

  19. Thymosin-β4 Regulates Motility and Metastasis of Malignant Mouse Fibrosarcoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tokushige; Okada, Futoshi; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Tomita, Naoko; Ito, Satoru; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Tetsuya; Choi, Sung Ki; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Hisakazu; Hosokawa, Masuo

    2002-01-01

    We identified a thymosin-β4 gene overexpression in malignant mouse fibrosarcoma cells (QRsP-30) that were derived from clonal weakly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic QR-32 cells by using a differential display method. Thymosin-β4 is known as a 4.9-kd polypeptide that interacts with G-actin and functions as a major actin-sequestering protein in cells. All of the six malignant fibrosarcoma cell lines that have been independently converted from QR-32 cells expressed high levels of thymosin-β4 mRNA and its expression in tumor cells was correlated with tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Up-regulation of thymosin-β4 in QR-32 cells (32-S) transfected with sense thymosin-β4 cDNA converted the cells to develop tumors and formed numerous lung metastases in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, antisense thymosin-β4 cDNA-transfected QRsP-30 (30-AS) cells reduced thymosin-β4 expression, and significantly lost tumor formation and metastases to distant organs. Vector-alone transfected cells (32-V or 30-V cells) behaved like their parental cells. We observed that tumor cell motility, cell shape, and F-actin organization is regulated in proportion to the level of thymosin-β4 expression. These findings indicate that thymosin-β4 molecule regulates fibrosarcoma cell tumorigenicity and metastasis through actin-based cytoskeletal organization. PMID:11891186

  20. Differential effects on cell motility, embryonic stem cell self-renewal and senescence by diverse Src kinase family inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, Christoffer, E-mail: christoffer.tamm@imbim.uu.se; Galito, Sara Pijuan, E-mail: sara.pijuan@imbim.uu.se; Anneren, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.anneren@imbim.uu.se

    2012-02-15

    The Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (SFKs) has been shown to play an intricate role in embryonic stem (ES) cell maintenance. In the present study we have focused on the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the vastly different effects induced by various commonly used SFK inhibitors. We show that several diverse cell types, including fibroblasts completely lacking SFKs, cannot undergo mitosis in response to SU6656 and that this is caused by an unselective inhibition of Aurora kinases. In contrast, PP2 and PD173952 block motility immediately upon exposure and forces cells to grow in dense colonies. The subsequent halt in proliferation of fibroblast and epithelial cells in the center of the colonies approximately 24 h post-treatment appears to be caused by cell-to-cell contact inhibition rather than a direct effect of SFK kinase inhibition. Interestingly, in addition to generating more homogenous and dense ES cell cultures, without any diverse effect on proliferation, PP2 and PD173652 also promote ES cell self-renewal by reducing the small amount of spontaneous differentiation typically observed under standard ES cell culture conditions. These effects could not be mirrored by the use of Gleevec, a potent inhibitor of c-Abl and PDGFR kinases that are also inhibited by PP2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitor SU6656 induces senescence in mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SU6656 inhibits mitosis in a SFK-independent manner via cross-selectivity for Aurora kinases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitor PP2 impairs cell motility in various cell lines, including mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ensuing impeded motility, PP2 inhibits proliferation of various cells lines except for mouse ES cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SFK inhibitors PP2 and PD173952 impede spontaneous differentiation in standard mouse ES culture maintenance.

  1. CaMK-II promotes focal adhesion turnover and cell motility by inducing tyrosine dephosphorylation of FAK and paxillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Charles A; Brown, Claire M; Horwitz, Alan F; Tombes, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    Transient elevations in Ca2+ have previously been shown to promote focal adhesion disassembly and cell motility through an unknown mechanism. In this study, evidence is provided to show that CaMK-II, a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, influences fibroblast adhesion and motility. TIRF microscopy reveals a dynamic population of CaMK-II at the cell surface in migrating cells. Inhibition of CaMK-II with two mechanistically distinct, membrane permeant inhibitors (KN-93 and myr-AIP) freezes lamellipodial dynamics, accelerates spreading on fibronectin, enlarges paxillin-containing focal adhesions and blocks cell motility. In contrast, constitutively active CaMK-II is not found at the cell surface, reduces cell attachment, eliminates paxillin from focal adhesions and decreases the phospho-tyrosine levels of both FAK and paxillin; all of these events can be reversed with myr-AIP. Thus, both CaMK-II inhibition and constitutive activation block cell motility through over-stabilization or destabilization of focal adhesions, respectively. Coupled with the existence of transient Ca2+ elevations and a dynamic CaMK-II population, these findings provide the first direct evidence that CaMK-II enables cell motility by transiently and locally stimulating tyrosine dephosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins to promote focal adhesion turnover. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Gray matter NG2 cells display multiple Ca2+-signaling pathways and highly motile processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haberlandt

    Full Text Available NG2 cells, the fourth type of glia in the mammalian CNS, receive synaptic input from neurons. The function of this innervation is unknown yet. Postsynaptic changes in intracellular Ca(2+-concentration ([Ca(2+](i might be a possible consequence. We employed transgenic mice with fluorescently labeled NG2 cells to address this issue. To identify Ca(2+-signaling pathways we combined patch-clamp recordings, Ca(2+-imaging, mRNA-transcript analysis and focal pressure-application of various substances to identified NG2-cells in acute hippocampal slices. We show that activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+-channels, Ca(2+-permeable AMPA-receptors, and group I metabotropic glutamate-receptors provoke [Ca(2+](i-elevations in NG2 cells. The Ca(2+-influx is amplified by Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+-release. Minimal electrical stimulation of presynaptic neurons caused postsynaptic currents but no somatic [Ca(2+](i elevations, suggesting that [Ca(2+](i elevations in NG2 cells might be restricted to their processes. Local Ca(2+-signaling might provoke transmitter release or changes in cell motility. To identify structural prerequisites for such a scenario, we used electron microscopy, immunostaining, mRNA-transcript analysis, and time lapse imaging. We found that NG2 cells form symmetric and asymmetric synapses with presynaptic neurons and show immunoreactivity for vesicular glutamate transporter 1. The processes are actin-based, contain ezrin but not glial filaments, microtubules or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NG2 cell processes in situ are highly motile. Our findings demonstrate that gray matter NG2 cells are endowed with the cellular machinery for two-way communication with neighboring cells.

  3. Gray matter NG2 cells display multiple Ca2+-signaling pathways and highly motile processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberlandt, Christian; Derouiche, Amin; Wyczynski, Alexandra; Haseleu, Julia; Pohle, Jörg; Karram, Khalad; Trotter, Jacqueline; Seifert, Gerald; Frotscher, Michael; Steinhäuser, Christian; Jabs, Ronald

    2011-03-24

    NG2 cells, the fourth type of glia in the mammalian CNS, receive synaptic input from neurons. The function of this innervation is unknown yet. Postsynaptic changes in intracellular Ca(2+)-concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) might be a possible consequence. We employed transgenic mice with fluorescently labeled NG2 cells to address this issue. To identify Ca(2+)-signaling pathways we combined patch-clamp recordings, Ca(2+)-imaging, mRNA-transcript analysis and focal pressure-application of various substances to identified NG2-cells in acute hippocampal slices. We show that activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channels, Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA-receptors, and group I metabotropic glutamate-receptors provoke [Ca(2+)](i)-elevations in NG2 cells. The Ca(2+)-influx is amplified by Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release. Minimal electrical stimulation of presynaptic neurons caused postsynaptic currents but no somatic [Ca(2+)](i) elevations, suggesting that [Ca(2+)](i) elevations in NG2 cells might be restricted to their processes. Local Ca(2+)-signaling might provoke transmitter release or changes in cell motility. To identify structural prerequisites for such a scenario, we used electron microscopy, immunostaining, mRNA-transcript analysis, and time lapse imaging. We found that NG2 cells form symmetric and asymmetric synapses with presynaptic neurons and show immunoreactivity for vesicular glutamate transporter 1. The processes are actin-based, contain ezrin but not glial filaments, microtubules or endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NG2 cell processes in situ are highly motile. Our findings demonstrate that gray matter NG2 cells are endowed with the cellular machinery for two-way communication with neighboring cells.

  4. Effects of adhesion dynamics and substrate compliance on the shape and motility of crawling cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Ziebert

    Full Text Available Computational modeling of eukaryotic cells moving on substrates is an extraordinarily complex task: many physical processes, such as actin polymerization, action of motors, formation of adhesive contacts concomitant with both substrate deformation and recruitment of actin etc., as well as regulatory pathways are intertwined. Moreover, highly nontrivial cell responses emerge when the substrate becomes deformable and/or heterogeneous. Here we extended a computational model for motile cell fragments, based on an earlier developed phase field approach, to account for explicit dynamics of adhesion site formation, as well as for substrate compliance via an effective elastic spring. Our model displays steady motion vs. stick-slip transitions with concomitant shape oscillations as a function of the actin protrusion rate, the substrate stiffness, and the rates of adhesion. Implementing a step in the substrate's elastic modulus, as well as periodic patterned surfaces exemplified by alternating stripes of high and low adhesiveness, we were able to reproduce the correct motility modes and shape phenomenology found experimentally. We also predict the following nontrivial behavior: the direction of motion of cells can switch from parallel to perpendicular to the stripes as a function of both the adhesion strength and the width ratio of adhesive to non-adhesive stripes.

  5. Disruption of myoblast alignment by highly motile rhabdomyosarcoma cell in tissue structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglu; Nagamori, Eiji; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2017-02-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a highly malignant tumor type of skeletal muscle origin, hallmarked by local invasion. Interaction between invasive tumor cells and normal cells plays a major role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Culturing tumor cells in a three-dimensional (3D) model can translate tumor malignancy relevant cell-cell interaction. To mimic tumor heterogeneity in vitro, a co-culture system consisting of a malignant embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) cell line RD and a normal human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) cell line was established by cell sheet technology. Various ratios of RDs to HSMMs were employed to understand the quantitative effect on intercellular interactions. Disruption of sheet structure was observed in heterogeneous cell sheets having a low ratio of RDs to HSMMs, whereas homogeneous HSMM or RD sheets maintained intact structure. Deeper exploration of dynamic tumor cell behavior inside HSMM sheets revealed that HSMM cell alignment was disrupted by highly motile RDs. This study demonstrated that RMS cells are capable of compromising their surrounding environment through induced decay of HSMMs alignment in a cell-based 3D system. This suggests that muscle disruption might be a major consequence of RMS cell invasion into muscles, which could be a promising target to preventing tumor invasion. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MYBPH inhibits NM IIA assembly via direct interaction with NMHC IIA and reduces cell motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Yasuyuki [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Usukura, Jiro [Division of Integrated Project, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Motoshi [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Takashi, E-mail: tak@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH inhibits NMHC IIA assembly and cell motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH interacts to assembly-competent NM IIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MYBPH inhibits RLC and NMHC IIA, independent components of NM IIA. -- Abstract: Actomyosin filament assembly is a critical step in tumor cell migration. We previously found that myosin binding protein H (MYBPH) is directly transactivated by the TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene in lung adenocarcinomas and inhibits phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) of non-muscle myosin IIA (NM IIA) via direct interaction with Rho kinase 1 (ROCK1). Here, we report that MYBPH also directly interacts with an additional molecule, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC IIA), which was found to occur between MYBPH and the rod portion of NMHC IIA. MYBPH inhibited NMHC IIA assembly and reduced cell motility. Conversely, siMYBPH-induced increased motility was partially, yet significantly, suppressed by blebbistatin, a non-muscle myosin II inhibitor, while more profound effects were attained by combined treatment with siROCK1 and blebbistatin. Electron microscopy observations showed well-ordered paracrystals of NMHC IIA reflecting an assembled state, which were significantly less frequently observed in the presence of MYBPH. Furthermore, an in vitro sedimentation assay showed that a greater amount of NMHC IIA was in an unassembled state in the presence of MYBPH. Interestingly, treatment with a ROCK inhibitor that impairs transition of NM IIA from an assembly-incompetent to assembly-competent state reduced the interaction between MYBPH and NMHC IIA, suggesting that MYBPH has higher affinity to assembly-competent NM IIA. These results suggest that MYBPH inhibits RLC and NMHC IIA, independent components of NM IIA, and negatively regulates actomyosin organization at 2 distinct steps, resulting in firm inhibition of NM IIA assembly.

  7. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA......Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain...... largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion...

  8. Regulation of motility of myogenic cells in filling limb muscle anlagen by Pitx2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Campbell

    Full Text Available Cells of the ventrolateral dermomyotome delaminate and migrate into the limb buds where they give rise to all muscles of the limbs. The migratory cells proliferate and form myoblasts, which withdraw from the cell cycle to become terminally differentiated myocytes. The myogenic lineage colonizes pre-patterned regions to form muscle anlagen as muscle fibers are assembled. The regulatory mechanisms that control the later steps of this myogenic program are not well understood. The homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2 is expressed specifically in the muscle lineage from the migration of precursors to adult muscle. Ablation of Pitx2 results in distortion, rather than loss, of limb muscle anlagen, suggesting that its function becomes critical during the colonization of, and/or fiber assembly in, the anlagen. Microarrays were used to identify changes in gene expression in flow-sorted migratory muscle precursors, labeled by Lbx1(EGFP/+, which resulted from the loss of Pitx2. Very few genes showed changes in expression. Many small-fold, yet significant, changes were observed in genes encoding cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins which play a role in cell motility. Myogenic cells from genetically-tagged mice were cultured and subjected to live cell-tracking analysis using time-lapse imaging. Myogenic cells lacking Pitx2 were smaller, more symmetrical, and had more actin bundling. They also migrated about half of the total distance and velocity. Decreased motility may prevent myogenic cells from filling pre-patterned regions of the limb bud in a timely manner. Altered shape may prevent proper assembly of higher-order fibers within anlagen. Pitx2 therefore appears to regulate muscle anlagen development by appropriately balancing expression of cytoskeletal and adhesion molecules.

  9. ROS accumulation and IGF-IR inhibition contribute to fenofibrate/PPARα -mediated inhibition of Glioma cell motility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Valle Luis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastomas are characterized by rapid cell growth, aggressive CNS infiltration, and are resistant to all known anticancer regimens. Recent studies indicate that fibrates and statins possess anticancer potential. Fenofibrate is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα that can switch energy metabolism from glycolysis to fatty acid β-oxidation, and has low systemic toxicity. Fenofibrate also attenuates IGF-I-mediated cellular responses, which could be relevant in the process of glioblastoma cell dispersal. Methods The effects of fenofibrate on Glioma cell motility, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling, PPARα activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, mitochondrial potential, and ATP production were analyzed in human glioma cell lines. Results Fenofibrate treatment attenuated IGF-I signaling responses and repressed cell motility of LN-229 and T98G Glioma cell lines. In the absence of fenofibrate, specific inhibition of the IGF-IR had only modest effects on Glioma cell motility. Further experiments revealed that PPARα-dependent accumulation of ROS is a strong contributing factor in Glioma cell lines responses to fenofibrate. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, restored cell motility, improved mitochondrial potential, and increased ATP levels in fenofibrate treated Glioma cell lines. Conclusions Our results indicate that although fenofibrate-mediated inhibition of the IGF-IR may not be sufficient in counteracting Glioma cell dispersal, PPARα-dependent metabolic switch and the resulting ROS accumulation strongly contribute to the inhibition of these devastating brain tumor cells.

  10. Raft-dependent endocytosis of autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase: a potential drug delivery route for tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana D Kojic

    Full Text Available Autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI is the extracellular ligand for the gp78/AMFR receptor overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. We showed previously that raft-dependent internalization of AMF/PGI is elevated in metastatic MDA-435 cells, but not metastatic, caveolin-1-expressing MDA-231 cells, relative to non-metastatic MCF7 and dysplastic MCF10A cells suggesting that it might represent a tumor cell-specific endocytic pathway.Similarly, using flow cytometry, we demonstrate that raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF/PGI is increased in metastatic HT29 cancer cells expressing low levels of caveolin-1 relative to metastatic, caveolin-1-expressing, HCT116 colon cells and non-metastatic Caco-2 cells. Therefore, we exploited the raft-dependent internalization of AMF/PGI as a potential tumor-cell specific targeting mechanism. We synthesized an AMF/PGI-paclitaxel conjugate and found it to be as efficient as free paclitaxel in inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in tumor cells that readily internalize AMF/PGI compared to tumor cells that poorly internalize AMF/PGI. Murine K1735-M1 and B16-F1 melanoma cells internalize FITC-conjugated AMF/PGI and are acutely sensitive to AMF/PGI-paclitaxel mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, following in vivo intratumoral injection, FITC-conjugated AMF/PGI is internalized in K1735-M1 tumors. Intratumoral injection of AMF/PGI-paclitaxel induced significantly higher tumor regression compared to free paclitaxel, even in B16-F1 cells, known to be resistant to taxol treatment. Treatment with AMF/PGI-paclitaxel significantly prolonged the median survival time of tumor bearing mice. Free AMF/PGI exhibited a pro-survival role, reducing the cytotoxic effect of both AMF/PGI-paclitaxel and free paclitaxel suggesting that AMF/PGI-paclitaxel targets a pathway associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. AMF/PGI-FITC uptake by normal murine spleen and thymus cells was negligible both in vitro

  11. Gadolinium induced effects on mammalian cell motility, adherence and chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gabor; Baksa, Viktoria; Kiss, Alexandra; Turani, Melinda; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2017-02-01

    The toxicity of gadolinium is reduced by chelating agents that render this heavy metal into contrast complexes used for medical magnetic resonance imaging. However, the dissociation of gadolinium chelates is known to generate Gd3+ ions, the cellular toxicity of which has not been tested in details. The cytotoxic effects of Gd(III) ions were evaluated by monitoring the proliferation, measuring the cellular motility and following chromatin changes in various cell lines upon Gd3+ treatment. Measurements applied long-term scanning microscopy and a perfusion platform that replaced the medium with test solutions, bypassed physical contact with the cell culture during experiments, and provided uninterrupted high time-resolution time-lapse photomicrography for an extended period of time. Genotoxicity specific chromatin changes characteristic to Gd(III) were distinguished in human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT), human limbal stem cells (HuLi), colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCO2), murine squamous carcinoma (SCC) and Indian muntjac (IM) cell lines. Characteristic features of Gd(III) toxicity were: loss of cellular motility, irreversible attachment of cells to the growth surface and cell death. Injury-specific chromatin changes manifested at micromolar Gd3+ concentrations as premature chromatin condensation and highly condensed sticky chromatin patches. Gd(III) concentration- and cell type-dependent reduction of normal adherence, as well as premature chromatin condensation confirmed apoptosis. The risk related to the release of toxic Gd3+ ions from gadolinium complexes and their effects on mono- and multi-layer cellular barriers have to be reconsidered when these chelated complexes are used as contrasting agents especially in relation to possible blood-brain barrier damages.

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Irradiation, and Axitinib Have Diverse Effects on Motility and Proliferation of Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt Krcek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor. It is highly aggressive with an unfavorable prognosis for the patients despite therapies including surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy. One important characteristic of highly vascularized GBM is the strong expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. VEGF has become a new target in the treatment of GBM, and targeted therapies such as the VEGF-receptor blocker axitinib are in clinical trials. Most studies focus on VEGF-induced angiogenesis, but only very few investigations analyze autocrine or paracrine effects of VEGF on the tumor cells. In this study, we examined the impact of VEGF, irradiation, and axitinib on cell proliferation and cell motility in human GBM cell lines U-251 and U-373. VEGF receptor 2 was shown to be expressed within both cell lines by using PCR and immunochemistry. Moreover, we performed 24-h videography to analyze motility, and a viability assay for cell proliferation. We observed increasing effects of VEGF and irradiation on cell motility in both cell lines, as well as strong inhibiting effects on cellular motility by VEGF-receptor blockade using axitinib. Moreover, axitinib diminished irradiation induced accelerating effects. While VEGF stimulation or irradiation did not affect cell proliferation, axitinib significantly decreased cell proliferation in both cell lines. Therefore, the impairment of VEGF signaling might have a crucial role in the treatment of GBM.

  13. Calmodulin-like proteins localized to the conoid regulate motility and cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Long

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii contains an expanded number of calmodulin (CaM-like proteins whose functions are poorly understood. Using a combination of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing and a plant-like auxin-induced degron (AID system, we examined the roles of three apically localized CaMs. CaM1 and CaM2 were individually dispensable, but loss of both resulted in a synthetic lethal phenotype. CaM3 was refractory to deletion, suggesting it is essential. Consistent with this prediction auxin-induced degradation of CaM3 blocked growth. Phenotypic analysis revealed that all three CaMs contribute to parasite motility, invasion, and egress from host cells, and that they act downstream of microneme and rhoptry secretion. Super-resolution microscopy localized all three CaMs to the conoid where they overlap with myosin H (MyoH, a motor protein that is required for invasion. Biotinylation using BirA fusions with the CaMs labeled a number of apical proteins including MyoH and its light chain MLC7, suggesting they may interact. Consistent with this hypothesis, disruption of MyoH led to degradation of CaM3, or redistribution of CaM1 and CaM2. Collectively, our findings suggest these CaMs may interact with MyoH to control motility and cell invasion.

  14. Inhibition of cell motility by troglitazone in human ovarian carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Show-Li

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Troglitazone (TGZ is a potential anticancer agent. Little is known about the effect of this agent on cancer cell migration. Methods Human ovarian carcinoma cell line, ES-2 cells were treated with various concentrations of TGZ. Cell migration was evaluated by wound-healing and Boyden chamber transwell experiments. PPARγ expression was blocked by PPARγ small interfering RNA. The effects of TGZ on phosphorylation of FAK, PTEN, Akt were assessed by immunoblotting using phospho-specific antibodies. The cellular distribution of paxillin, vinculin, stress fiber and PTEN was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results TGZ dose- and time-dependently impaired cell migration through a PPARγ independent manner. TGZ treatment impaired cell spreading, stress fiber formation, tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, and focal adhesion assembly in cells grown on fibronectin substratum. TGZ also dose- and time-dependently suppressed FAK autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the C-terminal of PTEN (a phosphatase. At concentration higher than 10 μM, TGZ caused accumulation of PTEN in plasma membrane, a sign of PTEN activation. Conclusion These results indicate that TGZ can suppress cultured ES-2 cells migration. Our data suggest that the anti-migration potential of TGZ involves in regulations of FAK and PTEN activity.

  15. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  16. Epigenetic regulation of microRNA genes and the role of miR-34b in cell invasion and motility in human melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mazar

    Full Text Available Invasive melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. The treatment of melanoma-derived cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC markedly increases the expression of several miRNAs, suggesting that the miRNA-encoding genes might be epigenetically regulated, either directly or indirectly, by DNA methylation. We have identified a group of epigenetically regulated miRNA genes in melanoma cells, and have confirmed that the upstream CpG island sequences of several such miRNA genes are hypermethylated in cell lines derived from different stages of melanoma, but not in melanocytes and keratinocytes. We used direct DNA bisulfite and immunoprecipitated DNA (Methyl-DIP to identify changes in CpG island methylation in distinct melanoma patient samples classified as primary in situ, regional metastatic, and distant metastatic. Two melanoma cell lines (WM1552C and A375 derived from stage 3 and stage 4 human melanoma, respectively were engineered to ectopically express one of the epigenetically modified miRNA: miR-34b. Expression of miR-34b reduced cell invasion and motility rates of both WM1552C and A375, suggesting that the enhanced cell invasiveness and motility observed in metastatic melanoma cells may be related to their reduced expression of miR-34b. Total RNA isolated from control or miR-34b-expressing WM1552C cells was subjected to deep sequencing to identify gene networks around miR-34b. We identified network modules that are potentially regulated by miR-34b, and which suggest a mechanism for the role of miR-34b in regulating normal cell motility and cytokinesis.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of sensor-protein dynamics and motility of a single cell by on-chip microcultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawagishi Ikuro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Measurement of the correlation between sensor-protein expression, motility and environmental change is important for understanding the adaptation process of cells during their change of generation. We have developed a novel assay exploiting the on-chip cultivation system, which enabled us to observe the change of the localization of expressed sensor-protein and the motility for generations. Localization of the aspartate sensitive sensor protein at two poles in Escherichia coli decreased quickly after the aspartate was added into the cultivation medium. However, it took more than three generations for recovering the localization after the removal of aspartate from the medium. Moreover, the tumbling frequency was strongly related to the localization of the sensor protein in a cell. The results indicate that the change of the spatial localization of sensor protein, which was inherited for more than three generations, may contribute to cells, motility as the inheritable information.

  18. The effect of membrane-regulated actin polymerization on a two-phase flow model for cell motility

    KAUST Repository

    Kimpton, L. S.

    2014-07-23

    Two-phase flow models have been widely used to model cell motility and we have previously demonstrated that even the simplest, stripped-down, 1D model displays many observed features of cell motility [Kimpton, L.S., Whiteley, J.P., Waters, S.L., King, J.R. & Oliver, J.M. (2013) Multiple travelling-wave solutions in a minimal model for cell motility. Math. Med. Biol. 30, 241 - 272]. In this paper, we address a limitation of the previous model.We show that the two-phase flow framework can exhibit travelling-wave solutions with biologically plausible actin network profiles in two simple models that enforce polymerization or depolymerization of the actin network at the ends of the travelling, 1D strip of cytoplasm. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  19. The HP0256 gene product is involved in motility and cell envelope architecture of Helicobacter pylori

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2010-04-08

    Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for gastritis, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. The bacterium displays 5-6 polar sheathed flagella that are essential for colonisation and persistence in the gastric mucosa. The biochemistry and genetics of flagellar biogenesis in H. pylori has not been fully elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the gene HP0256, annotated as hypothetical, was a FliJ homologue. In Salmonella, FliJ is a chaperone escort protein for FlgN and FliT, two proteins that themselves display chaperone activity for components of the hook, the rod and the filament. Results Ablation of the HP0256 gene in H. pylori significantly reduced motility. However, flagellin and hook protein synthesis was not affected in the HP0256 mutant. Transmission electron transmission microscopy revealed that the HP0256 mutant cells displayed a normal flagellum configuration, suggesting that HP0256 was not essential for assembly and polar localisation of the flagella in the cell. Interestingly, whole genome microarrays of an HP0256 mutant revealed transcriptional changes in a number of genes associated with the flagellar regulon and the cell envelope, such as outer membrane proteins and adhesins. Consistent with the array data, lack of the HP0256 gene significantly reduced adhesion and the inflammatory response in host cells. Conclusions We conclude that HP0256 is not a functional counterpart of FliJ in H. pylori. However, it is required for full motility and it is involved, possibly indirectly, in expression of outer membrane proteins and adhesins involved in pathogenesis and adhesion.

  20. Regulation of T cell motility in vitro and in vivo by LPA and LPA2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Knowlden

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA and the LPA-generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX have been implicated in lymphocyte trafficking and the regulation of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. High local concentrations of LPA are thought to be present in lymph node high endothelial venules, suggesting a direct influence of LPA on cell migration. However, little is known about the mechanism of action of LPA, and more work is needed to define the expression and function of the six known G protein-coupled receptors (LPA 1-6 in T cells. We studied the effects of 18∶1 and 16∶0 LPA on naïve CD4+ T cell migration and show that LPA induces CD4+ T cell chemorepulsion in a Transwell system, and also improves the quality of non-directed migration on ICAM-1 and CCL21 coated plates. Using intravital two-photon microscopy, lpa2-/- CD4+ T cells display a striking defect in early migratory behavior at HEVs and in lymph nodes. However, later homeostatic recirculation and LPA-directed migration in vitro were unaffected by loss of lpa2. Taken together, these data highlight a previously unsuspected and non-redundant role for LPA2 in intranodal T cell motility, and suggest that specific functions of LPA may be manipulated by targeting T cell LPA receptors.

  1. NUBPL, a novel metastasis-related gene, promotes colorectal carcinoma cell motility by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Wu, Nan; Sun, Donglin; Sun, Haiming; Tong, Dandan; Liu, Duo; Pang, Bo; Li, Su; Wei, Jia; Dai, Jialin; Liu, Yang; Bai, Jing; Geng, Jingshu; Fu, Songbin; Jin, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Nucleotide binding protein-like, NUBPL, is an assembly factor for human mitochondrial complex I, which is the biggest member of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, the relationship between NUBPL and carcinoma progression remains unknown. In this study, NUBPL was characterized for its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Data (n = 197) from the Oncomine database revealed that mRNA levels of NUBPL were remarkably overexpressed in CRC tissues compared with normal tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of 75 pairs of CRC and non-tumor tissues showed that the expression level of NUBPL was significantly higher in CRC tissues, and its expression level was positively associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.028) and advanced staging (P = 0.030). Expression of NUBPL in metastatic lymph nodes of CRC patients was also detected by immunohistochemical staining and high expression levels of NUBPL were observed. Overexpression of NUBPL significantly promoted the migration and invasion ability of CRC cell lines SW480 and SW620, whereas knockdown of NUBPL lead to an opposite effect. Our further study found that NUBPL could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by downregulation of epithelial markers (E-cadherin) and upregulation of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin). Moreover, NUBPL was able to activate ERK, which is believed to promote EMT and tumor metastasis. Inhibition of ERK suppressed the NUBPL-induced changes in EMT and cell motility. These data showed that NUBPL plays a vital role in CRC migration and invasion by inducing EMT and activating ERK. It might be a novel therapeutic target for CRC. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Localization of thymosin ß10 in breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mælan, A.ase Elisabeth; Rasmussen, Trine Kring; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2007-01-01

    as in cell motility and spreading. We have studied the distribution of endogenously expressed thymosin ß10 in cultured human breast cancer cell lines. Both unperturbed monolayer cultures and wound-healing models were examined using double-staining for thymosin ß10 and polymerized (F-) actin. Our findings...... for thymosin ß10 was inverse of staining for F-actin. These data support a physiological role for thymosin ß10 in sequestration of G-actin as well as in cancer cell motility....... show that thymosin ß10 is expressed in all three-cancer cell lines (SK-BR-3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) studied. No or little staining was detected in confluent cells, whereas strong staining occurred in semiconfluent cells and in cells populating monolayer wounds. Importantly, the distribution of staining...

  3. Soluble HLA-G regulates motility and invasion of the trophoblast-derived cell line SGHPL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, James; Whitley, Guy St J; Le Bouteiller, Philippe; Cartwright, Judith E

    2009-06-01

    Soluble human leucocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G) is secreted by extravillous trophoblast (EVT) and has roles in regulating immune cells within the decidua. HLA-G expression on EVT increases as they approach uterine spiral arteries and we have suggested that sHLA-G may be important in the remodelling of these vessels. The autocrine role of sHLA-G in regulating trophoblast function at this critical phase has not been studied. We aimed to investigate the effects of sHLA-G on trophoblast motility, invasion and survival. The human EVT line, SGHPL-4, was stably transfected to over-express sHLA-G (SGHPL-4sG1). Motility and apoptosis were assessed by time-lapse microscopy. Cells were cultured on microcarrier beads embedded in fibrin gels to assess invasion. The effect of sHLA-G expression on motility, invasion and apoptosis in response to stimulation with either hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) was determined. There was no difference in the motility of either SGHPL-4 cells or SGHPL-4sG1 cells in the absence of stimulation. However, sHLA-G inhibited HGF-induced EVT motility. HGF- and EGF-induced invasions were significantly inhibited in SGHPL-4sG1 compared with SGHPL-4 cells. Increased expression of HLA-G had no significant effect on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha/actinomycin-induced apoptosis. Growth factor-stimulated trophoblast motility and invasion are regulated by sHLA-G, indicating a novel autocrine role. The inhibition of trophoblast invasion at the spiral artery may be important to allow interactions leading to vascular remodelling.

  4. AHNAK enables mammary carcinoma cells to produce extracellular vesicles that increase neighboring fibroblast cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaiomara A; Smuczek, Basílio; Valadão, Iuri C; Dzik, Luciana M; Iglesia, Rebeca P; Cruz, Mário C; Zelanis, André; de Siqueira, Adriane S; Serrano, Solange M T; Goldberg, Gary S; Jaeger, Ruy G; Freitas, Vanessa M

    2016-08-02

    Extracellular vesicles play important roles in tumor development. Many components of these structures, including microvesicles and exosomes, have been defined. However, mechanisms by which extracellular vesicles affect tumor progression are not fully understood. Here, we investigated vesicular communication between mammary carcinoma cells and neighboring nontransformed mammary fibroblasts. Nonbiased proteomic analysis found that over 1% of the entire proteome is represented in these vesicles, with the neuroblast differentiation associated protein AHNAK and annexin A2 being the most abundant. In particular, AHNAK was found to be the most prominent component of these vesicles based on peptide number, and appeared necessary for their formation. In addition, we report here that carcinoma cells produce vesicles that promote the migration of recipient fibroblasts. These data suggest that AHNAK enables mammary carcinoma cells to produce and release extracellular vesicles that cause disruption of the stroma by surrounding fibroblasts. This paradigm reveals fundamental mechanisms by which vesicular communication between carcinoma cells and stromal cells can promote cancer progression in the tumor microenvironment.

  5. Cell motility probed by noise analysis of thickness shear mode resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapper, Angelika; Wegener, Joachim; Janshoff, Andreas

    2006-07-15

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique is an emerging bioanalytical tool to study the behavior of animal cells in vitro. Due to the high interfacial sensitivity of thickness shear mode (TSM) resonators it is possible to monitor the formation and breakage of cell-matrix interactions and changes in viscoelasticity of the cell bodies, as well as minute cell volume alterations by the time course of their resonance frequency even with millisecond time resolution. We found that mammalian MDCK-II cells grown on TSM resonators impose characteristic fluctuations on the resonance frequency, which are a quantitative indicator for dynamic activities of the cells on the surface and report on their vitality and motility. Applying noise analysis to the fluctuating resonance frequency allows one to quantify the response of the cells to environmental changes such as osmotic stress, addition of fixation reagents, or the influence of drugs such as cytochalasin D. The corresponding power density spectra of the noise imposed on the resonance frequency by the dynamic activities of the cells show a characteristic resonance at 1-2 Hz, which can be substantially altered by osmotic stress, fixation agents, or cytochalasin D. Comparison of QCM-based fluctuation readings with electric cell--substrate impedance sensing (ECIS)--a well-established technique to monitor cell dynamics-provides substantially different results, indicating that both techniques may complement each other with respect to their biological information. Whereas ECIS readings report solely on cell shape changes, QCM-based fluctuation analysis is also influenced by fluctuations in the viscoelasticity of the cell bodies.

  6. Exposure to Music Alters Cell Viability and Cell Motility of Human Nonauditory Cells in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia R. Lestard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although music is part of virtually all cultures in the world, little is known about how it affects us. Since the beginning of this century several studies suggested that the response to music, and to sound in general, is complex and might not be exclusively due to emotion, given that cell types other than auditory hair cells can also directly react to audible sound. The present study was designed to better understand the direct effects of acoustic vibrations, in the form of music, in human cells in culture. Our results suggest that the mechanisms of cell growth arrest and/or cell death induced by acoustic vibrations are similar for auditory and nonauditory cells.

  7. Irradiation effects of ultraviolet rays on Leptospira cells. Loss of motility, survive ability, and damages of cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hidezo (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    The irradiation effects of ultraviolets rays (UV) on leptospira cells were investigated. Four serovar strains of Genus Leptospira ; L. copenhageni, L. canicola, L. biflexa and L. illini were used. A sterilization lamp (Toshiba-GL-15) was lighted at intervals of 90mm on the sample fluid for several minutes. Loss of motility, survival growth and morphological damages were recognized under several conditions. The medium conditions were important, that is, the Korthof's medium was less effective than phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The irradiation time was also important, that is, L. canicola cells in PBS lost their motility and survive ability within 300sec. of irradiation, however, much more time, such as 1.200sec. was necessary in Korthof's medium. This phenomenon may be depended upon defensibility of albumin in the latter. Among the strains, L. biflexa cells showed the highest resistance in loss of motility and survive ability, and other three strains were inferior. The remarkable efects of cellular structures were also seen in the materials with 30 min. of irradiation, in both immediate time or after 24h incubation. The damages observed after 24th of irradiation were much more drastic than those of immediate time. No effect could be seen on the cells suspended in the Korthof's medium irradiated for 24h. Regarding morphological effect, there appeared relaxation of helical body, spherical body and semighost as the immediate changes. Structural damages were recognized as the collapse of cell body, such as scattering of capsule, release of axial flagella, loss or change of cytoplasmic density and break down of wall membrane complex. These phenomena were regarded as the indirect effects of UV-irradiation and autolysis in a post-mortem change.

  8. A simple and accurate rule-based modeling framework for simulation of autocrine/paracrine stimulation of glioblastoma cell motility and proliferation by L1CAM in 2-D culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Justin; Fiumara, David; Stapf, Michael; Sweitzer, Liedeke; Anderson, Hannah J; Gorky, Jonathan; Dhurjati, Prasad; Galileo, Deni S

    2017-12-11

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells. However, many are mathematically complicated, look at multiple interdependent phenomena, and/or use modeling software not freely available to the research community. These attributes make the adoption of models and simulations of even simple 2-dimensional cell behavior an uncommon practice by cancer cell biologists. Herein, we developed an accurate, yet simple, rule-based modeling framework to describe the in vitro behavior of GBM cells that are stimulated by the L1CAM protein using freely available NetLogo software. In our model L1CAM is released by cells to act through two cell surface receptors and a point of signaling convergence to increase cell motility and proliferation. A simple graphical interface is provided so that changes can be made easily to several parameters controlling cell behavior, and behavior of the cells is viewed both pictorially and with dedicated graphs. We fully describe the hierarchical rule-based modeling framework, show simulation results under several settings, describe the accuracy compared to experimental data, and discuss the potential usefulness for predicting future experimental outcomes and for use as a teaching tool for cell biology students. It is concluded that this simple modeling framework and its simulations accurately reflect much of the GBM cell motility behavior observed experimentally in vitro in the laboratory. Our framework can be modified easily to suit the needs of investigators interested in other

  9. Solution blow spinning fibres: New immunologically inert substrates for the analysis of cell adhesion and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoalin, Rafaella T; Traldi, Bruna; Aydin, Gülcan; Oliveira, Juliano E; Rütten, Stephan; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2017-03-15

    The control of cell behaviour through material geometry is appealing as it avoids the requirement for complex chemical surface modifications. Significant advances in new technologies have been made to the development of polymeric biomaterials with controlled geometry and physico-chemical properties. Solution blow spinning technique has the advantage of ease of use allowing the production of nano or microfibres and the direct fibre deposition on any surface in situ. Yet, in spite of these advantages, very little is known about the influence of such fibres on biological functions such as immune response and cell migration. In this work, we engineered polymeric fibres composed of either pure poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or blends of PLA and polyethylene glycol (PEG) by solution blow spinning and determined their impact on dendritic cells, highly specialised cells essential for immunity and tolerance. We also determined the influence of fibres on cell adhesion and motility. Cells readily interacted with fibres resulting in an intimate contact characterised by accumulation of actin filaments and focal adhesion components at sites of cell-fibre interactions. Moreover, cells were guided along the fibres and actin and focal adhesion components showed a highly dynamic behaviour at cell-fibre interface. Remarkably, fibres did not elicit any substantial increase of activation markers and inflammatory cytokines in dendritic cells, which remained in their immature (inactive) state. Taken together, these findings will be useful for developing new biomaterials for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating outer hair cell motility with a combination of external alternating electrical field stimulation and high-speed image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitani, Rei; Kalinec, Federico

    2011-07-18

    OHCs are cylindrical sensorimotor cells located in the Organ of Corti, the auditory organ inside the mammalian inner ear. The name "hair cells" derives from their characteristic apical bundle of stereocilia, a critical element for detection and transduction of sound energy. OHCs are able to change shape -elongate, shorten and bend- in response to electrical, mechanical and chemical stimulation, a motor response considered crucial for cochlear amplification of acoustic signals. OHC stimulation induces two different motile responses: i) electromotility, a.k.a fast motility, changes in length in the microsecond range derived from electrically-driven conformational changes in motor proteins densely packed in OHC plasma membrane, and ii) slow motility, shape changes in the millisecond to seconds range involving cytoskeletal reorganization. OHC bending is associated with electromotility, and result either from an asymmetric distribution of motor proteins in the lateral plasma membrane, or asymmetric electrical stimulation of those motor proteins (e.g., with an electrical field perpendicular to the long axis of the cells). Mechanical and chemical stimuli induce essentially slow motile responses, even though changes in the ionic conditions of the cells and/or their environment can also stimulate the plasma membrane-embedded motor proteins. Since OHC motile responses are an essential component of the cochlear amplifier, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these motile responses at acoustic frequencies (roughly from 20 Hz to 20 kHz in humans) is a very important matter in the field of hearing research. The development of new imaging technology combining high-speed videocameras, LED-based illumination systems, and sophisticated image analysis software now provides the ability to perform reliable qualitative and quantitative studies of the motile response of isolated OHCs to an external alternating electrical field (EAEF). This is a simple and non-invasive technique

  11. Hyaluronan Tumor Cell Interactions in Prostate Cancer Growth and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    hyaluronidase pretreatment or by using RNAi for the hyaluronan synthase enzymes expressed by these cells. The prediction, again, is that limiting HA...vertebrates and is not found in lower organisms or in insects (Fig. 9.2). Given its roles in such important cellular processes as motility and cell division in...cancer. Gut Zlobec, I., et al. (2008b). Node-negative colorectal cancer at high risk of distant metastasis identified by combined analysis of lymph

  12. T cell recognition of breast cancer antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nadia Viborg; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Andersen, Rikke Sick

    Recent studies are encouraging research of breast cancer immunogenicity to evaluate the applicability ofimmunotherapy as a treatment strategy. The epitope landscape in breast cancer is minimally described, thus it is necessary to identify T cell targets to develop immune mediated therapies.......This project investigates four proteins commonly upregulated in breast cancer and thus probable tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Aromatase, prolactin, NEK3, and PIAS3 contribute to increase growth, survival, and motility of malignant cells. Aspiring to uncover novel epitopes for cytotoxic T cells, a reverse...... immunology approach is applied. Via in silico screening of the protein sequences, 415 peptides were predicted as HLA-A*0201 and HLA-B*0702 binders. Subsequent in vitro binding analysis in a MHC ELISA platform confirmed binding for 147 of the 415 predicted binders. The 147 peptides were evaluated for T cell...

  13. Multiple travelling-wave solutions in a minimal model for cell motility

    KAUST Repository

    Kimpton, L. S.

    2012-07-11

    Two-phase flow models have been used previously to model cell motility. In order to reduce the complexity inherent with describing the many physical processes, we formulate a minimal model. Here we demonstrate that even the simplest 1D, two-phase, poroviscous, reactive flow model displays various types of behaviour relevant to cell crawling. We present stability analyses that show that an asymmetric perturbation is required to cause a spatially uniform, stationary strip of cytoplasm to move, which is relevant to cell polarization. Our numerical simulations identify qualitatively distinct families of travellingwave solutions that coexist at certain parameter values. Within each family, the crawling speed of the strip has a bell-shaped dependence on the adhesion strength. The model captures the experimentally observed behaviour that cells crawl quickest at intermediate adhesion strengths, when the substrate is neither too sticky nor too slippy. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  14. Putrescine importer PlaP contributes to swarming motility and urothelial cell invasion in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N

    2013-05-31

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437-446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant.

  15. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Secondhand smoke and lung cancer Normal lungs and alveoli Respiratory system Smoking hazards Bronchoscope References Horn L, Eisenberg R, ...

  16. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of exposure ...

  17. Human umbilical cord perivascular cells exhibited enhanced migration capacity towards hepatocellular carcinoma in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells: a role for autocrine motility factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, Juan; Fiore, Esteban; Aquino, Jorge B; Malvicini, Mariana; Rizzo, Manglio; Peixoto, Estanislao; Alaniz, Laura; Piccioni, Flavia; Bolontrade, Marcela; Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Garcia, Mariana G; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Unfortunately, the incidence and mortality associated with HCC are increasing. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed and the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as carrier of therapeutic genes is emerging as a promising option. Different sources of MSCs are being studied for cell therapy and bone marrow-derived cells are the most extensively explored; however, birth associated-tissues represent a very promising source. The aim of this work was to compare the in vitro and in vivo migration capacity between bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) and human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) towards HCC. We observed that HUCPVCs presented higher in vitro and in vivo migration towards factors released by HCC. The expression of autocrine motility factor (AMF) receptor, genes related with the availability of the receptor on the cell surface (caveolin-1 and -2) and metalloproteinase 3, induced by the receptor activation and important for cell migration, was increased in HUCPVCs. The chemotactic response towards recombinant AMF was increased in HUCPVCs compared to BM-MSCs, and its inhibition in the conditioned medium from HCC induced higher decrease in HUCPVC migration than in BM-MSC. Our results indicate that HUCPVCs could be a useful cellular source to deliver therapeutic genes to HCC.

  18. Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells Exhibited Enhanced Migration Capacity towards Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Comparison with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Role for Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Unfortunately, the incidence and mortality associated with HCC are increasing. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed and the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs as carrier of therapeutic genes is emerging as a promising option. Different sources of MSCs are being studied for cell therapy and bone marrow-derived cells are the most extensively explored; however, birth associated-tissues represent a very promising source. The aim of this work was to compare the in vitro and in vivo migration capacity between bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs and human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs towards HCC. We observed that HUCPVCs presented higher in vitro and in vivo migration towards factors released by HCC. The expression of autocrine motility factor (AMF receptor, genes related with the availability of the receptor on the cell surface (caveolin-1 and -2 and metalloproteinase 3, induced by the receptor activation and important for cell migration, was increased in HUCPVCs. The chemotactic response towards recombinant AMF was increased in HUCPVCs compared to BM-MSCs, and its inhibition in the conditioned medium from HCC induced higher decrease in HUCPVC migration than in BM-MSC. Our results indicate that HUCPVCs could be a useful cellular source to deliver therapeutic genes to HCC.

  19. Individual motile CD4+ T cells can participate in efficient multi-killing through conjugation to multiple tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liadi, Ivan; Singh, Harjeet; Romain, Gabrielle; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Adolacion, Jay R T.; Kebriaei, Partow; Huls, Helen; Qiu, Peng; Roysam, Badrinath; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Varadarajan, Navin

    2015-01-01

    T cells genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for the investigational treatment of B-cell malignancies comprise a heterogeneous population, and their ability to persist and participate in serial killing of tumor cells is a predictor of therapeutic success. We implemented Timelapse Imaging Microscopy In Nanowell Grids (TIMING) to provide direct evidence that CD4+CAR+ T cells (CAR4 cells) can engage in multi-killing via simultaneous conjugation to multiple tumor cells. Comparisons of the CAR4 cells and CD8+CAR+ T cells (CAR8 cells) demonstrate that while CAR4 cells can participate in killing and multi-killing, they do so at slower rates, likely due to the lower Granzyme B content. Significantly, in both sets of T cells, a minor sub-population of individual T cells identified by their high motility, demonstrated efficient killing of single tumor cells. By comparing both the multi-killer and single killer CAR+ T cells it appears that the propensity and kinetics of T-cell apoptosis was modulated by the number of functional conjugations. T cells underwent rapid apoptosis, and at higher frequencies, when conjugated to single tumor cells in isolation and this effect was more pronounced on CAR8 cells. Our results suggest that the ability of CAR+ T cells to participate in multi-killing should be evaluated in the context of their ability to resist activation induced cell death (AICD). We anticipate that TIMING may be utilized to rapidly determine the potency of T-cell populations and may facilitate the design and manufacture of next-generation CAR+ T cells with improved efficacy. PMID:25711538

  20. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine the cytoskeletal dynamics they chose magnetic twisting cytometry, where the spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads was measured, which is a measure for the cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. The group of Katarina Wolf measured the stiffness of the cell nucleus because it is the largest and stiffest organelle, which may hinder the migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue [2]. They combined atomic force confocal microscopy for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness (the inverse of the compressibility) with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact as well as monitoring of the cell's fate. The dynamics of tissue topology such as the mixing of compartments during cancer invasion and metastasis were theoretically analyzed by Lance L Munn [3]. In particular, he presented a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of tumor behaviors using correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. In the future, the topological analysis could be helpful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring tumor therapy. The group of Cynthia A Reinhart-King analyzed how the topological guidance of a 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities affects cell motility [4]. In particular, they mimicked the heterogeneities in density of the tumor stroma by preparing gels with an interface of high and low density collagen gels and investigated how this affects cell motility. The author's review paper details the effect of focal adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on cell motility and how this effect is driven by mechanical alterations of cells expressing FAK compared to cells with FAK knock-out [5]. In particular, it focused on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. This article highlights that both focal adhesion proteins

  1. Local ATP generation by brain-type creatine kinase (CK-B facilitates cell motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W P Kuiper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creatine Kinases (CK catalyze the reversible transfer of high-energy phosphate groups between ATP and phosphocreatine, thereby playing a storage and distribution role in cellular energetics. Brain-type CK (CK-B deficiency is coupled to loss of function in neural cell circuits, altered bone-remodeling by osteoclasts and complement-mediated phagocytotic activity of macrophages, processes sharing dependency on actomyosin dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we provide evidence for direct coupling between CK-B and actomyosin activities in cortical microdomains of astrocytes and fibroblasts during spreading and migration. CK-B transiently accumulates in membrane ruffles and ablation of CK-B activity affects spreading and migration performance. Complementation experiments in CK-B-deficient fibroblasts, using new strategies to force protein relocalization from cytosol to cortical sites at membranes, confirmed the contribution of compartmentalized CK-B to cell morphogenetic dynamics. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence that local cytoskeletal dynamics during cell motility is coupled to on-site availability of ATP generated by CK-B.

  2. Cell_motility: a cross-platform, open source application for the study of cell motion paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Lennart; Monsieur, Geert; Ampe, Christophe; Gevaert, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Joël

    2006-06-08

    Migration is an important aspect of cellular behaviour and is therefore widely studied in cell biology. Numerous components are known to participate in this process in a highly dynamic manner. In order to obtain a better insight in cell migration, mutants or drugs are used and their motive phenotype is then linked with the disturbing factors. One of the typical approaches to study motion paths of individual cells relies on fitting mean square displacements to a persistent random walk function. Since the numerous calculations involved often rely on diverse commercial software packages, the analysis can be expensive, labour-intensive and error-prone work. Additionally, due to the nature of algorithms employed the calculations involved are not readily reproducible without access to the exact software package(s) used. We here present the cell_motility software, an open source Java application under the GNU-GPL license that provides a clear and concise analysis workbench for large amounts of cell motion data. Apart from performing the necessary calculations, the software also visualizes the original motion paths as well as the results of the calculations to help the user interpret the data. The application features an intuitive graphical user interface as well as full user and developer documentation and both source and binary files can be freely downloaded from the project website at http://genesis.UGent.be/cell_motility . In providing a free, open source software solution for the automated processing of cell motion data, we aim to achieve two important goals: labs can greatly simplify their data analysis pipeline as switching between different computational software packages becomes obsolete (thus reducing the chances for human error during data manipulation and transfer) and secondly, to provide scientists in the field with a freely available common platform to perform their analyses, enabling more efficient data quality control through peer reviewing.

  3. Cell_motility: a cross-platform, open source application for the study of cell motion paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevaert Kris

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration is an important aspect of cellular behaviour and is therefore widely studied in cell biology. Numerous components are known to participate in this process in a highly dynamic manner. In order to obtain a better insight in cell migration, mutants or drugs are used and their motive phenotype is then linked with the disturbing factors. One of the typical approaches to study motion paths of individual cells relies on fitting mean square displacements to a persistent random walk function. Since the numerous calculations involved often rely on diverse commercial software packages, the analysis can be expensive, labour-intensive and error-prone work. Additionally, due to the nature of algorithms employed the calculations involved are not readily reproducible without access to the exact software package(s used. Results We here present the cell_motility software, an open source Java application under the GNU-GPL license that provides a clear and concise analysis workbench for large amounts of cell motion data. Apart from performing the necessary calculations, the software also visualizes the original motion paths as well as the results of the calculations to help the user interpret the data. The application features an intuitive graphical user interface as well as full user and developer documentation and both source and binary files can be freely downloaded from the project website at http://genesis.UGent.be/cell_motility . Conclusion In providing a free, open source software solution for the automated processing of cell motion data, we aim to achieve two important goals: labs can greatly simplify their data analysis pipeline as switching between different computational software packages becomes obsolete (thus reducing the chances for human error during data manipulation and transfer and secondly, to provide scientists in the field with a freely available common platform to perform their analyses, enabling more efficient

  4. The hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor RHAMM promotes growth, invasiveness and dissemination of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Valentina; Sokol, Lena; Kölzer, Viktor Hendrik; Pfaff, Dennis; Muraro, Manuele Giuseppe; Keller, Irene; Stefan, Zahnd; Centeno, Irene; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; Dawson, Heather; Zlobec, Inti; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Lugli, Alessandro

    2017-09-19

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), RHAMM is an independent adverse prognostic factor. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate on the role of RHAMM as a potential direct driver of cell proliferation and migration in CRC cell lines and to identify pathways dependent on RHAMM in human CRC. Proliferation, cell cycle alterations and invasive capacity were tested in two RHAMM- and control- knockdown CRC cell lines by flow cytometry and in vitro assays. Tumorigenicity and metastasis formation was assessed in immunodeficient mice. RNA-Seq and immunohistochemistry was performed on six RHAMM+/- primary CRC tumors. In vitro, silencing of RHAMM inhibited CRC cell migration and invasion by 50% (p<0.01). In vivo, RHAMM knockdown resulted in slower growth, lower tumor size (p<0.001) and inhibition of metastasis (p<0.001). Patients with RHAMM-high CRC had a worse prognosis (p=0.040) and upregulated pathways for cell cycle progression and adhesion turnover. RHAMM overexpression is correlated with increased migration and invasion of CRC cells, leads to larger, fast growing tumors, and its downregulation essentially abolishes metastasis in mouse models. RHAMM is therefore a promising therapeutic target in all CRC stages as its inhibition affects growth and dissemination of the primary CRC as well as the metastases.

  5. Ionizing Radiation Promotes the Migratory and Invasive Potential of Lung Cancer Cells by Different Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Jin Nyoung; Kang, Ga Young; Um, Hong Duck [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Although radiation therapy is a major therapeutic modality for cancer treatment, previous reports have suggested that ionizing radiation (IR) can promote the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells. It was consistently reported that IR can induce certain types of matrix metalloproteinases, which are critical to the degradation of extracellular matrix. Given that the motility of cancer cells is an additional requirement for their metastasis, this study investigated whether IR can also influence the migratory potential of cancer cells.

  6. Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist inhibits the invasiveness of human endometrial cancer cells by down-regulating twist and N-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Schally, Andrew V; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Leung, Peter C K; Wang, Hsin-Shih

    2017-01-17

    More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. Here, we examined the effect of a GHRH antagonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and the mechanisms of action of the antagonist in endometrial cancer. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GHRH receptor protein. The activity of Twist and N-cadherin was determined by Western blotting. Cell motility was assessed by an invasion and migration assay. GHRH receptor siRNA was applied to knockdown the GHRH receptor in endometrial cancer cells. The GHRH antagonist inhibited cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GHRH antagonist inhibited cell motility and suppressed the expression of Twist and N-cadherin, and the suppression was abolished by GHRH receptor siRNA pretreatment. Moreover, the inhibition of Twist and N-cadherin with Twist siRNA and N-cadherin siRNA, respectively, suppressed cell motility. Our study indicates that the GHRH antagonist inhibited the cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GHRH receptor via the suppression of Twist and N-cadherin. Our findings represent a new concept in the mechanism of GHRH antagonist-suppressed cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GHRH antagonists as potential therapeutics for the treatment of human endometrial cancer.

  7. The p85 Regulatory Subunit of PI3K Mediates cAMP-PKA and Insulin Biological Effects on MCF-7 Cell Growth and Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Di Zazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia may increase the cancer risk. Moreover, many tumors demonstrate an increased activation of IR signaling pathways. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K is necessary for insulin action. In epithelial cells, which do not express GLUT4 and gluconeogenic enzymes, insulin-mediated PI3K activation regulates cell survival, growth, and motility. Although the involvement of the regulatory subunit of PI3K (p85αPI3K in insulin signal transduction has been extensively studied, the function of its N-terminus remains elusive. It has been identified as a serine (S83 in the p85αPI3K that is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA. To determine the molecular mechanism linking PKA to insulin-mediated PI3K activation, we used p85αPI3K mutated forms to prevent phosphorylation (p85A or to mimic the phosphorylated residue (p85D. We demonstrated that phosphorylation of p85αPI3KS83 modulates the formation of the p85αPI3K/IRS-1 complex and its subcellular localization influencing the kinetics of the insulin signaling both on MAPK-ERK and AKT pathways. Furthermore, the p85αPI3KS83 phosphorylation plays a central role in the control of insulin-mediated cell proliferation, cell migration, and adhesion. This study highlights the p85αPI3KS83 role as a key regulator of cell proliferation and motility induced by insulin in MCF-7 cells breast cancer model.

  8. Metastasis suppressor NME1 regulates melanoma cell morphology, self-adhesion and motility via induction of fibronectin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Marián; Leonard, Mary Kathryn; Yang, Xiuwei H; Kowluru, Anjan; Belkin, Alexey M; Kaetzel, David M

    2015-06-01

    Expression of the metastasis suppressor NME1 in melanoma is associated with reduced cellular motility and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Herein, we report a novel mechanism through which NME1 controls melanoma cell morphology via upregulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin. Expression of NME1 strongly suppressed cell motility in melanoma cell lines 1205LU and M14. The resulting sedentary phenotype was associated with a more flattened appearance and marked increases in actin stress fibre and focal adhesion formation. NME1-induced focal adhesions were colocalized with dense deposits of fibronectin, which were absent or minimal in the corresponding NME1-deficient parental lines. NME1 was a strong inducer of fibronectin mRNA and protein expression, shown with reciprocal approaches of forced NME1 expression and shRNA-mediated knock-down. Increased synthesis and ECM deposition of fibronectin was necessary for NME1-induced cell spreading, as knock-down of fibronectin opposed the effects of NME1 on cell morphology. Fibronectin knock-down also reversed the ability of NME1 to promote aggregation when cells were plated on a non-adherent substratum. Similarly, inhibiting activation of the fibronectin receptor integrin α4β1 with an anti-α4 antibody reversed the motility-suppressing effect of NME1. A positive correlation was observed between NME1 and fibronectin mRNA in clinical biopsies of normal skin, benign nevi and primary melanomas, but not in metastatic forms, suggesting the NME1/fibronectin axis represents a barrier to melanoma progression. In summary, these findings indicate fibronectin is an important effector of the motility-suppressing function of NME1 in melanoma cells. © 2015 The Authors Experimental Dermatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Approaches to systems biology. Four methods to study single-cell gene expression, cell motility, antibody reactivity, and respiratory metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Peter

    To understand how complex systems, such as cells, function, comprehensive Measurements of their constituent parts must be made. This can be achieved by combining methods that are each optimized to measure specific parts of the system. Four such methods,each covering a different area, are presented...... from such measurements allows models of the system to be developed and tested. For each of the methods, such analysis and modelling approaches have beenapplied and are presented: Differentially regulated genes are identified and classified according to function; cell-specfic motility models...... are developed that can distinguish between different surfaces; a method for selecting repertoires of antigens thatseparate mice based on their response to treatment is developed; and the observed concentrations of free and bound NADH is used to build and test a basic model of respiratory metabolism...

  10. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate interstitial flow mechanotransduction regulating MMP-13 expression and cell motility via FAK-ERK in 3D collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Dong Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial flow directly affects cells that reside in tissues and regulates tissue physiology and pathology by modulating important cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the structures that cells utilize to sense interstitial flow in a 3-dimensional (3D environment have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have shown that interstitial flow upregulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts via activation of an ERK1/2-c-Jun pathway, which in turn promotes cell migration in collagen. Herein, we focused on uncovering the flow-induced mechanotransduction mechanism in 3D.Cleavage of rat vascular SMC surface glycocalyx heparan sulfate (HS chains from proteoglycan (PG core proteins by heparinase or disruption of HS biosynthesis by silencing N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1 suppressed interstitial flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, interstitial collagenase (MMP-13 expression, and SMC motility in 3D collagen. Inhibition or knockdown of focal adhesion kinase (FAK also attenuated or blocked flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility. Interstitial flow induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr925, and this activation was blocked when heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs were disrupted. These data suggest that HSPGs mediate interstitial flow-induced mechanotransduction through FAK-ERK. In addition, we show that integrins are crucial for mechanotransduction through HSPGs as they mediate cell spreading and maintain cytoskeletal rigidity.We propose a conceptual mechanotransduction model wherein cell surface glycocalyx HSPGs, in the presence of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and cytoskeleton organization, sense interstitial flow and activate the FAK-ERK signaling axis, leading to upregulation of MMP expression and cell motility in 3D. This is the first study to describe a flow-induced mechanotransduction

  11. Oestrogen inhibits human colonic motility by a non-genomic cell membrane receptor-dependent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical effects of oestrogen involve activation of target genes after binding nuclear receptors. Oestrogenic effects too rapid for DNA transcription (non-genomic) are known to occur. The effect of oestrogen on colonic motility is unknown despite the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in pregnant and premenopausal women. METHODS: Histologically normal colon was obtained from proximal resection margins of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended in organ baths under 1 g of tension. After equilibration, they were exposed to 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8). Fulvestrant, an oestrogen receptor antagonist, was added to some baths (n = 8). Other strips were exposed to calphostin C or cycloheximide. Carbachol was added in increasing concentrations and contractile activity was recorded isometrically. RESULTS: Oestrogen inhibited colonic contractility (mean difference 19.7 per cent; n = 8, P < 0.001). In keeping with non-genomic, rapid-onset steroid action, the effect was apparent within minutes and reversible. It was observed with both 17beta-oestradiol and BSA-conjugated oestrogen, and was not altered by cycloheximide. Effects were inhibited by fulvestrant, suggesting receptor mediation. CONCLUSION: Oestrogen decreases contractility in human colonic smooth muscle by a non-genomic mechanism involving cell membrane coupling.

  12. Membrane-bound steel factor maintains a high local concentration for mouse primordial germ cell motility, and defines the region of their migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gu

    Full Text Available Steel factor, the protein product of the Steel locus in the mouse, is a multifunctional signal for the primordial germ cell population. We have shown previously that its expression accompanies the germ cells during migration to the gonads, forming a "travelling niche" that controls their survival, motility, and proliferation. Here we show that these functions are distributed between the alternatively spliced membrane-bound and soluble forms of Steel factor. The germ cells normally migrate as individuals from E7.5 to E11.5, when they aggregate together in the embryonic gonads. Movie analysis of Steel-dickie mutant embryos, which make only the soluble form, at E7.5, showed that the germ cells fail to migrate normally, and undergo "premature aggregation" in the base of the allantois. Survival and directionality of movement is not affected. Addition of excess soluble Steel factor to Steel-dickie embryos rescued germ cell motility, and addition of Steel factor to germ cells in vitro showed that a fourfold higher dose was required to increase motility, compared to survival. These data show that soluble Steel factor is sufficient for germ cell survival, and suggest that the membrane-bound form provides a higher local concentration of Steel factor that controls the balance between germ cell motility and aggregation. This hypothesis was tested by addition of excess soluble Steel factor to slice cultures of E11.5 embryos, when migration usually ceases, and the germ cells aggregate. This reversed the aggregation process, and caused increased motility of the germ cells. We conclude that the two forms of Steel factor control different aspects of germ cell behavior, and that membrane-bound Steel factor controls germ cell motility within a "motility niche" that moves through the embryo with the germ cells. Escape from this niche causes cessation of motility and death by apoptosis of the ectopic germ cells.

  13. THE DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF CELL MOTILE ACTIVITY THROUGH MATRIX STIFFNESS AND POROSITY IN THREE DIMENSIONAL COLLAGEN MATRICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Seemann, Joachim; Grinnell, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    In three dimensional collagen matrices, cell motile activity results in collagen translocation, cell spreading and cell migration. Cells can penetrate into the matrix as well as spread and migrate along its surface. In the current studies, we quantitatively characterize collagen translocation, cell spreading and cell migration in relationship to collagen matrix stiffness and porosity. Collagen matrices prepared with 1 to 4 mg/ml collagen exhibited matrix stiffness (storage modulus measured by oscillating rheometry) increasing from 4 to 60 Pa and matrix porosity (measured by scanning electron microscopy) decreasing from 4 to 1 μm2. Over this collagen concentration range, the consequences of cell motile activity changed markedly. As collagen concentration increased, cells no longer were able to cause translocation of collagen fibrils. Cell migration increased and cell spreading changed from dendritic to more flattened and polarized morphology depending on location of cells within or on the surface of the matrix. Collagen translocation appeared to depend primarily on matrix stiffness, whereas cell spreading and migration were less dependent on matrix stiffness and more dependent on collagen matrix porosity. PMID:20537378

  14. Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mikhail; Aiwu Ruth He

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent research supports that liver cancer is a disease of adult stem cells. From the models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, there may be at least three distinct cell lineages with progenitor properties susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Identification of specific cell surface markers fo...

  15. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    .... Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes...

  16. A cell number-counting factor regulates the cytoskeleton and cell motility in Dictyostelium

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Lei; Gao, Tong; McCollum, Catherine; Jang, Wonhee; Vicker, Michael G.; Ammann, Robin R.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about how a morphogenetic rearrangement of a tissue is affected by individual cells. Starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells aggregate to form dendritic streams, which then break up into groups of ≈2 × 104 cells. Cell number is sensed at this developmental stage by using counting factor (CF), a secreted complex of polypeptides. A high extracellular concentration of CF indicates that there is a large number of cells, which then causes the aggregation stream to break up. Compute...

  17. Toxigenic diversity of two different RAPD groups of Stachybotrys chartarum isolates analyzed by potential for trichothecene production and for boar sperm cell motility inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltola, J.; Niessen, L.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-one isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum from indoor and outdoor environments were analyzed for the presence of the trichodiene synthase (Tri5) gene, trichothecenes, boar sperm cell motility inhibition, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA banding patterns (RAPDs). Twenty-two S. chartarum...... satratoxins or trichodermol. Nineteen S. chartarum isolates, distributed among the Tri5 gene negative and positive groups, inhibited boar spermatozoan motility at concentrations of less than or equal to60 mug of crude cell extract/mL. The inhibition of motility was independent of satratoxins or atranones...

  18. The influence of non polar and polar molecules in mouse motile cells membranes and pure lipid bilayers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Sierra-Valdez

    Full Text Available We report an experimental study of mouse sperm motility that shows chief aspects characteristic of neurons: the anesthetic (produced by tetracaine and excitatory (produced by either caffeine or calcium effects and their antagonic action. While tetracaine inhibits sperm motility and caffeine has an excitatory action, the combination of these two substances balance the effects, producing a motility quite similar to that of control cells. We also study the effects of these agents (anesthetic and excitatory on the melting points of pure lipid liposomes constituted by 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA. Tetracaine induces a large fluidization of the membrane, shifting the liposomes melting transition temperature to much lower values. The effect of caffeine is null, but its addition to tetracaine-doped liposomes greatly screen the fluidization effect. A high calcium concentration stiffens pure lipid membranes and strongly reduces the effect of tetracaine. Molecular Dynamics Simulations are performed to further understand our experimental findings at the molecular level. We find a strong correlation between the effect of antagonic molecules that could explain how the mechanical properties suitable for normal cell functioning are affected and recovered.

  19. In Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zalata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU gene expression. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26, ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32, iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31 and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35. The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where pAT>A>N groups, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

  20. Basal cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure ... is required to watch for new sites of basal cell cancer.

  1. Progranulin modulates cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, and motility via the PI3K/pAkt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Minerva Daya,1–3 Watcharin Loilome,1,3 Anchalee Techasen,3,4 Malinee Thanee,3 Prakasit Sa-Ngiamwibool,4,5 Attapol Titapun,5,6 Puangrat Yongvanit,3 Nisana Namwat1,31Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santo Tomas, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines; 3Cholangiocarcinoma Research Institute, 4Faculty of Associated Medical Science, 5Department of Pathology, 6Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Abstract: Progranulin (PGRN is a growth factor normally expressed in rapidly cycling epithelial cells for growth, differentiation, and motility. Several studies have shown the association of PGRN overexpression with the progression of numerous malignancies, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. However, the underlying mechanisms on how PGRN modulates CCA cell proliferation and motility is not clear. In this study, we investigated the prognostic significance of PGRN expression in human CCA tissue and the mechanisms of PGRN modulation of CCA cell proliferation and motility. We found that CCA tissues with high PGRN expression were correlated with poor prognosis and likelihood of metastasis. PGRN knockdown KKU-100 and KKU-213 cells demonstrated a reduced rate of proliferation and colony formation and decreased levels of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt proteins. Accumulation of cells at the G1 phase was observed and was accompanied by a reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 protein levels. Knockdown cells also induced apoptosis by increasing the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. Increased cell apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Moreover, suppression of PGRN reduced CCA cell migration and invasion in vitro. Investigating the biomarkers in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT revealed a decrease in the expression of vimentin, snail, and metalloproteinase-9. In

  2. Prostate cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate gland formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade therapy. The androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG could be used to clarify both the cells of origin and the evolution of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we show that the hypothesis that distinct subtypes of cancer result from abnormalities within specific cell types-the stem cell theory of cancer-may instigate a major paradigm shift in cancer research and therapy. Ultimately, the stem cell theory of cancers will affect how we practice clinical oncology: our diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of prostate and other cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PDE8 controls CD4+ T cell motility through the PDE8A-Raf-1 kinase signaling complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basole, Chaitali P; Nguyen, Rebecca K; Lamothe, Katie; Vang, Amanda; Clark, Robert; Baillie, George S; Epstein, Paul M; Brocke, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    The levels of cAMP are regulated by phosphodiesterase enzymes (PDEs), which are targets for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. We have previously shown that PDE8 regulates T cell motility. Here, for the first time, we report that PDE8A exerts part of its control of T cell function through the V-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Raf-1) kinase signaling pathway. To examine T cell motility under physiologic conditions, we analyzed T cell interactions with endothelial cells and ligands in flow assays. The highly PDE8-selective enzymatic inhibitor PF-04957325 suppresses adhesion of in vivo myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) activated inflammatory CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells to brain endothelial cells under shear stress. Recently, PDE8A was shown to associate with Raf-1 creating a compartment of low cAMP levels around Raf-1 thereby protecting it from protein kinase A (PKA) mediated inhibitory phosphorylation. To test the function of this complex in Teff cells, we used a cell permeable peptide that selectively disrupts the PDE8A-Raf-1 interaction. The disruptor peptide inhibits the Teff-endothelial cell interaction more potently than the enzymatic inhibitor. Furthermore, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction was identified as a target of disruptor peptide mediated reduction of adhesion, spreading and locomotion of Teff cells under flow. Mechanistically, we observed that disruption of the PDE8A-Raf-1 complex profoundly alters Raf-1 signaling in Teff cells. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that PDE8A inhibition by enzymatic inhibitors or PDE8A-Raf-1 kinase complex disruptors decreases Teff cell adhesion and migration under flow, and represents a novel approach to target T cells in inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The cross-talk of LDL-cholesterol with cell motility: insights from the Niemann Pick Type C1 mutation and altered integrin trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Monira; Rentero, Carles; Conway, James R; Murray, Rachael Z; Timpson, Paul; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is considered indispensible for the recruitment and functioning of integrins in focal adhesions for cell migration. However, the physiological cholesterol pools that control integrin trafficking and focal adhesion assembly remain unclear. Using Niemann Pick Type C1 (NPC) mutant cells, which accumulate Low Density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol in late endosomes (LE), several recent studies indicate that LDL-cholesterol has multiple roles in regulating focal adhesion dynamics. Firstly, targeting of endocytosed LDL-cholesterol from LE to focal adhesions controls their formation at the leading edge of migrating cells. Other newly emerging literature suggests that this may be coupled to vesicular transport of integrins, Src kinase and metalloproteases from the LE compartment to focal adhesions. Secondly, our recent work identified LDL-cholesterol as a key factor that determines the distribution and ability of several Soluble NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP) Receptor (SNARE) proteins, key players in vesicle transport, to control integrin trafficking to the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. Collectively, dietary, genetic and pathological changes in cholesterol metabolism may link with efficiency and speed of integrin and ECM cell surface delivery in metastatic cancer cells. This commentary will summarize how direct and indirect pathways enable LDL-cholesterol to modulate cell motility.

  5. Regulation of Motility, Invasion and Metastatic Potential of Squamous Cell Carcinoma by 1,25D3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Su, Bing; Seshadri, Mukund; Luo, Wei; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND 1,25D3, the active metabolite of vitamin D, has been shown to exhibit broad spectrum anti-tumor activity in xenograft animal models. However, its activity against metastatic disease has not been extensively investigated. METHODS Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or 1,25D3-resistant variant SCC-DR cells were treated with 1,25D3. Actin organization was examined by immunofluorescence assay. Cell migration was assessed by “wound” healing and chemotactic migration assay. Cell invasion was assessed by Matrigel-based invasion assay and in situ zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and secretion was examined by immunoblot analysis and ELISA, respectively. E-cadherin expression was assessed by flow cytometry, immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of E-cadherin was achieved by siRNA. Experimental metastasis mouse model was done by intravenous injection of tumor cells. Lung tumor development was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, gross observation and histology. RESULTS SCC cellular morphology and actin organization were altered by 10 nM of 1,25D3. 1,25D3 inhibited SCC cell motility and invasion, which was associated with reduced expression and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. 1,25D3 promoted the expression of E-cadherin. These findings were not observed in SCC-DR cells. Knock down of E-cadherin rescued 1,25D3-inhibited cell migration. Intravenous injection of SCC or SCC-DR cells resulted in the establishment of extensive pulmonary lesions in saline-treated C3H mice. Treatment with 1,25D3 resulted in a marked reduction in the formation of lung tumor colonies in animals injected with SCC but not SCC-DR cells. CONCLUSIONS 1,25D3 suppresses SCC cell motility, invasion and metastasis, partially through the promotion of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:22833444

  6. Quantitative imaging of epithelial cell scattering identifies specific inhibitors of cell motility and cell-cell dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerke, D.; le Duc, Q.; Blonk, I.; Kerstens, A.; Spanjaard, E.; Machacek, M.; Danuser, G.; de Rooij, J.

    2012-01-01

    The scattering of cultured epithelial cells in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a model system that recapitulates key features of metastatic cell behavior in vitro, including disruption of cell-cell adhesions and induction of cell migration. We have developed image analysis tools that

  7. Local calcium elevation and cell elongation initiate guided motility in electrically stimulated osteoblast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Ozkucur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of the mechanisms of guided cell migration can contribute to our understanding of many crucial biological processes, such as development and regeneration. Endogenous and exogenous direct current electric fields (dcEF are known to induce directional cell migration, however the initial cellular responses to electrical stimulation are poorly understood. Ion fluxes, besides regulating intracellular homeostasis, have been implicated in many biological events, including regeneration. Therefore understanding intracellular ion kinetics during EF-directed cell migration can provide useful information for development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the initial events during migration of two osteogenic cell types, rat calvarial and human SaOS-2 cells, exposed to strong (10-15 V/cm and weak (< or = 5 V/cm dcEFs. Cell elongation and perpendicular orientation to the EF vector occurred in a time- and voltage-dependent manner. Calvarial osteoblasts migrated to the cathode as they formed new filopodia or lamellipodia and reorganized their cytoskeleton on the cathodal side. SaOS-2 cells showed similar responses except towards the anode. Strong dcEFs triggered a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels, whereas a steady state level of intracellular calcium was observed in weaker fields. Interestingly, we found that dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation was initiated with a local rise on opposite sides in calvarial and SaOS-2 cells, which may explain their preferred directionality. In calcium-free conditions, dcEFs induced neither intracellular calcium elevation nor directed migration, indicating an important role for calcium ions. Blocking studies using cadmium chloride revealed that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs are involved in dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data form a time scale of the morphological and physiological

  8. In vitro effect of cell phone radiation on motility, DNA fragmentation and clusterin gene expression in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalata, Adel; El-Samanoudy, Ayman Z; Shaalan, Dalia; El-Baiomy, Youssef; Mostafa, Taymour

    2015-01-01

    Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU) gene expression. In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26), ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32), iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31) and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35). The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where pAT>A>N groups, respectively (pnegative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

  9. A versatile class of cell surface directional motors gives rise to gliding motility and sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartel, Morgane; Ducret, Adrien; Thutupalli, Shashi; Czerwinski, Fabian; Le Gall, Anne-Valérie; Mauriello, Emilia M F; Bergam, Ptissam; Brun, Yves V; Shaevitz, Joshua; Mignot, Tâm

    2013-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells utilize an arsenal of processive transport systems to deliver macromolecules to specific subcellular sites. In prokaryotes, such transport mechanisms have only been shown to mediate gliding motility, a form of microbial surface translocation. Here, we show that the motility function of the Myxococcus xanthus Agl-Glt machinery results from the recent specialization of a versatile class of bacterial transporters. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Agl motility motor is modular and dissociates from the rest of the gliding machinery (the Glt complex) to bind the newly expressed Nfs complex, a close Glt paralogue, during sporulation. Following this association, the Agl system transports Nfs proteins directionally around the spore surface. Since the main spore coat polymer is secreted at discrete sites around the spore surface, its transport by Agl-Nfs ensures its distribution around the spore. Thus, the Agl-Glt/Nfs machineries may constitute a novel class of directional bacterial surface transporters that can be diversified to specific tasks depending on the cognate cargo and machinery-specific accessories.

  10. A versatile class of cell surface directional motors gives rise to gliding motility and sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Wartel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells utilize an arsenal of processive transport systems to deliver macromolecules to specific subcellular sites. In prokaryotes, such transport mechanisms have only been shown to mediate gliding motility, a form of microbial surface translocation. Here, we show that the motility function of the Myxococcus xanthus Agl-Glt machinery results from the recent specialization of a versatile class of bacterial transporters. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Agl motility motor is modular and dissociates from the rest of the gliding machinery (the Glt complex to bind the newly expressed Nfs complex, a close Glt paralogue, during sporulation. Following this association, the Agl system transports Nfs proteins directionally around the spore surface. Since the main spore coat polymer is secreted at discrete sites around the spore surface, its transport by Agl-Nfs ensures its distribution around the spore. Thus, the Agl-Glt/Nfs machineries may constitute a novel class of directional bacterial surface transporters that can be diversified to specific tasks depending on the cognate cargo and machinery-specific accessories.

  11. WISP-1 increases MMP-2 expression and cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chun-Han; Chiang, Yi-Chun; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2011-06-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a type of highly malignant tumor with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. Chondrosarcoma shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. WISP-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of matricellular proteins. However, the effect of WISP-1 on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here we found that WISP-1 increased the migration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in human chondrosarcoma cells (JJ012 cells). We also found that human chondrosarcoma tissues had significant expression of the WISP-1 which was higher than that in normal cartilage. α5β1 monoclonal antibody and MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) inhibited the WISP-1-induced increase of the migration and MMP-2 up-regulation of chondrosarcoma cells. WISP-1 stimulation increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MEK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In addition, NF-κB inhibitors also suppressed the cell migration and MMP-2 expression enhanced by WISP-1. Moreover, WISP-1 increased NF-κB luciferase activity and binding of p65 to the NF-κB element on the MMP-2 promoter. Taken together, our results indicated that WISP-1 enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 expression through the α5β1 integrin receptor, FAK, MEK, ERK, p65 and NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin-dependent motility and cell adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeton, Martina; Kanski, Regina; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Geerts, Dirk; van Tijn, P.; Wiche, Gerhard; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein expressed in astrocytes and neural stem cells. The GFAP gene is alternatively spliced, and expression of GFAP is highly regulated during development, on brain damage, and in neurodegenerative diseases. GFAPα is the canonical

  13. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  14. C-terminal Src kinase-mediated EPIYA phosphorylation of Pragmin creates a feed-forward C-terminal Src kinase activation loop that promotes cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Yoshie; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2016-07-01

    Pragmin is one of the few mammalian proteins containing the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) tyrosine-phosphorylation motif that was originally discovered in the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein. Following delivery into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation at the EPIYA motifs, CagA serves as an oncogenic scaffold/adaptor that promiscuously interacts with SH2 domain-containing mammalian proteins such as the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), a negative regulator of Src family kinases. Like CagA, Pragmin also forms a physical complex with Csk. In the present study, we found that Pragmin directly binds to Csk by the tyrosine-phosphorylated EPIYA motif. The complex formation potentiates kinase activity of Csk, which in turn phosphorylates Pragmin on tyrosine-238 (Y238), Y343, and Y391. As Y391 of Pragmin comprises the EPIYA motif, Pragmin-Csk interaction creates a feed-forward regulatory loop of Csk activation. Together with the finding that Pragmin and Csk are colocalized to focal adhesions, these observations indicate that the Pragmin-Csk interaction, triggered by Pragmin EPIYA phosphorylation, robustly stimulates the kinase activity of Csk at focal adhesions, which direct cell-matrix adhesion that regulates cell morphology and cell motility. As a consequence, expression of Pragmin and/or Csk in epithelial cells induces an elongated cell shape with elevated cell scattering in a manner that is mutually dependent on Pragmin and Csk. Deregulation of the Pragmin-Csk axis may therefore induce aberrant cell migration that contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Hurthle Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath Hurthle cell cancer Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  16. Basal cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads. If it is left untreated, it may spread into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone. In these cases, treatment can injure the appearance of the skin.

  17. Diatom cell size, coloniality and motility: trade-offs between temperature, salinity and nutrient supply with climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Svensson

    Full Text Available Reduction in body size has been proposed as a universal response of organisms, both to warming and to decreased salinity. However, it is still controversial if size reduction is caused by temperature or salinity on their own, or if other factors interfere as well. We used natural benthic diatom communities to explore how "body size" (cells and colonies and motility change along temperature (2-26°C and salinity (0.5-7.8 gradients in the brackish Baltic Sea. Fourth-corner analysis confirmed that small cell and colony sizes were associated with high temperature in summer. Average community cell volume decreased linearly with 2.2% per °C. However, cells were larger with artificial warming when nutrient concentrations were high in the cold season. Average community cell volume increased by 5.2% per °C of artificial warming from 0 to 8.5°C and simultaneously there was a selection for motility, which probably helped to optimize growth rates by trade-offs between nutrient supply and irradiation. Along the Baltic Sea salinity gradient cell size decreased with decreasing salinity, apparently mediated by nutrient stoichiometry. Altogether, our results suggest that climate change in this century may polarize seasonality by creating two new niches, with elevated temperature at high nutrient concentrations in the cold season (increasing cell size and elevated temperature at low nutrient concentrations in the warm season (decreasing cell size. Higher temperature in summer and lower salinity by increased land-runoff are expected to decrease the average cell size of primary producers, which is likely to affect the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels.

  18. Pea Broth Enhances the Biocontrol Efficacy of Lysobacter capsici AZ78 by Triggering Cell Motility Associated with Biogenesis of Type IV Pilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomada, Selena; Puopolo, Gerardo; Perazzolli, Michele; Musetti, Rita; Loi, Nazia; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cells can display different types of motility, due to the presence of external appendages such as flagella and type IV pili. To date, little information on the mechanisms involved in the motility of the Lysobacter species has been available. Recently, L. capsici AZ78, a biocontrol agent of phytopathogenic oomycetes, showed the ability to move on jellified pea broth. Pea broth medium improved also the biocontrol activity of L. capsici AZ78 against Plasmopara viticola under greenhouse conditions. Noteworthy, the quantity of pea residues remaining on grapevine leaves fostered cell motility in L. capsici AZ78. Based on these results, this unusual motility related to the composition of the growth medium was investigated in bacterial strains belonging to several Lysobacter species. The six L. capsici strains tested developed dendrite-like colonies when grown on jellified pea broth, while the development of dendrite-like colonies was not recorded in the media commonly used in motility assays. To determine the presence of genes responsible for biogenesis of the flagellum and type IV pili, the genome of L. capsici AZ78 was mined. Genes encoding structural components and regulatory factors of type IV pili were upregulated in L. capsici AZ78 cells grown on the above-mentioned medium, as compared with the other tested media. These results provide new insight into the motility mechanism of L. capsici members and the role of type IV pili and pea compounds on the epiphytic fitness and biocontrol features of L. capsici AZ78.

  19. Pea broth enhances the biocontrol efficacy of Lysobacter capsici AZ78 by triggering cell motility associated with biogenesis of type IV pilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Tomada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cells can display different types of motility, due to the presence of external appendages such as flagella and type IV pili. To date, little information on the mechanisms involved in the motility of the Lysobacter species has been available. Recently, L. capsici AZ78, a biocontrol agent of phytopathogenic oomycetes, showed the ability to move on jellified pea broth. Pea broth medium improved also the biocontrol activity of L. capsici AZ78 against Plasmopara viticola under greenhouse conditions. Noteworthy, the quantity of pea residues remaining on grapevine leaves fostered cell motility in L. capsici AZ78. Based on these results, this unusual motility related to the composition of the growth medium was investigated in bacterial strains belonging to several Lysobacter species. The six L. capsici strains tested developed dendrite-like colonies when grown on jellified pea broth, while the development of dendrite-like colonies was not recorded in the media commonly used in motility assays. To determine the presence of genes responsible for biogenesis of the flagellum and type IV pili, the genome of L. capsici AZ78 was mined. Genes encoding structural components an d regulatory factors of type IV pili were upregulated in L. capsici AZ78 cells grown on the above-mentioned medium, as compared with the other tested media. These results provide new insight into the motility mechanism of L. capsici members and the role of type IV pili and pea compounds on the epiphytic fitness and biocontrol features of L. capsici AZ78.

  20. Anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-19 inhibits smooth muscle cell migration and activation of cytoskeletal regulators of VSMC motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabunia, Khatuna; Jain, Surbhi; England, Ross N.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is an important cellular event in multiple vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and transplant vasculopathy. Little is known regarding the effects of anti-inflammatory interleukins on VSMC migration. This study tested the hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory Th2 interleukin, interleukin-19 (IL-19), could decrease VSMC motility. IL-19 significantly decreased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated VSMC chemotaxis in Boyden chambers and migration in scratch wound assays. IL-19 significantly decreased VSMC spreading in response to PDGF. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) for these cellular effects, we examined the effect of IL-19 on activation of proteins that regulate VSMC cytoskeletal dynamics and locomotion. IL-19 decreased PDGF-driven activation of several cytoskeletal regulatory proteins that play an important role in smooth muscle cell motility, including heat shock protein-27 (HSP27), myosin light chain (MLC), and cofilin. IL-19 decreased PDGF activation of the Rac1 and RhoA GTPases, important integrators of migratory signals. IL-19 was unable to inhibit VSMC migration nor was able to inhibit activation of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins in VSMC transduced with a constitutively active Rac1 mutant (RacV14), suggesting that IL-19 inhibits events proximal to Rac1 activation. Together, these data are the first to indicate that IL-19 can have important inhibitory effects on VSMC motility and activation of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. This has important implications for the use of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the treatment of vascular occlusive disease. PMID:21209363

  1. Galectin-3 maintains cell motility from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Isabelle; Kim, Yongsoo; Young, Christopher C; van der Harg, Judith M; Hockberger, Philip; Bolam, Paul J; Poirier, Françoise; Szele, Francis G

    2011-07-15

    The adult brain subventricular zone (SVZ) produces neuroblasts that migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB) in a specialized niche. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) regulates proliferation and migration in cancer and is expressed by activated macrophages after brain injury. The function of Gal-3 in the normal brain is unknown, but we serendipitously found that it was expressed by ependymal cells and SVZ astrocytes in uninjured mice. Ependymal cilia establish chemotactic gradients and astrocytes form glial tubes, which combine to aid neuroblast migration. Whole-mount preparations and electron microscopy revealed that both ependymal cilia and SVZ astrocytes were disrupted in Gal3(-/-) mice. Interestingly, far fewer new BrdU(+) neurons were found in the OB of Gal3(-/-) mice, than in wild-type mice 2 weeks after labeling. However, SVZ proliferation and cell death, as well as OB differentiation rates were unaltered. This suggested that decreased migration in vivo was sufficient to decrease the number of new OB neurons. Two-photon time-lapse microscopy in forebrain slices confirmed decreased migration; cells were slower and more exploratory in Gal3(-/-) mice. Gal-3 blocking antibodies decreased migration and dissociated neuroblast cell-cell contacts, whereas recombinant Gal-3 increased migration from explants. Finally, we showed that expression of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was increased in Gal3(-/-) mice. These results suggest that Gal-3 is important in SVZ neuroblast migration, possibly through an EGFR-based mechanism, and reveals a role for this lectin in the uninjured brain.

  2. Amphiregulin enhances alpha6beta1 integrin expression and cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells through Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK/AP-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Ju; Lin, Chih-Yang; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Su, Jen-Liang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-05-10

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor that produces cartilage matrix. The most lethal aspect is its metastatic property. We demonstrated that amphiregulin (AR) is significantly upregulated in highly aggressive cells. AR silencing markedly suppressed cell migration. Exogenous AR markedly increased cell migration by transactivation of α6β1 integrin expression. A neutralizing α6β1 integrin antibody can abolish AR-induced cell motility. Knockdown of AR inhibits metastasis of cells to the lung in vivo. Furthermore, elevated AR expression is positively correlated with α6β1 integrin levels and higher grades in patients. These findings can potentially serve as biomarker and therapeutic approach for controlling chondrosarcoma metastasis.

  3. Control of human endometrial stromal cell motility by PDGF-BB, HB-EGF and trophoblast-secreted factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Schwenke

    Full Text Available Human implantation involves extensive tissue remodeling at the fetal-maternal interface. It is becoming increasingly evident that not only trophoblast, but also decidualizing endometrial stromal cells are inherently motile and invasive, and likely contribute to the highly dynamic processes at the implantation site. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the regulation of endometrial stromal cell motility and to identify trophoblast-derived factors that modulate migration. Among local growth factors known to be present at the time of implantation, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF triggered chemotaxis (directed locomotion, whereas platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB elicited both chemotaxis and chemokinesis (non-directed locomotion of endometrial stromal cells. Supernatants of the trophoblast cell line AC-1M88 and of first trimester villous explant cultures stimulated chemotaxis but not chemokinesis. Proteome profiling for cytokines and angiogenesis factors revealed neither PDGF-BB nor HB-EGF in conditioned media from trophoblast cells or villous explants, while placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and PDGF-AA were identified as prominent secretory products. Among these, only PDGF-AA triggered endometrial stromal cell chemotaxis. Neutralization of PDGF-AA in trophoblast conditioned media, however, did not diminish chemoattractant activity, suggesting the presence of additional trophoblast-derived chemotactic factors. Pathway inhibitor studies revealed ERK1/2, PI3 kinase/Akt and p38 signaling as relevant for chemotactic motility, whereas chemokinesis depended primarily on PI3 kinase/Akt activation. Both chemotaxis and chemokinesis were stimulated upon inhibition of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase. The chemotactic response to trophoblast secretions was not blunted by inhibition of isolated signaling cascades, indicating

  4. Biophysical Properties and Motility of Human Mature Dendritic Cells Deteriorated by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor through Cytoskeleton Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zu-Quan; Xue, Hui; Long, Jin-Hua; Wang, Yun; Jia, Yi; Qiu, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Wen, Zong-Yao; Yao, Wei-Juan; Zeng, Zhu

    2016-10-31

    Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells, play a central role in the initiation, regulation, and maintenance of the immune responses. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the important cytokines in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and can inhibit the differentiation and functional maturation of DCs. To elucidate the potential mechanisms of DC dysfunction induced by VEGF, the effects of VEGF on the biophysical characteristics and motility of human mature DCs (mDCs) were investigated. The results showed that VEGF had a negative influence on the biophysical properties, including electrophoretic mobility, osmotic fragility, viscoelasticity, and transmigration. Further cytoskeleton structure analysis by confocal microscope and gene expression profile analyses by gene microarray and real-time PCR indicated that the abnormal remodeling of F-actin cytoskeleton may be the main reason for the deterioration of biophysical properties, motility, and stimulatory capability of VEGF-treated mDCs. This is significant for understanding the biological behavior of DCs and the immune escape mechanism of tumors. Simultaneously, the therapeutic efficacies may be improved by blocking the signaling pathway of VEGF in an appropriate manner before the deployment of DC-based vaccinations against tumors.

  5. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  6. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Receptor for hyaluronic acid- mediated motility (RHAMM) regulates HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell proliferation via a β-catenin/c-myc signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvidi, Katerina; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Tzardi, Maria; Karousou, Evgenia; Passi, Alberto; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George N

    2016-04-01

    High levels of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in various cancer tissues, including sarcomas, are correlated with tumorigenesis and malignant transformation. RHAMM (receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility) is overexpressed during tumor development in different malignancies. β-Catenin is a crucial downstream mediator of the Wnt signaling cascade which facilitates carcinogenic events characterized by deregulated cell proliferation. Real-time PCR, in vitro cell proliferation assay, siRNA transfection, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, western blotting and immunofluorescence were utilized. The reduction of RHAMM expression was strongly correlated with an inhibition of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell growth (p≤0.01). LMWHA, in a RHAMM-dependent manner increases cell growth of HT1080 cells (p≤0.01). Both basal and LMWHA dependent growth of HT1080 cells was attenuated by β-catenin deficiency (p≤0.01). β-Catenin cytoplasmatic deposition is positively regulated by RHAMM (p≤0.01). Immunoflourescence and immunoprecipitation suggest that RHAMM/β-catenin form an intracellular complex. Transfection experiments identified c-myc as candidate downstream mediator of RHAMM/β-catenin effects on HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell proliferation. LMWHA/RHAMM downstream signaling regulates fibrosarcoma cell growth in a β-catenin/c-myc dependent manner. The present study suggests that RHAMM is a novel β-catenin intracellular binding partner, protecting β-catenin from degradation and supporting the nuclear translocation of this key cellular mediator, which results in c-myc activation and enhanced fibrosarcoma cell growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenic trioxide suppresses cell growth and migration via inhibition of miR-27a in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunhua; Ma, Cong; Pang, Haijie; Zeng, Fanpeng; Cheng, Long; Fang, Binbin; Ma, Jia; Shi, Ying; Hong, Haiyu; Chen, Jianyan; Wang, Zhiwei; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) exhibits its anti-cancer activities in a variety of human malignancies. Recent studies have revealed that ATO regulated multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancers. However, the exact mechanism of ATO-mediated tumor suppressive function has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we explore whether ATO governed oncogenic miR-27a in breast cancer cells by multiple methods such as MTT assay, RT-PCR, Wound healing assay, Western blotting analysis, migration, Transwell invasion assay, and transfection. Our results showed that ATO inhibited cell growth, migration, invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Further molecular analysis dissected that ATO inhibited miR-27a expression in breast cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of miR-27a suppressed cell growth, migration, invasion, and trigged cell apoptosis, whereas overexpression of miR-27a enhanced cell growth, motility, and inhibited apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Notably, we found that miR-27a inhibitor treatment potentiates ATO-induced breast cancer cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and motility inhibition. However, overexpression of miR-27a partly abrogated ATO-mediated anti-tumor activity. Our findings provide a novel anti-tumor mechanism of ATO involved in miR-27a for the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ophiobolin A from Bipolaris oryzae Perturbs Motility and Membrane Integrities of Porcine Sperm and Induces Cell Death on Mammalian Somatic Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottó Bencsik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris oryzae is a phytopathogenic fungus causing a brown spot disease in rice, and produces substance that strongly perturbs motility and membrane integrities of boar spermatozoa. The substance was isolated from the liquid culture of the fungal strain using extraction and a multi-step semi-preparative HPLC procedures. Based on the results of mass spectrometric and 2D NMR techniques, the bioactive molecule was identified as ophiobolin A, a previously described sesterterpene-type compound. The purified ophiobolin A exhibited strong motility inhibition and viability reduction on boar spermatozoa. Furthermore, it damaged the sperm mitochondria significantly at sublethal concentration by the dissipation of transmembrane potential in the mitochondrial inner membrane, while the plasma membrane permeability barrier remained intact. The study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of ophiobolin A toward somatic cell lines is higher by 1–2 orders of magnitude compared to other mitochondriotoxic mycotoxins, and towards sperm cells unique by replacing the progressive motility by shivering tail beating at low exposure concentration.

  10. The Ras-ERK pathway modulates cytoskeleton organization, cell motility and lung metastasis signature genes in MDA-MB-231 LM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C; Helfman, D M

    2014-07-10

    MDA-MB-231 LM2 (herein referred to as LM2) is a derivative of MDA-MB-231 cells that was selected for its ability to metastasize to lung tissue in vivo. We investigated cellular properties of LM2 including actin cytoskeleton organization, motility and signaling pathways that drive the expression of genes associated with the lung metastasis signature. Parental cells exhibit well-developed stress fibers, whereas LM2 had poorly organized stress fibers. LM2 exhibited higher levels of K-Ras protein and corresponding higher levels of phosphorylated ERK compared with parental cells. The Ras-ERK pathway was responsible for the disruption of stress fibers because inhibition of MEK with UO126 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) against K-Ras or ERK1/2 resulted in restoration of stress fibers and focal adhesions. We observed that the K-Ras-ERK pathway is important for the expression of genes associated with the lung metastasis signature. Paradoxically, inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway did not result in inhibition of cell motility but was accompanied by activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Inhibition of both ERK and PI3K pathways was required to inhibit motility of LM2 cells. These results suggest that both ERK and PI3K pathways drive motile functions of metastatic LM2 cells and genes associated with the lung metastasis signature.

  11. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 is involved in WISP-1-promoted cell motility in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yuan Chuang

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has a tendency to migrate and metastasize. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov (CCN family of matrix cellular proteins. The effect of WISP-1 on human OSCC cells, however, is unknown. Here, we showed that WISP-1 increased cell migration and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 expression in OSCC cells. Pretreatment of cells with integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody (mAb significantly abolished WISP-1-induced cell migration and ICAM-1 expression. On the other hand, WISP-1-mediated cell motility and ICAM-1 upregulation were attenuated by ASK1, JNK, and p38 inhibitor. Furthermore, WISP-1 also enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1 activation, and the integrin αvβ3 mAb, and ASK1, JNK, and p38 inhibitors reduced WISP-1-mediated AP-1 activation. Moreover, WISP-1 and ICAM-1 expression correlated with the tumor stage of patients with OSCC. Our results indicate that WISP-1 enhances the migration of OSCC cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression through the αvβ3 integrin receptor and the ASK1, JNK/p38, and AP-1 signal transduction pathways.

  12. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Is Involved in WISP-1–Promoted Cell Motility in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, An-Chen; Chiang, I-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a tendency to migrate and metastasize. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1) is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov (CCN) family of matrix cellular proteins. The effect of WISP-1 on human OSCC cells, however, is unknown. Here, we showed that WISP-1 increased cell migration and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in OSCC cells. Pretreatment of cells with integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly abolished WISP-1–induced cell migration and ICAM-1 expression. On the other hand, WISP-1–mediated cell motility and ICAM-1 upregulation were attenuated by ASK1, JNK, and p38 inhibitor. Furthermore, WISP-1 also enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation, and the integrin αvβ3 mAb, and ASK1, JNK, and p38 inhibitors reduced WISP-1–mediated AP-1 activation. Moreover, WISP-1 and ICAM-1 expression correlated with the tumor stage of patients with OSCC. Our results indicate that WISP-1 enhances the migration of OSCC cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression through the αvβ3 integrin receptor and the ASK1, JNK/p38, and AP-1 signal transduction pathways. PMID:24205072

  13. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 is involved in WISP-1-promoted cell motility in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, An-Chen; Chiang, I-Ping; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a tendency to migrate and metastasize. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP-1) is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov (CCN) family of matrix cellular proteins. The effect of WISP-1 on human OSCC cells, however, is unknown. Here, we showed that WISP-1 increased cell migration and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in OSCC cells. Pretreatment of cells with integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly abolished WISP-1-induced cell migration and ICAM-1 expression. On the other hand, WISP-1-mediated cell motility and ICAM-1 upregulation were attenuated by ASK1, JNK, and p38 inhibitor. Furthermore, WISP-1 also enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation, and the integrin αvβ3 mAb, and ASK1, JNK, and p38 inhibitors reduced WISP-1-mediated AP-1 activation. Moreover, WISP-1 and ICAM-1 expression correlated with the tumor stage of patients with OSCC. Our results indicate that WISP-1 enhances the migration of OSCC cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression through the αvβ3 integrin receptor and the ASK1, JNK/p38, and AP-1 signal transduction pathways.

  14. Oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans are key players in integrin signaling and tumor cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Bento Ayres Pereira, Marina Maria; Al Nakouzi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Many tumors express proteoglycans modified with oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS), which are normally restricted to the placenta. However, the role of ofCS in cancer is largely unknown. The function of ofCS in cancer was analyzed using the recombinant ofCS-binding VAR2...

  15. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cell cancer include: Having light-colored skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Long-term, daily sun exposure (such as in people who work outside) Many severe sunburns early in life Older age Having had many x-rays Chemical exposure A weakened immune system, especially in ...

  16. Phosphorylation of CSF-1R Y721 mediates its association with PI3K to regulate macrophage motility and enhancement of tumor cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Natalia G; Yu, Wenfeng; Cox, Dianne; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John; Stanley, E Richard; Pixley, Fiona J

    2011-06-15

    Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) regulates macrophage morphology and motility, as well as mononuclear phagocytic cell proliferation and differentiation. The CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) transduces these pleiotropic signals through autophosphorylation of eight intracellular tyrosine residues. We have used a novel bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line system to examine specific signaling pathways activated by tyrosine-phosphorylated CSF-1R in macrophages. Screening of macrophages expressing a single species of CSF-1R with individual tyrosine-to-phenylalanine residue mutations revealed striking morphological alterations upon mutation of Y721. M⁻/⁻.Y721F cells were apolar and ruffled poorly in response to CSF-1. Y721-P-mediated CSF-1R signaling regulated adhesion and actin polymerization to control macrophage spreading and motility. Moreover, the reduced motility of M⁻/⁻.Y721F macrophages was associated with their reduced capacity to enhance carcinoma cell invasion. Y721 phosphorylation mediated the direct association of the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) with the CSF-1R, but not that of phospholipase C (PLC) γ2, and induced polarized PtdIns(3,4,5)P₃ production at the putative leading edge, implicating PI3K as a major regulator of CSF-1-induced macrophage motility. The Y721-P-motif-based motility signaling was at least partially independent of both Akt and increased Rac and Cdc42 activation but mediated the rapid and transient association of an unidentified ~170 kDa phosphorylated protein with either Rac-GTP or Cdc42-GTP. These studies identify CSF-1R-Y721-P-PI3K signaling as a major pathway in CSF-1-regulated macrophage motility and provide a starting point for the discovery of the immediate downstream signaling events.

  17. Microbial dispersal in unsaturated porous media: Characteristics of motile bacterial cell motions in unsaturated angular pore networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali N.; Or, Dani

    2014-09-01

    The dispersal rates of self-propelled microorganisms affect their spatial interactions and the ecological functioning of microbial communities. Microbial dispersal rates affect risk of contamination of water resources by soil-borne pathogens, the inoculation of plant roots, or the rates of spoilage of food products. In contrast with the wealth of information on microbial dispersal in water replete systems, very little is known about their dispersal rates in unsaturated porous media. The fragmented aqueous phase occupying complex soil pore spaces suppress motility and limits dispersal ranges in unsaturated soil. The primary objective of this study was to systematically evaluate key factors that shape microbial dispersal in model unsaturated porous media to quantify effects of saturation, pore space geometry, and chemotaxis on characteristics of principles that govern motile microbial dispersion in unsaturated soil. We constructed a novel 3-D angular pore network model (PNM) to mimic aqueous pathways in soil for different hydration conditions; within the PNM, we employed an individual-based model that considers physiological and biophysical properties of motile and chemotactic bacteria. The effects of hydration conditions on first passage times in different pore networks were studied showing that fragmentation of aquatic habitats under dry conditions sharply suppresses nutrient transport and microbial dispersal rates in good agreement with limited experimental data. Chemotactically biased mean travel speed of microbial cells across 9 mm saturated PNM was ˜3 mm/h decreasing exponentially to 0.45 mm/h for the PNM at matric potential of -15 kPa (for -35 kPa, dispersal practically ceases and the mean travel time to traverse the 9 mm PNM exceeds 1 year). Results indicate that chemotaxis enhances dispersal rates by orders of magnitude relative to random (diffusive) motions. Model predictions considering microbial cell sizes relative to available liquid pathways sizes were

  18. A conserved ankyrin repeat-containing protein regulates conoid stability, motility and cell invasion in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Shaojun; Anthony, Bryan; Drewry, Lisa L; Sibley, L David

    2017-12-21

    Apicomplexan parasites are typified by an apical complex that contains a unique microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) that organizes the cytoskeleton. In apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, the apical complex includes a spiral cap of tubulin-rich fibers called the conoid. Although described ultrastructurally, the composition and functions of the conoid are largely unknown. Here, we localize 11 previously undescribed apical proteins in T. gondii and identify an essential component named conoid protein hub 1 (CPH1), which is conserved in apicomplexan parasites. CPH1 contains ankyrin repeats that are required for structural integrity of the conoid, parasite motility, and host cell invasion. Proximity labeling and protein interaction network analysis reveal that CPH1 functions as a hub linking key motor and structural proteins that contain intrinsically disordered regions and coiled coil domains. Our findings highlight the importance of essential protein hubs in controlling biological networks of MTOCs in early-branching protozoan parasites.

  19. Ras activation mediates WISP-1-induced increases in cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase expression in human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Lin; Tsai, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Zhen-Wei; Wu, Chi-Ming; Li, Te-Mao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-12-01

    WISP-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of matrix cellular proteins. Osteosarcoma is a type of highly malignant tumor with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. However, the effect of WISP-1 on migration activity in human osteosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. In this study, we first found that the expression of WISP-1 in osteosarcoma patients was significantly higher than that in normal bone and corrected with tumor stage. Exogenous treatment of osteosarcoma cells with WISP-1 promoted cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. In addition, the Ras and Raf-1 inhibitor or siRNA abolished WISP-1-induced cell migration and MMP expression. On the other hand, activation of the Ras, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, and NF-κB signaling pathway after WISP-1 treatment was demonstrated, and WISP-1-induced expression of MMPs and migration activity were inhibited by the specific inhibitor, and mutant of MEK, ERK, and NF-κB cascades. Taken together, our results indicated that WISP-1 enhances the migration of osteosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression through the integrin receptor, Ras, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, and NF-κB signal transduction pathway. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prolactin signaling stimulates invasion via Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 in T47D human breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraz Cuesta, Elena; Fredsted, Jacob; Jensen, Helene H.

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor the PRLR are implicated in breast cancer invasiveness, although their exact roles remain controversial. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 plays essential roles in cancer cell motility and invasiveness, but the PRLR and NHE1 have not previously been linked. Here, we show...

  1. KIF20A-Mediated RNA Granule Transport System Promotes the Invasiveness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Taniuchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancers are aggressive because they are highly invasive and highly metastatic; moreover, effective treatments for aggressive pancreatic cancers are lacking. Here, we report that the motor kinesin protein KIF20A promoted the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through transporting the RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 and IGF2BP3-bound transcripts toward cell protrusions along microtubules. We previously reported that IGF2BP3 and its target transcripts are assembled into cytoplasmic stress granules of pancreatic cancer cells, and that IGF2BP3 promotes the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through regulation of localized translation of IGF2BP3-bound transcripts in cell protrusions. We show that knockdown of KIF20A inhibited accumulation of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules in cell protrusions and suppressed local protein expression from specific IGF2BP3-bound transcripts, ARF6 and ARHGEF4, in the protrusions. Our results provide insight into the link between regulation of KIF20A-mediated trafficking of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules and modulation of the motility and invasiveness in pancreatic cancers.

  2. Effects of sulfate restriction upon cell motility and sup 35 SO sub 4 incorporation in Microciona prolifera, the marine sponge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhns, W.J.; Misevic, G.; Burger, M.M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States) University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland) Friedrich Miescher Inst., Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-03-11

    Cells of the marine sponge, Microciona prolifera, secrete reduced amounts of macromolecules and became less motile than normal when the medium is deprived of sulfate. Aggregation factor (MAF) secreted from rotated cells under these conditions is less copious than normal. To understand this change, the authors introduced carrier free {sup 35}SO{sub 4} into rotated cells treated beforehand to remove preformed secretions and separated into medium with (SO{sub 4+}) or without (SO{sub 4{minus}})sulfate. The authors demonstrated a 3 to 10 fold increase in {sup 35}SO{sub 4} uptake in sulfate deprived cells over normals over a period of five days, while protein synthesis was similar in both cohorts. Triton X100 extracts from washed cells at different times following {sup 35}SO{sub 4} were assayed for MAF by mixing with monoclonal anti-MAF, and then exposing them to Sepharose-staph protein A beads. Washed test and control beads were examined for {sup 35}SO{sub 4} and results were related to total {sup 35}SO{sub 4} macromolecules separated from the corresponding cell extracts by high voltage electrophoresis. Cell extracts 15 h after {sup 35}SO{sub 4} addition yielded as MAF, 30.3% and 62.4% of total {sup 35}SO{sub 4} macromolecules, respectively, in SO{sub 4{minus}} and SO{sub 4+} cell cohorts. MAF from SO{sub 4{minus}} Triton extracts was increased compared with the SO{sub 4+} yield and when correlated with earlier findings, suggested cell retention of undersulfated MAF. The authors believe from this result that MAF sulfate is of importance in MAF transport from vesicle to surface membrane and in MAF functions and possibly as related to factors regulating cellular SO{sub 4} uptake.

  3. Alcohol and Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Xu; Jia Luo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and ...

  4. Analysis of Stem Cell Motility In Vivo Based on Immunodetection of Planarian Neoblasts and Tracing of BrdU-Labeled Cells After Partial Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Junichi; Uchiyama-Tasaki, Chihiro; Rouhana, Labib

    2016-01-01

    Planarian flatworms have become an important system for the study of stem cell behavior and regulation in vivo. These organisms are able to regenerate any part of their body upon damage or amputation. A crucial cellular event in the process of planarian regeneration is the migration of pluripotent stem cells (known as neoblasts) to the site of injury. Here we describe two approaches for analyzing migration of planarian stem cells to an area where these have been ablated by localized X-ray irradiation. The first approach involves immunolabeling of mitotic neoblasts, while the second is based on tracing stem cells and their progeny after BrdU incorporation. The use of planarians in studies of cell motility is suitable for the identification of factors that influence stem cell migration in vivo and is amenable to RNA interference or pharmacological screening.

  5. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Mouse fibroblasts cultured on 7-μm-long vertical nanowires are reported on page 4006 by C. N. Prinz and co-workers. Culturing cells on this kind of substrate interferes greatly with cell function, causing the cells to develop into widely different morphologies. The cells' division is impaired...

  6. α-Solanine Inhibits Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer Cell by Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and MMPs Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kun-Hung Shen; Alex Chien-Hwa Liao; Jui-Hsiang Hung; Wei-Jiunn Lee; Kai-Chieh Hu; Pin-Tsen Lin; Ruei-Fang Liao; Pin-Shern Chen

    2014-01-01

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of ...

  7. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Prideaux

    Full Text Available Parathyroid Hormone (PTH can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R, which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1 promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA, exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac, protein kinase C (PKC or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these

  8. Cochlin induced TREK-1 co-expression and annexin A2 secretion: role in trabecular meshwork cell elongation and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manik; Sienkiewicz, Adam E; Picciani, Renata; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2011-01-01

    Fluid flow through large interstitial spaces is sensed at the cellular level, and mechanistic responses to flow changes enables expansion or contraction of the cells modulating the surrounding area and brings about changes in fluid flow. In the anterior eye chamber, aqueous humor, a clear fluid, flows through trabecular meshwork (TM), a filter like region. Cochlin, a secreted protein in the extracellular matrix, was identified in the TM of glaucomatous patients but not controls by mass spectrometry. Cochlin undergoes shear induced multimerization and plays a role in mechanosensing of fluid shear. Cytoskeletal changes in response to mechanosensing in the ECM by cochlin will necessitate transduction of mechanosensing. TREK-1, a stretch activated outward rectifying potassium channel protein known to act as mechanotransducer was found to be expressed in TM. Cochlin expression results in co-expression of TREK-1 and filopodia formation. Prolonged cochlin expression results in expression and subsequent secretion of annexin A2, a protein known to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling. Cochlin interacts with TREK-1 and annexin A2. Cochlin-TREK-1 interaction has functional consequences and results in changes in cell shape and motility. Annexin A2 expression and secretion follows cochlin-TREK-1 syn-expression and correlates with cell elongation. Thus cytoskeleton changes in response to fluid shear sensed by cochlin are further mediated by TREK-1 and annexin A2.

  9. Fra-1 induces morphological transformation and increases in vitro invasiveness and motility of epithelioid adenocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustikova, O.; Kramerov, D.; Grigorian, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two cell lines originating from a common ancestral tumor, CSML0 and CSML100, were used as a model to study AP-1 transcription factors at different steps of tumor progression. CSML0 cells have an epithelial morphology; they express epithelial but not mesenchymal markers and are invasive neither...... component, namely, JunD, detected in both cell lines. We found that the enhanced level of AP-1 in CSML100 cells was due to high expression of Fra-1 and Fra-2 proteins, which were undetectable in CSML0 nuclear extracts. Analysis of the transcription of different AP-1 members in various cell lines derived...... from tumors of epithelial origin revealed a correlation of fra-1 expression with mesenchymal characteristics of carcinoma cells. Moreover, we show here for the first time that the expression of exogenous Fra-1 in epithelioid cells results in morphological changes that resemble fibroblastoid conversion...

  10. Reduced Contractility and Motility of Prostatic Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts after Inhibition of Heat Shock Protein 90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Henke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF can stimulate malignant progression and invasion of prostatic tumour cells via several mechanisms including those active in extracellular matrix; Methods: We isolated CAF from prostate cancer patients of Gleason Score 6–10 and confirmed their cancer-promoting activity using an in vivo tumour reconstitution assay comprised of CAF and BPH1 cells. We tested the effects of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 inhibitors upon reconstituted tumour growth in vivo. Additionally, CAF contractility was measured in a 3D collagen contraction assay and migration was measured by scratch assay; Results: HSP90 inhibitors dipalmitoyl-radicicol and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG reduced tumour size and proliferation in CAF/BPH1 reconstituted tumours in vivo. We observed that the most contractile CAF were derived from patients with lower Gleason Score and of younger age compared with the least contractile CAF. HSP90 inhibitors radicicol and 17-DMAG inhibited contractility and reduced the migration of CAF in scratch assays. Intracellular levels of HSP70 and HSP90 were upregulated upon treatment with HSP90 inhibitors. Inhibition of HSP90 also led to a specific increase in transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2 levels in CAF; Conclusions: We suggest that HSP90 inhibitors act not only upon tumour cells, but also on CAF in the tumour microenvironment.

  11. Apocynin attenuates motility and induces transition from sustained to transient EGF-dependent Akt activation in MCF-7 cells that overexpress adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazalii A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a possible involvement of NADPH oxidases in the control of cell motility and Akt signaling in the human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells that stably overexpress the full-length form of adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85. Methods. Cell motility was studied by a transwell migration assay. The dynamics of EGF-induced Akt activation was investigated by Western blot analysis. Results. It has been shown that apocynin, an inhibitor of the assembly of plasma membrane NADPH oxidases, substantially attenuates the motility of Ruk/CIN85 overexpressing MCF-7 cells (subclone G10 in comparison with control cells. In addition, apocynin induced the transition from sustained to transient EGF-dependent Akt activation in G10 cells and did not influence transient Akt activation in control cells. Conclusions. The data obtained can suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases are signaling components, upstream to Akt kinase, that mediate the increased migratory potential of Ruk/CIN85 overexpressing MCF-7 cells.

  12. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Dyall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis is becoming more widely accepted as a model for carcinogenesis. Tumours are heterogeneous both at the molecular and cellular level, containing a small population of cells that possess highly tumourigenic “stem-cell” properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs, or tumour-initiating cells, have the ability to self-renew, generate xenografts reminiscent of the primary tumour that they were derived from, and are chemoresistant. The characterisation of the CSC population within a tumour that drives its growth could provide novel target therapeutics against these cells specifically, eradicating the cancer completely. There have been several reports describing the isolation of putative cancer stem cell populations in several cancers; however, no defined set of markers has been identified that conclusively characterises “stem-like” cancer cells. This paper highlights the current experimental approaches that have been used in the field and discusses their limitations, with specific emphasis on the identification and characterisation of the CSC population in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  13. Recurrent LRP1-SNRNP25 and KCNMB4-CCND3 fusion genes promote tumor cell motility in human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jilong; Annala, Matti; Ji, Ping; Wang, Guowen; Zheng, Hong; Codgell, David; Du, Xiaoling; Fang, Zhiwei; Sun, Baocun; Nykter, Matti; Chen, Kexin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-10-10

    The identification of fusion genes such as SYT-SSX1/SSX2, PAX3-FOXO1, TPM3/TPM4-ALK and EWS-FLI1 in human sarcomas has provided important insight into the diagnosis and targeted therapy of sarcomas. No recurrent fusion has been reported in human osteosarcoma. Transcriptome sequencing was used to characterize the gene fusions and mutations in 11 human osteosarcomas. Nine of 11 samples were found to harbor genetic inactivating alterations in the TP53 pathway. Two recurrent fusion genes associated with the 12q locus, LRP1-SNRNP25 and KCNMB4-CCND3, were identified and validated by RT-PCR, Sanger sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization, and were found to be osteosarcoma specific in a validation cohort of 240 other sarcomas. Expression of LRP1-SNRNP25 fusion gene promoted SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion. Expression of KCNMB4-CCND3 fusion gene promoted SAOS-2 cell migration. Our study represents the first whole transcriptome analysis of untreated human osteosarcoma. Our discovery of two osteosarcoma specific fusion genes associated with osteosarcoma cellular motility highlights the heterogeneity of osteosarcoma and provides opportunities for new treatment modalities.

  14. Stem cells and solid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Stuart A C; Graham, Trevor A; Schier, Stefanie; Wright, Nicholas A; Alison, Malcolm R

    2009-07-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances in our knowledge of stem cells found in tissues that can develop solid tumours. In particular, novel stem cell markers have been identified for the first time identifying multipotential cells: a required characteristic of a stem cell. The scarcity of cancer stem cells has been questioned. Current dogma states that they are rare, but novel research has suggested that this may not be the case. Here, we review the latest literature on stem cells, particularly cancer stem cells within solid tumours. We discuss current thinking on how stem cells develop into cancer stem cells and how they protect themselves from doing so and do they express unique markers that can be used to detect stem cells. We attempt to put into perspective these latest advances in stem cell biology and their potential for cancer therapy.

  15. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  16. Myoferlin depletion elevates focal adhesion kinase and paxillin phosphorylation and enhances cell-matrix adhesion in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, B N; Li, R; Ackerman, W E; Ghadiali, S N; Powell, H M; Kniss, D A

    2015-04-15

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of malignant death among women. A crucial feature of metastatic cancers is their propensity to lose adhesion to the underlying basement membrane as they transition to a motile phenotype and invade surrounding tissue. Attachment to the extracellular matrix is mediated by a complex of adhesion proteins, including integrins, signaling molecules, actin and actin-binding proteins, and scaffolding proteins. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is pivotal for the organization of focal contacts and maturation into focal adhesions, and disruption of this process is a hallmark of early cancer invasive potential. Our recent work has revealed that myoferlin (MYOF) mediates breast tumor cell motility and invasive phenotype. In this study we demonstrate that noninvasive breast cancer cell lines exhibit increased cell-substrate adhesion and that silencing of MYOF using RNAi in the highly invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 also enhances cell-substrate adhesion. In addition, we detected elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK (FAK(Y397)) and paxillin (PAX(Y118)), markers of focal adhesion protein activation. Morphometric analysis of PAX expression revealed that RNAi-mediated depletion of MYOF resulted in larger, more elongated focal adhesions, in contrast to cells transduced with a control virus (MDA-231(LVC) cells), which exhibited smaller focal contacts. Finally, MYOF silencing in MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a more elaborate ventral cytoskeletal structure near focal adhesions, typified by pronounced actin stress fibers. These data support the hypothesis that MYOF regulates cell adhesions and cell-substrate adhesion strength and may account for the high degree of motility in invasive breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Gray Matter NG2 Cells Display Multiple Ca2+-Signaling Pathways and Highly Motile Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Haberlandt, Christian; Derouiche, Amin; Wyczynski, Alexandra; Haseleu, Julia; Pohle, Jörg; Karram, Khalad; Trotter, Jacqueline; Seifert, Gerald; Frotscher, Michael; Steinhäuser, Christian; Jabs, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    NG2 cells, the fourth type of glia in the mammalian CNS, receive synaptic input from neurons. The function of this innervation is unknown yet. Postsynaptic changes in intracellular Ca(2+)-concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) might be a possible consequence. We employed transgenic mice with fluorescently labeled NG2 cells to address this issue. To identify Ca(2+)-signaling pathways we combined patch-clamp recordings, Ca(2+)-imaging, mRNA-transcript analysis and focal pressure-application of various sub...

  18. An adhesion-dependent switch between mechanisms that determine motile cell shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Barnhart

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Keratocytes are fast-moving cells in which adhesion dynamics are tightly coupled to the actin polymerization motor that drives migration, resulting in highly coordinated cell movement. We have found that modifying the adhesive properties of the underlying substrate has a dramatic effect on keratocyte morphology. Cells crawling at intermediate adhesion strengths resembled stereotypical keratocytes, characterized by a broad, fan-shaped lamellipodium, clearly defined leading and trailing edges, and persistent rates of protrusion and retraction. Cells at low adhesion strength were small and round with highly variable protrusion and retraction rates, and cells at high adhesion strength were large and asymmetrical and, strikingly, exhibited traveling waves of protrusion. To elucidate the mechanisms by which adhesion strength determines cell behavior, we examined the organization of adhesions, myosin II, and the actin network in keratocytes migrating on substrates with different adhesion strengths. On the whole, our results are consistent with a quantitative physical model in which keratocyte shape and migratory behavior emerge from the self-organization of actin, adhesions, and myosin, and quantitative changes in either adhesion strength or myosin contraction can switch keratocytes among qualitatively distinct migration regimes.

  19. An Adhesion-Dependent Switch between Mechanisms That Determine Motile Cell Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Erin L.; Lee, Kun-Chun; Keren, Kinneret; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Keratocytes are fast-moving cells in which adhesion dynamics are tightly coupled to the actin polymerization motor that drives migration, resulting in highly coordinated cell movement. We have found that modifying the adhesive properties of the underlying substrate has a dramatic effect on keratocyte morphology. Cells crawling at intermediate adhesion strengths resembled stereotypical keratocytes, characterized by a broad, fan-shaped lamellipodium, clearly defined leading and trailing edges, and persistent rates of protrusion and retraction. Cells at low adhesion strength were small and round with highly variable protrusion and retraction rates, and cells at high adhesion strength were large and asymmetrical and, strikingly, exhibited traveling waves of protrusion. To elucidate the mechanisms by which adhesion strength determines cell behavior, we examined the organization of adhesions, myosin II, and the actin network in keratocytes migrating on substrates with different adhesion strengths. On the whole, our results are consistent with a quantitative physical model in which keratocyte shape and migratory behavior emerge from the self-organization of actin, adhesions, and myosin, and quantitative changes in either adhesion strength or myosin contraction can switch keratocytes among qualitatively distinct migration regimes. PMID:21559321

  20. Increased migration of human mesenchymal stromal cells by autocrine motility factor (AMF resulted in enhanced recruitment towards hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bayo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several reports described the migration of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs towards tumor-released factors. Autocrine motility factor (AMF is produced by several tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The aim of this study was to analyze AMF involvement on MSC migration towards human HCC. METHODS: Production of AMF by HCC tumors was evaluated by western analysis. The effects of AMF on MSCs from different sources (bone marrow, adipose tissue and perivascular cells from umbilical cord were analyzed using in vitro migration assay; metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 activity and expression of critical genes were studied by zymography and qRT-PCR, respectively. To assess AMF involvement on the in vivo MSC migration, noninvasive fluorescence imaging was performed. To test the effect of AMF-primed MSCs on tumor development, in vitro proliferation and spheroids growth and in vivo tumor volume were evaluated. RESULTS: AMF produced by HCC was found to induce migration of different MSCs in vitro and to enhance their MMP2 activity. Stimulation of MSCs with recombinant AMF (rAMF also induced the in vitro adhesion to endothelial cells in coincidence with changes in the expression levels of MMP3, AMF receptor, caveolin-1, and -2 and GDI-2. Importantly, stimulation of MSCs with rAMF increased the in vivo migration of MSCs towards experimental HCC tumors. AMF-priming of MSCs did not induce a pro-tumorigenic effect on HCC cells neither in vivo nor in vitro. CONCLUSION: AMF plays a role in MSC recruitment towards HCC. However, its ability to increase MSC migration to HCC for therapeutic purposes merits further evaluation.

  1. Increased migration of human mesenchymal stromal cells by autocrine motility factor (AMF) resulted in enhanced recruitment towards hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, Juan; Fiore, Esteban; Aquino, Jorge B; Malvicini, Mariana; Rizzo, Manglio; Peixoto, Estanislao; Andriani, Oscar; Alaniz, Laura; Piccioni, Flavia; Bolontrade, Marcela; Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Garcia, Mariana G; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Several reports described the migration of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) towards tumor-released factors. Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is produced by several tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to analyze AMF involvement on MSC migration towards human HCC. Production of AMF by HCC tumors was evaluated by western analysis. The effects of AMF on MSCs from different sources (bone marrow, adipose tissue and perivascular cells from umbilical cord) were analyzed using in vitro migration assay; metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) activity and expression of critical genes were studied by zymography and qRT-PCR, respectively. To assess AMF involvement on the in vivo MSC migration, noninvasive fluorescence imaging was performed. To test the effect of AMF-primed MSCs on tumor development, in vitro proliferation and spheroids growth and in vivo tumor volume were evaluated. AMF produced by HCC was found to induce migration of different MSCs in vitro and to enhance their MMP2 activity. Stimulation of MSCs with recombinant AMF (rAMF) also induced the in vitro adhesion to endothelial cells in coincidence with changes in the expression levels of MMP3, AMF receptor, caveolin-1, and -2 and GDI-2. Importantly, stimulation of MSCs with rAMF increased the in vivo migration of MSCs towards experimental HCC tumors. AMF-priming of MSCs did not induce a pro-tumorigenic effect on HCC cells neither in vivo nor in vitro. AMF plays a role in MSC recruitment towards HCC. However, its ability to increase MSC migration to HCC for therapeutic purposes merits further evaluation.

  2. LIS1 RNA interference blocks neural stem cell division, morphogenesis, and motility at multiple stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jin-Wu; Chen, Yu; Kriegstein, Arnold R; Vallee, Richard B

    2005-09-12

    Mutations in the human LIS1 gene cause the smooth brain disease classical lissencephaly. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we conducted in situ live cell imaging analysis of LIS1 function throughout the entire radial migration pathway. In utero electroporation of LIS1 small interference RNA and short hairpin dominant negative LIS1 and dynactin cDNAs caused a dramatic accumulation of multipolar progenitor cells within the subventricular zone of embryonic rat brains. This effect resulted from a complete failure in progression from the multipolar to the migratory bipolar state, as revealed by time-lapse analysis of brain slices. Surprisingly, interkinetic nuclear oscillations in the radial glial progenitors were also abolished, as were cell divisions at the ventricular surface. Those few bipolar cells that reached the intermediate zone also exhibited a complete block in somal translocation, although, remarkably, process extension persisted. Finally, axonal growth also ceased. These results identify multiple distinct and novel roles for LIS1 in nucleokinesis and process dynamics and suggest that nuclear position controls neural progenitor cell division.

  3. Molecular dynamics and forces of a motile cell simultaneously visualized by TIRF and force microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Yumura, Shigehiko

    2008-05-01

    Cells must exert traction forces onto the substratum for continuous migration. Molecular dynamics such as actin polymerization at the front of the cell and myosin II accumulation at the rear should play important roles in the exertion of forces required for migration. Therefore, it is important to reveal the relationships between the traction forces and molecular dynamics. Traction forces can be calculated from the deformation of the elastic substratum under a migrating cell. A transparent and colorless elastic substratum with a high refractive index (1.40) and a low Young's modulus (1.0 kPa) were made from a pair of platinum-catalyzed silicones. We used this substratum to develop a new method for simultaneous recording of molecular dynamics and traction forces under a migrating cell in which total internal refractive fluorescence (TIRF) and force microscopies were combined. This new method allows the detection of the spatiotemporal distribution of traction forces produced by individual filopodia in migrating Dictyostelium cells, as well as simultaneous visualization of these traction forces and the dynamics of filamentous myosin II.

  4. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research. PMID:22507219

  6. The Role of TSC Proteins in Regulating Cell Adhesion and Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    from seizures, mental retardation, and autism . Thus, TSC represents a major cause of developmental disorders and epilepsy in the pediatric...epilepsy, and autism (4, 5). Importantly, malignant tumors of the kidney, which develop either as malignant angiomyolipomas or renal cell carcinomas...Pharmacol 2002;39:319–327. 37. Eker R, Mossige J, Johannessen JV, Aars H. Hereditary renal adenomas and adenocarcinomas in rats. Diagn Histopathol 1981;4

  7. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 expression in equine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes, and the effect of inflammation on MSC motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Reesink

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs can be used intra-articularly to quell inflammation and promote cartilage healing; however, mechanisms by which MSCs mitigate joint disease remain poorly understood. Galectins, a family of β-galactoside binding proteins, regulate inflammation, adhesion and cell migration in diverse cell types. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 are proposed to be important intra-articular modulators of inflammation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we asked whether equine bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs express higher levels of galectin-1 and -3 relative to synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes and if an inflammatory environment affects BMSC galectin expression and motility. Methods Equine galectin-1 and -3 gene expression was quantified using qRT-PCR in cultured BMSCs, synoviocytes and articular chondrocytes, in addition to synovial membrane and articular cartilage tissues. Galectin gene expression, protein expression, and protein secretion were measured in equine BMSCs following exposure to inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β 5 and 10 ng/mL, TNF-α 25 and 50 ng/mL, or LPS 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 μg/mL. BMSC focal adhesion formation was assessed using confocal microscopy, and BMSC motility was quantified in the presence of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β or TNF-α and the pan-galectin inhibitor β-lactose (100 and 200 mM. Results Equine BMSCs expressed 3-fold higher galectin-1 mRNA levels as compared to cultured synovial fibroblasts (p = 0.0005 and 30-fold higher galectin-1 (p < 0.0001 relative to cultured chondrocytes. BMSC galectin-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased as compared to carpal synovial membrane and articular cartilage tissues (p < 0.0001. IL-1β and TNF-α treatments decreased BMSC galectin gene expression and impaired BMSC motility in dose-dependent fashion but did not alter galectin protein expression. β-lactose abrogated BMSC focal adhesion formation and inhibited

  8. The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model for studying motile cilia and multiciliated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basquin, Cyril; Orfila, Anne-Marie; Azimzadeh, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a powerful model system to study the assembly and function of cilia. S. mediterranea is a free-living flatworm that uses the beating of cilia on its ventral epidermis for locomotion. The ventral epidermis is composed of a single layer of multiciliated cells highly similar to the multiciliated cells that line the airway, the brain ventricles, and the oviducts in humans. The genome of S. mediterranea has been sequenced and efficient methods for targeting gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi) are available. Locomotion defects induced by perturbing the expression of ciliary genes can be often detected by simple visual screening, and more subtle defects can be detected by measuring locomotion speed. Cilia are present in large numbers and are directly accessible, which facilitates analyses by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Here we describe a set of methods for maintaining planarians in the lab. These include gene knockout by RNAi, cilia visualization by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and live imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  10. Targeting cancer stem cells: emerging role of Nanog transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ML

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mong-Lien Wang,1 Shih-Hwa Chiou,2,3 Cheng-Wen Wu1,4–61Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Institute of Biomedical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The involvement of stemness factors in cancer initiation and progression has drawn much attention recently, especially after the finding that introducing four stemness factors in somatic cells is able to reprogram the cells back to an embryonic stem cell-like state. Following accumulating data revealing abnormal elevated expression levels of key stemness factors, like Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2, in several types of cancer stem cells; the importance and therapeutic potential of targeting these stemness regulators in cancers has turned to research focus. Nanog determines cell fate in both embryonic and cancer stem cells; activating Nanog at an inappropriate time would result in cancer stem cells rather than normal pluripotent stem cells or differentiated somatic cells. Upregulated Nanog is correlated with poor survival outcome of patients with various types of cancer. The discoveries of downstream regulatory pathways directly or indirectly mediated by Nanog indicate that Nanog regulates several aspects of cancer development such as tumor cell proliferation, self-renewal, motility, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, immune evasion, and drug-resistance, which are all defined features for cancer stem cells. The current review paper illustrates the central role of Nanog in the regulatory networks of cancer malignant development and stemness acquirement, as well as in the communication between cancer cells and the surrounding stroma. Though a more defined model is needed to test the

  11. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Horn L, Eisenberg R, Gius D, et al. Cancer of the lung. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan ...

  12. Motility and ciliary beating frequency detection of cells and invertebrates for environmental biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norina, Svetlana B.; Ageev, Vladimir G.; Rastopov, Stanislav F.

    1998-01-01

    Light microscopic dynamical images and amplitude-frequency spectra by computerized documentation were used for the experimental evidence that the biological rhythms and ciliary beating cycles can be used as relevant tool for the biomonitoring of environmental pollutants and influences. At present work some lower animals, invertebrates: Protozoa cells, Rotifera, Mollusca gill cilia epithelium, Polychaeta served the convenient model biosystem for investigations due there ciliary and contractile organs. The narrow Fourier- spectra bands were revealed for large number of organisms, which were shifted or diffused by heavy metal salts, ATP, Ca-, Mg-ions and organic mixture in concentrations 10-2-10-6 M. The three phase of the ciliary beating were obtained for single cilium. The group of cilia with a good metachronal coordination gave the narrow characteristic Fourier bands, while the perturbances from the external influences led to the spreading and shifting of the main bands. These effects could serve as test-methods for the environmental biomonitoring of pollutants.

  13. SpatTrack: an imaging toolbox for analysis of vesicle motility and distribution in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Jensen, Marie Louise; Christensen, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    SpatTrack, an open source, platform-independent program collecting a variety of methods for analysis of vesicle dynamics and distribution in living cells. SpatTrack performs 2D particle tracking, trajectory analysis and fitting of diffusion models to the calculated mean square displacement. It allows...... for spatial analysis of detected vesicle patterns including calculation of the radial distribution function and particle-based colocalization. Importantly, all analysis tools are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of synthetic images. This allows the user to assess the reliability of the analysis...... and to study alternative scenarios. We demonstrate the functionality of SpatTrack by performing a detailed imaging study of internalized fluorescence-tagged Niemann Pick C2 (NPC2) protein in human disease fibroblasts. Using SpatTrack, we show that NPC2 rescued the cholesterol-storage phenotype from...

  14. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induces downregulation of critical Hsp90 protein clients and results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human urinary bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkoulis, Panagiotis K; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E

    2010-09-09

    17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in cellular signaling. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 17-AAG on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and scratch-wound assay in RT4, RT112 and T24 human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have demonstrated that, upon 17-AAG treatment, bladder cancer cells are arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and eventually undergo apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 17-AAG administration was shown to induce a pronounced downregulation of multiple Hsp90 protein clients and other downstream effectors, such as IGF-IR, Akt, IKK-α, IKK-β, FOXO1, ERK1/2 and c-Met, resulting in sequestration-mediated inactivation of NF-κB, reduced cell proliferation and decline of cell motility. In total, we have clearly evinced a dose-dependent and cell type-specific effect of 17-AAG on cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human bladder cancer cells, due to downregulation of multiple Hsp90 clients and subsequent disruption of signaling integrity.

  15. Mechanotransduction in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jin; Zhang, Yueling; Ye, Rui; Zheng, Yingcheng; Zhao, Zhihe; Li, Juan

    2013-09-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept, which arose about a decade ago, proposes that tumor growth is sustained by a subpopulation of highly malignant cells. These cells, termed CSCs, are capable of extensive self-renewal that contributes to metastasis and treatment resistance. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target CSCs should be developed for improving outcomes of cancer patients. Recent progress has highlighted the importance of physical properties of the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction pathway in cancer cells during cancer development. On the other hand, the significance of CXCR1, an upstream signal of FAK/PI3K/Akt has been revealed in CSCs. FAK/PI3K/Akt is a key signal mediator in mechanotransduction pathway. Therefore, mechanotransduction could be a new target for CSCs, and would be an innovative way to treat cancer by inhibiting FAK/PI3K/Akt. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  16. RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Dayal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1 to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene.

  17. RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Shubham; Zhou, Jun; Manivannan, Praveen; Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmad, Omaima Farid; Clark, Matthew; Awadia, Sahezeel; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Shemshedini, Lirim; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2017-01-01

    The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src) pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase) activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene. PMID:28257035

  18. Alterations in integrin expression modulates invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors mediating the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through the extracellular matrix (ECM) are not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, sub-populations of the human pancreatic cancer cell line, MiaPaCa-2 were established which displayed differences in invasion, adhesion, anoikis, anchorage-independent growth and integrin expression. RESULTS: Clone #3 displayed higher invasion with less adhesion, while Clone #8 was less invasive with increased adhesion to ECM proteins compared to MiaPaCa-2. Clone #8 was more sensitive to anoikis than Clone #3 and MiaPaCa-2, and displayed low colony-forming efficiency in an anchorage-independent growth assay. Integrins beta 1, alpha 5 and alpha 6 were over-expressed in Clone #8. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), integrin beta1 knockdown in Clone #8 cells increased invasion through matrigel and fibronectin, increased motility, decreased adhesion and anoikis. Integrin alpha 5 and alpha 6 knockdown also resulted in increased motility, invasion through matrigel and decreased adhesion. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that altered expression of integrins interacting with different extracellular matrixes may play a significant role in suppressing the aggressive invasive phenotype. Analysis of these clonal populations of MiaPaCa-2 provides a model for investigations into the invasive properties of pancreatic carcinoma.

  19. Nanotechniques Inactivate Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Anatoliy N.; Babenko, Natalya N.; Gaevskaya, Yulia A.; Bondarovich, Nikolay A.; Dubrava, Tatiana G.; Ostankov, Maksim V.; Chelombitko, Olga V.; Malyukin, Yuriy V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Kavok, Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the tasks of current oncology is identification of cancer stem cells and search of therapeutic means capable of their specific inhibition. The paper presents the data on phenotype characteristics of Ehrlich carcinoma cells as convenient and easy-to-follow model of tumor growth. The evidence of cancer stem cells as a part of Ehrlich carcinoma and significance of CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations in maintaining the growth of this type of tumor were demonstrated. A high (tenfold) tumorigenic activity of the Ehrlich carcinoma CD44+ cells if compared to CD44- cells was proven. In this pair of comparison, the CD44+ cells had a higher potential of generating in peritoneal cavity of CD44high, CD44+CD24-, CD44+CD24+ cell subpopulations, highlighting the presence of cancer stem cells in a pool of CD44+ cells.

  20. The Bipartite Rac1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Engulfment and Cell Motility 1/Dedicator of Cytokinesis 180 (Elmo1/Dock180) Protects Endothelial Cells from Apoptosis in Blood Vessel Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeker, Kathrin; Bartsch, Susanne; Patry, Christian; Stoll, Sandra J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Wieland, Thomas; Kroll, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Engulfment and cell motility 1/dedicator of cytokinesis 180 (Elmol/Dock180) is a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the monomeric GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Racl). Elmol/Dock180 regulates Racl activity in a specific spatiotemporal manner in endothelial cells

  1. Regulation of T-lymphocyte motility, adhesion and de-adhesion by a cell surface mechanism directed by low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and endogenous thrombospondin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talme, Toomas; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta

    2014-01-01

    T lymphocytes are highly motile and constantly reposition themselves between a free-floating vascular state, transient adhesion and migration in tissues. The regulation behind this unique dynamic behaviour remains unclear. Here we show that T cells have a cell surface mechanism for integrated regulation of motility and adhesion and that integrin ligands and CXCL12/SDF-1 influence motility and adhesion through this mechanism. Targeting cell surface-expressed low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) with an antibody, or blocking transport of LRP1 to the cell surface, perturbed the cell surface distribution of endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) while inhibiting motility and potentiating cytoplasmic spreading on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and fibronectin. Integrin ligands and CXCL12 stimulated motility and enhanced cell surface expression of LRP1, intact TSP-1 and a 130 000 MW TSP-1 fragment while preventing formation of a de-adhesion-coupled 110 000 MW TSP-1 fragment. The appearance of the 130 000 MW TSP-1 fragment was inhibited by the antibody that targeted LRP1 expression, inhibited motility and enhanced spreading. The TSP-1 binding site in the LRP1-associated protein, calreticulin, stimulated adhesion to ICAM-1 through intact TSP-1 and CD47. Shear flow enhanced cell surface expression of intact TSP-1. Hence, chemokines and integrin ligands up-regulate a dominant motogenic pathway through LRP1 and TSP-1 cleavage and activate an associated adhesion pathway through the LRP1–calreticulin complex, intact TSP-1 and CD47. This regulation of T-cell motility and adhesion makes pro-adhesive stimuli favour motile responses, which may explain why T cells prioritize movement before permanent adhesion. PMID:24877199

  2. Effects of storage temperature and extension media on motility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Keywords: Egg-yolk citrate, Goat-milk citrate, Motility, Semen ... milk, skin and other products), has been adjudged ... detrimental effect on sperm cells (Purdy, 2006). ... motility at two different storage temperature in an.

  3. Cancer stem cell markers in common cancers - therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonisch, Thomas; Wiechec, Emilia; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Rapid advance in the cancer stem cell field warrants optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies within the next 2-3 decades. Below, we characterize and compare the specific markers that are present on stem cells, cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in selected tissues...

  4. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but...

  5. Anti-Gal IgG potentiates natural killer cell migration across porcine endothelium via endothelial cell activation and increased natural killer cell motility triggered by CD16 cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauzenberger, Elenor; Klominek, Julius; Holgersson, Jan

    2004-04-01

    Xenoreactive antibodies (Ab) are important for the development of acute vascular rejection (AVR) of xenografts characterized by monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and neutrophils infiltrating the graft. The mechanisms by which anti-galactose alpha 1,3galactose (alpha-Gal) IgG influence NK cell migration across porcine aortic endothelium (PAEC) were investigated. NK cell migration across PAEC increased in the presence of anti-alpha-Gal IgG. Anti-alpha-Gal IgG exposure activated PAEC as shown by an increased expression of CD62E and CD106. NK cells adhered, spread and showed motile forms on plastic surfaces coated with human IgG, IgG Fc and on mAb against CD16, but not on mouse IgG or BSA, suggesting that CD16 cross-linking can mediate increased adhesiveness. Increased NK cell motility was observed on Boyden filters coated with human IgG, IgG Fc, and mAb against CD16 and the alpha 4, alpha 5, alpha L, beta 1 and beta 2 integrin chains. No motile response was seen on mouse IgGor CD7, CD56 and alpha 6 integrin mAb. NK cell migration on human IgG and anti-CD16 Ab was blocked by anti-CD16 or anti-beta 2, but not anti-beta 1 Ab, implying that the motile response triggered by CD16 cross-linking is mediated via beta 2 integrins. Preformed or induced anti-alpha-Gal IgG may therefore contribute to AVR by stimulating innate immune cell infiltration of the graft.

  6. Characterising Castrate Tolerant Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ASHLEE KATE CLARK

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disease in aging males. This thesis explores prostate cancer cells that escape current therapy and give rise to end-stage disease. Using sophisticated experimental approaches, this important cancer cell population was identified and characterised in human prostate cancer tissues.  Our discoveries will eventually lead to improved cancer treatments for men with prostate cancer.

  7. Crawling and turning in a minimal reaction-diffusion cell motility model: Coupling cell shape and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camley, Brian A.; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bo; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    We study a minimal model of a crawling eukaryotic cell with a chemical polarity controlled by a reaction-diffusion mechanism describing Rho GTPase dynamics. The size, shape, and speed of the cell emerge from the combination of the chemical polarity, which controls the locations where actin polymerization occurs, and the physical properties of the cell, including its membrane tension. We find in our model both highly persistent trajectories, in which the cell crawls in a straight line, and turning trajectories, where the cell transitions from crawling in a line to crawling in a circle. We discuss the controlling variables for this turning instability and argue that turning arises from a coupling between the reaction-diffusion mechanism and the shape of the cell. This emphasizes the surprising features that can arise from simple links between cell mechanics and biochemistry. Our results suggest that similar instabilities may be present in a broad class of biochemical descriptions of cell polarity.

  8. Effects of dilution and centrifugation on the survival of spermatozoa and the structure of motile sperm cell subpopulations in refrigerated Catalonian donkey semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, J; Taberner, E; Rivera, M; Peña, A; Medrano, A; Rigau, T; Peñalba, A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of dilution and centrifugation (i.e., two methods of reducing the influence of the seminal plasma) on the survival of spermatozoa and the structure of motile sperm cell subpopulations in refrigerated Catalonian donkey (Equus asinus) semen. Fifty ejaculates from nine Catalonian jackasses were collected. Gel-free semen was diluted 1:1, 1:5 or 1:10 with Kenney extender. Another sample of semen was diluted 1:5, centrifuged, and then resuspended with Kenney extender until a final dilution of 25x10(6) sperm/ml was achieved (C). After 24 h, 48 h or 72 h of refrigerated storage at 5 degrees C, aliquots of these semen samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 min. The percentage of viable sperm was determined by staining with eosin-nigrosin. The motility characteristics of the spermatozoa were examined using the CASA system (Microptic, Barcelona, Spain). At 24h, more surviving spermatozoa were seen in the more diluted and in the centrifuged semen samples (1:1 48.71%; 1:5 56.58%, 1:10 62.65%; C 72.40%). These differences were maintained at 48 h (1:1 34.31%, 1:5 40.56%, 1:10 48.52%, C 66.30%). After 72 h, only the C samples showed a survival rate of above 25%. The four known donkey motile sperm subpopulations were maintained by refrigeration. However, the percentage of motile sperms in each subpopulation changed with dilution. Only the centrifuged samples, and only at 24h, showed exactly the same motile sperm subpopulation proportions as recorded for fresh sperm. However, the 1:10 dilutions at 24 and 48 h, and the centrifuged semen at 48 h, showed few variations compared to fresh sperm. These results show that the elimination of seminal plasma increases the survival of spermatozoa and the maintenance of motility patterns. The initial sperm concentration had a significant (P<0.05) influence on centrifugation efficacy, but did not influence the number of spermatozoa damaged by centrifugation. In contrast, the percentage of live

  9. Single cancer cell analysis on a chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yoon Sun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells in blood may represent “a real time liquid biopsy” through the interrogation of single cancer cells thereby determining the outspread of their heterogeneity and guiding therapy. In this thesis, we focused on single cancer cell analysis downstream of the isolation of cancer cells from

  10. β5 Integrin Up-Regulation in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Promotes Cell Motility in Human Chondrosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Te-Mao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Liu, Shan-Chi; Chen, Po-Chun; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis; it has a poor prognosis and shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small-molecule protein from the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma tissues showed significant expression of BDNF, which was higher than that in normal cartilage and primary chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased the migration and expression of β5 integrin in human chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, knockdown of BDNF expression markedly inhibited migratory activity. BDNF-mediated migration and β5 integrin up-regulation were attenuated by antibody, inhibitor, or siRNA against the TrkB receptor. Pretreatment of chondrosarcoma cells with PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors or mutants also abolished BDNF-promoted migration and integrin expression. The PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway was activated after BDNF treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma by increasing β5 integrin expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:23874483

  11. β5 integrin up-regulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes cell motility in human chondrosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Lin

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis; it has a poor prognosis and shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a small-molecule protein from the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma tissues showed significant expression of BDNF, which was higher than that in normal cartilage and primary chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased the migration and expression of β5 integrin in human chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, knockdown of BDNF expression markedly inhibited migratory activity. BDNF-mediated migration and β5 integrin up-regulation were attenuated by antibody, inhibitor, or siRNA against the TrkB receptor. Pretreatment of chondrosarcoma cells with PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors or mutants also abolished BDNF-promoted migration and integrin expression. The PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway was activated after BDNF treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma by increasing β5 integrin expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis.

  12. Motility-Driven Glass and Jamming Transitions in Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dapeng; Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Manning, M. Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. To make quantitative predictions about glass transitions in tissues, we study a self-propelled Voronoi model that simultaneously captures polarized cell motility and multibody cell-cell interactions in a confluent tissue, where there are no gaps between cells. We demonstrate that the model exhibits a jamming transition from a solidlike state to a fluidlike state that is controlled by three parameters: the single-cell motile speed, the persistence time of single-cell tracks, and a target shape index that characterizes the competition between cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension. In contrast to traditional particulate glasses, we are able to identify an experimentally accessible structural order parameter that specifies the entire jamming surface as a function of model parameters. We demonstrate that a continuum soft glassy rheology model precisely captures this transition in the limit of small persistence times and explain how it fails in the limit of large persistence times. These results provide a framework for understanding the collective solid-to-liquid transitions that have been observed in embryonic development and cancer progression, which may be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in these tissues.

  13. Cell migration or cytokinesis and proliferation? – Revisiting the “go or grow” hypothesis in cancer cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garay, Tamás; Juhász, Éva; Molnár, Eszter [2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Eisenbauer, Maria [Institute of Cancer Research and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Czirók, András [Department of Biological Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Dekan, Barbara; László, Viktória; Hoda, Mir Alireza [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Döme, Balázs [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); National Korányi Institute of TB and Pulmonology, Budapest (Hungary); Tímár, József [2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); MTA-SE Tumor Progression Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Klepetko, Walter [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Berger, Walter [Institute of Cancer Research and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Hegedűs, Balázs, E-mail: balazs.hegedus@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); MTA-SE Tumor Progression Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-12-10

    The mortality of patients with solid tumors is mostly due to metastasis that relies on the interplay between migration and proliferation. The “go or grow” hypothesis postulates that migration and proliferation spatiotemporally excludes each other. We evaluated this hypothesis on 35 cell lines (12 mesothelioma, 13 melanoma and 10 lung cancer) on both the individual cell and population levels. Following three-day-long videomicroscopy, migration, proliferation and cytokinesis-length were quantified. We found a significantly higher migration in mesothelioma cells compared to melanoma and lung cancer while tumor types did not differ in mean proliferation or duration of cytokinesis. Strikingly, we found in melanoma and lung cancer a significant positive correlation between mean proliferation and migration. Furthermore, non-dividing melanoma and lung cancer cells displayed slower migration. In contrast, in mesothelioma there were no such correlations. Interestingly, negative correlation was found between cytokinesis-length and migration in melanoma. FAK activation was higher in melanoma cells with high motility. We demonstrate that the cancer cells studied do not defer proliferation for migration. Of note, tumor cells from various organ systems may differently regulate migration and proliferation. Furthermore, our data is in line with the observation of pathologists that highly proliferative tumors are often highly invasive. - Highlights: • We investigated the “go or grow” hypothesis in human cancer cells in vitro. • Proliferation and migration positively correlate in melanoma and lung cancer cells. • Duration of cytokinesis and migration shows inverse correlation. • Increased FAK activation is present in highly motile melanoma cells.

  14. Alterations in Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions during Progression of Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Jinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression is a multistep process during which normal cells exhibit molecular changes that culminate into the highly malignant and metastatic phenotype, observed in cancerous tissues. The initiation of cell transformation is generally associated with genetic alterations in normal cells that lead to the loss of intercellular- and/or extracellular-matrix- (ECM- mediated cell adhesion. Transformed cells undergo rapid multiplication and generate more modifications in adhesion and motility-related molecules which allow them to escape from the original site and acquire invasive characteristics. Integrins, which are multifunctional adhesion receptors, and are present, on normal as well as transformed cells, assist the cells undergoing tumor progression in creating the appropriate environment for their survival, growth, and invasion. In this paper, we have briefly discussed the role of ECM proteins and integrins during cancer progression and described some unique conditions where adhesion-related changes could induce genetic mutations in anchorage-independent tumor model systems.

  15. Lysyl oxidase is associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Morisaki, Tamami; Masuda, Go; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a hypoxia-responsive factor and is associated with the malignant progression of carcinoma. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and LOX in gastric cancer cells under hypoxia. Two gastric cancer cell lines, OCUM-2MD3 and OCUM-12, were used in an in vitro study. The effect of LOX small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the EMT and motility of gastric cancer cells under hypoxic condition was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR, Western blot, a wound-healing assay, and an invasion assay. Correlations between LOX expression and the clinicopathological features of 544 patients with gastric carcinoma were examined immunohistochemically. Hypoxic conditions increased the number of polygonal or spindle-shaped cells resulting from EMT in gastric cancer cells. The EMT of cancer cells induced by hypoxia was inhibited by treatment with LOX siRNA. The number of migrating and invading gastric cancer cells in hypoxia was significantly decreased by LOX knockdown. LOX siRNA significantly increased the E-cadherin level and decreased the vimentin level of gastric cancer cells. LOX expression was significantly associated with invasion depth, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and peritoneal metastasis. Multivariable analysis revealed that LOX was an independent parameter for overall survival. LOX affects the EMT of gastric cancer cells in hypoxic conditions. LOX expression is a useful prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer.

  16. Delta opioid receptor on equine sperm cells: subcellular localization and involvement in sperm motility analyzed by computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalandra Giovanni M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides act not only in the control of nociceptive pathways, indeed several reports demonstrate the effects of opiates on sperm cell motility and morphology suggesting the importance of these receptors in the modulation of reproduction in mammals. In this study we investigated the expression of delta opioid receptors on equine spermatozoa by western blot/indirect immunofluorescence and its relationship with sperm cell physiology. Methods We analyzed viability, motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial activity in the presence of naltrindole and DPDPE by means of a computer assisted sperm analyzer and a fluorescent confocal microscope. The evaluation of viability, capacitation and acrosome reaction was carried out by the double CTC/Hoechst staining, whereas mitochondrial activity was assessed by means of MitoTracker Orange dye. Results We showed that in equine sperm cells, delta opioid receptor is expressed as a doublet of 65 and 50 kDa molecular mass and is localized in the mid piece of tail; we also demonstrated that naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, could be utilized in modulating several physiological parameters of the equine spermatozoon in a dose-dependent way. We also found that low concentrations of the antagonist increase sperm motility whereas high concentrations show the opposite effect. Moreover low concentrations hamper capacitation, acrosome reaction and viability even if the percentage of cells with active mitochondria seems to be increased; the opposite effect is exerted at high concentrations. We have also observed that the delta opioid receptor agonist DPDPE is scarcely involved in affecting the same parameters at the employed concentrations. Conclusions The results described in this paper add new important details in the comprehension of the mammalian sperm physiology and suggest new insights for improving reproduction and for

  17. Attenuation of LDHA expression in cancer cells leads to redox-dependent alterations in cytoskeletal structure and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Robert; Chien, Andrew; Newington, Jordan T; Rappon, Tim; Harris, Richard; Cumming, Robert C

    2013-09-28

    Aerobic glycolysis, the preferential use of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen to meet cellular metabolic demands, is a near universal feature of cancer. This unique type of metabolism is thought to protect cancer cells from damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria. Using the cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 it is shown that shRNA mediated knockdown of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis, results in elevated mitochondrial ROS production and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation and motility. Redox-sensitive proteins affected by oxidative stress associated with LDHA knockdown were identified by Redox 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. In particular, tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms Tm4, Tm5NM1 and Tm5NM5, proteins involved in cell migration and cytoskeletal dynamics, exhibited changes in disulfide bonding and co-localized with peri-nuclear actin aggregates in LDHA knockdown cells. In contrast, treatment with the thiol-based antioxidant N-acetylcysteine promoted the relocalization of Tms to cortical actin microfilaments and partially rescued the migration defects associated with attenuated LDHA expression. These results suggest that aerobic glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial ROS production create an environment conducive to cytoskeletal remodeling; key events linked to the high cell motility associated with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Placental Kisspeptins Differentially Modulate Vital Parameters of Estrogen Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh, Zahra; Ghods, Roya; Kazemi, Tohid; Mirzadegan, Ebrahim; Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Nassim; Rezania, Simin; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Arefi, Soheila; Ghasemi, Jamileh; Vafaei, Sedigheh; Mahmoudi, Ahmad-Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptins (KPs) are major regulators of trophoblast and cancer invasion. Thus far, limited and conflicting data are available on KP-mediated modulation of breast cancer (BC) metastasis; mostly based on synthetic KP-10, the most active fragment of KP. Here, we report for the first time comprehensive functional effects of term placental KPs on proliferation, adhesion, Matrigel invasion, motility, MMP activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative) and MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive). KPs were expressed at high level by term placental syncytiotrophoblasts and released in soluble form. Placental explant conditioned medium containing KPs (CM) significantly reduced proliferation of both cell types compared to CM without (w/o) KP (CM-w/o KP) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In MDA-MB-231 cells, placental KPs significantly reduced adhesive properties, while increased MMP9 and MMP2 activity and stimulated invasion. Increased invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells after CM treatment was inhibited by KP receptor antagonist, P-234. CM significantly reduced motility of MCF-7 cells at all time points (2–30 hr), while it stimulated motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. These effects were reversed by P-234. Co-treatment with selective ER modulators, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, inhibited the effect of CM on motility of MCF-7 cells. The level of IL-6 in supernatant of MCF-7 cells treated with CM was higher compared to those treated with CM-w/o KP. Both cell types produced more IL-8 after treatment with CM compared to those treated with CM-w/o KP. Taken together, our observations suggest that placental KPs differentially modulate vital parameters of estrogen receptor-positive and -negative BC cells possibly through modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:27101408

  19. Placental Kisspeptins Differentially Modulate Vital Parameters of Estrogen Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rasoulzadeh

    Full Text Available Kisspeptins (KPs are major regulators of trophoblast and cancer invasion. Thus far, limited and conflicting data are available on KP-mediated modulation of breast cancer (BC metastasis; mostly based on synthetic KP-10, the most active fragment of KP. Here, we report for the first time comprehensive functional effects of term placental KPs on proliferation, adhesion, Matrigel invasion, motility, MMP activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative and MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive. KPs were expressed at high level by term placental syncytiotrophoblasts and released in soluble form. Placental explant conditioned medium containing KPs (CM significantly reduced proliferation of both cell types compared to CM without (w/o KP (CM-w/o KP in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In MDA-MB-231 cells, placental KPs significantly reduced adhesive properties, while increased MMP9 and MMP2 activity and stimulated invasion. Increased invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells after CM treatment was inhibited by KP receptor antagonist, P-234. CM significantly reduced motility of MCF-7 cells at all time points (2-30 hr, while it stimulated motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. These effects were reversed by P-234. Co-treatment with selective ER modulators, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, inhibited the effect of CM on motility of MCF-7 cells. The level of IL-6 in supernatant of MCF-7 cells treated with CM was higher compared to those treated with CM-w/o KP. Both cell types produced more IL-8 after treatment with CM compared to those treated with CM-w/o KP. Taken together, our observations suggest that placental KPs differentially modulate vital parameters of estrogen receptor-positive and -negative BC cells possibly through modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

  20. Targeted inhibition of heat shock protein 90 disrupts multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, thus inducing cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death in human urinary bladder cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkoulis Panagiotis K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geldanamycin (GA can be considered a relatively new component with a promising mode of action against human malignancies. It specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone. Methods In this study, we have investigated the effects of geldanamycin on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent oncogenic signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cells. In order to assess the biological outcome of Hsp90 inhibition on RT4 (grade I and T24 (grade III human urinary bladder cancer cell lines, we applied MTT assay, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semi-quantitative (sq RT-PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, immunofluorescence and scratch-wound assay. Results We have herein demonstrated that, upon geldanamycin treatment, bladder cancer cells are prominently arrested in the G1 phase of cell cycle and eventually undergo programmed cell death via combined activation of apoptosis and autophagy. Furthermore, geldanamycin administration proved to induce prominent downregulation of several Hsp90 protein clients and downstream effectors, such as membrane receptors (IGF-IR and c-Met, protein kinases (Akt, IKKα, IKKβ and Erk1/2 and transcription factors (FOXOs and NF-κΒ, therefore resulting in the impairment of proliferative -oncogenic- signaling and reduction of cell motility. Conclusions In toto, we have evinced the dose-dependent and cell line-specific actions of geldanamycin on cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human bladder cancer cells, due to downregulation of critical Hsp90 clients and subsequent disruption of signaling -oncogenic- integrity.

  1. Targeted inhibition of heat shock protein 90 disrupts multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, thus inducing cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death in human urinary bladder cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Geldanamycin (GA) can be considered a relatively new component with a promising mode of action against human malignancies. It specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone. Methods In this study, we have investigated the effects of geldanamycin on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent oncogenic signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cells. In order to assess the biological outcome of Hsp90 inhibition on RT4 (grade I) and T24 (grade III) human urinary bladder cancer cell lines, we applied MTT assay, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semi-quantitative (sq) RT-PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), immunofluorescence and scratch-wound assay. Results We have herein demonstrated that, upon geldanamycin treatment, bladder cancer cells are prominently arrested in the G1 phase of cell cycle and eventually undergo programmed cell death via combined activation of apoptosis and autophagy. Furthermore, geldanamycin administration proved to induce prominent downregulation of several Hsp90 protein clients and downstream effectors, such as membrane receptors (IGF-IR and c-Met), protein kinases (Akt, IKKα, IKKβ and Erk1/2) and transcription factors (FOXOs and NF-κΒ), therefore resulting in the impairment of proliferative -oncogenic- signaling and reduction of cell motility. Conclusions In toto, we have evinced the dose-dependent and cell line-specific actions of geldanamycin on cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human bladder cancer cells, due to downregulation of critical Hsp90 clients and subsequent disruption of signaling -oncogenic- integrity. PMID:23394616

  2. Lateral diffusion and retrograde movements of individual cell surface components on single motile cells observed with Nanovid microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brabander, M; Nuydens, R; Ishihara, A; Holifield, B; Jacobson, K; Geerts, H

    1991-01-01

    A recently introduced extension of video-enhanced light microscopy, called Nanovid microscopy, documents the dynamic reorganization of individual cell surface components on living cells. 40-microns colloidal gold probes coupled to different types of poly-L-lysine label negative cell surface components of PTK2 cells. Evidence is provided that they bind to negative sialic acid residues of glycoproteins, probably through nonspecific electrostatic interactions. The gold probes, coupled to short poly-L-lysine molecules (4 kD) displayed Brownian motion, with a diffusion coefficient in the range 0.1-0.2 micron2/s. A diffusion coefficient in the 0.1 micron2/s range was also observed with 40-nm gold probes coupled to an antibody against the lipid-linked Thy-1 antigen on 3T3 fibroblasts. Diffusion of these probes is largely confined to apparent microdomains of 1-2 microns in size. On the other hand, the gold probes, coupled to long poly-L-lysine molecules (240 kD) molecules and bound to the leading lamella, were driven rearward, toward the boundary between lamelloplasm and perinuclear cytoplasm at a velocity of 0.5-1 micron/min by a directed ATP-dependent mechanism. This uniform motion was inhibited by cytochalasin, suggesting actin microfilament involvement. A similar behavior on MO cells was observed when the antibody-labeled gold served as a marker for the PGP-1 (GP-80) antigen. These results show that Nanovid microscopy, offering the possibility to observe the motion of individual specific cell surface components, provides a new and powerful tool to study the dynamic reorganization of the cell membrane during locomotion and in other biological contexts as well.

  3. Mesothelioma cells breaking bad: loss of integrin α7 promotes cell motility and poor clinical outcomes in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, Dean J; Fontelonga, Tatiana M

    2015-11-01

    Mesothelioma is a disease of pleural cells lining the lungs which is often caused by exposure to asbestos. The molecular mechanism(s) that regulate the transformation of pleural mesothelioma cells to a migratory and malignant phenotype are unclear. In recent work published in this journal, Laszlo et al performed a set of elegant experiments to identify a key molecular mechanism that may explain the aggressive nature of this disease. Using patient-derived mesothelioma cells with high versus low migratory activity, the authors conducted a genome-wide expression analysis. They identified a significant reduction in ITGA7 expression only in highly migratory malignant pleural mesothelioma cells and showed that loss of ITGA7 expression was associated with methylation of the promoter. Forced expression of integrin α7 reversed the migratory phenotype of these cells. Finally, the authors identified a strong correlation between ITGA7 expression and patient survival. Together, these results identify expression of integrin α7 as a molecular mechanism for the aggressive migratory transformation of mesothelioma and identify a potentially novel diagnostic and therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Inhibitory Effect of 3β-Hydroxy-12-oleanen-27-oic Acid on Growth and Motility of Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells through JNK and Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3β-Hydroxy-12-oleanen-27-oic acid (ATA was a main antitumor active triterpene from the rhizomes of Astilbe chinensis. In this study, we investigated its effects on growth, apoptosis, cell cycle, motility/invasion, and metatasis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro and antimetastasis of B16-F10 melanoma in mice in vivo, as well as its molecular mechanisms of action using a high-throughput Cancer Pathway Finder PCR Array. ATA could not only induce tumor cells into apoptosis through the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, arrest HepG2 cells in G2/M phase, but also suppress the invasion and metastasis abilities of HepG2 cells and the lung metastasis of B16-F10 melanoma in mice. PCR array assay revealed that ATA upregulated 9 genes including CDKN1A, MDM2, CFLAR (CASPER, TNFRSF10B (DR5, c-Jun, IL-8, THBS1, SERPINB5 (maspin, and TNF and downregulated 8 genes such as CCNE1, AKT, ANGPT1, TEK, TGFBR1, MMP9, U-PA, and S100A4. These results indicate that ATA could exert antitumor effects through activating JNK/MAPK and suppressing AKT signal transduction pathways and that ATA might be a potent anticancer agent.

  5. GLUT1 regulates cell glycolysis and proliferation in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hengjun; Wang, Jun; Yan, Weixin; Cui, Yubin; Chen, Zheng; Gao, Xin; Wen, Xingqiao; Chen, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in multiple cancer types. However, the specific function and clinical significance of GLUT1 in prostate cancer (PCa) are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of GLUT1 in PCa. GLUT1 protein levels in prostate cancer tissue and tumor-adjacent normal tissues were measured and compared. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were both used to detect GLUT1 expression levels in different PCa cell lines. Flow cytometry and cell-based assays, such as a glucose uptake and lactate secretion assay, CCK-8 assay, and transwell migration and wound healing assay, were used to monitor cancer cell cycle distribution, glycolysis, proliferation, and motility, respectively. Moreover, a mouse tumor xenograft model was used to investigate the role of GLUT1 in tumor progression in vivo. GLUT1 expression levels are higher in PCa tissues than in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The results from real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed a similar increase in the GLUT1 expression levels in PCa cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of GLUT1 inhibits cell glycolysis and proliferation and leads to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in the 22RV1 cell line but not in the PC3 cell line. In vivo experiments further confirmed that GLUT1 knockdown inhibits the growth of tumors derived from the 22RV1 cell line. In addition, we also showed that GLUT1 knockdown has no effect on cell migration in vitro. GLUT1 may play an important role in PCa progression via mediating glycolysis and proliferation. Our study also indicated a potential crosstalk between GLUT1-mediated glycolysis and androgen sensitivity in PCa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Motility patterns and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal and nitrergic neurons in the proximal, mid- and distal-colon of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertí, E; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the patterns of spontaneous motility in the circular and longitudinal muscle strips and to characterize the distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and nitrergic neurons (nNOS) in the proximal, mid- and distal-colon of Sprague-Dawley rats...... of the AP and the major density was found in the mid-colon. Electrical field stimulation abolished LF but did not affect HF contractions. Our results indicate that HF contractions are due to the ICC network found associated with the submuscular plexus (ICC-SMP). The origin of LF contractions is still...

  7. Inositol induces mesenchymal-epithelial reversion in breast cancer cells through cytoskeleton rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Simona; Fabrizi, Gianmarco; Masiello, Maria Grazia; Proietti, Sara; Palombo, Alessandro; Minini, Mirko; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh H; Ricci, Giulia; Catizone, Angela; Cucina, Alessandra; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2016-07-01

    Inositol displays multi-targeted effects on many biochemical pathways involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As Akt activation is inhibited by inositol, we investigated if such effect could hamper EMT in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In cancer cells treated with pharmacological doses of inositol E-cadherin was increased, β-catenin was redistributed behind cell membrane, and metalloproteinase-9 was significantly reduced, while motility and invading capacity were severely inhibited. Those changes were associated with a significant down-regulation of PI3K/Akt activity, leading to a decrease in downstream signaling effectors: NF-kB, COX-2, and SNAI1. Inositol-mediated inhibition of PS1 leads to lowered Notch 1 release, thus contributing in decreasing SNAI1 levels. Overall, these data indicated that inositol inhibits the principal molecular pathway supporting EMT. Similar results were obtained in ZR-75, a highly metastatic breast cancer line. These findings are coupled with significant changes on cytoskeleton. Inositol slowed-down vimentin expression in cells placed behind the wound-healing edge and stabilized cortical F-actin. Moreover, lamellipodia and filopodia, two specific membrane extensions enabling cell migration and invasiveness, were no longer detectable after inositol addiction. Additionally, fascin and cofilin, two mandatory required components for F-actin assembling within cell protrusions, were highly reduced. These data suggest that inositol may induce an EMT reversion in breast cancer cells, suppressing motility and invasiveness through cytoskeleton modifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind; Meijer, Coby; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Timens, Wim; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of markers of cancer stem cells and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in small cell lung cancer is not known. We retrospectively studied these markers in the biopsy tissue of patients with small cell lung cancer and correlated them with overall survival and the strongest

  9. Moringa oleifera as an Anti-Cancer Agent against Breast and Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effect of Moringa oleifera leaves, bark and seed extracts. When tested against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cancer cell lines, the extracts of leaves and bark showed remarkable anti-cancer properties while surprisingly, seed extracts exhibited hardly any such properties. Cell survival was significantly low in both cells lines when treated with leaves and bark extracts. Furthermore, a striking reduction (about 70-90% in colony formation as well as cell motility was observed upon treatment with leaves and bark. Additionally, apoptosis assay performed on these treated breast and colorectal cancer lines showed a remarkable increase in the number of apoptotic cells; with a 7 fold increase in MD-MB-231 to an increase of several fold in colorectal cancer cell lines. However, no significant apoptotic cells were detected upon seeds extract treatment. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution showed a G2/M enrichment (about 2-3 fold indicating that these extracts effectively arrest the cell progression at the G2/M phase. The GC-MS analyses of these extracts revealed numerous known anti-cancer compounds, namely eugenol, isopropyl isothiocynate, D-allose, and hexadeconoic acid ethyl ester, all of which possess long chain hydrocarbons, sugar moiety and an aromatic ring. This suggests that the anti-cancer properties of Moringa oleifera could be attributed to the bioactive compounds present in the extracts from this plant. This is a novel study because no report has yet been cited on the effectiveness of Moringa extracts obtained in the locally grown environment as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancers. Our study is the first of its kind to evaluate the anti-malignant properties of Moringa not only in leaves but also in bark. These findings suggest that both the leaf and bark extracts of Moringa collected from the Saudi Arabian region possess anti-cancer activity that can be used to develop new drugs for

  10. Moringa oleifera as an Anti-Cancer Agent against Breast and Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Albalawi, Sulaiman Mansour; Athar, Md Tanwir; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Al-Shahrani, Hamoud; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effect of Moringa oleifera leaves, bark and seed extracts. When tested against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cancer cell lines, the extracts of leaves and bark showed remarkable anti-cancer properties while surprisingly, seed extracts exhibited hardly any such properties. Cell survival was significantly low in both cells lines when treated with leaves and bark extracts. Furthermore, a striking reduction (about 70-90%) in colony formation as well as cell motility was observed upon treatment with leaves and bark. Additionally, apoptosis assay performed on these treated breast and colorectal cancer lines showed a remarkable increase in the number of apoptotic cells; with a 7 fold increase in MD-MB-231 to an increase of several fold in colorectal cancer cell lines. However, no significant apoptotic cells were detected upon seeds extract treatment. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution showed a G2/M enrichment (about 2-3 fold) indicating that these extracts effectively arrest the cell progression at the G2/M phase. The GC-MS analyses of these extracts revealed numerous known anti-cancer compounds, namely eugenol, isopropyl isothiocynate, D-allose, and hexadeconoic acid ethyl ester, all of which possess long chain hydrocarbons, sugar moiety and an aromatic ring. This suggests that the anti-cancer properties of Moringa oleifera could be attributed to the bioactive compounds present in the extracts from this plant. This is a novel study because no report has yet been cited on the effectiveness of Moringa extracts obtained in the locally grown environment as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancers. Our study is the first of its kind to evaluate the anti-malignant properties of Moringa not only in leaves but also in bark. These findings suggest that both the leaf and bark extracts of Moringa collected from the Saudi Arabian region possess anti-cancer activity that can be used to develop new drugs for treatment of breast

  11. Delphinidin inhibits BDNF-induced migration and invasion in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Young-Joo; Park, Seung-Ho; Song, Ji-Hye; Lee, Ki Heon; Lee, In Ho; Lee, Yoo-Kyung; So, Kyeong A; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Ko, Hyeonseok

    2017-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the TrkB ligand, is associated with aggressive malignant behavior, including migration and invasion, in tumor cells and a poor prognosis in patients with various types of cancer. Delphinidin is a diphenylpropane-based polyphenolic ring structure-harboring compound, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-mutagenic activity. However, the possible role of delphinidin in the cancer migration and invasion is unclear. We investigated the suppressive effect of delphinidin on the cancer migration and invasion. Thus, we found that BDNF enhanced cancer migration and invasion in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell. To exam the inhibitory role of delphinidin in SKOV3 ovarian cancer migration and invasion, we investigated the use of delphinidin as inhibitors of BDNF-induced motility and invasiveness in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Here, we found that delphinidin prominently inhibited the BDNF-induced increase in cell migration and invasion of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, delphinidin remarkably inhibited BDNF-stimulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Also, delphinidin antagonized the phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear translocation of NF-κB permitted by the BDNF in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that delphinidin suppressed the BDNF-induced ovarian cancer migration and invasion through decreasing of Akt activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Salvia triloba extract in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Harika; Bozkurt, Emir

    2016-03-01

    Plants, due to their remarkable composition, are considered as natural resources of bioactive compounds with specific biological activities. Salvia genus (Lamiaceae) has been used around the world in complementary medicine since ancient times. We investigated the cytotoxic, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of methanolic Salvia triloba extract (STE) in prostate cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT; apoptosis was investigated by DNA fragmentation and caspase 3/7 activity assays. Changes in the angiogenic cytokine levels were investigated by human angiogenesis antibody array. Scratch assay was used to determine the cell motility. STE induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in both cancer cells; however, it was not cytotoxic to normal cells. Cell motility was reduced in PC-3, DU-145 and HUVEC cells by STE treatment. ANG, ENA-78, bFGF, EGF, IGF-1 and VEGF-D levels were significantly decreased by -2.9, -3.7, -1.7, -1.7, -2.0 and -1.8 fold in STE-treated DU-145 cells, however, ANG, IL-8, LEP, RANTES, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and VEGF levels were significantly decreased by -5.1, -2.0, -2.4, -3.1, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5 fold in PC-3 cells. These data suggest that STE might be a promising candidate for anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. Snake venom causes apoptosis by increasing the reactive oxygen species in colorectal and breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Asmari AK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari,1 Anvarbatcha Riyasdeen,1 Mohammad Hamed Al-Shahrani,2 Mozaffarul Islam1 1Research Center, 2Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Snake venom possesses various kinds of proteins and neurotoxic polypeptides, which can negatively interfere with the neurotransmitter signaling cascade. This phenomenon occurs mainly due to the blocking of ion channels in the body system. Envenomation prevents or severely interrupts nerve impulses from being transmitted, inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and proper functioning of the cardiac muscles. However, some beneficial properties of venoms have also been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the snake venom as an anticancer agent due to its inhibitory effects on cancer progression such as cell motility, cell invasion, and colony formation. In this study, the effect of venoms on phenotypic changes and the change on molecular level in colorectal and breast cancer cell lines were examined. A reduction of 60%–90% in cell motility, colony formation, and cell invasion was observed when these cell lines were treated with different concentrations of snake venom. In addition, the increase in oxidative stress that results in an increase in the number of apoptotic cancer cells was significantly higher in the venom-treated cell lines. Further analysis showed that there was a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling proteins, strongly suggesting a promising role for snake venom against breast and colorectal cancer cell progression. In conclusion, the snake venoms used in this study showed significant anticancer properties against colorectal and breast cancer cell lines. Keywords: colorectal cancer, breast cancer, cell motility, colony formation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, IL-8, IL-6, RhoC, p-Erk1/2

  14. Differentiation Affects the Release of Exosomes from Colon Cancer Cells and Their Ability to Modulate the Behavior of Recipient Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Donatella; Calapà, Federica; Palmieri, Valentina; Fanali, Caterina; Carbone, Federica; Papa, Alfredo; De Maria, Ruggero; De Spirito, Marco; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are involved in intercellular communication. We previously reported that sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of HT29 colon cancer cells is associated with a reduced CD133 expression. Herein, we analyzed the role of exosomes in the differentiation of HT29 cells. Exosomes were prepared using ultracentrifugation. Gene expression levels were evaluated by real-time PCR. The cell proliferation rate was assessed by MTT assay and with the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system, whereas cell motility was assessed using the scratch test and confocal microscopy. Sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of HT29 and Caco-2 cells increased the levels of released exosomes and their expression of CD133. Cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular CD133 expression levels were prevented by blocking multivesicular body maturation. Exosomes released by HT29 differentiating cells carried increased levels of miRNAs, induced an increased proliferation and motility of both colon cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, increased the colony-forming efficiency of cancer cells, and reduced the sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of HT29 cells. Such effects were associated with an increased phosphorylation level of both Src and extracellular signal regulated kinase proteins and with an increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related genes. Release of exosomes is affected by differentiation of colon cancer cells; exosomes might be used by differentiating cells to get rid of components that are no longer necessary but might continue to exert their effects on recipient cells. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical and functional characterization of the interaction between liprin-α1 and GIT1: implications for the regulation of cell motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Asperti

    Full Text Available We have previously identified the scaffold protein liprin-α1 as an important regulator of integrin-mediated cell motility and tumor cell invasion. Liprin-α1 may interact with different proteins, and the functional significance of these interactions in the regulation of cell motility is poorly known. Here we have addressed the involvement of the liprin-α1 partner GIT1 in liprin-α1-mediated effects on cell spreading and migration. GIT1 depletion inhibited spreading by affecting the lamellipodia, and prevented liprin-α1-enhanced spreading. Conversely inhibition of the formation of the liprin-α1-GIT complex by expression of liprin-ΔCC3 could still enhance spreading, although to a lesser extent compared to full length liprin-α1. No cumulative effects were observed after depletion of both liprin-α1 and GIT1, suggesting that the two proteins belong to the same signaling network in the regulation of cell spreading. Our data suggest that liprin-α1 may compete with paxillin for binding to GIT1, while binding of βPIX to GIT1 was unaffected by the presence of liprin-α1. Interestingly, GIT and liprin-α1 reciprocally regulated their subcellular localization, since liprin-α1 overexpression, but not the GIT binding-defective liprin-ΔCC3 mutant, affected the localization of endogenous GIT at peripheral and mature central focal adhesions, while the expression of a truncated, active form of GIT1 enhanced the localization of endogenous liprin-α1 at the edge of spreading cells. Moreover, GIT1 was required for liprin-α1-enhanced haptotatic migration, although the direct interaction between liprin-α1 and GIT1 was not needed. Our findings show that the functional interaction between liprin-α1 and GIT1 cooperate in the regulation of integrin-dependent cell spreading and motility on extracellular matrix. These findings and the possible competition of liprin-α1 with paxillin for binding to GIT1 suggest that alternative binding of GIT1 to either liprin

  16. MicroRNA-32 promotes cell proliferation, migration and suppresses apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting FBXW7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Zhou, JueYu; Luo, HaiBo; Liu, YunZhou; Peng, CanCan; Zheng, WenLing; Ma, WenLi

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are involved in many important physiological and pathological processes by regulating gene expression negatively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-32 on cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis and to determine the functional connection between miR-32 and FBXW7 in breast cancer. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression levels of miR-32 in 27 breast cancer tissues, adjacent normal breast tissues and human breast cancer cell lines. The biological functions of miR-32 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells were determined by cell proliferation, apoptosis assays and wound-healing assays. In addition, the regulation of FBXW7 by miR-32 was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. MiR-32 was frequently overexpressed in breast cancer tissue samples and cell lines as was demonstrated by qRT-PCR. Moreover, the up-regulation of miR-32 suppressed apoptosis and promoted proliferation and migration, whereas down-regulation of miR-32 showed an opposite effect. Dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-32 binds to the 3'-untranslated region of FBXW7, suggesting that FBXW7 is a direct target of miR-32. Western blot analysis showed that over-expression of miR-32 reduced FBXW7 protein level. Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between the expressions of miR-32 and FBXW7 mRNA levels in breast cancer tissues. Knockdown of FBXW7 promoted proliferation and motility and suppressed apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, the present study suggests that miR-32 promotes proliferation and motility and suppresses apoptosis of breast cancer cells through targeting FBXW7.

  17. SKI-606 (bosutinib), a novel Src kinase inhibitor, suppresses migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vultur, Adina; Buettner, Ralf; Kowolik, Claudia; Liang, Wei; Smith, David; Boschelli, Frank; Jove, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Src family kinase (SFK) activity is elevated in many human tumors, including breast cancer, and is often associated with aggressive disease. We examined the effects of SKI-606 (bosutinib), a selective SFK inhibitor, on human cancer cells derived from breast cancer patients in order to assess its potential for breast cancer treatment. Our results show that SKI-606 caused a decrease in cell motility and invasion of breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 of ~250 nM, which was also the IC50 for inhibition of c-Src kinase activity in intact tumor cells. These changes were accompanied by an increase in cell-to-cell adhesion and membrane localization of beta-catenin. By contrast, cell proliferation and survival were unaffected by SKI-606 at concentrations sufficient to block cell migration and invasion. Analysis of downstream effectors of Src revealed that SKI-606 inhibits the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) and Crk-associated substrate (p130Cas) with an IC50 similar to inhibition of c-Src kinase. Our findings indicate that SKI-606 inhibits signaling pathways involved in controlling tumor cell motility and invasion, suggesting that SKI-606 is a promising therapeutic for breast cancer. PMID:18483306

  18. Involvement of in vivo induced icmF gene of Vibrio cholerae in motility, adherence to epithelial cells, and conjugation frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumita; Chakrabortty, Amit; Banerjee, Rajat; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2002-07-26

    Previously, using global transcription profile approach icmF gene of Vibrio cholerae was identified as an in vivo induced gene. In the present study, the icmF gene of V. cholerae O395 was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct an icmF insertion mutant. This IcmF is homologous to Legionella pneumophila IcmF, belonging to the icm cassette responsible for macrophage killing and intracellular survival of the organism. The icmF insertion mutant exhibited reduced motility and increased adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells. The presence of ATP-GTP-binding site suggests further a possible role of IcmF as a signaling molecule. Triparental-mating assay, with the mutant as a recipient, showed higher conjugation frequency than wild type. We propose that the increased adherence to epithelial cell line and increased conjugation frequency of the mutant result from some sort of cell surface reorganization.

  19. Trading in your spindles for blebs: the amoeboid tumor cell phenotype in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Morley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa remains a principal cause of mortality in developed countries. Because no clinical interventions overcome resistance to androgen ablation therapy, management of castration resistance and metastatic disease remains largely untreatable. Metastasis is a multistep process in which tumor cells lose cell-cell contacts, egress from the primary tumor, intravasate, survive shear stress within the vasculature and extravasate into tissues to colonize ectopic sites. Tumor cells reestablish migratory behaviors employed during nonneoplastic processes such as embryonic development, leukocyte trafficking and wound healing. While mesenchymal motility is an established paradigm of dissemination, an alternate, 'amoeboid' phenotype is increasingly appreciated as relevant to human cancer. Here we discuss characteristics and pathways underlying the phenotype, and highlight our findings that the cytoskeletal regulator DIAPH3 governs the mesenchymal-amoeboid transition. We also describe our identification of a new class of tumor-derived microvesicles, large oncosomes, produced by amoeboid cells and with potential clinical utility in prostate and other cancers.

  20. Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis Suppresses Cancer Cell Blebbing and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Roland Holst

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellular blebbing, caused by local alterations in cell-surface tension, has been shown to increase the invasiveness of cancer cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms balancing cell-surface dynamics and bleb formation remain elusive. Here, we show that an acute reduction in cell volume activates clathrin-independent endocytosis. Hence, a decrease in surface tension is buffered by the internalization of the plasma membrane (PM lipid bilayer. Membrane invagination and endocytosis are driven by the tension-mediated recruitment of the membrane sculpting and GTPase-activating protein GRAF1 (GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 to the PM. Disruption of this regulation by depleting cells of GRAF1 or mutating key phosphatidylinositol-interacting amino acids in the protein results in increased cellular blebbing and promotes the 3D motility of cancer cells. Our data support a role for clathrin-independent endocytic machinery in balancing membrane tension, which clarifies the previously reported role of GRAF1 as a tumor suppressor.

  1. Effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib on CUB-domain containing protein (CDCP1)-mediated breast cancer cell survival and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Jeanette; Kunc, Klaudia; Possinger, Kurt; Jehn, Christian; Lüftner, Diana

    2011-10-14

    The surface receptor CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) is highly expressed in several adenocarcinomas and speculated to participate in anchorage-independent cell survival and cell motility. Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation seems to be crucial for intracellular signaling of CDCP1. Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is approved for treatment of HER-2/neu overexpressing metastatic breast cancer and functions by preventing autophosphorylation following HER-2/neu receptor activation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CDCP1 expression on anchorage-independent growth and cell motility of breast cancer cells. Moreover, studies were performed to examine if lapatinib provided any beneficial effect on HER-2/neu((+)/-)/CDCP1(+) breast cancer cell lines. In our studies, we affirmed that CDCP1 prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis when cultured in the absence of cell-substratum anchorage and that migratory and invasive properties of these cells were decreased when CDCP1 was down-regulated. However, only HER-2/neu(+), but not HER-2/neu((+)/-) cells showed decreased proliferation and invasion and an enhanced level of apoptosis towards loss of anchorage when treated with lapatinib. Therefore, we conclude that CDCP1 might be involved in regulating adhesion and motility of breast cancer cells but that lapatinib has no effect on tyrosine kinases regulating CDCP1. Nonetheless, other TKIs might offer therapeutic approaches for CDCP1-targeted breast cancer therapy and should be studied considering this aspect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer cells remodel themselves and vasculature to overcome the endothelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Anitha K; Lu, Jianrong

    2016-10-01

    Metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs mostly via the bloodstream. During the metastatic process, cancer cells invade blood vessels to enter circulation, and later exit the vasculature at a distant site. Endothelial cells that line blood vessels normally serve as a barrier to the movement of cells into or out of the blood. It is thus critical to understand how metastatic cancer cells overcome the endothelial barrier. Epithelial cancer cells acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which enables them to move toward vasculature. Cancer cells also express a variety of adhesion molecules that allow them to attach to vascular endothelium. Finally, cancer cells secrete or induce growth factors and cytokines to actively prompt vascular hyperpermeability that compromises endothelial barrier function and facilitates transmigration of cancer cells through the vascular wall. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying metastatic dissemination may help develop new anti-metastasis therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro analysis of the anticancer properties of scorpion venom in colorectal and breast cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-ASMARI, ABDULRAHMAN KHAZIM; ISLAM, MOZAFFARUL; AL-ZAHRANI, ALI MATER

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom contains various types of proteins and peptides that are able to act as inhibitors of neurotransmitter molecules. This is achieved primarily via the inhibition of ion channels. In addition, scorpion venom has been demonstrated to exhibit anticancer properties in prostate and breast cancer, as well as leukemia. The anticancer properties of scorpion venom are due to its inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, which leads to reduced motility and invasion in tumor cells. The inhibitory effects of venom on MMPs additionally lead to a reduction in the metastatic potential of malignant tumors. In the present study, the effect of venom obtained from a local serpentarium facility was examined in colorectal and breast cancer cell lines. Cell motility and clonogenic survival assays revealed a significant decrease (60–90%) in cell motility and colony formation, two significant hallmarks of cancer survival, following treatment with various concentrations of venom. These results were in agreement with previous studies demonstrating the anticancer activity of scorpion venom. In conclusion, the venom utilized at the Research Center of Prince Sultan Military Medical City Hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) possesses significant anticancer potential against colorectal and breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26893728

  4. Cathepsin G, a Neutrophil Protease, Induces Compact Cell-Cell Adhesion in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Kudo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsin G is a serine protease secreted by activated neutrophils that play a role in the inflammatory response. Because neutrophils are known to be invading leukocytes in various tumors, their products may influence the characteristics of tumor cells such as the growth state, motility, and the adhesiveness between cells or the extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that cathepsin G induces cell-cell adhesion of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells resulting from the contact inhibition of cell movement on fibronectin but not on type IV collagen. Cathepsin G subsequently induced cell condensation, a very compact cell colony, resulting due to the increased strength of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cathepsin G action is protease activity-dependent and was inhibited by the presence of serine protease inhibitors. Cathepsin G promotes E-cadherin/catenin complex formation and Rap1 activation in MCF-7 cells, which reportedly regulates E-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions. Cathepsin G also promotes E-cadherin/protein kinase D1 (PKD1 complex formation, and Go6976, the selective PKD1 inhibitor, suppressed the cathepsin G-induced cell condensation. Our findings provide the first evidence that cathepsin G regulates E-cadherin function, suggesting that cathepsin G has a novel modulatory role against tumor cell-cell adhesion.

  5. Keratin-associated protein 5-5 controls cytoskeletal function and cancer cell vascular invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, E B; Sharif, G M; Schmidt, M O; Yan, G; Shuptrine, C W; Weiner, L M; Glasgow, E; Riegel, A T; Wellstein, A

    2017-02-02

    Cancer cell vascular invasion is a crucial step in the malignant progression toward metastasis. Here we used a genome-wide RNA interference screen with E0771 mammary cancer cells to uncover drivers of endothelial monolayer invasion. We identified keratin-associated protein 5-5 (Krtap5-5) as a candidate. Krtap5-5 belongs to a large protein family that is implicated in crosslinking keratin intermediate filaments during hair formation, yet these Krtaps have no reported role in cancer. Depletion of Krtap5-5 from cancer cells led to cell blebbing and a loss of keratins 14 and 18, in addition to the upregulation of vimentin intermediate filaments. This intermediate filament subtype switching induced dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton and reduced the expression of hemidesmosomal α6/β4-integrins. We further demonstrate that knockdown of keratin 18 phenocopies the loss of Krtap5-5, suggesting that Krtap5-5 crosstalks with keratin 18 in E0771 cells. Disruption of the keratin cytoskeleton by perturbing Krtap5-5 function broadly altered the expression of cytoskeleton regulators and the localization of cell surface markers. Krtap5-5 depletion did not impact cell viability but reduced cell motility and extracellular matrix invasion, as well as extravasation of cancer cells into tissues in zebrafish and mice. We conclude that Krtap5-5 is a previously unknown regulator of cytoskeletal function in cancer cells that modulates motility and vascular invasion. Thus, in addition to its physiologic function, a Krtap can serve as a switch toward malignant progression.

  6. Snake venom causes apoptosis by increasing the reactive oxygen species in colorectal and breast cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Al-Shahrani, Mohammad Hamed; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom possesses various kinds of proteins and neurotoxic polypeptides, which can negatively interfere with the neurotransmitter signaling cascade. This phenomenon occurs mainly due to the blocking of ion channels in the body system. Envenomation prevents or severely interrupts nerve impulses from being transmitted, inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and proper functioning of the cardiac muscles. However, some beneficial properties of venoms have also been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the snake venom as an anticancer agent due to its inhibitory effects on cancer progression such as cell motility, cell invasion, and colony formation. In this study, the effect of venoms on phenotypic changes and the change on molecular level in colorectal and breast cancer cell lines were examined. A reduction of 60%–90% in cell motility, colony formation, and cell invasion was observed when these cell lines were treated with different concentrations of snake venom. In addition, the increase in oxidative stress that results in an increase in the number of apoptotic cancer cells was significantly higher in the venom-treated cell lines. Further analysis showed that there was a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling proteins, strongly suggesting a promising role for snake venom against breast and colorectal cancer cell progression. In conclusion, the snake venoms used in this study showed significant anticancer properties against colorectal and breast cancer cell lines. PMID:27799796

  7. Urotensin-II receptor is over-expressed in colon cancer cell lines and in colon carcinoma in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Alessandro; Zappavigna, Silvia; Romano, Marco; Grieco, Paolo; Luce, Amalia; Marra, Monica; Gravina, Antonietta Gerarda; Stiuso, Paola; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Vitale, Giovanni; Tuccillo, Concetta; Novellino, Ettore; Loguercio, Carmela; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Urotensin (U)-II receptor (UTR) has been previously reported to be over-expressed in a number of tumours. Whether UTR-related pathway plays a role in colon carcinogenesis is unknown. We evaluated UTR protein and mRNA expression in human epithelial colon cancer cell lines and in normal colon tissue, adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. U-II protein expression was assessed in cancer cell lines. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of U-II(4-11) (an UTR agonist), antagonists and knockdown of UTR protein expression through a specific shRNA, on proliferation, invasion and motility of human colon cancer cells. Cancer cell lines expressed U-II protein and UTR protein and mRNA. By immunohistochemistry, UTR was expressed in 5-30% of epithelial cells in 45 normal controls, in 30-48% in 21 adenomatous polyps and in 65-90% in 48 colon adenocarcinomas. UTR mRNA expression was increased by threefold in adenomatous polyps and eightfold in colon cancer, compared with normal colon. U-II(4-11) induced a 20-40% increase in cell growth while the blockade of the receptor with specific antagonists caused growth inhibition of 20-40%. Moreover, the knock down of UTR with a shRNA or the inhibition of UTR with the antagonist urantide induced an approximately 50% inhibition of both motility and invasion. UTR appears to be involved in the regulation of colon cancer cell invasion and motility. These data suggest that UTR-related pathway may play a role in colon carcinogenesis and that UTR may function as a target for therapeutic intervention in colon cancer. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  8. Investigating the Role of p57Kip2 in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jin, Ren J

    2005-01-01

    .... When virus-mediated overexpression of p57Kip2 in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), significantly suppressed the cells motility, potential for invasion, arrested the cell cycles at G0/G1 stage, and induced apoptosis...

  9. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  10. [Esophageal motility disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, C; Wuttge-Hannig, A; Rummeny, E

    2007-02-01

    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas'disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Metastatic Progression in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flanagan, Louise A

    2004-01-01

    .... In our studies, we have focused on determining whether clusterin plays a causative role in the progression of human breast cancer by promoting cell survival, increasing cell motility and resistance to cytotoxic drugs...

  12. Inhibition of the GTPase Rac1 mediates the antimigratory effects of metformin in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirat, Béatrice; Ader, Isabelle; Golzio, Muriel; Massa, Fabienne; Mettouchi, Amel; Laurent, Kathiane; Larbret, Frédéric; Malavaud, Bernard; Cormont, Mireille; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Cuvillier, Olivier; Tanti, Jean François; Bost, Frédéric

    2015-02-01

    Cell migration is a critical step in the progression of prostate cancer to the metastatic state, the lethal form of the disease. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been shown to display antitumoral properties in prostate cancer cell and animal models; however, its role in the formation of metastases remains poorly documented. Here, we show that metformin reduces the formation of metastases to fewer solid organs in an orthotopic metastatic prostate cancer cell model established in nude mice. As predicted, metformin hampers cell motility in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells and triggers a radical reorganization of the cell cytoskeleton. The small GTPase Rac1 is a master regulator of cytoskeleton organization and cell migration. We report that metformin leads to a major inhibition of Rac1 GTPase activity by interfering with some of its multiple upstream signaling pathways, namely P-Rex1 (a Guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of Rac1), cAMP, and CXCL12/CXCR4, resulting in decreased migration of prostate cancer cells. Importantly, overexpression of a constitutively active form of Rac1, or P-Rex, as well as the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase, was able to reverse the antimigratory effects of metformin. These results establish a novel mechanism of action for metformin and highlight its potential antimetastatic properties in prostate cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Binding of the chemokine CXCL12α to its natural extracellular matrix ligand heparan sulfate enables myoblast adhesion and facilitates cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakar, Dhruv; Dalonneau, Fabien; Migliorini, Elisa; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Boturyn, Didier; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Coche-Guerente, Liliane; Picart, Catherine; Richter, Ralf P

    2017-04-01

    The chemokine CXCL12α is a potent chemoattractant that guides the migration of muscle precursor cells (myoblasts) during myogenesis and muscle regeneration. To study how the molecular presentation of chemokines influences myoblast adhesion and motility, we designed multifunctional biomimetic surfaces as a tuneable signalling platform that enabled the response of myoblasts to selected extracellular cues to be studied in a well-defined environment. Using this platform, we demonstrate that CXCL12α, when presented by its natural extracellular matrix ligand heparan sulfate (HS), enables the adhesion and spreading of myoblasts and facilitates their active migration. In contrast, myoblasts also adhered and spread on CXCL12α that was quasi-irreversibly surface-bound in the absence of HS, but were essentially immotile. Moreover, co-presentation of the cyclic RGD peptide as integrin ligand along with HS-bound CXCL12α led to enhanced spreading and motility, in a way that indicates cooperation between CXCR4 (the CXCL12α receptor) and integrins (the RGD receptors). Our findings reveal the critical role of HS in CXCL12α induced myoblast adhesion and migration. The biomimetic surfaces developed here hold promise for mechanistic studies of cellular responses to different presentations of biomolecules. They may be broadly applicable for dissecting the signalling pathways underlying receptor cross-talks, and thus may guide the development of novel biomaterials that promote highly specific cellular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phospholipase C-beta 2 promotes mitosis and migration of human breast cancer-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnolo, Valeria; Benedusi, Mascia; Brugnoli, Federica; Lanuti, Paola; Marchisio, Marco; Querzoli, Patrizia; Capitani, Silvano

    2007-08-01

    Like most human neoplasm, breast cancer has aberrations in signal transduction elements that can lead to increased proliferative potential, apoptosis inhibition, tissue invasion and metastasis. Due to the high heterogeneity of this tumor, currently, no markers are clearly associated with the insurgence of breast cancer, as well as with its progression from in situ lesion to invasive carcinoma. We have recently demonstrated an altered expression of the beta2 isoform of the phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C (PLC) in invasive breast tumors with different histopathological features. In primary breast tumor cells, elevated amounts of this protein are closely correlated with a poor prognosis of patients with mammary carcinoma, suggesting that PLC-beta2 may be involved in the development and worsening of the malignant phenotype. Here we demonstrate that PLC-beta2 may improve some malignant characteristics of tumor cells, like motility and invasion capability, but it fails to induce tumorigenesis in non-transformed breast-derived cells. We also report that, compared with the G(0)/G(1) phases of the cell cycle, the cells in S/G(2)/M phases show high PLC-beta2 expressions that reach the greatest levels during the late mitotic stages. In addition, even if unable to modify the proliferation rate and the expression of cell cycle-related enzymes of malignant cells, PLC-beta2 may promote the G(2)/M progression, a critical event in cancer evolution. Since phosphoinositides, substrates of PLC, are involved in regulating cytoskeleton architecture, PLC-beta2 in breast tumor cells may mediate the modification of cell shape that characterizes cell division, motility and invasion. On the basis of these data, PLC-beta2 may constitute a molecular marker of breast tumor cells able to monitor the progression to invasive cancers and a target for novel therapeutic breast cancer strategies.

  15. BCR and its mutants, the reciprocal t(9;22-associated ABL/BCR fusion proteins, differentially regulate the cytoskeleton and cell motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puccetti Elena

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reciprocal (9;22 translocation fuses the bcr (breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22 to the abl (Abelson-leukemia-virus gene on chromosome 9. Depending on the breakpoint on chromosome 22 (the Philadelphia chromosome – Ph+ the derivative 9+ encodes either the p40(ABL/BCR fusion transcript, detectable in about 65% patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia, or the p96(ABL/BCR fusion transcript, detectable in 100% of Ph+ acute lymphatic leukemia patients. The ABL/BCRs are N-terminally truncated BCR mutants. The fact that BCR contains Rho-GEF and Rac-GAP functions strongly suggest an important role in cytoskeleton modeling by regulating the activity of Rho-like GTPases, such as Rho, Rac and cdc42. We, therefore, compared the function of the ABL/BCR proteins with that of wild-type BCR. Methods We investigated the effects of BCR and ABL/BCRs i. on the activation status of Rho, Rac and cdc42 in GTPase-activation assays; ii. on the actin cytoskeleton by direct immunofluorescence; and iii on cell motility by studying migration into a three-dimensional stroma spheroid model, adhesion on an endothelial cell layer under shear stress in a flow chamber model, and chemotaxis and endothelial transmigration in a transwell model with an SDF-1α gradient. Results Here we show that both ABL/BCRs lost fundamental functional features of BCR regarding the regulation of small Rho-like GTPases with negative consequences on cell motility, in particular on the capacity to adhere to endothelial cells. Conclusion Our data presented here describe for the first time an analysis of the biological function of the reciprocal t(9;22 ABL/BCR fusion proteins in comparison to their physiological counterpart BCR.

  16. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is an aim in several oncology areas. For this purpose, several techniques have been used to detect CTC, including the use of antibodies and techniques with nucleic acids. This study reviews the published studies considering the detection of breast cancer CTC. There are focused the difficulties in identifying a CTC in a heterogeneous population, the handling of the sample, criteria of positivity, analytical techniques, and specific markers. There are systematized various specific markers of breast cancer cells also the problems with false positive results. Finally, we hypothesize clinical applications either as a prognostic marker or as a therapeutic response monitor.

  17. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Veronica [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Gaggianesi, Miriam [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Spina, Valentina; Iovino, Flora [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Dieli, Francesco [Departement of Biopathology and Medicine Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Stassi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.stassi@unipa.it [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Todaro, Matilde [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    Nowadays it is reported that, similarly to other solid tumors, colorectal cancer is sustained by a rare subset of cancer stem–like cells (CSCs), which survive conventional anticancer treatments, thanks to efficient mechanisms allowing escape from apoptosis, triggering tumor recurrence. To improve patient outcomes, conventional anticancer therapies have to be replaced with specific approaches targeting CSCs. In this review we provide strong support that BMP4 is an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent colon cancer growth increasing differentiation markers expression and apoptosis. Recent data suggest that in colorectal CSCs, protection from apoptosis is achieved by interleukin-4 (IL-4) autocrine production through upregulation of antiapoptotic mediators, including survivin. Consequently, IL-4 neutralization could deregulate survivin expression and localization inducing chemosensitivity of the colon CSCs pool.

  18. One isoform of Arg/Abl2 tyrosine kinase is nuclear and the other seven cytosolic isoforms differently modulate cell morphology, motility and the cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Cristina; Torsello, Barbara; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A.; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Silvia; Perego, Roberto A., E-mail: roberto.perego@unimib.it

    2013-08-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson related gene (Arg/Abl2) regulates cell migration and morphogenesis by modulating the cytoskeleton. Arg promotes actin-based cell protrusions and spreading, and inhibits cell migration by attenuating stress fiber formation and contractility via activation of the RhoA inhibitor, p190RhoGAP, and by regulating focal adhesion dynamics also via CrkII phosphorylation. Eight full-length Arg isoforms with different N- and C-termini are endogenously expressed in human cells. In this paper, the eight Arg isoforms, subcloned in the pFLAG-CMV2 vector, were transfected in COS-7 cells in order to study their subcellular distribution and role in cell morphology, migration and cytoskeletal modulation. The transfected 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution and phosphorylates CrkII in the nucleus, whilst the other isoforms are detected in the cytoplasm. The 1BLCTL, 1BSCTL, 1ASCTS isoforms were able to significantly decrease stress fibers, induce cell shrinkage and filopodia-like protrusions with a significant increase in p190RhoGAP phosphorylation. In contrast, 1ALCTL, 1ALCTS, 1ASCTL and 1BLCTS isoforms do not significantly decrease stress fibers and induce the formation of retraction tail-like protrusions. The 1BLCTL and 1ALCTL isoforms have different effects on cell migration and focal adhesions. All these data may open new perspectives to study the mechanisms of cell invasiveness. -Highlights: • Each of the eight Arg isoforms was transfected in COS-7 cells. • Only the 1BSCTS Arg isoform has a nuclear distribution in transfected cells. • The cytoplasmic isoforms and F-actin colocalize cortically and in cell protrusions. • Arg isoforms differently phosphorylate p190RhoGAP and CrkII. • Arg isoforms differently modulate stress fibers, cell protrusions and motility.

  19. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  20. Stem cells in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Francesca; Fernandez, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M

    2013-06-01

    Tumors constitute complex ecosystems with multiple interactions among neoplastic cells displaying various phenotypes and functions and where the tumoral niche is built with an active participation of the host environment that also impacts the malignant progression of the tumor cells. Irrespective of the cell of origin of prostate adenocarcinoma, mounting evidences support the existence of a hierarchy within neoplastic prostate cells that contributes to the heterogeneity of these tumors. At the origin of this hierarchy are small populations of tumor cells with high self-renewal potential and also capable of generating progeny tumor cells that lose self-renewal properties as they acquire more differentiated phenotypes. These cancer stem cells (CSC) depend on active gene networks that confer them with their self-renewal capacity through symmetrical divisions whereas they can also undergo asymmetrical division and differentiation either as stochastic events or in response to environmental cues. Although new experimental evidences indicate that this is can be a reversible process, thus blurring the distinction between CSCs and non-CSCs, the former are considered as the drivers of tumor growth and evolution, and thus a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Of particular importance in prostate cancer, CSCs may constitute the repository population of androgen-insensitive and chemotherapy-resistant tumor cells responsible for castration-resistant and chemotherapy-insensitive tumors, thus their identification and quantification in primary and metastatic neoplasms could play important roles in the management of this disease.

  1. From invasion to latency: intracellular noise and cell motility as key controls of the competition between resource-limited cellular populations

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Pilar

    2015-04-02

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In this paper we analyse stochastic models of the competition between two resource-limited cell populations which differ in their response to nutrient availability: the resident population exhibits a switch-like response behaviour while the invading population exhibits a bistable response. We investigate how noise in the intracellular regulatory pathways and cell motility influence the fate of the incumbent and invading populations. We focus initially on a spatially homogeneous system and study in detail the role of intracellular noise. We show that in such well-mixed systems, two distinct regimes exist: In the low (intracellular) noise limit, the invader has the ability to invade the resident population, whereas in the high noise regime competition between the two populations is found to be neutral and, in accordance with neutral evolution theory, invasion is a random event. Careful examination of the system dynamics leads us to conclude that (i) even if the invader is unable to invade, the distribution of survival times, PS(t), has a fat-tail behaviour (PS(t)∼t-1) which implies that small colonies of mutants can coexist with the resident population for arbitrarily long times, and (ii) the bistable structure of the invading population increases the stability of the latent population, thus increasing their long-term likelihood of survival, by decreasing the intensity of the noise at the population level. We also examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneity. In the low noise limit we find that cell motility is positively correlated with the aggressiveness of the invader as defined by the time the invader takes to invade the resident population: the faster the invasion, the more aggressive the invader.

  2. miR-22 suppresses the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting CD151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xun [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Yu, Honggang, E-mail: honggang_yuwh@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Lu, Xinyao; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Minglin [Department of Gastroenterology, Wuchang Hospital of Wuhan City, Wuhan 430063 (China); Hu, Yikui [Department of Neurology, Pu Ai Hospital of Wuhan City, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430034 (China)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • miR-22 was decreased in GC tissue samples and cell lines. • miR-22 suppressed GC cell growth and motility in vitro. • CD151 was a direct target of miR-22. • miR-22 suppressed GC cell growth and motility by inhibiting CD151. - Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) is the second common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the carcinogenesis of GC. Here, we found that miR-22 was significantly decreased in GC tissue samples and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of miR-22 remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation of GC cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-22 significantly suppressed migration and invasion of GC cells. CD151 was found to be a target of miR-22. Furthermore, overexpression of CD151 significantly attenuated the tumor suppressive effect of miR-22. Taken together, miR-22 might suppress GC cells growth and motility partially by inhibiting CD151.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, M.M.; Meijer, C.; de Bock, G.H.; Boersma-van Ek, W.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Groen, H.J.M.; Timens, W.; Kruyt, F.A.E.; Hiltermann, T.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis, and even with localized (limited) disease, the 5-year survival has only been around 20%. Elevated levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been associated with a worse prognosis, and markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and

  4. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: jose.m.estrela@uv.es [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-11

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  5. Micro RNA-126 coordinates cell behavior and signaling cascades according to characteristics of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut Cosan, D; Oner, C; Mutlu Sahin, F

    2016-01-01

    Micro RNA-126 is known to enhance apoptotic processes and also plays a role in vascular growth through the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated signaling, angiogenesis, and vascular integrity. We aimed to determine the role of miR-126 in breast cancer cell lines with a variety of different characteristics to evaluate its interaction with certain cancer-related molecules and mechanisms. To determine the effect of presence and absence of miR-126 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, miR-126 mimics and inhibitor were transfected. miRNA and gene expressions were observed by using RT-PCR. Viability, proliferation, adhesion, invasion and lateral motility assays were performed to determine cell behavior changes. miR-126 is more effective on MDA-MB-231 cells on cell behavior. We observed an increase in miR-126 expression when miR-126 mimics was transfected to MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, there was a decrease in miR-126 expression when MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with miR-126 inhibitor. Furthermore, presence and absence of miR-126 modulated the gene expressions of VEGF/PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our study showed that miR-126 is in a state of interaction with a multitude molecules playing a role in breast cancer. According to obtained data, we can say that miR-126 may be more effective in inhibition of metastatic breast cancer (Tab. 4, Fig. 3, Ref. 46).

  6. Cyclic AMP regulates the migration and invasion potential of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Noah P; Roy, Ishan; Hauser, Andrew D; Wilson, Jessica M; Williams, Carol L; Dwinell, Michael B

    2015-03-01

    Aggressive dissemination and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) results in poor prognosis and marked lethality. Rho monomeric G protein levels are increased in pancreatic cancer tissue. As the mechanisms underlying PDAC malignancy are little understood, we investigated the role for cAMP in regulating monomeric G protein regulated invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment of PDAC cells with cAMP elevating agents that activate adenylyl cyclases, forskolin, protein kinase A (PKA), 6-Bnz-cAMP, or the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor cilostamide significantly decreased migration and Matrigel invasion of PDAC cell lines. Inhibition was dose-dependent and not significantly different between forskolin or cilostamide treatment. cAMP elevating drugs not only blocked basal migration, but similarly abrogated transforming-growth factor-β-directed PDAC cell migration and invasion. The inhibitory effects of cAMP were prevented by the pharmacological blockade of PKA. Drugs that increase cellular cAMP levels decreased levels of active RhoA or RhoC, with a concomitant increase in phosphorylated RhoA. Diminished Rho signaling was correlated with the appearance of thickened cortical actin bands along the perimeter of non-motile forskolin or cilostamide-treated cells. Decreased migration did not reflect alterations in cell growth or programmed cell death. Collectively these data support the notion that increased levels of cAMP specifically hinder PDAC cell motility through F-actin remodeling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Härmä

    Full Text Available The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP, and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility.

  8. [Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, M; Liechtenstein, T; Blanco-Luquín, I; Zudaire, M I; Kochan, G; Escors, D

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carried out by professional antigen presenting cells such as DC. Although there are a number of strategies to strengthen antigen presentation by DC, anti-cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as we would expect according to preclinical data accumulated in recent decades. We do not aim to make an exhaustive review of DC immunotherapy here, which is an extensive research subject already dealt with in many specialised reviews. Instead, we present the experimental approaches undertaken by our group over the last decade, by modifying DC to improve their anti-tumour capacities.

  9. Proteasome expression and activity in cancer and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2017-03-01

    Proteasome is a multi-protein organelle that participates in cellular proteostasis by destroying damaged or short-lived proteins in an organized manner guided by the ubiquitination signal. By being in a central place in the cellular protein complement homeostasis, proteasome is involved in virtually all cell processes including decisions on cell survival or death, cell cycle, and differentiation. These processes are important also in cancer, and thus, the proteasome is an important regulator of carcinogenesis. Cancers include a variety of cells which, according to the cancer stem cell theory, descend from a small percentage of cancer stem cells, alternatively termed tumor-initiating cells. These cells constitute the subsets that have the ability to propagate the whole variety of cancer and repopulate tumors after cytostatic therapies. Proteasome plays a role in cellular processes in cancer stem cells, but it has been found to have a decreased function in them compared to the rest of cancer cells. This article will discuss the transcriptional regulation of proteasome sub-unit proteins in cancer and in particular cancer stem cells and the relationship of the proteasome with the pluripotency that is the defining characteristic of stem cells. Therapeutic opportunities that present from the understanding of the proteasome role will also be discussed.

  10. Circulating tumor cell clusters-associated gene plakoglobin and breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingeng; Zeng, Hongmei; Gu, Xinsheng; Ma, Wenxue

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer recurrence is a major cause of the disease-specific death. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are negatively associated with breast cancer survival. Plakoglobin, a cell adhesion protein, was recently reported as a determinant of CTCs types, single or clustered ones. Here, we aim to summarize the studies on the roles of plakoglobin and evaluate the association of plakoglobin and breast cancer survival. Plakoglobin as a key component in both cell adhesion and the signaling pathways was briefly reviewed first. Then the double-edge functions of plakoglobin in tumors and its association with CTCs and breast cancer metastasis were introduced. Finally, based on an open-access database, the association between plakoglobin and breast cancer survival was investigated using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Plakoglobin may be a molecule functioning as a double-edge sword. Loss of plakoglobin expression leads to increased motility of epithelial cells, thereby promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition and further metastasis of cancer. However, studies also show that plakoglobin can function as an oncogene. High expression of plakoglobin results in clustered tumor cells in circulation with high metastatic potential in breast cancer and shortened patient survival. Plakoglobin may be a potential prognostic biomarker that can be exploited to develop as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  11. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  12. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2011-01-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  13. ATIP3, a novel prognostic marker of breast cancer patient survival, limits cancer cell migration and slows metastatic progression by regulating microtubule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Angie; Velot, Lauriane; Ghouinem, Lydia; Abdelkarim, Mohamed; Bouchet, Benjamin Pierre; Luissint, Anny-Claude; Bouhlel, Imène; Morel, Marina; Sapharikas, Elène; Di Tommaso, Anne; Honoré, Stéphane; Braguer, Diane; Gruel, Nadège; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Delattre, Olivier; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; André, Fabrice; Terris, Benoit; Akhmanova, Anna; Di Benedetto, Mélanie; Nahmias, Clara; Rodrigues-Ferreira, Sylvie

    2013-05-01

    Metastasis, a fatal complication of breast cancer, does not fully benefit from available therapies. In this study, we investigated whether ATIP3, the major product of 8p22 MTUS1 gene, may be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic breast tumors. We show that ATIP3 is a prognostic marker for overall survival among patients with breast cancer. Notably, among metastatic tumors, low ATIP3 levels associate with decreased survival of the patients. By using a well-defined experimental mouse model of cancer metastasis, we show that ATIP3 expression delays the time-course of metastatic progression and limits the number and size of metastases in vivo. In functional studies, ATIP3 silencing increases breast cancer cell migration, whereas ATIP3 expression significantly reduces cell motility and directionality. We report here that ATIP3 is a potent microtubule-stabilizing protein whose depletion increases microtubule dynamics. Our data support the notion that by decreasing microtubule dynamics, ATIP3 controls the ability of microtubule tips to reach the cell cortex during migration, a mechanism that may account for reduced cancer cell motility and metastasis. Of interest, we identify a functional ATIP3 domain that associates with microtubules and recapitulates the effects of ATIP3 on microtubule dynamics, cell proliferation, and migration. Our study is a major step toward the development of new personalized treatments against metastatic breast tumors that have lost ATIP3 expression.

  14. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induces downregulation of critical Hsp90 protein clients and results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human urinary bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkoulis Panagiotis K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in cellular signaling. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 17-AAG on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. Methods We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and scratch-wound assay in RT4, RT112 and T24 human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. Results We have demonstrated that, upon 17-AAG treatment, bladder cancer cells are arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and eventually undergo apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 17-AAG administration was shown to induce a pronounced downregulation of multiple Hsp90 protein clients and other downstream effectors, such as IGF-IR, Akt, IKK-α, IKK-β, FOXO1, ERK1/2 and c-Met, resulting in sequestration-mediated inactivation of NF-κB, reduced cell proliferation and decline of cell motility. Conclusions In total, we have clearly evinced a dose-dependent and cell type-specific effect of 17-AAG on cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human bladder cancer cells, due to downregulation of multiple Hsp90 clients and subsequent disruption of signaling integrity.

  15. Cancer Stem Cells and the Ontogeny of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Craig D.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world today and is poised to claim approximately 1 billion lives during the 21st century. A major challenge in treating this and other cancers is the intrinsic resistance to conventional therapies demonstrated by the stem/progenitor cell that is responsible for the sustained growth, survival, and invasion of the tumor. Identifying these stem cells in lung cancer and defining the biologic processes necessary for their existence is paramou...

  16. Reprogramming cancer cells: overview & current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian Lam; Teoh, Hoon Koon; Choong, Pei Feng; Teh, Hui Xin; Cheong, Soon Keng; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is a disease with genetic and epigenetic origins, and the possible effects of reprogramming cancer cells using the defined sets of transcription factors remain largely uninvestigated. In the handful of publications available so far, findings have shown that reprogramming cancer cells changed the characteristics of the cells to differ from the parental cancer cells. These findings indicated the possibility of utilizing reprogramming technology to create a disease model in the laboratory to be used in studying the molecular pathogenesis or for drug screening of a particular cancer model. Despite numerous methods employed in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from cancer cells only a few studies have successfully reprogrammed malignant human cells. In this review we will provide an overview on i) methods to reprogram cancer cells, ii) characterization of the reprogrammed cancer cells, and iii) the differential effects of reprogramming on malignancy, epigenetics and response of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Continued technical progress in cancer cell reprogramming technology will be instrumental for more refined in vitro disease models and ultimately for the development of directed and personalized therapy for cancer patients in the future.

  17. Human cancer cells express Slug-based epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene expression signature obtained in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassiou Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological mechanisms underlying cancer cell motility and invasiveness remain unclear, although it has been hypothesized that they involve some type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Methods We used xenograft models of human cancer cells in immunocompromised mice, profiling the harvested tumors separately with species-specific probes and computationally analyzing the results. Results Here we show that human cancer cells express in vivo a precise multi-cancer invasion-associated gene expression signature that prominently includes many EMT markers, among them the transcription factor Slug, fibronectin, and α-SMA. We found that human, but not mouse, cells express the signature and Slug is the only upregulated EMT-inducing transcription factor. The signature is also present in samples from many publicly available cancer gene expression datasets, suggesting that it is produced by the cancer cells themselves in multiple cancer types, including nonepithelial cancers such as neuroblastoma. Furthermore, we found that the presence of the signature in human xenografted cells was associated with a downregulation of adipocyte markers in the mouse tissue adjacent to the invasive tumor, suggesting that the signature is triggered by contextual microenvironmental interactions when the cancer cells encounter adipocytes, as previously reported. Conclusions The known, precise and consistent gene composition of this cancer mesenchymal transition signature, particularly when combined with simultaneous analysis of the adjacent microenvironment, provides unique opportunities for shedding light on the underlying mechanisms of cancer invasiveness as well as identifying potential diagnostic markers and targets for metastasis-inhibiting therapeutics.

  18. Cell migration or cytokinesis and proliferation?--revisiting the "go or grow" hypothesis in cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Tamás; Juhász, Éva; Molnár, Eszter; Eisenbauer, Maria; Czirók, András; Dekan, Barbara; László, Viktória; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Döme, Balázs; Tímár, József; Klepetko, Walter; Berger, Walter; Hegedűs, Balázs

    2013-12-10

    The mortality of patients with solid tumors is mostly due to metastasis that relies on the interplay between migration and proliferation. The "go or grow" hypothesis postulates that migration and proliferation spatiotemporally excludes each other. We evaluated this hypothesis on 35 cell lines (12 mesothelioma, 13 melanoma and 10 lung cancer) on both the individual cell and population levels. Following three-day-long videomicroscopy, migration, proliferation and cytokinesis-length were quantified. We found a significantly higher migration in mesothelioma cells compared to melanoma and lung cancer while tumor types did not differ in mean proliferation or duration of cytokinesis. Strikingly, we found in melanoma and lung cancer a significant positive correlation between mean proliferation and migration. Furthermore, non-dividing melanoma and lung cancer cells displayed slower migration. In contrast, in mesothelioma there were no such correlations. Interestingly, negative correlation was found between cytokinesis-length and migration in melanoma. FAK activation was higher in melanoma cells with high motility. We demonstrate that the cancer cells studied do not defer proliferation for migration. Of note, tumor cells from various organ systems may differently regulate migration and proliferation. Furthermore, our data is in line with the observation of pathologists that highly proliferative tumors are often highly invasive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer stem cells: the theory and perspectives in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Justyna; Stembalska, Agnieszka; Pesz, Karolina A; Sasiadek, Maria M

    2008-01-01

    The cancer stem cell theory elucidates not only the issue of tumour initiation and development, tumour's ability to metastasise and reoccur, but also the ineffectiveness of conventional cancer therapy. This review examines stem cell properties, such as self-renewal, heterogeneity, and resistance to apoptosis. The 'niche' hypothesis is presented, and mechanisms of division, differentiation, self-renewal and signalling pathway regulation are explained. Epigenetic alterations and mutations of genes responsible for signal transmission may promote the formation of cancer stem cells. We also present the history of development of the cancer stem cell theory and discuss the experiments that led to the discovery and confirmation of the existence of cancer stem cells. Potential clinical applications are also considered, including therapeutic models aimed at selective elimination of cancer stem cells or induction of their proper differentiation.

  20. Nuclear Membrane-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Wu, Yue; Ghosh, Deepraj; Do, Brian H; Chen, Kuangcai; Dawson, Michelle R; Fang, Ning; Sulchek, Todd A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2017-04-25

    Most cancer patients die from metastasis. Recent studies have shown that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can slow down the migration/invasion speed of cancer cells and suppress metastasis. Since nuclear stiffness of the cell largely decreases cell migration, our hypothesis is that targeting AuNPs to the cell nucleus region could enhance nuclear stiffness, and therefore inhibit cell migration and invasion. Our results showed that upon nuclear targeting of AuNPs, the ovarian cancer cell motilities decrease significantly, compared with nontargeted AuNPs. Furthermore, using atomic force microscopy, we observed an enhanced cell nuclear stiffness. In order to understand the mechanism of cancer cell migration/invasion inhibition, the exact locations of the targeted AuNPs were clearly imaged using a high-resolution three-dimensional imaging microscope, which showed that the AuNPs were trapped at the nuclear membrane. In addition, we observed a greatly increased expression level of lamin A/C protein, which is located in the inner nuclear membrane and functions as a structural component of the nuclear lamina to enhance nuclear stiffness. We propose that the AuNPs that are trapped at the nuclear membrane both (1) add to the mechanical stiffness of the nucleus and (2) stimulate the overexpression of lamin A/C located around the nuclear membrane, thus increasing nuclear stiffness and slowing cancer cell migration and invasion.

  1. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  2. Down regulation of genes involved in T cell polarity and motility during the induction of heart allograft tolerance by allochimeric MHC I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Lisik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The allochimeric MHC class I molecule [alpha1h1/u]-RT1.Aa that contains donor-type (Wistar Furth, WF; RT1u epitopes displayed on recipient-type (ACI, RT1a administered in conjunction with sub-therapeutic dose of cyclosporine (CsA induces indefinite survival of heterotopic cardiac allografts in rat model. In vascularized transplantation models, the spleen contributes to graft rejection by generating alloantigen reactive T cells. The immune response in allograft rejection involves a cascade of molecular events leading to the formation of immunological synapses between T cells and the antigen-presenting cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in the immunosuppressive function of allochimeric molecule we performed microarray and quantitative RTPCR analyses of gene expression profile of splenic T cells from untreated, CsA treated, and allochimeric molecule + subtherapeutic dose of CsA treated animals at day 1, 3 and 7 of post transplantation. Allochimeric molecule treatment caused down regulation of genes involved in actin filament polymerization (RhoA and Rac1, cell adhesion (Catna1, Vcam and CD9, vacuolar transport (RhoB, Cln8 and ATP6v1b2, and MAPK pathway (Spred1 and Dusp6 involved in tubulin cytoskeleton reorganization and interaction between actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. All these genes are involved in T cell polarity and motility, i.e., their ability to move, scan and to form functional immunological synapse with antigen presenting cells (APCs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the immunosuppressive function of allochimeric molecule may depend on the impairment of T cells' movement and scanning ability, and possibly also the formation of immunological synapse. We believe that these novel findings may have important clinical implications for organ transplantation.

  3. Methods of Cell Propulsion through the Local Stroma in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J. Davies

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the normal breast, cellular structures change cyclically in response to ovarian hormones. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and differentiation are integral processes that are precisely regulated. Normal epithelial cells depend on the formation of intercellular adhesion contacts to form a continuous sheet of stratifying cell layers that are attached to one and other horizontally and vertically. Cells migrate by extending membrane protrusions to explore the extracellular space locating their targets in a chemotactic manner. The formation of cell protrusions is driven by the assembly of actin filaments at the leading edge. Reorganisation is regulated by a highly integrated signalling cascade that transduces extracellular stimuli to the actin filaments. This signalling cascade is governed by GTPases which act as molecular switches leading to actin polymerisation and the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. This process is linked to downstream molecules known collectively as WASP proteins, which, in the presence of cortactin, form a complex leading to nucleation and formation of branched filaments. In breast cancer, the cortactin is over expressed leading to increased cellular motility and invasiveness. This hugely complex and integrated signalling cascade transduces extracellular stimuli. There are multiple genes related to cell motility which are dysregulated in human breast cancers.

  4. Plasmodium sporozoite motility: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Georgina N; Matuschewski, Kai; Buscaglia, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, employs its own actin/myosin-based motor for forward locomotion, penetration of molecular and cellular barriers, and invasion of target cells. The sporozoite is unique amongst the extracellular Plasmodium developmental forms in that it has to cross considerable distances and different tissues inside the mosquito and vertebrate hosts to ultimately reach a parenchymal liver cell, the proper target cell where to transform and replicate. Throughout this dangerous journey, the parasite alternates between being passively transported by the body fluids and using its own active cellular motility to seamlessly glide through extracellular matrix and cell barriers. But irrespective of the chosen path, the sporozoite is compelled to keep on moving at a fairly fast pace to escape destruction by host defense mechanisms. Here, we highlight and discuss recent findings collected in Plasmodium sporozoites and related parasites that shed new light on the biological significance of apicomplexan motility and on the structure and regulation of the underlying motor machinery.

  5. The PDZ protein TIP-1 facilitates cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human invasive breast cancer cells in athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaojun; Wang, Hailun; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Han, Zhaozhong

    2012-05-25

    Tax-interacting protein 1 (TIP-1, also known as Tax1bp3) inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells through antagonizing the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin. However, in this study, elevated TIP-1 expression levels were detected in human invasive breast cancers. Studies with two human invasive breast cancer cell lines indicated that RNAi-mediated TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in mammary fat pads and pulmonary metastasis in athymic mice. Biochemical studies showed that TIP-1 knockdown had moderate and differential effects on the beta-catenin-regulated gene expression, but remarkably down regulated the genes for cell adhesion and motility in breast cancer cells. The decreased expression of integrins and paxillin was accompanied with reduced cell adhesion and focal adhesion formation on fibronectin-coated surface. In conclusion, this study revealed a novel oncogenic function of TIP-1 suggesting that TIP-1 holds potential as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in the treatment of human invasive breast cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Colon Cancer Cell Separation by Dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoming; Jiang, H.; Wood, P.; Hrushesky, W.; Wang, Guiren

    2009-11-01

    Separation of cancer cells from the other biological cells can be useful for clinical cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this presentation, conventional dielectrophoresis (c-DEP) is used in a microfluidic chip to manipulate and collect colorectal cancer HCT116 cell, which is doped with Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK 293). It is noticed that, the HCT116 cell are deflected to a side channel from a main channel clearly by apply electric field at particular AC frequency band. This motion caused by negative DEP can be used to separate the cancer cell from others. In this manuscript, chip design, flow condition, the DEP spectrum of the cancer cell are reported respectively, and the separation and collection efficiency are investigated as well. The sorter is microfabricated using plastic laminate technology. -/abstract- This work has been financially supported by the NSF RII funding (EP

  7. Apigenin promotes apoptosis, inhibits invasion and induces cell cycle arrest of T24 human bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Apigenin (4’,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) was recently shown effective in inhibiting several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of apigenin in the human bladder cancer cell line T24 for the first time. Methods T24 cells were treated with varying concentrations and time of apigenin. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed by Matrigel migration and invasion assay. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to detect cell apoptosis, cell cycle and signaling pathway. Results The results demonstrated that apigenin suppressed proliferation and inhibited the migration and invasion potential of T24 bladder cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was associated with induced G2/M Phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of action is like to involve PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins. Apigenin increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage, indicating that apigenin induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. Conclusions These findings suggest that apigenin may be an effective way for treating human bladder cancer. PMID:23724790

  8. Apigenin promotes apoptosis, inhibits invasion and induces cell cycle arrest of T24 human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Mao, Yeqing; Chen, Hong; Lin, Yiwei; Hu, Zhenghui; Wu, Jian; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xianglai; Qin, Jie; Xie, Liping

    2013-06-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) was recently shown effective in inhibiting several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of apigenin in the human bladder cancer cell line T24 for the first time. T24 cells were treated with varying concentrations and time of apigenin. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed by Matrigel migration and invasion assay. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to detect cell apoptosis, cell cycle and signaling pathway. The results demonstrated that apigenin suppressed proliferation and inhibited the migration and invasion potential of T24 bladder cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was associated with induced G2/M Phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of action is like to involve PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins. Apigenin increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage, indicating that apigenin induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. These findings suggest that apigenin may be an effective way for treating human bladder cancer.

  9. PGC-1α mediates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells to promote metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBleu, Valerie S; O'Connell, Joyce T; Gonzalez Herrera, Karina N; Wikman, Harriet; Pantel, Klaus; Haigis, Marcia C; de Carvalho, Fernanda Machado; Damascena, Aline; Domingos Chinen, Ludmilla Thome; Rocha, Rafael M; Asara, John M; Kalluri, Raghu

    2014-10-01

    Cancer cells can divert metabolites into anabolic pathways to support their rapid proliferation and to accumulate the cellular building blocks required for tumour growth. However, the specific bioenergetic profile of invasive and metastatic cancer cells is unknown. Here we report that migratory/invasive cancer cells specifically favour mitochondrial respiration and increased ATP production. Invasive cancer cells use the transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A, also known as PGC-1α) to enhance oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis and the oxygen consumption rate. Clinical analysis of human invasive breast cancers revealed a strong correlation between PGC-1α expression in invasive cancer cells and the formation of distant metastases. Silencing of PGC-1α in cancer cells suspended their invasive potential and attenuated metastasis without affecting proliferation, primary tumour growth or the epithelial-to-mesenchymal program. Inherent genetics of cancer cells can determine the transcriptome framework associated with invasion and metastasis, and mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration induced by PGC-1α are also essential for functional motility of cancer cells and metastasis.

  10. Atomic force microscope-based single cell force spectroscopy of breast cancer cell lines: an approach for evaluating cellular invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Ramin; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Mostafa

    2014-10-17

    The adhesiveness of cancerous cells to their neighboring cells significantly contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. The single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) approach was implemented to survey the cell-cell adhesion force between cancerous cells in three cancerous breast cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231). The gene expression levels of two dominant cell adhesion markers (E-cadherin and N-cadherin) were quantified by real-time PCR. Additionally, the local stiffness of the cell bodies was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the actin cytoskeletal organization was examined by confocal microscopy. Results indicated that the adhesion force between cells was conversely correlated with their invasion potential. The highest adhesion force was observed in the MCF-7 cells. A reduction in cell-cell adhesion, which is required for the detachment of cells from the main tumor during metastasis, is partly due to the loss of E-cadherin expression and the enhanced expression of N-cadherins. The reduced adhesion was accompanied by the softening of cells, as described by the rearrangement of actin filaments through confocal microscopy observations. The softening of the cell body and the reduced cellular adhesiveness are two adaptive mechanisms through which malignant cells achieve the increased deformability, motility, and strong metastasis potential necessary for passage through endothelial junctions and positioning in host tissue. This study presented application of SCFS to survey cell phenotype transformation during cancer progression. The results can be implemented as a platform for further investigations that target the manipulation of cellular adhesiveness and stiffness as a therapeutic choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  12. Repositioning "old" drugs for new causes: identifying new inhibitors of prostate cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Esha T; Upadhyaya, Akanksha; Philp, Lisa K; Tang, Tiffany; Skalamera, Dubravka; Gunter, Jennifer; Nelson, Colleen C; Williams, Elizabeth D; Hollier, Brett G

    2016-04-01

    The majority of prostate cancer (PCa) deaths occur due to the metastatic spread of tumor cells to distant organs. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies once tumor cells have spread outside the prostate. It is therefore imperative to rapidly develop therapeutics to inhibit the metastatic spread of tumor cells. Gain of cell motility and invasive properties is the first step of metastasis and by inhibiting motility one can potentially inhibit metastasis. Using the drug repositioning strategy, we developed a cell-based multi-parameter primary screening assay to identify drugs that inhibit the migratory and invasive properties of metastatic PC-3 PCa cells. Following the completion of the primary screening assay, 33 drugs were identified from an FDA approved drug library that either inhibited migration or were cytotoxic to the PC-3 cells. Based on the data obtained from the subsequent validation studies, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, simvastatin, fluvastatin and vandetanib were identified as strong candidates that can inhibit both the migration and invasion of PC-3 cells without significantly affecting cell viability. By employing the drug repositioning strategy instead of a de novo drug discovery and development strategy, the identified drug candidates have the potential to be rapidly translated into the clinic for the management of men with aggressive forms of PCa.

  13. miRNA-497 Negatively Regulates the Growth and Motility of Chondrosarcoma Cells by Targeting Cdc25A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yandong; Li, Fangguo; Xu, Tao; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma (CHS) is the second most common malignant bone sarcoma with increased risk of invasion and metastasis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CHS tumorigenesis remain unknown. Here we investigated the novel role of miR-497 in regulating chondrosarcoma cell growth and cell cycle arrest. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of miR-497 is aberrantly downregulated in human chondrosarcoma samples and cells. After transfection with miR-497 mimic or antagomir, the proliferation and apoptosis of JJ012 and OUMS-27 chondrosarcoma cells were determined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results showed that the proliferation capacity of JJ012 and OUMS-27 cells was significantly decreased by miR-497 overexpression but increased by miR-497 repression. Apoptosis in both cell types was remarkably enhanced by miR-497 mimic but inhibited by miR-497 antagomir. By bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analysis, Cdc25A was proven to be a direct target of miR-497 in chondrosarcoma cells. Further studies indicated that miR-497 modulates the growth of chondrosarcoma cells by targeting Cdc25A, in which the cell cycle inhibitor p21 is involved through a p53-independent pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrated that miR-497 represents a potential tumor suppressor in human chondrosarcoma that regulates the growth of chondrosarcoma cells by targeting Cdc25A. This may provide a novel therapeutic target for chondrosarcoma.

  14. Cancer Cell Fusion: Mechanisms Slowly Unravel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicite K. Noubissi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways driving invasion and metastasis have been studied for many years, the origin of the population of metastatic cells within the primary tumor is still not well understood. About a century ago, Aichel proposed that cancer cell fusion was a mechanism of cancer metastasis. This hypothesis gained some support over the years, and recently became the focus of many studies that revealed increasing evidence pointing to the possibility that cancer cell fusion probably gives rise to the metastatic phenotype by generating widespread genetic and epigenetic diversity, leading to the emergence of critical populations needed to evolve resistance to the treatment and development of metastasis. In this review, we will discuss the clinical relevance of cancer cell fusion, describe emerging mechanisms of cancer cell fusion, address why inhibiting cancer cell fusion could represent a critical line of attack to limit drug resistance and to prevent metastasis, and suggest one new modality for doing so.

  15. β-elemene decreases cell invasion by upregulating E-cadherin expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yinghua

    2013-08-01

    Inactivation of E-cadherin results in cell migration and invasion, hence leading to cancer aggressiveness and metastasis. Downregulation of E-cadherin is closely correlated with a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Thus, re-introducing E-cadherin is a novel strategy for cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine, β-elemene (ELE), on E-cadherin expression, cell migration and invasion in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. MCF-7 cells were treated with 50 and 100 µg/ml ELE. E-cadherin mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. E-cadherin protein levels were determined by immunofluorescence and western blot assays. Cell motility was measured by a Transwell assay. ELE increased both the protein and mRNA levels of E-cadherin, accompanied by decreased cell migration and invasion. Further analysis demonstrated that ELE upregulated estrogen receptor‑α (ERα) and metastasis-associated protein 3 (MTA3), and decreased the nuclear transcription factor Snail. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ELE decreases cell migration and invasion by upregulating E-cadherin expression via controlling the ERα/MTA3/Snail signaling pathway.

  16. First identification of proteins involved in motility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indikova, Ivana; Vronka, Martin; Szostak, Michael P

    2014-10-17

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the most pathogenic mycoplasma in poultry, is able to glide over solid surfaces. Although this gliding motility was first observed in 1968, no specific protein has yet been shown to be involved in gliding. We examined M. gallisepticum strains and clonal variants for motility and found that the cytadherence proteins GapA and CrmA were required for gliding. Loss of GapA or CrmA resulted in the loss of motility and hemadsorption and led to drastic changes in the characteristic flask-shape of the cells. To identify further genes involved in motility, a transposon mutant library of M. gallisepticum was generated and screened for motility-deficient mutants, using a screening assay based on colony morphology. Motility-deficient mutants had transposon insertions in gapA and the neighbouring downstream gene crmA. In addition, insertions were seen in gene mgc2, immediately upstream of gapA, in two motility-deficient mutants. In contrast to the GapA/CrmA mutants, the mgc2 motility mutants still possessed the ability to hemadsorb. Complementation of these mutants with a mgc2-hexahistidine fusion gene restored the motile phenotype. This is the first report assigning specific M. gallisepticum proteins to involvement in gliding motility.

  17. The role of heregulin-alpha as a motility factor and amphiregulin as a growth factor in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelfhout, Vera R J; Coene, Elisabeth D; Delaey, Bernard; Waeytens, Anouk A T; De Rycke, Leen; Deleu, Mattias; De Potter, Christian R

    2002-12-01

    Wound healing is a complex process of which growth and motility are essential features. The aim of this study was to search for keratinocyte-derived secreted factors that may play a role in these mechanisms, and their corresponding receptors. Growth and motility factors were purified from conditioned medium from cultured primary keratinocytes. Receptor and growth factor expression profiles were investigated by immunohistochemical, western blotting, and in situ hybridization analysis on cultured keratinocytes and tissue sections derived from chronic wounds. The most potent autocrine growth factor for keratinocytes, which it was possible to purify and sequence from keratinocyte-conditioned medium, is amphiregulin. Its receptor HER-1 is up-regulated on the membranes of keratinocytes lining the edge of the wound. From the same keratinocyte-conditioned medium, heregulin-alpha was purified as a potent motility factor for keratinocytes. Its receptor is HER-3, which is up-regulated on the membranes of keratinocytes lining the edge of the wound and on keratinocytes that had migrated towards the centre of the wound. HER-4 - another receptor for heregulin-alpha - is weakly present in occasional cells near the edge of the wound. The co-receptor for HER-3 and HER-4 is HER-2/neu, which is also present in epidermal cells but not overexpressed. This study shows that heregulin-alpha is a potent motility factor for normal epithelial cells and that it plays a central role in the process of wound healing of stratified epithelia. Heregulin-alpha has already been shown to be the motility factor leading to migration of HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells. The role of amphiregulin as a growth factor and of heregulin-alpha as a motility factor for keratinocytes in epidermal and mucosal wound healing parallels their motility and growth induction in carcinogenesis. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sphincter of Oddi motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P; Ebbehøj, N

    1996-01-01

    Gastroenterology. RESULTS: The SO is a zone with an elevated basal pressure with superimposed phasic contractions. It acts mainly as a resistor in the regulation of bile flow. Neurohormonal regulation influences the motility pattern. The contractions are under the control of slow waves. Clinical subgroups show...

  19. Triclosan potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in anoikis-resistant human lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Winitthana

    Full Text Available Alteration of cancer cell toward mesenchymal phenotype has been shown to potentiate tumor aggressiveness by increasing cancer cell metastasis. Herein, we report the effect of triclosan, a widely used antibacterial agent found in many daily products, in enhancing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in aggressive anoikis resistant human H460 lung cancer cells. EMT has been long known to increase abilities of the cells to increase migration, invasion, and survival in circulating system. The present study reveals that treatment of the cancer cells with triclosan at the physiologically related concentrations significantly increased the colony number of the cancer cells assessed by tumor formation assay. Also, the mesenchymal-like morphology and decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion were observed in triclosan-treated cells. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that triclosan-treated cells exhibited decreased E-cadherin, while the levels of EMT markers, namely N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and slug were found to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, EMT induced by triclosan treatment was accompanied by the activation of focal adhesion kinase/ATP dependent tyrosine kinase (FAK/Akt and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1, which enhanced the ability of the cells to migrate and invade. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that triclosan may potentiate cancer cells survival in detached condition and motility via the process of EMT. As mentioned capabilities are required for success in metastasis, the present study provides the novel toxicological information and encourages the awareness of triclosan use in cancer patients.

  20. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Wei ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  1. Tumor associated macrophage × cancer cell hybrids may acquire cancer stem cell properties in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Ding

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women, and metastasis makes it lethal. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs that acquire an alternatively activated macrophage (M2 phenotype may promote metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we examined how TAMs interact with breast cancer cells to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of the M2-specific antigen CD163 in paraffin-embedded mammary carcinoma blocks to explore fusion events in breast cancer patients. U937 cells were used as a substitute for human monocytes, and these cells differentiated into M2 macrophages following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and M-CSF stimulation. M2 macrophages and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 fused in the presence of 50% polyethylene glycol. Hybrids were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the relevant cell biological properties were compared with their parental counterparts. Breast cancer stem cell (BCSC-related markers were quantified by immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and/or western blotting. The tumor-initiating and metastatic capacities of the hybrids and their parental counterparts were assessed in NOD/SCID mice. We found that the CD163 expression rate in breast cancer tissues varied significantly and correlated with estrogen receptor status (p0.05. Characterization of the fusion hybrids revealed a more aggressive phenotype, including increased migration, invasion and tumorigenicity, but reduced proliferative ability, compared with the parental lines. The hybrids also gained a CD44(+CD24(-/low phenotype and over-expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes. These results indicate that TAMs may promote breast cancer metastasis through cell fusion, and the hybrids may gain a BCSC phenotype.

  2. Neisseria meningitidis differentially controls host cell motility through PilC1 and PilC2 components of type IV Pili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C Morand

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a strictly human pathogen that has two facets since asymptomatic carriage can unpredictably turn into fulminant forms of infection. Meningococcal pathogenesis relies on the ability of the bacteria to break host epithelial or endothelial cellular barriers. Highly restrictive, yet poorly understood, mechanisms allow meningococcal adhesion to cells of only human origin. Adhesion of encapsulated and virulent meningococci to human cells relies on the expression of bacterial type four pili (T4P that trigger intense host cell signalling. Among the components of the meningococcal T4P, the concomitantly expressed PilC1 and PilC2 proteins regulate pili exposure at the bacterial surface, and until now, PilC1 was believed to be specifically responsible for T4P-mediated meningococcal adhesion to human cells. Contrary to previous reports, we show that, like PilC1, the meningococcal PilC2 component is capable of mediating adhesion to human ME180 epithelial cells, with cortical plaque formation and F-actin condensation. However, PilC1 and PilC2 promote different effects on infected cells. Cellular tracking analysis revealed that PilC1-expressing meningococci caused a severe reduction in the motility of infected cells, which was not the case when cells were infected with PilC2-expressing strains. The amount of both total and phosphorylated forms of EGFR was dramatically reduced in cells upon PilC1-mediated infection. In contrast, PilC2-mediated infection did not notably affect the EGFR pathway, and these specificities were shared among unrelated meningococcal strains. These results suggest that meningococci have evolved a highly discriminative tool for differential adhesion in specific microenvironments where different cell types are present. Moreover, the fine-tuning of cellular control through the combined action of two concomitantly expressed, but distinctly regulated, T4P-associated variants of the same molecule (i.e. PilC1 and Pil

  3. Bacterial motility in the sea and its ecological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Riemann, Lasse; Azam, F.

    2001-01-01

    ). Bacteria in natural seawater did not swim constantly nor at constant speeds; over 40% swam algae, bacteria...... colonization of living and dead algal cells by bacteria. Filtering seawater through a 1 µm filter reduced % motile, again suggesting the importance of particulate loci. Enrichment with dissolved organic nutrients enhanced % motile only after 6 h but it rapidly (=1 h) increased the time individual bacteria were...... swimming. Our results show that a variable fraction of marine bacteria is able to respond to loci of organic matter, e.g. organic particles and algae, and that motility underlies dynamic patterns of ecological relationships (symbiosis, competition, parasitism) between bacteria and algae. Since motility may...

  4. VI-14, a novel flavonoid derivative, inhibits migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fanni; Li, Chenglin; Zhang, Haiwei; Lu, Zhijian; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Lu, Na; Guo, Qinglong

    2012-06-01

    It has been well characterized that flavonoids possess pronounced anticancer potentials including anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis, and pro-apoptosis. Herein, we report, for the first time, that VI-14, a novel flavonoid derivative, possesses anti-cancer properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-migration and anti-invasion activities of VI-14 in breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that VI-14 inhibits adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells treated with VI-14 display reduced activities and expressions of ECM degradation-associated proteins including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) at both the protein and mRNA levels. Meanwhile, VI-14 treatment induces an up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and 2 (TIMP-2) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blotting results show that phosphorylation levels of critical components of the MAPK signaling pathway, including ERK, JNK and P38, are dramatically decreased in VI-14-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, treatment of VI-14 significantly decreases the nuclear levels and the binding ability of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Taken together, our data suggest that VI-14 treatment suppresses migration and motility of breast cancer cells, and VI-14 may be a potential compound for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells: A New Target for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease among all gynecologic malignancies and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Although the standard combination of surgery and chemotherapy was initially effective in patients with ovarian cancer, disease relapse commonly occurred due to the generation of chemoresistance. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs are involved in drug resistance and cancer recurrence. Over the past decades, increasing studies have been done to identify CSCs from human ovarian cancer cells. The present paper will summarize different investigations on ovarian CSCs, including isolation, mechanisms of chemoresistance, and therapeutic approaches. Although there are still numerous challenges to translate basic research to clinical applications, understanding the molecular details of CSCs is essential for developing effective strategies to prevent ovarian cancer and its recurrence.

  6. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  7. A Toxoplasma gondii Class XIV Myosin, Expressed in Sf9 Cells with a Parasite Co-chaperone, Requires Two Light Chains for Fast Motility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookwalter, Carol S.; Kelsen, Anne; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Ward, Gary E.; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Many diverse myosin classes can be expressed using the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell expression system, whereas others have been recalcitrant. We hypothesized that most myosins utilize Sf9 cell chaperones, but others require an organism-specific co-chaperone. TgMyoA, a class XIVa myosin from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is required for the parasite to efficiently move and invade host cells. The T. gondii genome contains one UCS family myosin co-chaperone (TgUNC). TgMyoA expressed in Sf9 cells was soluble and functional only if the heavy and light chain(s) were co-expressed with TgUNC. The tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TgUNC was not essential to obtain functional myosin, implying that there are other mechanisms to recruit Hsp90. Purified TgMyoA heavy chain complexed with its regulatory light chain (TgMLC1) moved actin in a motility assay at a speed of ∼1.5 μm/s. When a putative essential light chain (TgELC1) was also bound, TgMyoA moved actin at more than twice that speed (∼3.4 μm/s). This result implies that two light chains bind to and stabilize the lever arm, the domain that amplifies small motions at the active site into the larger motions that propel actin at fast speeds. Our results show that the TgMyoA domain structure is more similar to other myosins than previously appreciated and provide a molecular explanation for how it moves actin at fast speeds. The ability to express milligram quantities of a class XIV myosin in a heterologous system paves the way for detailed structure-function analysis of TgMyoA and identification of small molecule inhibitors. PMID:25231988

  8. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inside of the lungs. Enlarge Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their ... Cell Lung Cancer Tobacco (includes help with quitting) Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit Secondhand Smoke and Cancer For general cancer information and other ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inside of the lungs. Enlarge Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their ... Cell Lung Cancer Tobacco (includes help with quitting) Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit Secondhand Smoke and Cancer For general cancer information and other ...

  10. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inside of the lungs. Enlarge Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their ... Cell Lung Cancer Tobacco (includes help with quitting) Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit Secondhand Smoke and Cancer For general cancer information and other ...

  11. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Molecular Biology of Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oishi, Naoki; Yamashita, Taro; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    .... The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is based primarily on the clinical and experimental observations that indicate the existence of a subpopulation of cells with the capacity to self-renew and differentiate as well as show increased...

  13. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) inhibits key events of cancer metastasis: I. In vitro studies of adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivejkul, Kwanchanit; Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, Abulkalam M

    2003-01-01

    The anti-cancer agent inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is an abundant intrinsic component of both plant and mammalian cells. In addition to inducing differentiation and inhibiting growth of numerous cancer cell lines in vitro, IP6 has been demonstrated to prevent and abrogate both primary tumor and metastasis in vivo. Using MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cells, we studied the potential of IP6 to inhibit cell adhesion, migration and invasion, the key steps in cancer metastasis, utilizing the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, a culture wounding assay, modified Boyden chambers, immunocytochemistry and zymography. IP6 treatment caused a 65% reduction of cell adhesion to fibronection (p = 0.002) and a 37% reduction to collagen (p = 0.005). To determine whether a decrease in cell adhesion leads to a decrease in cell motility, migration assays were performed; IP6 decreased both the number of migrating cells and the distance of cell migration into the denuded area by 72% (p < 0.001). Haptotatic cell migration in a modified Boyden chambers was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. While cell migration on fibronectin was inhibited by 65% (p < 0.001), migration on collagen and laminin was decreased by 32% (p < 0.01) and 13% (p < 0.05), respectively. Immunocytochemistry revealed the absence of lamellipodia structure in IP6-treated cells as compared to untreated cells, corresponding to a diminished ability of cancer cells to form cellular network as determined by Matrigel outgrowth assay. Likewise, cell invasion also was decreased (by 72% after IP6 treatment, p = 0.001) in a dose-dependent fashion. Additionally, IP6 significantly (p = 0.006) inhibited the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 as assessed by zymography. The results of this study show that IP6 inhibits the metastasis of human breast cancer cells in vitro through effects on cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion.

  14. High motility reduces grazing mortality of planktonic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Jurgens, K.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated...... size revealed highest grazing losses for moderately motile bacteria with a cell size between 0.2 and 0.4 mum(3). Grazing mortality was lowest for cells of >0.5 mum(3) and small, highly motile bacteria. Survival efficiencies of >95% for the ultramicrobacterial isolate CP-1 (less than or equal to0.1 mum......(3), >50 mum s(-1)) illustrated the combined protective action of small cell size and high motility. Our findings suggest that motility has an important adaptive function in the survival of planktonic bacteria during protozoan grazing....

  15. Cancer Stem Cells: Repair Gone Awry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rangwala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because cell turnover occurs in all adult organs, stem/progenitor cells within the stem-cell niche of each tissue must be appropriately mobilized and differentiated to maintain normal organ structure and function. Tissue injury increases the demands on this process, and thus may unmask defective regulation of pathways, such as Hedgehog (Hh, that modulate progenitor cell fate. Hh pathway dysregulation has been demonstrated in many types of cancer, including pancreatic and liver cancers, in which defective Hh signaling has been linked to outgrowth of Hh-responsive cancer stem-initiating cells and stromal elements. Hence, the Hh pathway might be a therapeutic target in such tumors.

  16. Photoacclimation state determines the photobehaviour of motile microalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezequiel, João; Laviale, Martin; Frankenbach, Silja

    2015-01-01

    (i.e. photoacclimation). Unialgal cultures of the motile diatom Navicula cf. recens were grown under contrasting light regimes (20 and 300μmolquantam-2s-1) to induce different photoacclimation states. The migratory response to light was characterized by studying the distribution of motile cells along...

  17. NK Cells and Virus-Related Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells become activated during viral infections and can play roles in such infections by attacking virus-infected cells or by regulating adaptive immune responses. Experimental models suggest that NK cells may also have the capacity to restrain virus-induced cancers. Here, we discuss the seven viruses linked to human cancers and the evidence of NK cell involvement in these systems.

  18. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics ......, help us both in the identification and characterization of cancer stem cells and in the further development of therapeutic strategies including tissue engineering...

  19. Reduced migration of MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells depends on SPTAN1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 are frequently observed in sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers (CRC). Affected tumors generate much less metastatic potential than the MLH1 proficient forms. Although MLH1 has been shown to be not only involved in postreplicative MMR but also in several MMR independent processes like cytoskeletal organization, the connection between MLH1 and metastasis remains unclear. We recently identified non-erythroid spectrin αII (SPTAN1), a scaffolding protein involved in cell adhesion and motility, to interact with MLH1. In the current study, the interaction of MLH1 and SPTAN1 and its potential consequences for CRC metastasis was evaluated. Methods Nine cancer cell lines as well as fresh and paraffin embedded colon cancer tissue from 12 patients were used in gene expression studies of SPTAN1 and MLH1. Co-expression of SPTAN1 and MLH1 was analyzed by siRNA knock down of MLH1 in HeLa, HEK293, MLH1 positive HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells. Effects on cellular motility were determined in MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T compared to their MLH1 proficient sister cells, respectively. Results MLH1 deficiency is clearly associated with SPTAN1 reduction. Moreover, siRNA knock down of MLH1 decreased the mRNA level of SPTAN1 in HeLa, HEK293 as well as in MLH1 positive HCT116 cells, which indicates a co-expression of SPTAN1 by MLH1. In addition, cellular motility of MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T cells was impaired compared to the MLH1 proficient sister clones. Consequently, overexpression of SPTAN1 increased migration of MLH1 deficient cells while knock down of SPTAN1 decreased cellular mobility of MLH1 proficient cells, indicating SPTAN1-dependent migration ability. Conclusions These data suggest that SPTAN1 levels decreased in concordance with MLH1 reduction and impaired cellular mobility in MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells. Therefore, aggressiveness of MLH1-positive CRC might be

  20. Cytotoxic Effect of Nano-SiO2 in Human Breast Cancer Cells via Modulation of EGFR Signaling Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Donghwan; Kim, Hyungjoo; Nam, Keesoo; Oh, Sunhwa; Son, Seog-Ho; Shin, Incheol

    2017-11-01

    Silica nanoparticles (nano-SiO2) are widely used in many industrial areas and there is much controversy surrounding cytotoxic effects of such nanoparticles. In order to determine the toxicity and possible molecular mechanisms involved, we conducted several tests with two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T. After exposure to nano-SiO2, growth, apoptosis, motility of breast cancer cells were monitored. In addition, modulation of signal transduction induced by nano-SiO2 was detected through western blot analysis. Treatment of nano-SiO2 repressed the growth of breast cancer cell lines. It also increased apoptosis and reduced cell motility. Moreover, exposure to nano-SiO2 significantly disturbed the dimerization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), followed by down-regulation of its downstream cellular sarcoma kinase (c-SRC) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling cascades. Nano-SiO2 has a cytotoxic effect on MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T breast cancer cells via modulation of EGFR signaling cascades. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting the osteosarcoma cancer stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common type of solid bone cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in pediatric patients. Many patients are not cured by the current osteosarcoma therapy consisting of combination chemotherapy along with surgery and thus new treatments are urgently needed. In the last decade, cancer stem cells have been identified in many tumors such as leukemia, brain, breast, head and neck, colon, skin, pancreatic, and prostate cancers and these cells are proposed to play major roles in drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis. Recent studies have shown evidence that osteosarcoma also possesses cancer stem cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the osteosarcoma cancer stem cell including the methods used for its isolation, its properties, and its potential as a new target for osteosarcoma treatment.

  2. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia, E-mail: epatsavoudi@pasteur.gr [Department of Biochemistry, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens 11521 (Greece); Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, Athens 12210 (Greece)

    2015-01-26

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  3. Motility of ureter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroth, H.J.; Steinstraesser, A.; Berberich, R.; Kloss, G.

    1985-01-01

    Motility of ureter. Changes of secretion-phase during sequential scintigraphy of the kidneys under the influence of Metamizol - a parameter to study the effect of Metamizol: The aim of the study is to get quantitative information about the effect of Metamizol (Novalgin) on the motility of the ureter. We compared the renal excretion of 99m-Tc-MDP (Tecebon) and the extent of flowing off towards gravity through the ureter with and without Metamizol. The effect of Metamizol is shown in comparing the final amplitudes of nephrograms recorded during sequential scintigraphy of the kidneys and comparing the integrals of these curves before and after injection of Metamizol. It can be demonstrated that the flow off towards gravity through the ureter is significantly diminished under Metamizol caused by its spasmolytic effect.

  4. A flagellated motile Salmonella Gallinarum mutant (SG Fla+) elicits a pro-inflammatory response from avian epithelial cells and macrophages and is less virulent to chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Setta, Ahmed; Imre, Ariel; Bukovinski, Agnes; Elazomi, Altaeb; Kaiser, Pete; Berchieri, Angelo; Barrow, Paul; Jones, Michael

    2013-08-30

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG) is a non-flagellated bacterium which causes fowl typhoid, a systemic disease associated with high mortality in birds. It has been suggested that the absence of flagella in SG is advantageous in the early stages of systemic infection through absence of TLR-5 activation. In order to investigate this hypothesis in more detail a flagellated and motile SG mutant (SG Fla(+)) was constructed. The presence of flagella increased invasiveness for chicken kidney cells (CKC) while its presence did not alter survival in HD11 macrophages. SG Fla(+) induced higher levels of CXCLi2, IL-6 and iNOS mRNA expression in CKC than the SG parent strain. The expression of genes responsible for immune response mediators in infected HD11 macrophages were not related to the presence of flagella. Mortality rates were lower in birds challenged with SG Fla(+) when compared with the SG parent. SG Fla(+) was recovered from caecal contents which showed pathological changes suggestive of inflammation and suggested increased colonization ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is required for extracellular polysaccharide production, cell motility and the full virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zou, Li-Fang; Cai, Lu-Lu; Chen, Gong-You

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf) catalyzes conversion of glucose 6-phosphate into gluconate 6-phosphate for Entner-Doudoroff (ED) and pentose phosphate pathways in living organisms. However, it is unclear whether the Zwf-coding gene is involved in pathogenesis of phytopathogenic bacterium. In this report, we found that deletion mutation in zwf of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), led the pathogen unable to effectively utilize glucose, sucrose, fructose, mannose and galactose for growth. The transcript level of zwf was strongly induced by glucose, sucrose, fructose, mannose and galactose than that by the NY medium (non sugar). The deletion mutagenesis in zwf also altered the transcript level of key genes, such as rpfF, rpfG and clp, in diffusible signal factor (DSF)-signaling network. In addition, the deletion mutation in zwf impaired bacterial virulence and growth capability in rice leaves, reduced bacterial cell motility and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The lost properties mentioned above in the zwf deletion mutant were completely restored to the wild-type level by the presence of zwf in trans. All these results suggest that zwf is required for the full virulence of Xoc in rice leaves by involving carbohydrate metabolisms that impact bacterial DSF-signaling network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    dominant role over some oncogene function.In addition, we recently reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs)- stem cell like cells in tumors that have stem ... cell properties and tumor initiating ability- retain epigenetic memories of their cells of origin (Chow et al., 2014). We showed that CSCs derived from

  7. Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Targeting senescence cells in pancreatic cancer. Cellular senescence is a programmed response to oncogenic (tumour-causing) stress that aims to halt the expansion of cells with malignant potential. It does this by stopping the proliferation of pre-cancerous lesions and recruitment of the immune system for their elimination.

  8. Betulinic Acid Kills Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potze, Lisette; Di Franco, Simone; Kessler, Jan H.; Stassi, Giorgio; Medema, Jan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the origin of cancer and it is suggested that they are resistant to chemotherapy. Current therapies fail to eradicate CSCs and therefore selecting a resistant cell subset that is able to facilitate tumor recurrences. Betulinic acid (BetA) is a broad

  9. A cancer cell-specific fluorescent probe for imaging Cu2 + in living cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Dong, Baoli; Kong, Xiuqi; Song, Xuezhen; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Weiying

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring copper level in cancer cells is important for the further understanding of its roles in the cell proliferation, and also could afford novel copper-based strategy for the cancer therapy. Herein, we have developed a novel cancer cell-specific fluorescent probe for the detecting Cu2 + in living cancer cells. The probe employed biotin as the cancer cell-specific group. Before the treatment of Cu2 +, the probe showed nearly no fluorescence. However, the probe can display strong fluorescence at 581 nm in response to Cu2 +. The probe exhibited excellent sensitivity and high selectivity for Cu2 + over the other relative species. Under the guidance of biotin group, could be successfully used for detecting Cu2 + in living cancer cells. We expect that this design strategy could be further applied for detection of the other important biomolecules in living cancer cells.

  10. Are cancer cells really softer than normal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Charlotte; Goud, Bruno; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-05-01

    Solid tumours are often first diagnosed by palpation, suggesting that the tumour is more rigid than its surrounding environment. Paradoxically, individual cancer cells appear to be softer than their healthy counterparts. In this review, we first list the physiological reasons indicating that cancer cells may be more deformable than normal cells. Next, we describe the biophysical tools that have been developed in recent years to characterise and model cancer cell mechanics. By reviewing the experimental studies that compared the mechanics of individual normal and cancer cells, we argue that cancer cells can indeed be considered as softer than normal cells. We then focus on the intracellular elements that could be responsible for the softening of cancer cells. Finally, we ask whether the mechanical differences between normal and cancer cells can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers of cancer progression. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Of germ cells, trophoblasts, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Angela R

    2008-12-01

    The trophoblastic theory of cancer, proposed in the early 1900s by Dr John Beard, may not initially seem relevant to current cancer models and treatments. However, the underpinnings of this theory are remarkably similar to those of the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory. Beard noticed that a significant fraction of germ cells never reach their final destination as they migrate during embryonic development from the hindgut to the germinal ridge. In certain situations, upon aberrant stimulation, these vagrant germ cells are able to generate tumors. Simplistically, the CSC theory surmises that a small population of tumorigenic cells exists, which initiate and maintain tumors, and these cells have a likely origin in normal stem cells. Both these theories are based on the potential of a single primitive cell to form a tumor. This has a major implication for cancer therapy, in that only a small percentage of cells need to be targeted to ablate a tumor.

  12. Single Cell Characterization of Prostate Cancer Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CTCs from patient blood, a single T24 bladder and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, a pool of 8 prostate CTCs, and one leukocyte isolated from the blood...amplify 66% of mRNA pool from a single cell. Clustering analysis does differentiate CTCs from LNCaP and T24 bladder cell lines (Figure 4). At present we...profiles could distinguish a CTC from prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and T24 bladder cancer cell line.  There was intra and inter patient heterogeneity

  13. Re-expression of ARHI (DIRAS3 induces autophagy in breast cancer cells and enhances the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bast Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ARHI is a Ras-related imprinted gene that inhibits cancer cell growth and motility. ARHI is downregulated in the majority of breast cancers, and loss of its expression is associated with its progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS to invasive disease. In ovarian cancer, re-expression of ARHI induces autophagy and leads to autophagic death in cell culture; however, ARHI re-expression enables ovarian cancer cells to remain dormant when they are grown in mice as xenografts. The purpose of this study is to examine whether ARHI induces autophagy in breast cancer cells and to evaluate the effects of ARHI gene re-expression in combination with paclitaxel. Methods Re-expression of ARHI was achieved by transfection, by treatment with trichostatin A (TSA or by a combination of TSA and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC in breast cancer cell cultures and by liposomal delivery of ARHI in breast tumor xenografts. Results ARHI re-expression induces autophagy in breast cancer cells, and ARHI is essential for the induction of autophagy. When ARHI was re-expressed in breast cancer cells treated with paclitaxel, the growth inhibitory effect of paclitaxel was enhanced in both the cell culture and the xenografts. Although paclitaxel alone did not induce autophagy in breast cancer cells, it enhanced ARHI-induced autophagy. Conversely, ARHI re-expression promoted paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Conclusions ARHI re-expression induces autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells and enhances the inhibitory effects of paclitaxel by promoting autophagy, apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

  14. Exopolysaccharide-independent social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Social motility (S motility, the coordinated movement of large cell groups on agar surfaces, of Myxococcus xanthus requires type IV pili (TFP and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Previous models proposed that this behavior, which only occurred within cell groups, requires cycles of TFP extension and retraction triggered by the close interaction of TFP with EPS. However, the curious observation that M. xanthus can perform TFP-dependent motility at a single-cell level when placed onto polystyrene surfaces in a highly viscous medium containing 1% methylcellulose indicated that "S motility" is not limited to group movements. In an apparent further challenge of the previous findings for S motility, mutants defective in EPS production were found to perform TFP-dependent motility on polystyrene surface in methylcellulose-containing medium. By exploring the interactions between pilin and surface materials, we found that the binding of TFP onto polystyrene surfaces eliminated the requirement for EPS in EPS(- cells and thus enabled TFP-dependent motility on a single cell level. However, the presence of a general anchoring surface in a viscous environment could not substitute for the role of cell surface EPS in group movement. Furthermore, EPS was found to serve as a self-produced anchoring substrate that can be shed onto surfaces to enable cells to conduct TFP-dependent motility regardless of surface properties. These results suggested that in certain environments, such as in methylcellulose solution, the cells could bypass the need for EPS to anchor their TPF and conduct single-cell S motility to promote exploratory movement of colonies over new specific surfaces.

  15. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  16. Response of breast cancer cells and cancer stem cells to metformin and hyperthermia alone or combined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyemi Lee

    Full Text Available Metformin, the most widely prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, has been shown to exert significant anticancer effects. Hyperthermia has been known to kill cancer cells and enhance the efficacy of various anti-cancer drugs and radiotherapy. We investigated the combined effects of metformin and hyperthermia against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell, and MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 0.5-10 mM metformin for 48 h caused significant clonogenic cell death. Culturing breast cancer cells with 30 µM metformin, clinically relevant plasma concentration of metformin, significantly reduced the survival of cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to CD44(high/CD24(low cells of MCF-7 cells and, CD44(high/CD24(high cells of MIA PaCa-2 cells, which are known to be cancer stem cells (CSCs of MCF-7 cells and MIA PaCa-2 cells, respectively. Heating at 42°C for 1 h was slightly toxic to both cancer cells and CSCs, and it markedly enhanced the efficacy of metformin to kill cancer cells and CSCs. Metformin has been reported to activate AMPK, thereby suppressing mTOR, which plays an important role for protein synthesis, cell cycle progression, and cell survival. For the first time, we show that hyperthermia activates AMPK and inactivates mTOR and its downstream effector S6K. Furthermore, hyperthermia potentiated the effect of metformin to activate AMPK and inactivate mTOR and S6K. Cell proliferation was markedly suppressed by metformin or combination of metformin and hyperthermia, which could be attributed to activation of AMPK leading to inactivation of mTOR. It is conclude that the effects of metformin against cancer cells including CSCs can be markedly enhanced by hyperthermia.

  17. Profile of differentially expressed genes mediated by the type III epidermal growth factor receptor mutation expressed in a small-cell lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M W; Thykjaer, T; Ørntoft, T F; Damstrup, L; Poulsen, H S

    2001-10-19

    Previous studies have shown a correlation between expression of the EGF receptor type III mutation (EGFRvIII) and a more malignant phenotype of various cancers including: non-small-cell lung cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Thus, a detailed molecular genetic understanding of how the EGFRvIII contributes to the malignant phenotype is of major importance for future therapy. The GeneChip Hu6800Set developed by Affymetrix was used to identify changes in gene expression caused by the expression of EGFRvIII. The cell line selected for the study was an EGF receptor negative small-cell-lung cancer