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Sample records for cancer cell apoptosis

  1. Metformin induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role and mechanism of mefformin in inducing apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: The human pancreatic cancer cell lines ASPC-1, BxPc-3, PANC-1 and SW1990 were exposed to mefformin. The inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation via apoptosis induction and S phase arrest in pancreatic cancer cell lines of mefformin was tested.RESULTS: In each pancreatic cancer cell line tested, metformin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner in MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assays). Flow cytometric analysis showed that metformin reduced the number of cells in G1 and increased the percentage of cells in S phase as well as the apoptotic fraction. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (EUSA) showed that metformin induced apaptosis in all pancreatic cancer cell lines. In Western blot studies, metformin induced oly-ADP-ribose polymerase(PARP) cleavage (an indicator of aspase activation) in all pancreatic cancer cell lines. The general caspase inhibitor (VAD-fmk) completely abolished metformin-induced PARP cleavage and apoptosis in ASPC-1 BxPc-3 and PANC-1, the caspase-8 specific inhibitor (IETD-fmk) and the caspase-9 specific inhibitor (LEHD-fmk) only partially abrogated metformin-induced apoptosis and PARP cleavage in BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells. We also observed that metformin treatment ramatically reduced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (P-MAPK) in both a time- and dose-dependent manner in all cell lines tested.CONCLUSION: Metformin significantly inhibits cell proliferation and apoptosis in all pancreatic cell lines. And the metformin-induced apoptosis is associated with PARP leavage, activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Hence, both caspase-8 and -9-initiated apoptotic signaling pathways contribute to metforrnin-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cell lines.

  2. Resveratrol induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jia-hua; CHENG Hai-yan; YU Ze-qian; HE Dao-wei; PAN Zheng; YANG De-tong

    2011-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers with a very low survival rate of 5 years.Conventional cancer treatments including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or combinations of these show little effect on this disease. Several proteins have been proved critical to the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.Methods Several pancreatic cancer cell lines were screened by resveratrol, and its toxicity was tested by normal pancreatic cells. Western blotting was then performed to analyze the molecular mechanism of resveratrol induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cell lines.Results In the screened pancreatic cancer cell lines, capan-2 and colo357 showed high sensitivity to resveratrol induced apoptosis. Resveratrol exhibited insignificant toxicity to normal pancreatic cells. In resveratrol sensitive cells,capan-2 and colo357, the activation of caspase-3 was detected and showed significant caspase-3 activation upon resveratrol treatment; p53 and p21 were also detected up-regulated upon resveratrol treatment.Conclusion Resveratrol provides a promising anti-tumor stratagy to fight against pancreatic cancer.

  3. Reversibility of apoptosis in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, H. L.; Yuen, K L; Tang, H M; Fung, M C

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis is a cell suicide programme characterised by unique cellular events such as mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction, nuclear condensation, cytoplasmic shrinkage and activation of apoptotic protease caspases, and these serve as the noticeable apoptotic markers for the commitment of cell demise. Here, we show that, however, the characterised apoptotic dying cancer cells can regain their normal morphology and proliferate after removal of apoptotic inducers. In addition, we demonstr...

  4. DNA Methylation and Apoptosis Resistance in Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-François Cartron; François Marie Vallette; Eric Hervouet; Mathilde Cheray

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is a cell death programme primordial to cellular homeostasis efficiency. This normal cell suicide program is the result of the activation of a cascade of events in response to death stimuli. Apoptosis occurs in normal cells to maintain a balance between cell proliferation and cell death. A deregulation of this balance due to modifications in the apoptosic pathway leads to different human diseases including cancers. Apoptosis resistance is one of the most important hallmarks of cance...

  5. Molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a recently identified member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family[1]. Numerous studies indicate that TRAIL can induce apoptosis of cancer cells but not of normal cells, pointing to the possibility of de-veloping TRAIL into a cancer drug[2-4]. This review will summary the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and discuss the questions to be resolved in this field.

  6. Apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells induced by Triptolide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xiong Zhou; Xiao-Ling Ding; Jie-Fei Huang; Hong Zhang; Sheng-Bao Wu; Jian-Ping Cheng; Qun Wei

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer ceils induced by Triptolide (TL),and the relationship between this apoptosis and expression of caspase-3' bcl-2 and bax.METHODS:Human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 was cultured in DIEM media for this study.MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth inhibitory rate in vitro.Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to detect the apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells before and after TL treatment.RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-associated gene caspase-3' bcl-2 and bax.RESULTS:TL inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner.TL induced human pancreatic cancer cells to undergo apoptosis with typically apoptotic characteristics.TUNEL assay showed that after the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells with 40 ng/mL TL for 12 h and 24 h,the apoptotic rates of human pancreatic cancer cells increased significantly.RT-PCR demonstrated that caspase-3 and bax were significantly up-regulated in SW1990 cells treated with TL while bcl-2 mRNA was not.CONCLUSION:TL is able to induce the apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.This apoptosis may be mediated by up-regulating the expression of apoptosisassociated caspase-3 and bax gene.

  7. Apoptosis and cancer stem cells : Implications for apoptosis targeted therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating showing that cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells are key drivers of tumor formation and progression. Successful therapy must therefore eliminate these cells, which is hampered by their high resistance to commonly used treatment modalities. Thus far, only a limited nu

  8. Paclitaxel sensitizes gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promise for cancer therapy as it has unique capacity to selectively trigger apoptosis in cancer cells. We reported here that paclitaxel sensitized gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.Methods: After drug exposure, apoptosis rate and caspase activation were examined. Various proteins were detected by western blot. Several interventions, including pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA transfection were used. hTe growth inhibition of tumors was evaluated in SGC-7901-implanted nude mice model.Results:We found gastric cancer cellsshowed a mixed response to TRAIL. Combined treatment with paclitaxel markedly enhanced TARIL-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanisms involved in synergistical activation of caspase proteins, up-regulation of receptors, down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins and inactivation of MAPKs.Conclusion:TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis can be synergistically enhanced by paclitaxel, suggesting the therapeutic potential of combining TARIL plus paclitaxel in gastric cancer treatment.

  9. Proteasomal regulation of caspase-8 in cancer cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fiandalo, Michael V.; Schwarze, Steven R.; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that proteasome inhibition sensitizes TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via stabilization of the active p18 subunit of caspase-8. The present study investigated the impact of proteasome inhibition on caspase-8 stability, ubiquitination, trafficking, and activation in cancer cells. Using caspase-8 deficient neuroblastoma (NB7) cells for reconstituting non-cleavable mutant forms of caspase-8, we demonstrated that the non-cleavable fo...

  10. Recombinant soluble TRAIL induces apoptosis of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    TRAIL is a tumor necrosis factor family member that selectively induces apoptosis of cancer cells but not of normal cells. To develop TRAIL into a potential cancer drug, three different sizes of soluble TRAIL fragments, including sTRAIL(74-281), sTRAIL(95-281) and sTRAIL(101-281), were expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Apoptosis assays indicated that sTRAIL(95-281) and sTRAIL(101-281), but not sTRAIL(74-281), can potently induce apoptosis of various cancer cell lines in 6 h, suggesting that the N-terminal fragment of aa101 has inhibitory effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that some cancer cells were resistant to TRAIL and the resistant cells could be converted into sensitive cells by treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting that one or more short-lived proteins are responsible for cells' resistance to TRAIL.

  11. Sphingosine enhances apoptosis of radiation-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, V E; Cuvillier, O; Edsall, L C; Kimura, K; Milstien, S; Gelmann, E P; Spiegel, S

    2000-08-15

    Ceramide has been implicated as an important component of radiation-induced apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells. We examined the role of the sphingolipid metabolites--ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate--in susceptibility to radiation-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines with different sensitivities to gamma-irradiation. Exposure of radiation-sensitive TSU-Pr1 cells to 8-Gy irradiation led to a sustained increase in ceramide, beginning after 12 h of treatment and increasing to 2.5- to 3-fold within 48 h. Moreover, irradiation of TSU-Pr1 cells also produced a marked and rapid 50% decrease in the activity of sphingosine kinase, the enzyme that phosphorylates sphingosine to form sphingosine-1-phosphate. In contrast, the radiation-insensitive cell line, LNCaP, had sustained sphingosine kinase activity and did not produce elevated ceramide levels on 8-Gy irradiation. Although LNCaP cells are highly resistant to gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis, they are sensitive to the death-inducing effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha, which also increases ceramide levels in these cells (K. Kimura et al., Cancer Res., 59: 1606-1614, 1999). Moreover, we found that although irradiation alone did not increase sphingosine levels in LNCaP cells, tumor necrosis factor alpha plus irradiation induced significantly higher sphingosine levels and markedly reduced intracellular levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate. The elevation of sphingosine levels either by exogenous sphingosine or by treatment with the sphingosine kinase inhibitor N,N-dimethylsphingosine induced apoptosis and also sensitized LNCaP cells to gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the relative levels of sphingolipid metabolites may play a role in determining the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer cells, and that the enhancement of ceramide and sphingosine generation could be of therapeutic value. PMID:10969794

  12. Focused ultrasound induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qian; JIANG Li-xin; HU Bing

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality rate of pancreatic cancer have increased dramatically in China over recent decades.Focused ultrasound (FU) has been somewhat successful in treating pancreatic cancer.The purpose of this study was to investigate apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells induced by FU.Methods Suspension of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PaTu 8988t was radiated by FU,using five doses with different radiation parameters and patterns,including one blank control.Temperature increase of the cell suspension was monitored.Cell apoptosis and death after FU radiation was observed using fluorescence microscopy and was tested by flow cytometer at 3,6,12,24,and 48 hours after ultrasound radiation.Results The maximum cell suspension temperatures following five radiation doses were 28°C,(42.20±2.17)°C,(50.80±0.84)°C,(55.80±2.17)°C,and (65.20±3.11)°C; differences between the doses were statistically significant (P <0.05).The apoptosis rate peaked at 24 hours after radiation,at (0.56±0.15)%,(1.28±0.16)%,(1.84±0.29)%,(5.74±1.15)%,and (2.00±0.84)% for the five doses; differences between the doses were statistically significant (P <0.05).Between doses 1-4,cell apoptosis rates increased as the Tmax increased.In dose 5,as the Tmax was above 60°C,the apoptosis rate decreased.Conclusion Sub-threshold thermal exposures of FU radiation with a continuous radiation pattern could result in higher oercentage of apoptosed cells.

  13. Induction of apoptosis in lung cancer cells by isorhamnetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingZHU; Li-mingZHOU; Chun-leiYANG; Zun-zhenZHANG; JingXIAO; Zheng-rongWANG

    2005-01-01

    AIM The aim of the present study was to explore cytotoxic activity and the mechanism of tumor cell killing by isorhamnetin and to investigate the effect of isorhamnetin on tumor growth, cell prolification and apoptosis in transplantation tumor of lung cancer of Lewis cell line in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS Human A549 cells were treated with 10-320(g/ml isorhamnetin, C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously inoculated Lewis cells 0.2ml/each (1×107cells/ml) below the right forelimb armpit and were treated with 50 (g/ml isorhamnetin isorhamnetin.The results were observed and analyzed under light-microscope, electronic microscopy, growth inhibition was analyzed by MTT, clonogenic asssays and growth curve;the apoptosis and the expression-associated genes peaks were detected with flow cytometry (FCM), DNA fragmentation, single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay,

  14. Curcumin induces apoptosis-independent death in oesophageal cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan-Coyne, G

    2009-10-06

    Background:Oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing and survival rates remain extremely poor. Natural agents with potential for chemoprevention include the phytochemical curcumin (diferuloylmethane). We have examined the effects of curcumin on a panel of oesophageal cancer cell lines.Methods:MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays and propidium iodide staining were used to assess viability and DNA content, respectively. Mitotic catastrophe (MC), apoptosis and autophagy were defined by both morphological criteria and markers such as MPM-2, caspase 3 cleavage and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining. Cyclin B and poly-ubiquitinated proteins were assessed by western blotting.Results:Curcumin treatment reduces viability of all cell lines within 24 h of treatment in a 5-50 muM range. Cytotoxicity is associated with accumulation in G2\\/M cell-cycle phases and distinct chromatin morphology, consistent with MC. Caspase-3 activation was detected in two out of four cell lines, but was a minor event. The addition of a caspase inhibitor zVAD had a marginal or no effect on cell viability, indicating predominance of a non-apoptotic form of cell death. In two cell lines, features of both MC and autophagy were apparent. Curcumin-responsive cells were found to accumulate poly-ubiquitinated proteins and cyclin B, consistent with a disturbance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This effect on a key cell-cycle checkpoint regulator may be responsible for the mitotic disturbances and consequent cytotoxicity of this drug.Conclusion:Curcumin can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not reliant on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of oesophageal cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 6 October 2009; doi:10.1038\\/sj.bjc.6605308 www.bjcancer.com.

  15. Cell Survival and Apoptosis Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Marine Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Se-Kwon; Senthilkumar Kalimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of apoptosis leads to activation of cell survival factors (e.g., AKT) causes continuous cell proliferation in cancer. Apoptosis, the major form of cellular suicide, is central to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. A number of discoveries have clarified the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, thus clarifying the link between apoptosis and cell survival factors, which has a therapeutic outcome. Induction of apoptosis and inhib...

  16. Astragalus extract inhibits destruction of gastric cancer cells to mesothelial cells by anti-apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Na; Fu-Nan Liu; Zhi-Feng Miao; Zong-Min Du; Hui-Mian Xu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the inhibitory effect of Astragalus memebranaceushas on gastric cancer cell supernatantinduced apoptosis of human peritoneal mesothelial cells. METHODS: Human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC) line HMrSV5 was co-incubated with gastric cancer cell supernatant (MKN45) and/or Astragalus memebranaceushas. Morphological changes in gastric cancer cells were observed under phase-contrast microscope. Quantitative cell damage was determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined under transmission electron microscope and quantified by detecting acridine orange/ethidium bromide-stained (AO/EB) condensed nuclei under fluorescent microscope or by flow cytometry. Expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were evaluated with immunostaining. RESULTS: Morphological changes and exfoliation occurred and naked areas appeared in cultured HMrSV5 cells 24 h after they were treated with gastric cancer cell supernatant. Cell supernatant from MKN45 gastric cancer cells induced apoptosis of HMrSV5 cells in a time-dependent manner. Obvious morphological changes were observed in cell apoptosis, such as condensation of chromatin, nuclear fragmentations and apoptotic bodies. Astragalus memebranaceus could partly suppress these changes and regulate the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in HMrSV5 cells. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer cells induce apoptosis of HPMCs through the supernatant. Astragalus memebranaceushas inhibits this phenomenon and can be used an adjuvant chemothera-peutic agent in gastric cancer therapy.

  17. Curcumin induces apoptosis-independent death in oesophageal cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan-Coyne, G

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing and survival rates remain extremely poor. Natural agents with potential for chemoprevention include the phytochemical curcumin (diferuloylmethane). We have examined the effects of curcumin on a panel of oesophageal cancer cell lines. METHODS: MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays and propidium iodide staining were used to assess viability and DNA content, respectively. Mitotic catastrophe (MC), apoptosis and autophagy were defined by both morphological criteria and markers such as MPM-2, caspase 3 cleavage and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining. Cyclin B and poly-ubiquitinated proteins were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Curcumin treatment reduces viability of all cell lines within 24 h of treatment in a 5-50 muM range. Cytotoxicity is associated with accumulation in G2\\/M cell-cycle phases and distinct chromatin morphology, consistent with MC. Caspase-3 activation was detected in two out of four cell lines, but was a minor event. The addition of a caspase inhibitor zVAD had a marginal or no effect on cell viability, indicating predominance of a non-apoptotic form of cell death. In two cell lines, features of both MC and autophagy were apparent. Curcumin-responsive cells were found to accumulate poly-ubiquitinated proteins and cyclin B, consistent with a disturbance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This effect on a key cell-cycle checkpoint regulator may be responsible for the mitotic disturbances and consequent cytotoxicity of this drug. CONCLUSION: Curcumin can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not reliant on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of oesophageal cancer.

  18. Oridonin phosphate-induced autophagy effectively enhances cell apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Suihai; Gao, Yanjun; Zhang, Xuefeng; Lu, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Oridonin is an active diterpenoid, which was extracted from traditional Chinese herbs and had been widely used in clinical treatment nowadays. Oridonin phosphate is one of the derivatives of oridonin. In the present study, we explored its anti-tumor effect and investigated the molecular mechanism of oridonin phosphate in breast cancer cell lines. Firstly, cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay. The breast cancer cells were treated with increasing concentrations of oridonin phosphate for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results demonstrated that oridonin phosphate inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Next, cell apoptosis rate was detected in oridonin phosphate-treated breast cancer cells by Annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining analysis and the data demonstrated that oridonin phosphate induced cell apoptosis of breast cancer cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blotting analysis. The results showed that the expression level of Bax was up-regulated and the expression level of Bcl-2 was down-regulated. Meanwhile, the level of cleaved caspase-9 was significantly increased when the cells were treated with 40 μM of oridonin phosphate for 48 h, although the expression level of pro-caspase-9 was not obviously changed. All of the data revealed that mitochondrial apoptosis pathway may be involved in the cell apoptosis induced by oridonin phosphate in breast cancer cells. Importantly, the expression levels of autophagy-related protein beclin-1 and LC3-II were significantly higher in oridonin phosphate-treated breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-231 for 48 h. Additionally, we further explored the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy specifically induced by oridonin phosphate in breast cancer cells. The result showed that inhibition of autophagy suppressed the cell apoptosis in oridonin phosphate-treated MDA-MB-436 cells. Taken

  19. Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaolan, E-mail: huxiaolan1998@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xianqi [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Qiu, Shuifeng [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yu, Daihua; Lin, Shuxin [Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Salidroside inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells. {yields} Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells. {yields} Salidroside induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Recently, salidroside (p-hydroxyphenethyl-{beta}-D-glucoside) has been identified as one of the most potent compounds isolated from plants of the Rhodiola genus used widely in traditional Chinese medicine, but pharmacokinetic data on the compound are unavailable. We were the first to report the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on cancer cell lines derived from different tissues, and we found that human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells (estrogen receptor negative) were sensitive to the inhibitory action of low-concentration salidroside. To further investigate the cytotoxic effects of salidroside on breast cancer cells and reveal possible ER-related differences in response to salidroside, we used MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells (estrogen receptor-positive) as models to study possible molecular mechanisms; we evaluated the effects of salidroside on cell growth characteristics, such as proliferation, cell cycle duration, and apoptosis, and on the expression of apoptosis-related molecules. Our results demonstrated for the first time that salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and may be a promising candidate for breast cancer treatment.

  20. Oxidative stress in NSC-741909-induced apoptosis of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Peng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NSC-741909 is a novel anticancer agent that can effectively suppress the growth of several cell lines derived from lung, colon, breast, ovarian, and kidney cancers. We recently showed that NSC-741909-induced antitumor activity is associated with sustained Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation, resulting from suppression of JNK dephosphorylation associated with decreased protein levels of MAPK phosphatase-1. However, the mechanisms of NSC-741909-induced antitumor activity remain unclear. Because JNK is frequently activated by oxidative stress in cells, we hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS may be involved in the suppression of JNK dephosphorylation and the cytotoxicity of NSC-741909. Methods The generation of ROS was measured by using the cell-permeable nonfluorescent compound H2DCF-DA and flow cytometry analysis. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry assays were used to determine apoptosis and molecular changes induced by NSC-741909. Results Treatment with NSC-741909 induced robust ROS generation and marked MAPK phosphatase-1 and -7 clustering in NSC-741909-sensitive, but not resistant cell lines, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The generation of ROS was detectable as early as 30 min and ROS levels were as high as 6- to 8-fold above basal levels after treatment. Moreover, the NSC-741909-induced ROS generation could be blocked by pretreatment with antioxidants, such as nordihydroguaiaretic acid, aesculetin, baicalein, and caffeic acid, which in turn, inhibited the NSC-741909-induced JNK activation and apoptosis. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the increased ROS production was associated with NSC-741909-induced antitumor activity and that ROS generation and subsequent JNK activation is one of the primary mechanisms of NSC-741909-mediated antitumor cell activity.

  1. Experimental studies on ultralow frequency pulsed gradient magnetic field inducing apoptosis of cancer cell and inhibiting growth of cancer cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾繁清; 郑从义; 张新晨; 李宗山; 李朝阳; 王川婴; 张新松; 黄晓玲; 张沪生

    2002-01-01

    The morphology characteristics of cell apoptosis of the malignant tumour cells in magnetic field-treated mouse was observed for the first time. The apoptotic cancer cell contracted, became rounder and divorced from adjacent cells; the heterochromatin condensed and coagulated together along the inner side of the nuclear membrane; the endoplasmic reticulums(ER) expanded and fused with the cellular membrane; many apoptotic bodies which were packed by the cellular membrane appeared and were devoured by some lymphocytes and plasma. Apoptosis of cancer cells was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated in situ nick end labeling(TUNEL). It was found that the number of apoptosis cancer cells of the sample treated by the magnetic field is more than that of the control sample. The growth of malignant tumour in mice was inhibited and the ability of immune cell to dissolve cancer cells was improved by ultralow frequency(ULF) pulsed gradient magnetic field; the nuclei DNA contents decreased, indicating that magnetic field can block DNA replication and inhibit mitosis of cancer cells. It was suggested that magnetic field could inhibit the metabolism of cancer cell, lower its malignancy, and restrain its rapid and heteromorphic growth. Since ULF pulsed gradient magnetic field can induce apoptosis of cancer cells and inhibit the growth of malignant tumour, it could be used as a new method to treat cancer.

  2. Fluid shear stress sensitizes cancer cells to receptor-mediated apoptosis via trimeric death receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by intravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream, which are then believed to adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelium and extravasate into distal locations. Apoptotic agents such as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), whether in soluble ligand form or expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, have shown promise in treating CTCs to reduce the probability of metastasis. The role of hemodynamic shear forces in altering the cancer cell response to apoptotic agents has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that human colon cancer COLO 205 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells exposed to a uniform fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer become sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Shear-induced sensitization directly correlates with the application of fluid shear stress, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis increases in a fluid shear stress force- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TRAIL-induced necrosis is not affected by the application fluid shear stress. Interestingly, fluid shear stress does not sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis when treated with doxorubicin, which also induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Caspase inhibition experiments reveal that shear stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL occurs via caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that physiological fluid shear forces can modulate receptor-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells in the presence of apoptotic agents. (paper)

  3. VMP1 related autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells: VMP1 regulates cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Qinyi [Department of Ultrasonograph, Changshu No. 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu (China); Zhou, Hao; Chen, Yan [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Shen, Chenglong [Department of General Surgery, Changshu No. 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu (China); He, Songbing; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Liang [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Wan, Daiwei, E-mail: 372710369@qq.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Gu, Wen, E-mail: 505339704@qq.com [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •This research confirmed VMP1 as a regulator of autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We proved the pro-survival role of VMP1-mediated autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We found the interaction between VMP1 and BECLIN1 also existing in colorectal cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) is an autophagy-related protein and identified as a key regulator of autophagy in recent years. In pancreatic cell lines, VMP1-dependent autophagy has been linked to positive regulation of apoptosis. However, there are no published reports on the role of VMP1 in autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancers. Therefore, to address this gap of knowledge, we decided to interrogate regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by VMP1. We have studied the induction of autophagy by starvation and rapamycin treatment in colorectal cell lines using electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. We found that starvation-induced autophagy correlated with an increase in VMP1 expression, that VMP1 interacted with BECLIN1, and that siRNA mediated down-regulation of VMP1-reduced autophagy. Next, we examined the relationship between VMP1-dependent autophagy and apoptosis and found that VMP1 down-regulation sensitizes cells to apoptosis and that agents that induce apoptosis down-regulate VMP1. In conclusion, similar to its reported role in other cell types, VMP1 is an important regulator of autophagy in colorectal cell lines. However, in contrast to its role in pancreatic cell lines, in colorectal cancer cells, VMP1-dependent autophagy appears to be pro-survival rather than pro-cell death.

  4. VMP1 related autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells: VMP1 regulates cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •This research confirmed VMP1 as a regulator of autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We proved the pro-survival role of VMP1-mediated autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We found the interaction between VMP1 and BECLIN1 also existing in colorectal cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) is an autophagy-related protein and identified as a key regulator of autophagy in recent years. In pancreatic cell lines, VMP1-dependent autophagy has been linked to positive regulation of apoptosis. However, there are no published reports on the role of VMP1 in autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancers. Therefore, to address this gap of knowledge, we decided to interrogate regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by VMP1. We have studied the induction of autophagy by starvation and rapamycin treatment in colorectal cell lines using electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. We found that starvation-induced autophagy correlated with an increase in VMP1 expression, that VMP1 interacted with BECLIN1, and that siRNA mediated down-regulation of VMP1-reduced autophagy. Next, we examined the relationship between VMP1-dependent autophagy and apoptosis and found that VMP1 down-regulation sensitizes cells to apoptosis and that agents that induce apoptosis down-regulate VMP1. In conclusion, similar to its reported role in other cell types, VMP1 is an important regulator of autophagy in colorectal cell lines. However, in contrast to its role in pancreatic cell lines, in colorectal cancer cells, VMP1-dependent autophagy appears to be pro-survival rather than pro-cell death

  5. Curcumin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Park, S.; Cho, D. J.; Anděra, Ladislav; Suh, N.; Kim, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 383, 1-2 (2013), s. 39-48. ISSN 0300-8177 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : TRAIL * curcumin * apoptosis * breast cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.388, year: 2013

  6. ATF2 knockdown reinforces oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in TE7 cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Walluscheck, Diana; Poehlmann, Angela; Hartig, Roland; Lendeckel, Uwe; Schönfeld, Peter; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Reissig, Kathrin; Bajbouj, Khuloud; Roessner, Albert; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells showing low apoptotic effects following oxidative stress-induced DNA damage are mainly affected by growth arrest. Thus, recent studies focus on improving anti-cancer therapies by increasing apoptosis sensitivity. We aimed at identifying a universal molecule as potential target to enhance oxidative stress-based anti-cancer therapy through a switch from cell cycle arrest to apoptosis. A cDNA microarray was performed with hydrogen peroxide-treated oesophageal squamous epithelial can...

  7. Anticancer effect of arsenite on cell migration, cell cycle and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    HORIBE, YOHEI; ADACHI, SEIJI; YASUDA, ICHIRO; YAMAUCHI, TAKAHIRO; KAWAGUCHI, JUNJI; KOZAWA, OSAMU; SHIMIZU, MASAHITO; MORIWAKI, HISATAKA

    2016-01-01

    The standard treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy, but its clinical outcome remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, the development of novel treatments for this malignancy is urgently required. In the present study, the anticancer effect of arsenite on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced migration, cell cycle and apoptosis was investigated in pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC-1 and BxPC-3), and compared with the effect on normal pancreatic epithelial (PE) cells. In the cell migration assay, arsenite clearly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced cell migration in AsPC-1 cells, but not in BxPC-3 or PE cells. Arsenite also caused cell apoptosis in AsPC-1 cells, but not in BxPC-3 or PE cells. In AsPC-1 cells, the levels of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein decreased following treatment with arsenite, but this was not observed in BxPC-3 cells. To further examine the differences between these two cell lines, the effect of arsenite on upstream p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt was investigated. PDGF-BB caused phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAPK and Akt in both cell lines. Pretreatment with arsenite significantly suppressed PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but not of p44/p42 MAPK in AsPC-1 cells. By contrast, arsenite did not affect these molecules in BxPC-3 cells. Since the inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway markedly reduced PDGF-BB-induced migration in AsPC-1 cells, the present results strongly suggest that arsenite inhibits PDGF-BB-induced migration by suppressing the Akt signaling pathway in AsPC-1 cells. Therefore, arsenite may be a useful tool for the treatment of patients with certain types of pancreatic cancer, without causing adverse effects on normal pancreatic cells.

  8. Downregulation of Akt1 Inhibits Anchorage-Independent Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The serine/threonine kinases, Akti/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ, and Akt3/PKBγ, play a critical role in preventing cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. However, the function of individual Akt isoforms in the tumorigenicity of cancer cells is still not well defined. In the current study, we used an AM antisense oligonucleotide (AS to specifically downregulate Akti protein in both cancer and normal cells. Our data indicate that AM AS treatment inhibits the ability of MiaPaCa-2, H460, HCT-15, and HT1080 cells to grow in soft agar. The treatment also induces apoptosis in these cancer cells as demonstrated by FRCS analysis and a caspase activity assay. Conversely, Akti AS treatment has little effect on the cell growth and survival of normal human cells including normal human fibroblast (NHF, fibroblast from muscle (FBM, and mammary gland epithelial 184135 cells. In addition, AM AS specifically sensitizes cancer cells to typical chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, Akti is indispensable for maintaining the tumorigenicity of cancer cells. Inhibition of AM may provide a powerful sensitization agent for chemotherapy specifically in cancer cells.

  9. Wogonin Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Cell Apoptosis in Human Glioma Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dah-Yuu Lu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Glioma is the most common primary adult brain tumor with poor prognosis because of the ease of spreading tumor cells to other regions of the brain. Cell apoptosis is frequently targeted for developing anti-cancer drugs. In the present study, we have assessed wogonin, a flavonoid compound isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, induced ROS generation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and cell apoptosis. Wogonin induced cell death in two different human glioma cells, such as U251 and U87 cells but not in human primary astrocytes (IC 50 > 100 μM. Wogonin-induced apoptotic cell death in glioma cells was measured by propidine iodine (PI analysis, Tunnel assay and Annexin V staining methods. Furthermore, wogonin also induced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation as well as up-regulation of cleaved PARP expression. Moreover, treatment of wogonin also increased a number of signature ER stress markers glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78, GRP-94, Calpain I, and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α. Treatment of human glioma cells with wogonin was found to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Wogonin induced ER stress-related protein expression and cell apoptosis was reduced by the ROS inhibitors apocynin and NAC (N-acetylcysteine. The present study provides evidence to support the fact that wogonin induces human glioma cell apoptosis mediated ROS generation, ER stress activation and cell apoptosis.

  10. Autophagy Accompanied with Bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced Apoptosis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin Hong; YANG He Ping; ZHOU Xiang Dong; WANG Hai Jing; GONG Liang; TANG Chun Lan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, and the highly metastatic lung cancer 95D cells. Methods CCK-8 assay was used to assess the effect of BDMC on cytotoxicity. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate apoptosis. Western blot analysis, electron microscopy, and quantification of GFP-LC3 punctuates were used to test the effect of BDMC on autophagy and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. Results BDMC inhibited the viability of NSCLC cells, but had no cytotoxic effects on lung small airway epithelial cells (SAECs). The apoptotic cell death induced by BDMC was accompanied with the induction of autophagy in NSCLC cells. Blockage of autophagy by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) repressed the growth inhibitory effects and induction of apoptosis by BDMC. In addition, BDMC treatment significantly decreased smoothened (SMO) and the transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli1) expression. Furthermore, depletion of Gli1 by siRNA and cyclopamine (a specific SMO inhibitor) induced autophagy. Conclusion Aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in several human cancers, including lung cancers. The present findings provide direct evidence that BDMC-induced autophagy plays a pro-death role in NSCLC, in part, by inhibiting Hedgehog signaling.

  11. Apoptosis Cell Death Effect of Scrophularia Variegata on Breast Cancer Cells via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baradaran, Behzad; Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae) is an Iranian medicinal plant which is used for various inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer and cytotoxic effects of the Scrophularia variegata (S. variegata) ethanolic extract on the human breast cancer cell line. Methods: The cytotoxicity effect of the extract on MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, Caspase activity, DNA ladder and Cell death were evaluated by ELISA, gel electrophoresis and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract showed significant effect cytotoxicity on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Treatment with the extract induced apoptosis on the breast cancer cells by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. The results indicated that cytotoxicity activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation as well as an increase of the amount of caspase 3 and caspase 9. In addition, the phytochemical assay showed that the extract had antioxidant capacity and also flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the extract. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that S. variegata extract induced apoptosis via mitochondrial intrinsic pathway on breast cancer by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and an increase of caspase 3 and caspase 9. However future studies are needed. PMID:26504768

  12. Aminomethylphosphonic Acid and Methoxyacetic Acid Induce Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshab R. Parajuli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA and its parent compound herbicide glyphosate are analogs to glycine, which have been reported to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells, but not normal cells. Methoxyacetic acid (MAA is the active metabolite of ester phthalates widely used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer; its exposure is associated with developmental and reproductive toxicities in both rodents and humans. MAA has been reported to suppress prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether AMPA and MAA can inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study, we found that AMPA and MAA inhibited cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2B, PC-3 and DU-145 through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Importantly, the AMPA-induced apoptosis was potentiated with the addition of MAA, which was due to downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat containing 2 (BIRC2, leading to activation of caspases 7 and 3. These results demonstrate that the combination of AMPA and MAA can promote the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, suggesting that they can be used as potential therapeutic drugs in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shi-Wei [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chun-Ying [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yen-Ting [Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kao, Jun-Kai [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Husan-Wen [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chuan-Hsun [Department of Surgical Oncology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition Therapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liang, Shu-Mei [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Ju [Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jau-Ling [Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shieh, Jeng-Jer, E-mail: shiehjj@vghtc.gov.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  14. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status

  15. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC(50)=75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer. PMID:22546556

  16. Induction of apoptosis by (-)-gossypol-enriched cottonseed oil in human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of apoptosis is one of the mechanisms of chemotherapeutic agents against breast cancer. In addition, recent studies have shown that diets containing polyphenolic components possess anticancer activities either in vitro or in vivo by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. T...

  17. Cell Survival and Apoptosis Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Marine Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of apoptosis leads to activation of cell survival factors (e.g., AKT causes continuous cell proliferation in cancer. Apoptosis, the major form of cellular suicide, is central to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. A number of discoveries have clarified the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, thus clarifying the link between apoptosis and cell survival factors, which has a therapeutic outcome. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell survival by anticancer agents has been shown to correlate with tumor response. Cellular damage induces growth arrest and tumor suppression by inducing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence; the mechanism of cell death depends on the magnitude of DNA damage following exposure to various anticancer agents. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by cell survival and proliferating signaling molecules. As a new therapeutic strategy, alternative types of cell death might be exploited to control and eradicate cancer cells. This review discusses the signaling of apoptosis and cell survival, as well as the potential contribution of marine bioactive compounds, suggesting that new therapeutic strategies might follow.

  18. Isobavachalcone induces the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells via inhibition of the Akt and Erk pathways

    OpenAIRE

    JIN, XIAOHONG; Shi, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the MGC803 gastric cancer cell line was used as an experimental model to evaluate the potential role of isobavachalcone (IBC) in cell apoptosis, migration and invasion. The inhibitory effects of IBC on cell proliferation were determined using a methylthiazolyltetrazolium assay. Cellular morphological changes were assessed using Wright-Giemsa staining, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that IBC inhi...

  19. Osthole inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lintao Wang; Yanyan Peng; Kaikai Shi; Haixiao Wang; Jianlei Lu; Yanli Li; Changyan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that osthole,an active constituent isolated from the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson,a traditional Chinese medicine,possesses anticancer activity.However,its effect on breast cancer cells so far has not been elucidated clearly.In the present study,we evaluated the effects of osthole on the proliferation,cell cycle and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells MDA-MB 435.We demonstrated that osthole is effective in inhibiting the proliferation of MDA-MB 435 cells,The mitochondrion-mediated apoptotic pathway was involved in apoptosis induced by osthole,as indicated by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 followed by PARP degradation.The mechanism underlying its effect on the induction of G1 phase arrest was due to the up-regulation of p53 and p21 and down-regulation of Cdk2 and cyclin D1 expression.Were observed taken together,these findings suggest that the anticancer efficacy of osthole is mediated via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and osthole may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer.

  20. TAT-apoptin is efficiently delivered and induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelen, Lars; Paterson, Hugh; Gäken, Joop; Meyers, Michelle; Farzaneh, Farzin; Tavassoli, Mahvash

    2004-02-01

    Apoptin has been described to induce apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines, but not in normal cells, thus making it an interesting candidate for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Apoptin was generated and cloned into several mammalian expression vectors. Transfection or microinjection of apoptin cDNA resulted in its expression, initially in the cytoplasm with a filamentous pattern. Subsequently, apoptin entered the nucleus and efficiently induced apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization was shown to be required for induction of apoptosis. Apoptin expression level was found to be an important determinant of the efficiency of induction of apoptosis. Surprisingly, expression of apoptin or GFP-apoptin cDNA induced apoptosis in some normal cells. When fused to the HIV-TAT protein transduction domain and delivered as a protein, TAT-apoptin was transduced efficiently (>90%) into normal and tumour cells. However, TAT-apoptin remained in the cytoplasm and did not kill normal 6689 and 1BR3 fibroblasts. In contrast TAT-apoptin migrated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of Saos-2 and HSC-3 cancer cells resulting in apoptosis after 24 h. This study shows that apoptin is a powerful apoptosis-inducing protein with a potential for cancer therapy. PMID:14691460

  1. Selective killing of ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis by nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.

  2. Induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells by targeting mitochondria with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, M M; Lakatos, M; Springer, A; Clemens, A; Appelhans, D; Krause-Buchholz, U; Pompe, W; Rödel, G; Mkandawire, M

    2015-06-28

    A major challenge in designing cancer therapies is the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, although activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways by targeting gold nanoparticles to mitochondria is promising. We report an in vitro procedure targeting mitochondria with conjugated gold nanoparticles and investigating effects on apoptosis induction in the human breast cancer cell line Jimt-1. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated to a variant of turbo green fluorescent protein (mitoTGFP) harbouring an amino-terminal mitochondrial localization signal. Au nanoparticle conjugates were further complexed with cationic maltotriose-modified poly(propylene imine) third generation dendrimers. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed that Au nanoparticle conjugates were directed to mitochondria upon transfection, causing partial rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane, triggering cell death. The ability to target Au nanoparticles into mitochondria of breast cancer cells and induce apoptosis reveals an alternative application of Au nanoparticles in photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:26022234

  3. Simultaneous modulation of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways by simvastatin in mediating prostate cancer cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies suggest the potential benefits of statins as anti-cancer agents. Mechanisms by which statins induce apoptosis in cancer cells are not clear. We previously showed that simvastatin inhibit prostate cancer cell functions and tumor growth. Molecular mechanisms by which simvastatin induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is not completely understood. Effect of simvastatin on PC3 cell apoptosis was compared with docetaxel using apoptosis, TUNEL and trypan blue viability assays. Protein expression of major candidates of the intrinsic pathway downstream of simvastatin-mediated Akt inactivation was analyzed. Gene arrays and western analysis of PC3 cells and tumor lysates were performed to identify the candidate genes mediating extrinsic apoptosis pathway by simvastatin. Data indicated that simvastatin inhibited intrinsic cell survival pathway in PC3 cells by enhancing phosphorylation of Bad, reducing the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and cleaved caspases 9/3. Over-expression of PC3 cells with Bcl-2 or DN-caspase 9 did not rescue the simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Simvastatin treatment resulted in increased mRNA and protein expression of molecules such as TNF, Fas-L, Traf1 and cleaved caspase 8, major mediators of intrinsic apoptosis pathway and reduced protein levels of pro-survival genes Lhx4 and Nme5. Our study provides the first report that simvastatin simultaneously modulates intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the regulation of prostate cancer cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and render reasonable optimism that statins could become an attractive anti-cancer agent

  4. Milk fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii induces apoptosis of HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cousin, Fabien,; Jouan-Lanhouet, Sandrine; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Corcos, Laurent; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The ‘‘economically developed countries’’ life style, including diet, constitutes a risk factor favoring this cancer. Diet modulation may lower digestive cancer incidence. Among promising food components, dairy propionibacteria were shown to trigger apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, via the release of short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate. [br/] Methodology/Principal Findings: A fermented milk, exclusiv...

  5. HUHS1015 PROMOTES AUTOPHAGIC XIAP DEGRADATION TO INDUCE APOPTOSIS OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoyuki Nishizaki

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at understanding the mechanism underlying HUHS1015-induced apoptosis of MKN45 gastric cancer and Caco-2 colonic cell, Apoptosis, cancer cell lines.  HUHS1015 apparently reduced presence of mRNA protein of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in a treatment time Autophagy  (10-60 min)-dependent manner.   The reduction of XIAP protein was prevented by the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1.  XIAP knock-down signi...

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis Ligand Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer PC-3M Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhohui; WANG Huafang; GU Longjie; YE Zhewei; XIAO Yajun

    2005-01-01

    To study the effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)on PC-3M cell line, PC-3M cell line was incubated with gradient concentrations of TRAIL for 4-24h. Annixin-Ⅴ fluorescence staining and TUNEL method were employed to detect the apoptosis of PC-3M cells. The morphology of apoptotic PC-3M cells was observed by electron microscopy. The relationship between TRAIL concentrations and the percentage of apoptotic cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. The proliferation inhibitory ratio was calculated by using MTT colorimetry. Our results showed that apoptosis of PC-3M cells could be induced by treatment with TRAIL for at most 4 h. The results of flow cytometry and MTT colorimetry demonstrated a time- and concentration-dependent relationship between cell apoptosis rate and TRAIL concentration. It is concluded that apoptosis of PC-3M cells can be induced by TRAIL. Because of the selective killing effect of TRAIL on tumor ceils, it may become a potential alternative for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  7. Ramalin-Mediated Apoptosis Is Enhanced by Autophagy Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; Lee, Chung Gi; Yim, Joung-Han; Lee, Hong-Kum; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, is treated in various ways. Ramalin is a chemical compound derived from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata and is known to exhibit antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. However, its effect on breast cancer cells remains unknown. We examined the ability of ramalin to induce apoptosis and its mechanisms in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Ramalin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. By upregulating Bax and downregulating Bcl-2, ramalin caused cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor to be released from the mitochondria into the cytosol, thus activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, activated caspase-8 and caspase-9 were detected in both types of cells exposed to ramalin, whereas ramalin activated caspase-3 only in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Ramalin treatment also increased the levels of LC3-II and p62. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA significantly enhanced ramalin-induced apoptosis, which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 levels and an increase in Bax levels. Therefore, autophagy appears to be activated as a protective mechanism against apoptosis in cancer cells exposed to ramalin. These findings suggest that ramalin is a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of patients with non-invasive or invasive breast cancer. PMID:26676298

  8. Protective autophagy antagonizes oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xu; Xiu-Juan Qu; Yun-Peng Liu; Ying-Ying Xu; Jing Liu; Ke-Zuo Hou; Ye Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is used for treating gastric cancer. Autophagy has been extensively implicated in cancer cells; however, its function is not fully understood. Our study aimed to determine if oxaliplatin induce autophagy in gastric cancer MGC803 cells and to assess the effect of autophagy on apoptosis induced by oxaliplatin. MGC803 cells were cultured with oxaliplatin. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay, and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Protein expression was detected by Western blot. Autophagy was observed using fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that the rate of apoptosis was 9.73% and 16.36% when MGC803 cells were treated with 5 and 20 μg/mL oxaliplatin for 24 h, respectively. In addition, caspase activation and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP)cleavage were detected. Furthermore, when MGC803 cells were treated with oxaliplatin for 24 h, an accumulation of punctate LC3 and an increase of LC3-Ⅱ protein were also detected, indicating the activation of autophagy. Phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR were inhibited by oxaliplatin. Compared to oxaliplatin alone, the combination of autophagy inhibitor chlorochine and oxaliplatin significantly enhanced the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell apoptosis. In conclusion, oxaliplatin-induced protective autophagy partially prevents apoptosis in gastric cancer MGC803 cells. The combination of autophagy inhibitor and oxaliplatin may be a new therapeutic option for gastric cancer.

  9. Activation of AIFM2 enhances apoptosis of human lung cancer cells undergoing toxicological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Chen, Jian; Xu, Nianjun; Wu, Jun; Kang, Yani; Shen, Tingting; Kong, Hualei; Ma, Chao; Cheng, Ming; Shao, Zhifeng; Xu, Ling; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    Application of cisplatin (DDP) for treating lung cancer is restricted due to its toxicity and lung cancer's drug resistance. In this study, we examined the effect of Jinfukang (JFK), an effective herbal medicine against lung cancer, on DDP-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. Morphologically, we observed that JFK increases DDP-induced pro-apoptosis in A549 cells in a synergistic manner. Transcriptome profiling analysis indicated that the combination of JFK and DDP regulates genes involved in apoptosis-related signaling pathways. Moreover, we found that the combination of JFK and DDP produces synergistic pro-apoptosis effect in other lung cancer cell lines, such as NCI-H1975, NCI-H1650, and NCI-H2228. Particularly, we demonstrated that AIFM2 is activated by the combined treatment of JFK and DDP and partially mediates the synergistic pro-apoptosis effect. Collectively, this study not only offered the first evidence that JFK promotes DDP-induced cytotoxicity, and activation of AIFM2 enhances apoptosis of human lung cancer cells undergoing toxicological stress, but also provided a novel insight for improving cytotoxicity by combining JFK with DDP to treat lung cancer cells. PMID:27392435

  10. MECHANISM OF TAXOL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lirong; Zheng Shu; MC Willingham; Fan Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism by which taxol induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.Methods: Cell morphology, agarose gel electrophoresis,flow cytometry, video time-lapse monitor and Western blot were performed for investigating taxol-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells (BCap 37).Results: BCap 37 cells treated with taxol (100 nm) underwent the arrests of cell mitosis at metaphase of mitosis and induction of apoptosis. Apoptotic cells demonstrated cell shrinkage, condensation or fragmentation of chromosomes. Nuclear DNA of apoptotic cells displayed ladder bands characteristic of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. The expression of bcl-2, inhibitor of apotosis, was decreased with modification, while that of bax, inducer of apoptosis, increased only at early stage of the apoptotic pathway and decreased later. Conclusion:In human breast cancer cells the induction of apoptosis by taxol was closely associated with mitotic arrest of cell cycle, and altered expressions of bcl-2 and bax gene possibly played an important role in regulating taxolinduced apoptosis.

  11. Depletion of mitochondrial fission factor DRP1 causes increased apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DRP1 is required for mitochondrial fission in colon cancer cells. ► DRP1 participates in inhibition of colon cancer cell apoptosis. ► DRP1 can inhibit apoptosis through the regulation of cytochrome c release. -- Abstract: Mitochondria play a critical role in regulation of apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, by releasing apoptogenic factors including cytochrome c. Growing evidence suggests that dynamic changes in mitochondrial morphology are involved in cellular apoptotic response. However, whether DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission is required for induction of apoptosis remains speculative. Here, we show that siRNA-mediated DRP1 knockdown promoted accumulation of elongated mitochondria in HCT116 and SW480 human colon cancer cells. Surprisingly, DRP1 down-regulation led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of these cells. A higher rate of cytochrome c release and reductions in mitochondrial membrane potential were also revealed in DRP1-depleted cells. Taken together, our present findings suggest that mitochondrial fission factor DRP1 inhibits colon cancer cell apoptosis through the regulation of cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane integrity.

  12. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Inducing Mechanisms of Curcumin on Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Li-duan; TONG Qiang-song; WU Cui-huan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the growth inhibition effects and apoptosis inducing mechanisms of curcumin on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780. Methods: After treatment with 10-50 μmol/L curcumin for 6-24 h, the growth activity of A2780 cancer cells were studied by [ 4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyItetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. Cellular apoptosis was inspected by flow cytometery and acridine orange-ethidium bromide fluorescent staining methods. The fragmentation of cellular chromosome DNA was detected by DNA ladder, the ultrastructural change was observed under a transmission electron microscope,and the protein levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, P65) and cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-3 (Caspase-3) in ovarian cancer cells were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: After treatment with various concentrations of curcumin, the growth inhibition rates of cancer cells reached 62.05%- 89.24%,with sub-G1 peaks appearing on histogram. Part of the cancer cells showed characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under fluorescence and electron microscopes, and the rate of apoptosis was 21.5 % -33.5%. The protein expression of NF-κB was decreased, while that of Caspase-3 was increased in a timedependent manner. Conclusion: Curcumin could significantly inhibit the growth of human ovarian cancer cells;inducing apoptosis through up-regulating Caspase-3 and down-regulating gene expression of NF-κB is probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  13. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province (China); Dong, Wei-Guo, E-mail: dongwg1966@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province (China)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G{sub 2}/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC{sub 50} = 75 {mu}M). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G{sub 2}/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  14. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. ► G2/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. ► Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. ► Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC50 = 75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G2/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  15. Mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis:Recent developments in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; M; Esteve; Erwin; Knecht

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy,the pathway whereby cell components are degraded by lysosomes,is involved in the cell response to environmental stresses,such as nutrient deprivation,hypoxia or exposition to chemotherapeutic agents.Under these conditions,which are reminiscent of certain phases of tumor development,autophagy either promotes cell survival or induces cell death. This strengthens the possibility that autophagy could be an important target in cancer therapy,as has been proposed.Here,we describe the regulation of survival and death by autophagy and apoptosis,especially in cultured breast cancer cells.In particular,we discuss whether autophagy represents an apoptosis-independent process and/or if they share common pathways. We believe that understanding in detail the molecular mechanisms that underlie the relationships between autophagy and apoptosis in breast cancer cells could improve the available treatments for this disease.

  16. Regulation of Mitochondria-dependent Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Implications for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Checinska, A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The work described in this thesis focuses on the characterization of the mechanism(s) underlying the deregulated activation of the intrinsic or mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Apoptosis suppression might contribute to the chemoresistance often observed in NSCLC patients, and elucidation of the molecular causes of this resistance may provide clues for the development of targeted apoptosis-based therapies. In this introduction, lung cancer an...

  17. Denbinobin induces apoptosis by apoptosis-inducing factor releasing and DNA damage in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Chen, Chien-Chih; Huang, Yao-Ting; Pai, Hui-Chen; Teng, Che-Ming

    2008-11-01

    Denbinobin is a phenanthraquinone derivative present in the stems of Ephemerantha lonchophylla. We showed that denbinobin induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells (HCT-116) in a concentration-dependent manner. The addition of a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) did not suppress the denbinobin-induced apoptotic effect, and denbinobin-induced apoptosis was not accompanied by processing of procaspase-3, -6, -7, -9, and -8. However, denbinobin triggered the translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. Small interfering RNA targeting of AIF effectively protected HCT-116 cells against denbinobin-induced apoptosis. Denbinobin treatment also caused DNA damage, activation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, and upregulation of numerous downstream effectors (p21WAF1/CIP1, Bax, PUMA, and NOXA). A HCT-116 xenograft model demonstrated the in vivo efficacy and low toxicity of denbinobin. Taken together, our findings suggest that denbinobin induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells via DNA damage and an AIF-mediated pathway. These results indicate that denbinobin has potential as a novel anticancer agent. PMID:18607570

  18. Short-form RON overexpression augments benzyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Singh, Shivendra V

    2016-05-01

    Chemoprevention of breast cancer is feasible with the use of non-toxic phytochemicals from edible and medicinal plants. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one such plant compound that prevents mammary cancer development in a transgenic mouse model in association with tumor cell apoptosis. Prior studies from our laboratory have demonstrated a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent Bax activation through the intermediary of c-Jun N-terminal kinases in BITC-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. The present study demonstrates that truncated Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (sfRON) is a novel regulator of BITC-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Overexpression of sfRON in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 cells resulted in augmentation of BITC-induced apoptosis when the apoptotic fraction was normalized against vehicle control for each cell type (untransfected and sfRON overexpressing cells). ROS generation and G2 /M phase cell cycle arrest resulting from BITC treatment were significantly attenuated in sfRON overexpressing cells after normalization with vehicle control for each cell type. Increased BITC-induced apoptosis by sfRON overexpression was independent of c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase hyperphosphorylation. On the other hand, activation of Bax and Bak following BITC exposure was markedly more pronounced in sfRON overexpressing cells than in controls. sfRON overexpression also augmented apoptosis induction by structurally diverse cancer chemopreventive phytochemicals including withaferin A, phenethyl isothiocyanate, and D,L-sulforaphane. In conclusion, the present study provides novel mechanistic insights into the role of sfRON in apoptosis regulation by BITC and other electrophilic phytochemicals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25857724

  19. Role of Calcium Ion in Apoptosis of MD Cancer Cells Induced by Arsenic Trioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiuli; WANG Jintao; XU Shiwen

    2008-01-01

    In order to observe the role of calcium ion in apoptosis of MD cancer cells induced by arsenic trioxide, inhibition percentage was detected by MTT assay;morphology changes were examined by fluorescence microscope;apoptosis was examined by DNA Ladder;[Ca2+]i was investigated by spectrofluorimeter in vitro on MDCC-MSB1 cells. The results showed that As2O3 inhibited the proliferation of MDCC-MSB1 cells in concentration dependent manner (P<0.05 or P<0.01);typical apoptosis character was observed by fluorescence microscope;DNA Ladder was observed;the [Ca2+]i was elevated significantly after the treatment of As203 (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and showed a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that the calcium may play an important role in apoptosis of MD cancer cells induced by arsenic trioxide.

  20. Methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD induces Ca(2+)-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Ming; Liu, Miao; Li, Jianchun

    2010-02-01

    Methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD exhibited potent anticancer activity in many kinds of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanism and signaling pathway involved in methylanthraquinone-induced apoptosis have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms of methylanthraquinone-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. When MCF-7 cells were co-incubated with methylanthraquinone, the percentage of apoptotic cell and S phase of cell cycle was markedly increased. In addition, a rise in intracellular calcium levels, phosphorylation of JNK and activation of calpain were found in MCF-7 cells after exposure to methylanthraquinone. With the methylanthraquinone-mediated reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. Moreover, methylanthraquinone strongly induced cleavage of caspase-4, caspase-9 and caspase-7 in MCF-7 cells. These results suggested that methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa WILLD induced MCF-7 cells apoptosis via Ca(2+)/calpain/caspase-4 pathway. PMID:19686834

  1. MADD Knock-Down Enhances Doxorubicin and TRAIL Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Turner; Liang-Cheng Li; Tania Pilli; Lixia Qian; Elizabeth Louise Wiley; Suman Setty; Konstantin Christov; Lakshmy Ganesh; Maker, Ajay V; Peifeng Li; Prasad Kanteti; Tapas K Das Gupta; Prabhakar, Bellur S.

    2013-01-01

    The Map kinase Activating Death Domain containing protein (MADD) isoform of the IG20 gene is over-expressed in different types of cancer tissues and cell lines and it functions as a negative regulator of apoptosis. Therefore, we speculated that MADD might be over-expressed in human breast cancer tissues and that MADD knock-down might synergize with chemotherapeutic or TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Analyses of breast tissue microarrays revealed over-expression of MADD in duct...

  2. Piperlongumine Induces Apoptosis and Synergizes with Cisplatin or Paclitaxel in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Hua Gong; Xiu-Xiu Chen; Huan Wang; Qi-Wei Jiang; Shi-Shi Pan; Jian-Ge Qiu; Xiao-Long Mei; You-Qiu Xue; Wu-Ming Qin; Fei-Yun Zheng; Zhi Shi; Xiao-Jian Yan

    2014-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid from Piper longum L., possesses the highly selective and effective anticancer property. However, the effect of PL on ovarian cancer cells is still unknown. In this study, we firstly demonstrate that PL selectively inhibited cell growth of human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, PL notably induced cell apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest, and accumulation of the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment w...

  3. Fucoidan induces cancer cell apoptosis by modulating the endoplasmic reticulum stress cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis is the main cause leading to disease recurrence and high mortality in cancer patients. Therefore, inhibiting metastasis process or killing metastatic cancer cells by inducing apoptosis is of clinical importance in improving cancer patient survival. Previous studies revealed that fucoidan, a fucose-rich polysaccharide isolated from marine brown alga, is a promising natural product with significant anti-cancer activity. However, little is known about the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in fucoidan-induced cell apoptosis.We reported that fucoidan treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Fucoidan treatments resulted in down-regulation of the glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78 in the metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and of the ER protein 29 (ERp29 in the metastatic HCT116 colon cancer cells. However, fucoidan treatment promoted ER Ca2+-dependent calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII phosphorylation, Bcl-associated X protein (Bax and caspase 12 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells, but not in HCT116 cells. In both types of cancer cells, fucoidan activated the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (p-eIF2α\\CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP pro-apoptotic cascade and inhibited the phosphorylation of inositol-requiring kinase 1 (p-IRE-1\\X-box binding proteins 1 splicing (XBP-1s pro-survival cascade. Furthermore, CHOP knockdown prevented DNA damage and cell death induced by fucoidan.Fucoidan exerts its anti-tumor function by modulating ER stress cascades. Contribution of ER stress to the fucoidan-induced cell apoptosis augments our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-tumour activity and provides evidence for the therapeutic application of fucoidan in cancer.

  4. Glycyrrhetinic Acid Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer A2780 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venus Haghshenas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Accumulating evidence indicates that glycyrrhizin (GZ and its hydrolyzed metabolite 18-β glycyrrhetinic acid (GA exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activity of GA on human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Methods: A2780 cells were cultured in RPMI1640 containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells were treated with different doses of GA and cell viability and proliferation were detected by dye exclusion and 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT assays. Apoptosis induction and expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: We observed that GA decreases cell viability and suppressed cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as detected by dye-exclusion and XTT assayes. In addition, our flow cytometry data show that GA not only induces apoptosis in A2780 cells but also upregulates both Fas and FasL on these cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: we demonstrate that GA causes cell death in A2780 cells by inducing apoptosis.

  5. Murine Lung Cancer Increases CD4+ T Cell Apoptosis and Decreases Gut Proliferative Capacity in Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Lyons

    Full Text Available Mortality is significantly higher in septic patients with cancer than in septic patients without a history of cancer. We have previously described a model of pancreatic cancer followed by sepsis from Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in which cancer septic mice have higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice, associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis and decreased T cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a common host response by creating a new model in which both the type of cancer and the model of sepsis are altered.C57Bl/6 mice received an injection of 250,000 cells of the lung cancer line LLC-1 into their right thigh and were followed three weeks for development of palpable tumors. Mice with cancer and mice without cancer were then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and sacrificed 24 hours after the onset of sepsis or followed 7 days for survival.Cancer septic mice had a higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice (60% vs. 18%, p = 0.003. Cancer septic mice had decreased number and frequency of splenic CD4+ lymphocytes secondary to increased apoptosis without changes in splenic CD8+ numbers. Intestinal proliferation was also decreased in cancer septic mice. Cancer septic mice had a higher bacterial burden in the peritoneal cavity, but this was not associated with alterations in local cytokine, neutrophil or dendritic cell responses. Cancer septic mice had biochemical evidence of worsened renal function, but there was no histologic evidence of renal injury.Animals with cancer have a significantly higher mortality than previously healthy animals following sepsis. The potential mechanisms associated with this elevated mortality differ significantly based upon the model of cancer and sepsis utilized. While lymphocyte apoptosis and intestinal integrity are both altered by the combination of cancer and sepsis, the patterns of these alterations vary greatly depending on

  6. Oridonin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gallbladder cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallbladder cancer is the most frequent malignancy of the bile duct with high aggressive and extremely poor prognosis. The main objective of the paper was to investigate the inhibitory effects of oridonin, a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, on gallbladder cancer both in vitro and in vivo and to explore the mechanisms underlying oridonin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The anti-tumor activity of oridonin on SGC996 and NOZ cells was assessed by the MTT and colony forming assays. Cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V/PI double-staining and Hoechst 33342 staining assays. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed by Rhodamine 123 staining. The in vivo efficacy of oridonin was evaluated using a NOZ xenograft model in athymic nude mice. The expression of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related proteins in vitro and in vivo was analyzed by western blot analysis. Activation of caspases (caspase-3, -8 and -9) was measured by caspases activity assay. Oridonin induced potent growth inhibition, S-phase arrest, apoptosis, and colony-forming inhibition in SGC996 and NOZ cells in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal injection of oridonin (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg) for 3 weeks significantly inhibited the growth of NOZ xenografts in athymic nude mice. We demonstrated that oridonin regulated cell cycle-related proteins in response to S-phase arrest by western blot analysis. In contrast, we observed inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation and an increase Bax/Bcl-2 ratio accompanied by activated caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP-1 cleavage after treatment with oridonin, which indicate that the mitochondrial pathway is involved in oridonin-mediated apoptosis. Oridonin possesses potent anti-gallbladder cancer activities that correlate with regulation of the mitochondrial pathway, which is critical for apoptosis and S-phase arrest. Therefore, oridonin has potential as a novel anti-tumor therapy for the

  7. Sapodilla plum (Achras sapota) induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mrinal; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Koroth, Jinsha; Bhattacharya, Souvari; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2014-01-01

    Intake of fruits rich in antioxidants in daily diet is suggested to be cancer preventive. Sapota is a tropical fruit grown and consumed extensively in several countries including India and Mexico. Here we show that methanolic extracts of Sapota fruit (MESF) induces cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis suggested activation of apoptosis, without arresting cell cycle progression. Annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining demonstrated that Sapota fruit extracts potentiate apoptosis rather than necrosis in cancer cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, activation of MCL-1, PARP-1, and Caspase 9 suggest that MESF treatment leads to activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. More importantly, we show that MESF treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor growth and a 3-fold increase in the life span of tumor bearing animals compared to untreated tumor mice. PMID:25142835

  8. Growth Inhibitory and Apoptosis-inducing Effects of Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Chalcone Present in Hops, in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    DEEB, D.; Gao, X; Jiang, H.; Arbab, A.S.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Gautam, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Promotion of apoptosis in cancer cells could potentially lead to the regression and improved prognosis of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone-derived from hops, has shown strong antitumorigenic activity towards diverse types of cancer cells. In the present study, the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity of XN was tested in hormone-sensitive and hormone-refractory human prostate cancer cells lines. Cell growth/viability assay (MTS) demonstra...

  9. Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin, main pungent ingredient of hot chilli peppers, has been shown to have anticarcinogenic effect on various cancer cells through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of capsaicin on human pancreatic cancer cells in both in vitro and in vivo systems, as well as the possible mechanisms involved. In vitro, treatment of both the pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 and SW1990 with capsaicin resulted in cells growth inhibition, G0/G1 phase arrest, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153, a marker of the endoplasmic-reticulum-stress- (ERS- mediated apoptosis pathway, by specific siRNA attenuated capsaicin-induced apoptosis both in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. Moreover, in vivo studies capsaicin effectively inhibited the growth and metabolism of pancreatic cancer and prolonged the survival time of pancreatic cancer xenograft tumor-induced mice. Furthermore, capsaicin increased the expression of some key ERS markers, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, phosphoprotein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (phosphoPERK, and phosphoeukaryotic initiation factor-2α (phospho-eIF2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 and GADD153 in tumor tissues. In conclusion, we for the first time provide important evidence to support the involvement of ERS in the induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by capsaicin.

  10. Piperlongumine Induces Apoptosis and Synergizes with Cisplatin or Paclitaxel in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piperlongumine (PL, a natural alkaloid from Piper longum L., possesses the highly selective and effective anticancer property. However, the effect of PL on ovarian cancer cells is still unknown. In this study, we firstly demonstrate that PL selectively inhibited cell growth of human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, PL notably induced cell apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest, and accumulation of the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acety-L-cysteine could totally reverse the PL-induced ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis. In addition, low dose of PL/cisplatin or paclitaxel combination therapies had a synergistic antigrowth effect on human ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, our study provides new therapeutic potential of PL on human ovarian cancer.

  11. Piperlongumine induces apoptosis and synergizes with cisplatin or paclitaxel in human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li-Hua; Chen, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Huan; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Pan, Shi-Shi; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Mei, Xiao-Long; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Zheng, Fei-Yun; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2014-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid from Piper longum L., possesses the highly selective and effective anticancer property. However, the effect of PL on ovarian cancer cells is still unknown. In this study, we firstly demonstrate that PL selectively inhibited cell growth of human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, PL notably induced cell apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest, and accumulation of the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acety-L-cysteine could totally reverse the PL-induced ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis. In addition, low dose of PL/cisplatin or paclitaxel combination therapies had a synergistic antigrowth effect on human ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, our study provides new therapeutic potential of PL on human ovarian cancer. PMID:24895529

  12. Dioscin induces cancer cell apoptosis through elevated oxidative stress mediated by downregulation of peroxiredoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Cheng, Yue; Wang, Neng; Wang, Dong Mei; Li, Ying Wei; Han, Feng; Shen, Jian Gang; Yang, De Po; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Dioscin has been shown to promote anticancer activity against several forms of cancers. However, its detailed molecular mechanisms have not been clearly clarified.In this study, we demonstrate that dioscin induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the induction of oxidative stress. Treatment with cancer cells in vitro with dioscin resulted in rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of mitochondrial pathway apoptosis in human esophageal cancer cell line Kyse510. Inhibition of oxidative stress by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked the induction of apoptosis by dioscin, indicating that ROS generation is the primary mechanism responsible for the proapoptotic activity of dioscin. Proteomic analysis and protein gel blotting further revealed peroxiredoxins 1 and 6 (PRDX 1 and 6), which are implicated in ROS metabolism and apoptosis, were associated with the anticancer effects of dioscin. Meanwhile, overexpression of PRDX 1 and 6 significantly blocked the elevated ROS and apoptosis induced by dioscin. In conclusion, we suggest that PRDX1 and PRDX6 are key targets in the process of dioscin-induced apoptosis that involves intracellular elevated ROS. PMID:22231406

  13. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Kiyoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Ii, Masaaki, E-mail: masaii@art.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Asahi, Michio [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Azuma, Haruhito [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa.

  14. Type IV collagen stimulates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and inhibits apoptosis through an autocrine loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer shows a highly aggressive and infiltrative growth pattern and is characterized by an abundant tumor stroma known to interact with the cancer cells, and to influence tumor growth and drug resistance. Cancer cells actively take part in the production of extracellular matrix proteins, which then become deposited into the tumor stroma. Type IV collagen, an important component of the basement membrane, is highly expressed by pancreatic cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, the cellular effects of type IV collagen produced by the cancer cells were characterized. The expression of type IV collagen and its integrin receptors were examined in vivo in human pancreatic cancer tissue. The cellular effects of type IV collagen were studied in pancreatic cancer cell lines by reducing type IV collagen expression through RNA interference and by functional receptor blocking of integrins and their binding-sites on the type IV collagen molecule. We show that type IV collagen is expressed close to the cancer cells in vivo, forming basement membrane like structures on the cancer cell surface that colocalize with the integrin receptors. Furthermore, the interaction between type IV collagen produced by the cancer cell, and integrins on the surface of the cancer cells, are important for continuous cancer cell growth, maintenance of a migratory phenotype, and for avoiding apoptosis. We show that type IV collagen provides essential cell survival signals to the pancreatic cancer cells through an autocrine loop

  15. Curcumin induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Jun; Dong, Qian; Li, Fu-Nian; Wang, Hai-Bo; Kong, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin has shown therapeutic and/or adjuvant therapeutic effects on the treatment of some patients with breast cancer. However, its mechanisms of action are largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability, and flow cytometry, acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect apoptosis for cultured cells. T...

  16. Effect of p27KIP1 on cell cycle and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Yong Zheng; Wei-Zhong Wang; Kai-Zong Li; Wen-Xian Guan; Wei Yan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the effect of p27KIP1 on cell cycle and apoptosis regulation in gastric carcinoma cells.METHODS: The whole length of p27KIP1 cDNA was transfected into human gastric cancer cell line SCG7901by lipofectamine. Expression of p27KIP1 protein or mRNA was analyzed by Western blot and RNA dot blotting,respectively. Effect of p27KIP1 on cell growth was observed by MTT assay and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Tumorigenicity in nude mice was used to assess the in vivo biological effect of p27KIP1. Flow cytometry,TUNEL, and electron microscopy were used to assess the effect of p27KIP1 on cell cycle and apoptosis.RESULTS: Expression of p27KIP1 protein or mRNA increased evidently in SCG7901 cells transfected with p27KIP1. The cell growth was reduced by 31% at 48 h after induction with zinc determined by cell viability assay. The alteration of cell malignant phenotype was evidently indicated by the loss of anchorage-independent growth ability in soft agar. The tumorigenicity in nude mice was reduced evidently (0.55±0.14 cm vs 1.36±0.13crn, P<0.01). p27KIP1 overexpression caused cell arrest with 36% increase (from 33.7% to 69.3%,P<0.01) in G1 population. Prolonged p27KIP1 expression induced apoptotic cell death reflected by pre-G1 peak in the histogram of FACS, which was also confirmed by TUNEL assay and electron microscopy.CONCLUSION: p27KIP1 can prolong cell cycle in G1phase and lead to apoptosis. p27KIP1 may be a good candidate for cancer gene therapy.

  17. IARS2 silencing induces non-small cell lung cancer cells proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and promotes cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J; Liu, W; Li, R; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Tang, W; Wang, K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of Ileucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS2) silencing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The silencing of IARS2 in H1299 cells and A549 cells were performed by lentivirus encoding shRNAs. The efficiency of IARS2 silencing was detected by quantitative real time PCR and western blot. The effects of IARS2 silencing on cell growth, cell apoptosis, cell cycle and cell colony formation ability were assessed by cells counting, MTT assay, flow cytometer analysis and soft agar colony formation assay, respectively. Compared with negative control group, IARS2 was significantly knockdown by transfection with lentivirus encoding shRNA of IARS2. The IARS2 silencing significantly inhibited the cells proliferation and cells colony formation ability, induced cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and promoted cell apoptosis. IARS2 silencing induced NSCLC cells growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and promoted cell apoptosis. These results suggest that IARS2 may be a novel target for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26639235

  18. Approach for mechanism of BH3 domain counterpart BH3I-2′ inducing colorectal cancer cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wan-yu; LIU Yang; ZHANG Zhi-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss mechanism of BH3 domain counterpart BH3I-2' inducing colorectal cancer cell apoptosis. Methods Detected inhibition ratio and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells HCT-116, which were treated by BH3I-2', with microplate reader and flow cytometry. Results Inhibition ratio of colorectal cancer cells, which were treated by BH3I-2', could reach about 50 %. Ratio of viable apoptotic cell decreased and that of non-viable apoptotie cell increased as time went. Conclusions BH3I-2' can induce colorectal cancer cell apoptosis.

  19. Solasonine-induced Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cell Line H446 and Its Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensi HUANG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer are rising sharply. Small cell lung cancer patients prefer chemotherapy than surgery because of the insignificant side effects of Chinese medicine. Studies have shown that solasonine possesses an anti-tumor property. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of solasonine on the apoptosis of lung cancer cell line H446. Methods Appropriate concentration and time were selected with a CCK8 kit. The drug that was used in H446 cells was divided into four different concentrations: 0 μmol/L, 3.4 μmol/L, 6.8 μmol/L and 13.6 μmol/L. The changes in forms and nucleus of H446 cells that were stained with DAPI were observed under an inverted optical microscope. The effects on H446 cell apoptosis were detected by FCM. The changes in apoptosis-related proteins BCL2, BAX, and CASP3 were investigated using Western blot for 24 h. Results Solasonine reduced the survival ratio of H446 cells and inhibited the proliferation with a dose-related effect. The survival ratio of H446 cells could be reduced to 16.77% (P<0.001, and the highest apoptosis ratio was 44.62% (P<0.001. Apoptosis was observed in H446 cells. Moreover, Western blot showed that the apoptosis-related proteins BAX and CASP3 were upregulated (P<0.05. Conclusion The proliferation of H446 cells can be inhibited by solasonine, and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins is up-regulated, and the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins is down-regulated, thereby promoting the apoptosis of cells.

  20. MADD knock-down enhances doxorubicin and TRAIL induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Turner

    Full Text Available The Map kinase Activating Death Domain containing protein (MADD isoform of the IG20 gene is over-expressed in different types of cancer tissues and cell lines and it functions as a negative regulator of apoptosis. Therefore, we speculated that MADD might be over-expressed in human breast cancer tissues and that MADD knock-down might synergize with chemotherapeutic or TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Analyses of breast tissue microarrays revealed over-expression of MADD in ductal and invasive carcinomas relative to benign tissues. MADD knockdown resulted in enhanced spontaneous apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, MADD knockdown followed by treatment with TRAIL or doxorubicin resulted in increased cell death compared to either treatment alone. Enhanced cell death was found to be secondary to increased caspase-8 activation. These data indicate that strategies to decrease MADD expression or function in breast cancer may be utilized to increase tumor cell sensitivity to TRAIL and doxorubicin induced apoptosis.

  1. JNK signaling pathway is involved in piperlongumine-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen; WEN, CHUANGYU; BAI, HAIYAN; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoli; HUANG, LANLAN; Yang, Xiangling; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Liu, Huanliang

    2015-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PPLGM), an alkaloid isolated from the long pepper (Piper longum L.), can selectively trigger cancer cell death in colorectal cancer cells. The present study investigated whether the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is involved in PPLGM-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer HCT116 cell line. The results demonstrated that PPLGM reduced the cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, without a significant ef...

  2. Gambogic acid inhibits growth, induces apoptosis, and overcomes drug resistance in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chuangyu; Huang, Lanlan; Chen, Junxiong; Lin, Mengmeng; Li, Wen; Lu, Biyan; Rutnam, Zina Jeyapalan; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Wang, Zhongyang; Yang, Xiangling; Liu, Huanliang

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of chemoresistance is a major limitation of colorectal cancer (CRC) therapies and novel biologically based therapies are urgently needed. Natural products represent a novel potential anticancer therapy. Gambogic acid (GA), a small molecule derived from Garcinia hanburyi Hook. f., has been demonstrated to be highly cytotoxic to several types of cancer cells and have low toxicity to the hematopoietic system. However, the potential role of GA in colorectal cancer and its ability to overcome the chemotherapeutic resistance in CRC cells have not been well studied. In the present study, we showed that GA directly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitive and 5-FU resistant colorectal cancer cells; induced apoptosis via activating JNK signaling pathway. The data, therefore, suggested an alternative strategy to overcome 5-FU resistance in CRC and that GA could be a promising medicinal compound for colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:26397804

  3. Total triterpenoids from Ganoderma Lucidum suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xie, Zi-ping; Huang, Zhan-sen; Li, Hao; Wei, An-yang; Di, Jin-ming; Xiao, Heng-jun; Zhang, Zhi-gang; Cai, Liu-hong; Tao, Xin; Qi, Tao; Chen, Di-ling; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, one immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell line (BPH) and four human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, 22Rv1, PC-3, and DU-145) were treated with Ganoderma Lucidum triterpenoids (GLT) at different doses and for different time periods. Cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry and chemical assays. Gene expression and binding to DNA were assessed using real-time PCR and Western blotting. It was found that GLT dose-dependently inhibited prostate cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. GLT-induced apoptosis was due to activation of Caspases-9 and -3 and turning on the downstream apoptotic events. GLT-induced cell cycle arrest (mainly G1 arrest) was due to up-regulation of p21 expression at the early time and down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and E2F1 expression at the late time. These findings demonstrate that GLT suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis, which might suggest that GLT or Ganoderma Lucidum could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for prostate cancer. PMID:26489631

  4. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B differentially affects thyroid cancer cell growth, apoptosis, and invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Schweppe Rebecca E; Bauerle Kevin T; Haugen Bryan R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a key role in promoting cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. Our understanding of NF-κB signaling in thyroid cancer, however, is limited. In this study, we have investigated the role of NF-κB signaling in thyroid cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis using selective genetic inhibition of NF-κB in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines. Results Three pharmacologic inhibitors of N...

  5. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tanusree; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial toxins have emerged as promising agents in cancer treatment strategy. Hemagglutinin (HAP) protease secreted by Vibrio cholerae induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and regresses tumor growth in mice model. The success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity for normal tissues. Increased expression of Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been reported in different malignant cells. In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50-p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same environment makes it a good therapeutic agent for treatment of cancer. PMID:26897170

  6. Molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction by Gaillardin, a sesquiterpene lactone, in breast cancer cell lines : Gaillardin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahian, Faranak; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Abdolmohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal plant extracts have been widely used for cancer treatment. Gaillardin is a natural sesquiterpene lactone that has recently been reported to have anticancer properties. The ability to induce apoptosis is an important property of a candidate anticancer drug, which discriminates between anticancer drugs and toxic compounds. The current study was therefore carried out to address the issue if Gaillardin is able to induce apoptosis in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 and to determine the underlying mechanism of its anticancer effects. Apoptosis induction by Gaillardin treatment was confirmed by annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and caspase-3,-6, and-9 activation. Using Western blot analysis, we found that Gaillardin upregulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and p53 and downregulated the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Moreover, the apoptotic effect of Gaillardin was also related to ROS production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Taken together, these results demonstrate that Gaillardin can inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells via inducing mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and therefore, might be a promising molecule in cancer chemoprevention or chemotherapy. PMID:26843455

  7. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Chidamide induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce various tumor cells to undergo apoptosis, and such inhibitors have been used in different clinical trials against different human cancers. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel HDAC inhibitor, Chidamide. We showed that Chidamide was able to increase the acetylation levels of histone H3 and to inhibit the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways, which resulted in arresting colon cancer cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and promoting apoptosis. As a result, the proliferation of colon cancer cells was suppressed in vitro. Our data support the potential application of Chidamide as an anticancer agent in treating colon cancer. Future studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy.

  8. Cordycepin, a Natural Antineoplastic Agent, Induces Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells via Caspase-dependent Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yongfeng; Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Yang; Wang, Junyue; Meng, Qingfan; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin, a major compound separated from Cordyceps sinensis, is known as a potential novel candidate for cancer therapy. Breast cancer, the most typical cancer diagnosed among women, remains a global health problem. In this study, the anti-breast cancer property of cordycepin and its underlying mechanisms was investigated. The direct effects of cordycepin on breast cancer cells both in in vitro and in vivo experiments were evaluated. Cordycepin exerted cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells confirmed by reduced cell viability, inhibition of cell proliferation, enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species accumulation, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Cordycepin increased the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins, including caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 and Bax, and suppressed the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The inhibition on MCF-7-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice further confirmed cordycepin's anti-breast cancer effect. These aforementioned results reveal that cordycepin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via caspase-dependent pathways. The data shed light on the possibility of cordycepin being a safe agent for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26996021

  9. Nicotine prevents the apoptosis induced by menadione in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 50% of long-term cigarette smokers die prematurely from the adverse effects of smoking, including on lung cancer and other illnesses. Nicotine is a main component in tobacco and has been implicated as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of human lung cancer. However, the mechanism of nicotine action in the development of lung cancer remains largely unknown. In the present study, we designed a nicotine-apoptosis system, by pre-treatment of nicotine making lung cancer cell A549 to be in a physiological nicotine environment, and observed that nicotine promoted cell proliferation and prevented the menadione-induced apoptosis, and exerts its role of anti-apoptosis by shift of apoptotic stage induced by menadione from late apoptotic stage to early apoptotic stage, in which NF-κB was up-regulated. Interference analysis of NF-κB in A549 cells showed that knock down of NF-κB resulted in apoptosis promotion and counteracted the protective effect of nicotine. The findings suggest that nicotine has potential effect in lung cancer genesis, especially in patients with undetectable early tumor development and development of specific NF-κB inhibitors would represent a potentially exciting new pharmacotherapy for tobacco-related lung cancer

  10. The role of Kif4A in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lu, Changqing; Li, Qing; Xie, Jun; Chen, Tongbing; Tan, Yan; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting

    2014-11-01

    This study was to investigate the mechanism and role of Kif4A in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer. Using two human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (with wild-type p53) and MDA-MB-231 (with mutant p53), we quantitated the expression levels of kinesin super-family protein 4A (Kif4A) and poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) by Western blot after doxorubicin treatment and examined the apoptosis by flow cytometry after treatment with doxorubicin and PARP-1 inhibitor, 3-Aminobenzamide (3-ABA). Our results showed that doxorubicin treatment could induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the down-regulation of Kif4A and upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The activity of PARP-1 or PARP-1 activation was significantly elevated by doxorubicin treatment in dose- and time-dependent manners (P 0.05). We further demonstrated that overexpression of Kif4A could reduce the level of PAR and significantly increase apoptosis. The effect of doxorubicin on apoptosis was more profound in MCF-7 cells compared with MDA-MB-231 cells (P breast cancer cells is achieved by inhibiting the activity of PARP-1. PMID:25377255

  11. Columbianadin Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Necroptosis in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji In; Hong, Ji-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Sang Kook

    2016-05-01

    Columbianadin (CBN), a natural coumarin from Angelica decursiva (Umbelliferae), is known to have various biological activities including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, the anti-proliferative mechanism of actions mediated by CBN was investigated in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. CBN effectively suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells. Low concentration (up to 25 µM) of CBN induced apoptosis, and high concentration (50 µM) of CBN induced necroptosis. The induction of apoptosis by CBN was correlated with the modulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, Bim and Bid, and the induction of necroptosis was related with RIP-3, and caspase-8. In addition, CBN induced the accumulation of ROS and imbalance in the intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as SOD-1, SOD-2, catalase and GPx-1. These findings demonstrate that CBN has the potential to be a candidate in the development of anti-cancer agent derived from natural products. PMID:27098859

  12. Active Components of Fungus Shiraia bambusiscola Can Specifically Induce BGC823 Gastric Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shubing; Qiu, Dewen; Liu, Jingjiang; Li, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gastric cancer is a major health issue worldwide. Using a therapeutic approach, with minor side-effects, is very essential for the treatment of the gastric cancer. Shiraia bambusicola is a parasitic fungus which is widely used in China for curing several diseases with little side-effects. However, the mechanisms are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to further understand the pharmacological mechanisms of Shiraia bambusicola and investigate whether it can be used for curing gastric cancer. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we mainly tested the effect of active components extracted from Shiraia bambusicola on BGC823, A549 and HepG2 cells. We used MTT assay to test cell viability. We also analyzed morphologic changes caused by apoptosis using Hoechst 33342 fluorescence staining, as well as cell cycle status and apoptosis ratio using flow-cytometer. In addition, protein expression level was tested by Western-blotting assay. Results BGC-823 cell proliferation was specifically inhibited by active components of Shiraia bambusicola. Meanwhile, these active components could induce BGC-823 cells apoptosis and retard the cell cycle in S/G2 phase. We also determined that two critical protein markers cleaved Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), involved in apoptosis process, were regulated by these active components. Conclusion These data shed light on the treatment of human gastric cancer and conclude that Shiraia bambusicola can be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of this malignancy.

  13. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI50) concentration of 2.35 μM. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  14. P53 dependent and independent apoptosis induced by lidamycin in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihui; Jiang, Jianming; Cheng, Chunlei; Yang, Ajing; He, Qiyang; Li, Diandong; Wang, Zhen

    2007-06-01

    Enediyne compound is one class of antibiotics with very potent anti-cancer activity. However, the role of p53 in enediyne antibiotic-induced cell killing remains elusive. Here we reported the involvement of p53 signaling pathway in apoptosis induction by lidamycin (LDM), a member of the enediyne antibiotic family. We found that LDM at low drug concentration of 10 nmol/L induces apoptotic cell death much more effectively in human colorectal cancer cells with wild type p53 than those with mutant or deleted p53. p53 is functionally activated as an early event in response to low dose LDM that precedes the significant apoptosis induction. The primarily activation of mitochondria as well as the activation of p53 transcriptional targets such as Puma, Bad and Bax in HCT116 p53 wild type cells further demonstrates the key role of p53 in mediating the compound-induced apoptosis. This is further supported by the observation that the absence of Bax or Puma decreases apoptosis dramatically while Bcl-2 overexpression confers partially resistance after drug treatment. Activation of p53 signaling pathway leads to activation of caspases and caspases inhibitor VAD-fmk completely blocks low dose LDM induced apoptosis through the inhibition of mitochondria pathway. In contrast, LDM at higher concentration causes rapid apoptosis through more direct DNA damaging mechanism that is independent of activation of p53 and caspases and cannot be blocked by caspase inhibitor. Taken together, LDM induces apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner when given at low doses, but in a p53-independent manner when given at high doses. This dosage-dependent regimen can be applied to cancer clinic based upon the p53 status of cancer patients. PMID:17534142

  15. Apoptosis : Target of cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, CG; Epping, M; Kruyt, FAE; Giaccone, G

    2002-01-01

    Recent knowledge on apoptosis has made it possible to devise novel approaches, which exploit this process to treat cancer. In this review, we discuss in detail approaches to induce tumor cell apoptosis, their mechanism of action, stage of development, and possible drawbacks. Finally, the obstacles y

  16. Oncolytic reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells, and synergizes with irinotecan

    OpenAIRE

    Maitra, Radhashree; Seetharam, Raviraja; Tesfa, Lydia; Augustine, Titto A.; Klampfer, Lidija; Coffey, Matthew C; Mariadason, John M.; Goel, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Reovirus is a double stranded RNA virus, with an intrinsic preference for replication in KRAS mutant cells. As 45% of human colorectal cancers (CRC) harbor KRAS mutations, we sought to investigate its efficacy in KRAS mutant CRC cells, and examine its impact in combination with the topoisimerase-1 inhibitor, irinotecan. Reovirus efficacy was examined in the KRAS mutant HCT116, and the isogenic KRAS WT Hke3 cell line, and in the non-malignant rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Apoptosis was ...

  17. ROS accumulation by PEITC selectively kills ovarian cancer cells via UPR-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-hee eHong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unfolded protein response (UPR is crucial for both survival and death of mammalian cells, which is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS and nutrient depletion. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of ROS-accumulation, induced by β-phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, on UPR mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. We used ovarian cancer cell lines, PA-1 and SKOV-3, with different p53 status (wild- and null- type, respectively. PEITC caused increased ROS-accumulation and inhibited proliferation selectively in ovarian cancer cells, and glutathione (GSH depletion in SKOV-3. However, PEITC did not cause any effect in normal ovarian epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After 48 h of PEITC treatment (5 µM, apoptotic cell death was shown to increase significantly in the ovarian cancer cells and not in the normal cells. The key regulator of UPR-mediated apoptosis, CHOP/GADD153 and ER resident chaperone BiP/GRP78 were parallely up-regulated with activation of two major sensors of the UPR (PERK and ATF-6 in PA-1; PERK, and IRE1α in SKOV-3 in response to ROS accumulation induced by PEITC (5 µM. ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, attenuated the effect of PEITC on UPR signatures (P-PERK, IRE1α, CHOP/GADD153, and BiP/GRP78, suggesting the involvement of ROS in UPR-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, PEITC induces UPR-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via accumulation of ROS in a cancer-specific manner.

  18. Sensitization of human pancreatic cancer cells harboring mutated K-ras to apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shen

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating human malignancy and gain of functional mutations in K-ras oncogene is observed in 75%-90% of the patients. Studies have shown that oncogenic ras is not only able to promote cell growth or survival, but also apoptosis, depending upon circumstances. Using pancreatic cancer cell lines with or without expressing mutated K-ras, we demonstrated that the inhibition of endogenous PKC activity sensitized human pancreatic cancer cells (MIA and PANC-1 expressing mutated K-ras to apoptosis, which had no apoptotic effect on BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells that contain a normal Ras as well as human lung epithelial BAES-2B cells. In this apoptotic process, the level of ROS was increased and PUMA was upregulated in a p73-dependent fashion in MIA and PANC-1 cells. Subsequently, caspase-3 was cleaved. A full induction of apoptosis required the activation of both ROS- and p73-mediated pathways. The data suggest that PKC is a crucial factor that copes with aberrant K-ras to maintain the homeostasis of the pancreatic cancer cells harboring mutated K-ras. However, the suppression or loss of PKC disrupts the balance and initiates an apoptotic crisis, in which ROS and p73 appear the potential, key targets.

  19. Autophagy inhibition enhances apigenin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuchen Cao; Bowen Liu; Wenfeng Cao; Weiran Zhang; Fei Zhang; Hongmeng Zhao; Ran Meng

    2013-01-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables.The involvement of autophagy in the apigenin-induced apoptotic death of human breast cancer cells was investigated.Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and clonogenic assays.Flow cytometry,fluorescent staining and Western blot analysis were employed to detect apoptosis and autophagy,and the role of autophagy was assessed using autophagy inhibitors.Apigenin dose-and time-dependently repressed the proliferation and clonogenic survival of the human breast cancer T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell lines.The death of T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells was due to apoptosis associated with increased levels of Caspase3,PARP cleavage and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios.The results from flow cytometry and fluorescent staining also verified the occurrence of apoptosis.In addition,the apigenin-treated cells exhibited autophagy,as characterized by the appearance of autophagosomes under fluorescence microscopy and the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs)by flow cytometry.Furthermore,the results of the Western blot analysis revealed that the level of LC3-Ⅱ,the processed form of LC3-Ⅰ,was increased.Treatment with the autophagy inhibitor,3-methyladenine (3-MA),significantly enhanced the apoptosis induced by apigenin,which was accompanied by an increase in the level of PARP cleavage.Similar results were also confirmed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.These results indicate that apigenin has apoptosis-and autophagy-inducing effects in breast cancer cells.Autophagy plays a cyto-protective role in apigenin-induced apoptosis,and the combination of apigenin and an autophagy inhibitor may be a promising strategy for breast cancer control.

  20. Silencing of HMGA2 promotes apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhan Shi; Ding Wu; Run Tang; Xiang Li; Renfu Chen; Song Xue; Chengjing Zhang; Xiaoqing Sun

    2016-06-01

    The high mobility group protein A2 (HMGA2) has been demonstrated as an architectural transcription factor that is associated with pathogenesis of many malignant cancers, however, its role in prostate cancer cells remains largely unknown. To explore whether HMGA2 participates in the development and progression of prostate cancer, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted on human HMGA2 was transfected to suppress the HMGA2 expression in prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cells, and then we examined the cellular biology changes after decreased the expression of HMGA2. Our results showed that knockdown of HMGA2 markedly inhibited cell proliferation, this reduced cell proliferation was due to the promotion of cell apoptosis as the Bcl-xl was decreased, whereas Bax was up-regulated. In addition, we found that HMGA2 knockdown resulted in reduction of cell migration and invasion, as well as repressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and affected the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both cell types. We further found that decreased HMGA2 expression inhibited the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway in cancer cells. In conclusion, our data indicated that HMGA2 was associated with apoptosis, migration and invasion of prostate cancer, which might be a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

  1. Induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Banerjee, Ayan; Pathak, Suajta; Sharma, Chandresh; Singh, Neeta

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer in women and has a high mortality rate. Cisplatin, an antitumor agent, is generally used for its treatment. However, the administration of cisplatin is associated with side effects and intrinsic resistance. Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a natural plant product, has been shown to have anti-cancer properties. In this study, we used Noni, cisplatin, and the two in combination to study their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects in cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines. We demonstrate here, that Noni/Cisplatin by themselves and their combination were able to induce apoptosis in both these cell lines. Cisplatin showed slightly higher cell killing as compared to Noni and their combination showed additive effects. The observed apoptosis appeared to be mediated particularly through the up-regulation of p53 and pro-apoptotic Bax proteins, as well as down- regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL proteins and survivin. Augmentation in the activity of caspase-9 and -3 was also observed, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis for both Noni and Cisplatin in HeLa and SiHa cell lines. PMID:23534730

  2. Thromboxane synthase suppression induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibiting NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulating evidence shows that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induced apoptosis in cancer cells. TXS inhibitor 1-Benzylimidzole (1-BI) can trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells but the mechanism is not fully defined. In this study, lung cancer cells were treated with 1-BI. In this study, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and NF-κB activity was determined in human lung cancer cells. The roles of ROS and NF-κB in 1-BI-mediated cell death were analyzed. The results showed that 1-BI induced ROS generation but decreased the activity of NF-κB by reducing phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα) and inhibiting the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. In contrast to 1-BI, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) stimulated cell proliferation and significantly protected the cells from 1-BI-mediated cell death by neutralizing ROS. Collectively, apoptosis induced by 1-BI is associated with the over-production of ROS and the reduction of NF-κB. Antioxidants can significantly block the inhibitory effect of 1-BI.

  3. Thromboxane synthase suppression induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibiting NF-{kappa}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Kin Chung; Li, Ming-Yue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Hsin, Michael K.Y. [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Mok, Tony S.K. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Underwood, Malcolm J. [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong); Chen, George G., E-mail: gchen@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-10

    Accumulating evidence shows that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induced apoptosis in cancer cells. TXS inhibitor 1-Benzylimidzole (1-BI) can trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells but the mechanism is not fully defined. In this study, lung cancer cells were treated with 1-BI. In this study, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and NF-{kappa}B activity was determined in human lung cancer cells. The roles of ROS and NF-{kappa}B in 1-BI-mediated cell death were analyzed. The results showed that 1-BI induced ROS generation but decreased the activity of NF-{kappa}B by reducing phosphorylated I{kappa}B{alpha} (p-I{kappa}B{alpha}) and inhibiting the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. In contrast to 1-BI, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) stimulated cell proliferation and significantly protected the cells from 1-BI-mediated cell death by neutralizing ROS. Collectively, apoptosis induced by 1-BI is associated with the over-production of ROS and the reduction of NF-{kappa}B. Antioxidants can significantly block the inhibitory effect of 1-BI.

  4. Thymoquinone induces apoptosis and increase ROS in ovarian cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M M E; Sheikh, B Y; Salim, L Z A; Mohan, S; Khan, A; Kamalidehghan, B; Ahmadipour, F; Abdelwahab, S I

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa is also known for its properties as a traditional herbal healing for many ailments. In this study, the anticancer properties of thyomquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of N. sativa, were studied using ovarian cancer cell line (Caov-3 cells). The anti-proliferative activity of TQ was determined using MTT and the apoptosis was investigated using Flowcytometry and Annexin-V Assays. Multiparameteric cytotoxicity bioassays were used to quantify the changes in cell permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-involved cell markers were examined to verify cell death mechanism. The MTT-assay showed that TQ induces anti-proliferative activity on Caov-3 with an IC50 of 6.0±0.03 μg/mL, without any cytotoxic activity towards WRL-68 normal hepatocytes. A significant induction of early phase of apoptosis was shown by annexin-V analysis. Treatment of Caov-3 cells with TQ induces decreases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential. Visible decrease in the nuclear area was also observed. A significant decrease is observed in Bcl-2 while Bax is down-regulated. TQ-triggered ROS-mediated has found to be associated with Hsp70 dysregulation, an indicator of oxidative injury. We found that TQ induced anti-cancer effect involves intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and cellular oxidative stress. Our results considered collectively indicated that thyomquinone may be a potential agent for ovarian cancer drug development. PMID:27262811

  5. Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor David J; Parsons Christine E; Han Haiyong; Jayaraman Arul; Rege Kaushal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, ...

  6. Roscovitine sensitizes breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through a pleiotropic mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Ferrón; Rosario Yerbes; Adriana Eramo; Ana I López-Pérez; Ruggero De Maria; Abelardo López-Rivas

    2008-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/APO2L) is a member of the TNF gene superfamily that induces apoptosis upon engagement of cognate death receptors.While TRAIL is relatively non-toxic to normal cells,it selectively induces apoptosis in many transformed cells.Nevertheless,breast tumor cells are particularly resistant to the effects of TRAIL.Here we report that,in combination with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine,exposure to TRAIL induced marked apoptosis in the majority of TRAIL-resistant breast cancer cell Iines examined.Roscovitine facilitated TRAIL death-inducing signaling complex formation and the activation of caspase-8.The cFLIPL and eFLIPs FLICE-inhibitory proteins were significantly down-regulated following exposure to roscovitine and,indeed,the knockdown of cFLIP isoforms by siRNA sensitized breast tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.In addition,we demonstrate that roscovitine strongly suppressed Mcl-1 expression and up-regulated E2F1 protein levels in breast tumor cells.Significantly,the silencing of Mcl-1 by siRNA sensitized breast tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.Furthermore,the knockdown of E2F1 protein by siRNA reduced the sensitizing effect of roscovitine in TRAIL-induced apoptosis.In summary,our results reveal a pleitropic mechanism for the pro-apoptotic influence of roscovitine,highlighting its potential as an antitumor agent in breast cancer in combination with TRAIL.

  7. Plumbagin induces apoptosis in Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawiak, Anna; Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2012-04-27

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death-related cancers in women. Approximately 30% of breast cancers overexpress the Her2 oncogene, which is associated with a poor prognosis and increased resistance to chemotherapy. Plumbagin (1), a constituent of species in the plant genera Drosera and Plumbago, displays antineoplastic activity toward various cancers. The present study was aimed at determining the anticancer potential of 1 toward Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and defining the mode of cell death induced in these cells. The results showed that 1 exhibited high antiproliferative activity toward the Her2-overexpressing cell lines SKBR3 and BT474. The antiproliferative activity of 1 was associated with apoptosis-mediated cell death, as revealed by caspase activation and an increase in the sub-G1 fraction of the cell cycle. Compound 1 increased the levels of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and decreased the level of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in SKBR3 and BT474 cells. Thus, these findings indicate that 1 induces apoptosis in Her2-overexpressing breast cancers through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway and suggest its potential for further investigation for the treatment of Her2-overexpressing breast cancer. PMID:22512718

  8. Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber L. induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Deoxyelephantopin (ESD) inhibited cell proliferation in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. → ESD induced cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases via modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. → ESD triggered apoptosis by dysfunction of mitochondria and induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. → ESD also triggered Akt, ERK, and JNK signaling pathways. -- Abstract: Deoxyelephantopin (ESD), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone present in the Chinese medicinal herb, Elephantopus scaber L. exerted anticancer effects on various cultured cancer cells. However, the cellular mechanisms by which it controls the development of the cancer cells are unavailable, particularly the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. In this study, we found that ESD inhibited the CNE cell proliferation. Cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases was also found. Western blotting analysis showed that modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins was responsible for the ESD-induced cell cycle arrest. Besides, ESD also triggered apoptosis in CNE cells. Dysfunction in mitochondria was found to be associated with the ESD-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), the translocation of cytochrome c, and the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Despite the Western blotting analysis showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways (cleavage of caspases-3, -7, -8, -9, and -10) were triggered in the ESD-induced apoptosis, additional analysis also showed that the induction of apoptosis could be achieved by the caspase-independent manner. Besides, Akt, ERK and JNK pathways were found to involve in ESD-induced cell death. Overall, our findings provided the first evidence that ESD induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in CNE cells. ESD could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).

  9. Proteomic analysis of pathways involved in estrogen-induced growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Zhi Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estrogen is a known growth promoter for estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer cells. Paradoxically, in breast cancer cells that have been chronically deprived of estrogen stimulation, re-introduction of the hormone can induce apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we sought to identify signaling networks that are triggered by estradiol (E2 in isogenic MCF-7 breast cancer cells that undergo apoptosis (MCF-7:5C versus cells that proliferate upon exposure to E2 (MCF-7. The nuclear receptor co-activator AIB1 (Amplified in Breast Cancer-1 is known to be rate-limiting for E2-induced cell survival responses in MCF-7 cells and was found here to also be required for the induction of apoptosis by E2 in the MCF-7:5C cells. Proteins that interact with AIB1 as well as complexes that contain tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were isolated by immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry (MS at baseline and after a brief exposure to E2 for two hours. Bioinformatic network analyses of the identified protein interactions were then used to analyze E2 signaling pathways that trigger apoptosis versus survival. Comparison of MS data with a computationally-predicted AIB1 interaction network showed that 26 proteins identified in this study are within this network, and are involved in signal transduction, transcription, cell cycle regulation and protein degradation. CONCLUSIONS: G-protein-coupled receptors, PI3 kinase, Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were most strongly associated with E2-induced proliferation or apoptosis and are integrated here into a global AIB1 signaling network that controls qualitatively distinct responses to estrogen.

  10. Effects of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on proliferation and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed to correlate cell proliferation inhibition with oxidative stress and p53 protein expression in cancerous cells. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the essential component of inorganic composition in human bone. It has been found to have obvious inhibitory function on growth of many kinds of tumor cells and its nanoparticle has stronger anti-cancerous effect than macromolecule microparticles. Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were cultured and treated with HAP nanoparticles at various concentrations. Cells viability was detected with MTT colorimetric assay. The morphology of the cancerous cells was performed by transmission electron microscopy and the expression of a cell apoptosis related gene (p53) was determined by ELISA assay and flow cytometry (FCM). The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in HAP exposed cells was measured by H2DCFDA staining. DNA damage was measured by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA. The cellular proliferation inhibition rate was significantly (p < 0.05) increasing in a dose-dependent manner of HAP nanoparticles. Cell apoptotic characters were observed after MCF-7 cells were treated by HAP nanoparticles for 48 h. Moreover, ELISA assay and FCM shows a dose-dependent activation of p53 in MCF-7 cells treated with nanoHAP. These causative factors of the above results may be justified by an overproduction of ROS. In this study, a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of intracellular ROS in HAP-treated cells was observed. This study shows that HAP inhibits the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as well as induces cell apoptosis. This study shows that HAP NPs Induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and activate p53, which may be responsible for DNA damage and cell apoptosis.

  11. Licochalcone A induces T24 bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jiangtao; Yang, Xinyan; Han, Jichun; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-07-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) has been reported to significantly inhibit cell proliferation, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induce apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells via mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered signaling pathways. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LCA induces apoptosis of T24 cells. Cultured T24 cells were treated with LCA, and cell viability was measured using the sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and by fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of intracellular free calcium ions were determined using Fluo-3 AM dye marker. Intracellular ROS levels were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑extra large, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2‑interacting mediator of cell death, apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), calpain 2, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)‑3, caspase‑4 and caspase‑9 were determined using reverse transcription semiquantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Treatment with LCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T24 cells, and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and ROS production. Furthermore, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mRNA expression levels of Apaf‑1, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. Exposure of T24 cells to LCA also triggered calpain 2 and caspase‑4 activation, resulting in apoptosis. These findings indicated that LCA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ER stress pathway may be

  12. HIF-1α siRNA Leads to Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells under Hypoxic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuangui Chen; Jianqiu Chen; Jinjin Sun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the role of hypoxic inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) in the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells under hypoxic conditions.METHODS A cassette encoding small interference RNA (siRNA)targeting HIF-1α mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) was constructed, giving rAAV-siHIF, rAAV-siHIF or rAAV- hrGFP was transfected into exponentially growing MiaPaCa2 cells under hypoxic conditions. Then, the expression of HIF-1αmRNA and protein, the proliferation and apoptosis of MiaPaCa2 cells were examined, using real-time PCR, Western Blot, MTT and TUNEL, respectively.RESULTS Under hypoxic conditions, rAAV-siHIF inhibited the expression of HIF-1α mRNA and protein in MiaPaCa2 cells. At the same time, rAAV-siHIF decreased MiaPaCa2 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. However, rAAV-hrGFP had no effect on the expression of HIF-1α as well as the proliferation and apoptosis of MiaPaCa2 cells under hypoxic conditions.CONCLUSION Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1α plays a key role in the proliferation of MiaPaCa2 cells, and inhibition of HIF-1α expression can lead to MiaPaCa2 cell apoptosis.

  13. Effect of Evodiamine on Inducing Apoptosis of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line SGC-7901 in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Shao-ping

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis-inducing effect of evodiamine in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Methods: After 48 or 24 h exposure to different concentrations of evodiamine, cell proliferation was analyzed using tetrazolium blue (MTT assay while apoptosis and cell-cycle phase distribution using flow cytometry. Results: In 0.01~30.00 μg/mL range of concentrations, evodiamine inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in dose-dependent manner, and the overall mean IC50 was (3.79±0.16 μg/mL; the apoptosis rate was increased from 3.4% to 7.0%, 13.8% and 36.3% at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 30 μg/mL of evodiamine, respectively; the percentage of cells accumulated in G2/M phase was increased from 17.26% to 98.92% in the cells treated with evodiamine for 24 h in 0.01~30.00 μg/mL range of concentrations. Conclusion: Evodiamine can inhibit the proliferation, induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 in vitro and arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase.

  14. Tetrandrine suppresses proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits migration and invasion in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrandrine (TET, a traditional Chinese medicine, exerts remarkable anticancer activity on various cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of TET on human prostate cancer cells, and the mechanism of function of TET on prostate cancer has not yet been elucidated. To investigate the effects of TET on the suppression of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of migration and invasion in human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC-3. Inhibition of growth was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and clone formation assay, and flow cytometry analysis was performed to detect the induction of apoptosis. Activation of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase, caspase-3, Akt, phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, and Bax was analyzed by Western blotting. Wound healing assay and transwell migration assay were used to evaluate the effect of TET on migration and invasion of cancer cells. TET inhibited the growth of DU145 and PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cloning was inhibited in the presence of TET in DU145 and PC-3 cells. TET suppressed the migration of DU145 and PC-3 cells. Transwell invasion assay showed that TET significantly weakened invasion capacity of DU145 and PC-3 cells. TET exhibited strong inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer cells. In addition, TET induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by activating the caspase cascade and inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signal pathway. The accumulating evidence suggests that TET could be a potential therapeutic candidate against prostate cancer in a clinical setting.

  15. Bax translocation mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and caspase dependent photosensitizing effect of Ficus religiosa on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Jazir; Parvathy, Muraleedharan; M, Parvathy; Thankayyan R, Santhosh Kumar; Sithul, Hima; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential effect of acetone extract of Ficus religosa leaf (FAE) in multiple apoptosis signalling in human breast cancer cells. FAE treatment significantly induced dose and time dependent, irreversible inhibition of breast cancer cell growth with moderate toxicity to normal breast epithelial cells. This observation was validated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Cell cycle analysis by Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and induction of sub-G0 peak. FAE induced chromatin condensation and displayed an increase in apoptotic population in Annexin V-FITC/PI (Fluorescein isothiocyanate/Propidium iodide) double staining. FAE stimulated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in multiple breast cancer cell lines when compared to normal diploid cells. To understand the role of Bax in FAE induced apoptosis, we employed a sensitive cell based platform of MCF-7 cells expressing Bax-EGFP. Bax translocation to mitochondria was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and marked elevation in LEHDase activity (Caspase 9). Consistent with this data, FAE induced Caspase activation as evidenced by ratio change in FRET Caspase sensor expressing MCF-7 cell line and cleavage of prominent Caspases and PARP. Interestingly, FAE accelerated cell death in a mitochondrial dependent manner in continuous live cell imaging mode indicating its possible photosensitizing effect. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by FAE played a critical role in mediating apoptotic cell death and photosensitizing activity. FAE induced dose and time dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth which was associated with Bax translocation and mitochondria mediated apoptosis with the activation of Caspase 9 dependent Caspase cascade. FAE also possessed strong photosensitizing effect on cancer cell line that was mediated through rapid mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss and partial Caspase

  16. Bax translocation mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and caspase dependent photosensitizing effect of Ficus religiosa on cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazir Haneef

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential effect of acetone extract of Ficus religosa leaf (FAE in multiple apoptosis signalling in human breast cancer cells. FAE treatment significantly induced dose and time dependent, irreversible inhibition of breast cancer cell growth with moderate toxicity to normal breast epithelial cells. This observation was validated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Cell cycle analysis by Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and induction of sub-G0 peak. FAE induced chromatin condensation and displayed an increase in apoptotic population in Annexin V-FITC/PI (Fluorescein isothiocyanate/Propidium iodide double staining. FAE stimulated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in multiple breast cancer cell lines when compared to normal diploid cells. To understand the role of Bax in FAE induced apoptosis, we employed a sensitive cell based platform of MCF-7 cells expressing Bax-EGFP. Bax translocation to mitochondria was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and marked elevation in LEHDase activity (Caspase 9. Consistent with this data, FAE induced Caspase activation as evidenced by ratio change in FRET Caspase sensor expressing MCF-7 cell line and cleavage of prominent Caspases and PARP. Interestingly, FAE accelerated cell death in a mitochondrial dependent manner in continuous live cell imaging mode indicating its possible photosensitizing effect. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by FAE played a critical role in mediating apoptotic cell death and photosensitizing activity. FAE induced dose and time dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth which was associated with Bax translocation and mitochondria mediated apoptosis with the activation of Caspase 9 dependent Caspase cascade. FAE also possessed strong photosensitizing effect on cancer cell line that was mediated through rapid mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss and

  17. Chemokine CXCL16 Expression Suppresses Migration and Invasiveness and Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeying Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing evidence argues that soluble CXCL16 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells in vitro. However, the role of transmembrane or cellular CXCL16 in cancer remains relatively unknown. In this study, we determine the function of cellular CXCL16 as tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells. Methods. Expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines was determined at both RNA and protein levels. In vitro and in vivo studies that overexpressed or downregulated CXCL16 were conducted in breast cancer cells. Results. We report differential expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines that was negatively correlated with cell invasiveness and migration. Overexpression of CXCL16 in MDA-MB-231 cells led to a decrease in cell invasion and migration and induced apoptosis of the cells; downregulation of CXCL16 in MCF-7 cells increased cell migration and invasiveness. Consistent with the in vitro data, CXCL16 overexpression inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. Conclusions. Cellular CXCL16 suppresses invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo. Targeting of cellular CXCL16 expression is a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

  18. Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew induces apoptosis without PARP or cytokeratin 18 cleavage in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aztopal, Nazlihan; Cevatemre, Buse; Sarimahmut, Mehmet; Ari, Ferda; Dere, Egemen; Ozel, Mustafa Zafer; Firat, Mehmet; Ulukaya, Engin

    2016-01-01

    Pelargonium species have various uses in folk medicine as traditional remedies, and several of them have been screened for their biological activity, including anticancer. Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew (P. quercetorum) is traditionally used for its anthelminthic activity. However, little is known about its biological activity or its effect on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic activity of P. quercetorum extract on lung cancer cell lines with varying properties. Following the analyses of its chemical composition, the cytotoxic activity was screened by the adenosine triphosphate viability test. M30-Apoptosense® and M65 EpiDeath® enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the cell death mode (apoptosis vs. necrosis). For apoptosis, additional methods, including Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and Hoechst 33342 staining, were employed. The cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was assayed by western blotting to further dissect the apoptosis mechanism. The methanol extract of P. quercetorum caused cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of cell death was apoptosis, as evidenced by the positive staining of the cells for Annexin-V-FITC and the presence of pyknotic nuclei. Notably, neither PARP cleavage nor cytokeratin 18 fragmentation were observed. P.quercetorum caused cell death by an apoptosis mechanism that is slightly different from classical apoptosis. Therefore, future in vivo experiments are required for further understanding of the effect of this plant on cancer cells.

  19. Methylseleninic acid potentiates multiple types of cancer cells to ABT-737-induced apoptosis by targeting Mcl-1 and Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Shutao; Dong, Yinhui; Li, Jinghua;

    2012-01-01

    overcome such resistance to restore the sensitivity. In the present study, a second-generation selenium compound methylseleninic acid (MSeA) synergistically sensitized MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells and DU145 human prostate cancer cells to apoptosis induction by ABT...

  20. Milk fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii induces apoptosis of HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien J Cousin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The "economically developed countries" life style, including diet, constitutes a risk factor favoring this cancer. Diet modulation may lower digestive cancer incidence. Among promising food components, dairy propionibacteria were shown to trigger apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, via the release of short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A fermented milk, exclusively fermented by P. freudenreichii, was recently designed. In this work, the pro-apoptotic potential of this new fermented milk was demonstrated on HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells. Fermented milk supernatant induced typical features of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA laddering, cell cycle arrest and emergence of a subG1 population, phosphatidylserine exposure at the plasma membrane outer leaflet, reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption, caspase activation and cytochrome c release. Remarkably, this new fermented milk containing P. freudenreichii enhanced the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a drug used in gastric cancer chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such new probiotic fermented milk may thus be useful as part of a preventive diet designed to prevent gastric cancer and/or as a food supplement to potentiate cancer therapeutic treatments.

  1. IRF-1 transcriptionally up-regulates PUMA which mediates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in IRF-1 induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, J.; M. Senthil; Ren, B.; Yan, J.; Q. Xing; Yu, J.; Zhang, L; Yim, JH

    2009-01-01

    Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor which acts as a tumor suppressor and causes apoptosis in cancer cells. We evaluated IRF-1 induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cell lines. We established stable clones in AGS cells that have a tetracycline inducible IRF-1 expression system. We used these clones and recombinant adenovirus expressing IRF-1 to explore the mechanism of IRF-1 induced apoptosis in gastric cancer. Expression of IRF-1 causes apoptosis in gastric cancer c...

  2. Effects of 5-azacytidine and butyrate on differentiation and apoptosis of hepatic cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Wang, X; Li, J; Evers, B M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cellular effects of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) and sodium butyrate on two human liver cancers, HepG2 and Hep3B. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Primary liver cancer is a significant health problem; treatment options are limited and prognosis is poor. Recent studies have focused on the role that programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis) plays in both normal and neoplastic growth: certain genes can either suppress (e.g., Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) or promote (e.g., Bik, Bax, Bak) apoptosis. The identification of novel agents targeted to specific molecular pathways may be beneficial in the treatment of this disease. METHODS: Human liver cancer cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B were treated with 5-azaC alone, butyrate alone, or 5-azaC and butyrate. Morphologic and proliferative changes were assessed by light microscopy and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining; flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle characteristics. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA laddering and the in situ apoptosis detection assay using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. In addition, total RNA and protein were analyzed by ribonuclease protection and Western blot, respectively, to assess changes in the expression of apoptosis-related genes. RESULTS: Treatment with either 5-azaC or butyrate inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells; the combination of 5-azaC and butyrate was not more effective than either agent alone. 5-azaC alone resulted in a more differentiated-appearing morphology and G2 cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. Treatment with 5-azaC or butyrate affected the expression levels of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. CONCLUSIONS: Both 5-azaC and butyrate induced apoptosis in the HepG2 and Hep3B liver cancer cells; 5-azaC treatment alone produced G2 arrest in both cell lines. Proteins of the Bcl-2 family may play a role in the cellular changes that occur with treatment, but further studies are required to define this potential role. Products of the

  3. The Effect of Curcumin on Proliferation and Apoptosis in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yang; Lianying Zhang; Lijun Chen; Bin Meng; Jiangrui Suo; Hongmin Wang; Hong Xie; Qiuyue Jin; Li Yao; Ruimin Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of curcumin on proliferation and apoptosis in the prostate cancer LNCaP cell line.METHODS The AXSYMTM system luciferase method was used to examine the effect of various concentratious of curcumin on the content of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. A pGL3-PSA luciferase expression vector, containing 640 bp DNA of the PSA gene 5'-promoter region was constructed and transfected into the LNCaP cells with lipofectin. By measuring luciferase activity, the effect of 10 μmol/L, 20 μmol/L, 30 and 40 μmol/L curcumin on the promoter was studied. Effects on cell growth and apoptosis were analyzed by microscopy, the MTT colorimetric assay and flow cytometry Western-blotting was used to measure expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in the LNCaP cells treated with different concentrations of curcumin.RESULTS The results showed that the expression of PSA was inhibited as curcumin reduced the activity of luciferase. Curcumin also caused a sigificant concentration-dependent decrease in AR expession measured by Western-blotting. Cell growth was inhibited and apoptosis was induced.CONCLUSION By inhibiting AR expression, curcumin reduced the function of the PSA promoter and inhibited PSA protein expression. Curcumin decreased the cellular proliferation and induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells in a concention-dependent manner.

  4. Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract induce apoptosis from intrinsic pathway on human prostate cancer cells (PC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Aghapour, M; Baradaran, B

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is considered as the major cause of death among men around the world. There are a number of medicinal plants triggering apoptosis response in cancer cells, thus have a therapeutic potential. Therefore, further studies to characterize beneficial properties of these plants in order to introduce novel anti-cancer drugs are the interest of recent researches on the alternative medicine. On the other hand, due to traditional uses and availability of Urtica dioica extract, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of this medicinal herb on pc3 prostate cancer cell line. In the present study the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue viability dye. Then, DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were exploited to measure cell death and apoptosis stage. The expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9 and Bcl-2 genes were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Finally, Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. MTT assay showed that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica significantly inhibited the cell growth. According to the DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assay results, the herbal extract was able to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our findings also demonstrated that the plant extract substantially increases the caspase 3 and 9 mRNA expression, while decreases Bcl-2. Cell cycle arrest was occurred in G2 stage, due to the results of flow cytometry. These results indicate that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica can successfully induce apoptosis in PC3 cells. Therefore, it could be used as a novel therapeutic candidate for prostate tumor treatment. PMID:27064877

  5. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis, and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ah Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells. Oxidative DNA damage and DNA strand breaks activate DNA damage responses to repair the damaged DNA. However, excessive DNA damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair processes may initiate apoptotic signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. DHA shows a variable inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth depending on the cells’ molecular properties and degree of malignancy. It has been shown to affect DNA repair processes including DNA-dependent protein kinases and mismatch repair in cancer cells. Moreover, DHA enhanced the efficacy of anticancer drugs by increasing drug uptake and suppressing survival pathways in cancer cells. In this review, DHA-induced oxidative DNA damage, apoptotic signaling, and enhancement of chemosensitivity in cancer cells will be discussed based on recent studies.

  6. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide induces apoptosis, impairs metastasis and reduces immunosuppressive cells in breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghong Ye

    Full Text Available Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Discovery of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is still needed. Here, we reported our finding with niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic drug. The potency of niclosamide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that niclosamide showed a dramatic growth inhibition against breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of 4T1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot analysis demonstrated the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of Cleaved caspases-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Survivin. Moreover, niclosamide blocked breast cancer cells migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated STAT3(Tyr705, phosphorylated FAK(Tyr925 and phosphorylated Src(Tyr416 were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg/d niclosamide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth without detectable toxicity. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki67-positive cells, VEGF-positive cells and microvessel density (MVD and an increase in Cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon niclosamide. Notably, niclosamide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs in tumor tissues and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases. Taken together, these results demonstrated that niclosamide may be a promising candidate for breast cancer.

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 level and culture conditions influence NS398-induced apoptosis and caspase activation in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H C; Weng, C F

    2001-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COXs) catalyze the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) from arachidonic acid. Overexpression of COX-2 is frequently found in human cancers and is suggested to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Recent studies indicated that COX-2 inhibitors exert potent anti-cancer effects on a number of cancers. Interestingly, some COX-2 inhibitors potently induce apoptosis, while other COX-2 inhibitors primarily induce growth inhibition. Therefore, there is a variability in the effects that different COX-2 inhibitors have on cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that induction of apoptosis of high COX-2-expressing A549 lung cancer cells by a specific COX-2 inhibitor NS398 was observed in cells cultured under serum-free condition. However, this drug induced G1 growth arrest rather than apoptosis in A549 cells maintained in 10% serum medium. Conversely, low COX-2-expressing H226 lung cancer cells were resistant to NS398-induced apoptosis under both serum-free and serum-containing conditions. Moreover, our results showed that NS398-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of caspase-3, a cysteine protease that plays a crucial role in the execution phase of apoptosis. These results suggest that the cytotoxic effect of COX-2 inhibitors on cancer cells may be influenced by extracellular environments and the anti-cancer action of these inhibitors in vivo needs careful evaluation. Additionally, a correlation between the level of COX-2 expression and the extent of apoptosis induced by COX-2 inhibitors was found. PMID:11605058

  8. Prima-1 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines by activating p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila B. Piantino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bladder cancer represents 3% of all carcinomas in the Brazilian population and ranks second in incidence among urological tumors, after prostate cancer. The loss of p53 function is the main genetic alteration related to the development of high-grade muscle-invasive disease. Prima-1 is a small molecule that restores tumor suppressor function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Our aim was to investigate the ability of Prima-1 to induce apoptosis after DNA damage in bladder cancer cell lines. METHOD: The therapeutic effect of Prima-1 was studied in two bladder cancer cell lines: T24, which is characterized by a p53 mutation, and RT4, which is the wild-type for the p53 gene. Morphological features of apoptosis induced by p53, including mitochondrial membrane potential changes and the expression of thirteen genes involved in apoptosis, were assessed by microscopic observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Prima-1 was able to reactivate p53 function in the T24 (p53 mt bladder cancer cell line and promote apoptosis via the induction of Bax and Puma expression, activation of the caspase cascade and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane in a BAK-independent manner. CONCLUSION: Prima-1 is able to restore the transcriptional activity of p53. Experimental studies in vivo may be conducted to test this molecule as a new therapeutic agent for urothelial carcinomas of the bladder, which characteristically harbor p53 mutations.

  9. Quercetin Suppresses Twist to Induce Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhalakshmi Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of quercetin in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, which differed in hormone receptor. IC50 value (37μM of quercetin showed significant cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, which was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells even at 100μM of quercetin treatment. To study the response of cancer cells to quercetin, with respect to different hormone receptors, both the cell lines were treated with a fixed concentration (40μM of quercetin. MCF-7 cells on quercetin treatment showed more apoptotic cells with G1 phase arrest. In addition, quercetin effectively suppressed the expression of CyclinD1, p21, Twist and phospho p38MAPK, which was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. To analyse the molecular mechanism of quercetin in exerting an apoptotic effect in MCF-7 cells, Twist was over-expressed and the molecular changes were observed after quercetin administration. Quercetin effectively regulated the expression of Twist, in turn p16 and p21 which induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, quercetin induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through suppression of Twist via p38MAPK pathway.

  10. Study on apoptosis of prostate cancer cell induced by 125I seed irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of apoptosis induced by 125I seed irradiation on PC3 cells. Methods: Human prostate cancer cell line PC3 was treated by irradiation of 125I (2.77 cGy/h) with various dose. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and flows cytometry were used to detect the apoptosis of PC3 cells and indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2. The activity of Caspase-3 was measured by Caspase Colorimetric Assay Kits. Results: Apoptosis of PC3 cells could be efficiently induced by 125I seed irradiation. The apoptotic peaks were found by flow cytometry and DNA ladder appeared on 1.8% agarose gel. The activity of Caspase-3 on PC3 cells treated by 125I seed irradiation was not changed significantly. Bcl-2 gene expression was down-regulated with the sample concentration increased. Conclusion: 125I irradiation can induce the apoptosis of PC3 cells and the mechanism of apoptosis is related with down regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression and is not related with Caspase-3 activity. (authors)

  11. Lansoprazole induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells through inhibition of intracellular proton extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shangrong; Wang, Yifan; Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • Lansoprazole (LPZ) induces cell apoptosis in breast cancer cells. • LPZ markedly inhibits intracellular proton extrusion. • LPZ induces an increase in intracellular ATP level, lysosomal alkalinization and ROS accumulation. - Abstract: The increased glycolysis and proton secretion in tumors is proposed to contribute to the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells during the process of tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here, treatment of human breast cancer cells with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole (LPZ) induces cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In the implantation of the MDA-MB-231 xenografts in nude mice, administration of LPZ significantly inhibits tumorigenesis and induces large-scale apopotosis of tumor cells. LPZ markedly inhibits intracellular proton extrusion, induces an increase in intracellular ATP level, lysosomal alkalinization and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in breast cancer cells. The ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific pharmacological inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOX), significantly abolish LPZ-induced ROS accumulation in breast cancer cells. Our results suggested that LPZ may be used as a new therapeutic drug for breast tumor.

  12. STAT3 inhibition induces apoptosis in cancer cells independent of STAT1 or STAT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly E Barton

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs were originally discovered as mediators of signal transduction. Persistent aberrant activation of STAT3 is part of the malignant phenotype of hormone-refractory prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer; this is thought to be mediated by homodimers of phosphorylated STAT3, which translocate to the nucleus.  One consequence of persistently-activated STAT3 in malignant cells is that they depend upon it for survival.   STAT3 is observed to heterodimerize with STAT1 and STAT2; however the contributions of STAT3:STAT1  and STAT3:STAT2 heterodimers to the survival of malignant cells have not been investigated in detail. Previously we reported that single-stranded oligonucleotides containing consensus STAT3 binding sequences (13410 and 13411 were more effective for inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells than antisense STAT3 oligonucleotides. Control oligonucleotides (scrambled sequences had no effect. STAT3-inhibiting oligonucleotide 13410, but not scrambled-sequence oligonucleotides, induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells as well.  Here we report that 13410 and derivative olignucleotides induced apoptosis in STAT1-null and STAT2-null fibrosarcoma cell lines U3A and U6A, as well as in the parental fibrosarcoma cell line 2fTGH. The cell lines expressed constitutively-activated STAT3 and depended on its activity for survival.  Forty-eight hr after transfection of 13410 or related oligonucleotides, significant apoptosis was observed in 2fTGH, U3A and U6A cells. Scrambled-sequence oligonucleotides had no effect on survival.  These data indicate that neither STAT1 nor STAT2 play significant roles in the maintenance of these cells, and by extension that STAT3:STAT1 and STAT3:STAT2 heterodimers regulate a different set of genes from STAT3:STAT3 homodimers.   

  13. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B differentially affects thyroid cancer cell growth, apoptosis, and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweppe Rebecca E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a key role in promoting cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. Our understanding of NF-κB signaling in thyroid cancer, however, is limited. In this study, we have investigated the role of NF-κB signaling in thyroid cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis using selective genetic inhibition of NF-κB in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines. Results Three pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-κB differentially inhibited growth in a panel of advanced thyroid cancer cell lines, suggesting that these NF-κB inhibitors may have off-target effects. We therefore used a selective genetic approach to inhibit NF-κB signaling by overexpression of a dominant-negative IκBα (mIκBα. These studies revealed decreased cell growth in only one of five thyroid cancer cell lines (8505C, which occurred through a block in the S-G2/M transition. Resistance to TNFα-induced apoptosis was observed in all cell lines, likely through an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of NF-κB by mIκBα sensitized a subset of cell lines to TNFα-induced apoptosis. Sensitive cell lines displayed sustained activation of the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK pathway, defining a potential mechanism of response. Finally, NF-κB inhibition by mIκBα expression differentially reduced thyroid cancer cell invasion in these thyroid cancer cell lines. Sensitive cell lines demonstrated approximately a two-fold decrease in invasion, which was associated with differential expression of MMP-13. MMP-9 was reduced by mIκBα expression in all cell lines tested. Conclusions These data indicate that selective inhibition of NF-κB represents an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced thyroid. However, it is apparent that global regulation of thyroid cancer cell growth and invasion is not achieved by NF-κB signaling alone. Instead, our

  14. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Candidaspongiolide, a Novel Sponge Polyketide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cardellina, John H.; Meragelman, Tamara L.; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiru; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Shoemaker, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Candidaspongiolide (CAN), a novel polyketide from a marine sponge, is the active component of a mixture that was found to be potently cytotoxic in the National Cancer Institute’s 60-cell-line screen. Methods Effects of CAN on U251 glioma and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells and on normal fibroblasts were assessed using radiolabeling studies to measure protein synthesis, clonogenic assays to measure cell survival, flow cytometry of annexin V– and propidium iodide–stained cells to measure apoptosis, and western blots in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors to assess accumulation and phosphorylation of potential downstream target proteins. Results CAN inhibited protein synthesis and potently induced apoptosis in both U251 and HCT116 cells, the latter in part by a caspase 12–dependent pathway. For example, 25%–30% of U251 or HCT116 cells became apoptotic after 24 hours of treatment with 100 nM CAN. CAN also rapidly induced sustained phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2)-α at Ser51 and of the translation elongation factor eEF2 at Thr56, which could contribute to its dose-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis. Stable expression of dominant-negative eIF2α was sufficient to prevent CAN-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and induction of apoptosis but insufficient to prevent inhibition of protein synthesis. CAN induction of eIF2α phosphorylation did not occur by a classic endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. However, an inhibitor of and small-interfering RNAs to the double-stranded RNA–dependent protein kinase PKR prevented CAN-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation and apoptosis, respectively. Although CAN inhibited protein synthesis in both cancer cells and normal human fibroblasts, it induced eIF2α phosphorylation and apoptosis only in cancer cells. Conclusions CAN triggers PKR/eIF2α/caspase 12–dependent apoptosis and inhibits protein synthesis in cancer cells but only inhibits protein synthesis in normal

  15. Oncolytic reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells, and synergizes with irinotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Radhashree; Seetharam, Raviraja; Tesfa, Lydia; Augustine, Titto A; Klampfer, Lidija; Coffey, Matthew C; Mariadason, John M; Goel, Sanjay

    2014-05-15

    Reovirus is a double stranded RNA virus, with an intrinsic preference for replication in KRAS mutant cells. As 45% of human colorectal cancers (CRC) harbor KRAS mutations, we sought to investigate its efficacy in KRAS mutant CRC cells, and examine its impact in combination with the topoisimerase-1 inhibitor, irinotecan. Reovirus efficacy was examined in the KRAS mutant HCT116, and the isogenic KRAS WT Hke3 cell line, and in the non-malignant rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Combination treatment with reovirus and irintoecan was investigated in 15 CRC cell lines, including the HCT116 p21 isogenic cell lines. Reovirus preferentially induced apoptosis in KRAS mutant HCT116 cells compared to its isogenic KRAS WT derivative, and in KRAS mutant IEC cells. Reovirus showed a greater degree of caspase 3 activation with PARP 1 cleavage, and preferential inhibition of p21 protein expression in KRAS mutant cells. Reovirus synergistically induced growth inhibition when combined with irinotecan. This synergy was lost upon p21 gene knock out. Reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colon cancer cells. Reovirus and irinotecan combination therapy is synergistic, p21 mediated, and represents a novel potential treatment for patients with CRC. PMID:24798549

  16. Autophagy inhibition enhances apigenin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xuchen; Liu, Bowen; CAO, WENFENG; Zhang, Weiran; Zhang, Fei; Zhao, Hongmeng; Meng, Ran; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Ruifang; Hao, Xishan; Zhang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. The involvement of autophagy in the apigenin-induced apoptotic death of human breast cancer cells was investigated. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and clonogenic assays. Flow cytometry, fluorescent staining and Western blot analysis were employed to detect apoptosis and autophagy, and the r...

  17. Abrogation of junctional adhesion molecule-A expression induces cell apoptosis and reduces breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Murakami

    Full Text Available Intercellular junctions promote homotypic cell to cell adhesion and transfer intracellular signals which control cell growth and apoptosis. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A is a transmembrane immunoglobulin located at tight junctions of normal epithelial cells of mammary ducts and glands. In the present paper we show that JAM-A acts as a survival factor for mammary carcinoma cells. JAM-A null mice expressing Polyoma Middle T under MMTV promoter develop significantly smaller mammary tumors than JAM-A positive mice. Angiogenesis and inflammatory or immune infiltrate were not statistically modified in absence of JAM-A but tumor cell apoptosis was significantly increased. Tumor cells isolated from JAM-A null mice or 4T1 cells incubated with JAM-A blocking antibodies showed reduced growth and increased apoptosis which paralleled altered junctional architecture and adhesive function. In a breast cancer clinical data set, tissue microarray data show that JAM-A expression correlates with poor prognosis. Gene expression analysis of mouse tumor samples showed a correlation between genes enriched in human G3 tumors and genes over expressed in JAM-A +/+ mammary tumors. Conversely, genes enriched in G1 human tumors correlate with genes overexpressed in JAM-A-/- tumors. We conclude that down regulation of JAM-A reduces tumor aggressive behavior by increasing cell susceptibility to apoptosis. JAM-A may be considered a negative prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target.

  18. Apoptosis Inducing Effect of Andrographolide on TD-47 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Harjotaruno, Sukardiman; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Sismindari .; Zaini, Noor Cholies

    2007-01-01

    Andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata Ness (Acanthaceae) at 0.35 mM, 0.70 mM and 1.40 mM induced DNA fragmentation and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells when TD-47 human breast cancer cell line was treated for 24, 48 and 72 h. The results demonstrated that andrographolide can induce apoptosis in TD-47 human breast cancer cell line in a time and concentration-dependent manner by increase expression of p53, bax, caspase-3 and decrease expression of bcl-2 determined by ...

  19. Apoptosis and radiosensitivity induced by N-acety1 phytosphingosine, in human cancer cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, K. S.; Han, Y. S.; Jeon, S. J.; Song, J. Y.; Jung, I. S.; Hong, S. H.; Yun, Y. S. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. S. [Doosan Biotech, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Ceramide is a key lipid molecule in signal transduction with a role in various regulatory pathways including differentiation, proliferation and especially apoptosis. Ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis is associated with accumulation of ceramide, and the sphingomyelinase deficiency results in radioresistance. We investigated the exogenous treatment of N-acetyl-phytosphingosine (NAPS), an analogue of N-acetyl-sphingosine (C{sub 2}-Ceramide), and C{sub 2}-ceramide exert apoptotic effect on human T cell lymphoma Jurkat cells and breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. NAPS and C{sub 2}-Ceramide has cytotoxic effect in time- and dose-dependent manner, and increased caspase-3, 8 activity. However, NAPS induced apoptosis more effectively, and increased caspase activity induced by NAPS is more higher than C{sub 2}-ceramide. Moreover, NAPS decreased clonogenicity of irradiated cells and increased radiation-induced apoptosis significantly. Increased cell death by irradiation in the presence of NAPS is owing to the increase of caspase activity. These data suggest that NAPS might be used for lead as a new type of radiosensitizing agent increasing radiation-induced apoptosis.

  20. Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid induces p53-dependent apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-gang ZHUANG; Fei FEI; Ying CHEN; Wei JIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, on the apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Meth-ods: Apoptosis in MCF-7 cells induced by SBHA was demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis, morphological observation, and DNA ladder. Mitochondrial membrane potential (△ψm) was measured using the fluorescent probe JC-1. The expressions of p53, p21, Bax, and PUMA were determined using RT-PCR or Western blotting analysis after the MCF-7 cells were treated with SBHA or p53 siRNA. Results: SBHA induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. The expressions of p53, p21, Bax, and PUMA were induced, and △ψm collapsed after treatment with SBHA. p53 siRNA abrogated the SBHA-induced apoptosis and the expressions of p53, p21, Bax, and PUMA. Conclusion: The activation of the p53 pathway is involved in SBHA-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  1. Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pachymic acid from Poria cocos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachymic acid (PA) is a natural triterpenoid known to inhibit the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family of arachidonic acid (AA)-producing enzymes. PLA2 is elevated in prostatic adenocarcinoma and conversion of AA to prostaglandins leads to AKT pro-survival activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of PA on the growth of human prostate cancer cells. PA significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, with androgen-insensitive DU145 prostate cancer cells showing greater growth inhibition relative to androgen-responsive LNCaP. Despite elevated protein expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21, apoptosis occurred in the absence of cell cycle arrest. PA-treatment decreased Bad phosphorylation, increased Bcl-2 phosphorylation, and activated caspases-9 and -3, suggesting that PA initiated apoptosis through mitochondria dysfunction. PA-treatment also decreased the expression and activation of proteins within the AKT signal pathway. We speculate that PA influenced apoptosis by reducing prostaglandin synthesis and AKT activity

  2. Knockdown of TFIIS by RNA silencing inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A common element among cancer cells is the presence of improperly controlled transcription. In these cells, the degree of specific activation of some genes is abnormal, and altering the aberrant transcription may therefore directly target cancer. TFIIS is a transcription elongation factor, which directly binds the transcription motor, RNA Polymerase II and allows it to read through various transcription arrest sites. We report on RNA interference of TFIIS, a transcription elongation factor, and its affect on proliferation of cancer cells in culture. RNA interference was performed by transfecting siRNA to specifically knock down TFIIS expression in MCF7, MCF10A, PL45 and A549 cells. Levels of TFIIS expression were determined by the Quantigene method, and relative protein levels of TFIIS, c-myc and p53 were determined by C-ELISA. Induction of apoptosis was determined by an enzymatic Caspase 3/7 assay, as well as a non-enzymatic assay detecting cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes. A gene array analysis was conducted for effects of TFIIS siRNA on MCF7 and MCF10A cell lines. Knockdown of TFIIS reduced cancer cell proliferation in breast, lung and pancreatic cancer cell lines. More specifically, TFIIS knockdown in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line induced cancer cell death and increased c-myc and p53 expression whereas TFIIS knockdown in the non-cancerous breast cell line MCF10A was less affected. Differential effects of TFIIS knockdown in MCF7 and MCF10A cells included the estrogenic, c-myc and p53 pathways, as observed by C-ELISA and gene array, and were likely involved in MCF7 cell-death. Although transcription is a fundamental process, targeting select core transcription factors may provide for a new and potent avenue for cancer therapeutics. In the present study, knockdown of TFIIS inhibited cancer cell proliferation, suggesting that TFIIS could be studied as a potential cancer target within the transcription machinery

  3. Influence of doxorubicin on apoptosis and oxidative stress in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilco-Ferreto, Nesstor; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among women worldwide due to aggressive behavior, early metastasis, resistance to existing chemotherapeutic agent and high mortality rate. Doxorubicin (Dox) is a powerful antitumoral drug. It is one of the most active agents for treatment of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Dox in apoptosis and oxidative stress in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-10F, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. These studies showed that Dox decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression and affected oxidative stress by increasing hydrogen peroxide production and simultaneously decreasing NF-κB gene and protein expression in MCF-7, a tumorigenic triple-positive cell line. Results also indicated that Dox induced apoptosis by upregulating Bax, caspase-8 and caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression. On the contrary, ROS damage decreased by increasing SOD2 gene and protein expression and hydrogen peroxide production with parallel NF-κB protein expression decrease in MDA-MB-231, a tumorigenic triple-negative breast cancer cell line. It can be concluded that Dox activated apoptosis by inducing proteolytic processing of Bcl-2 family, caspases and simultaneously decreased oxidative stress by influencing ROS damage in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:27278553

  4. Cell apoptosis and proliferation inhibition of pancreatic cancer induced by sub-threshold focused ultrasound (FUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of sub-threshold focused ultrasound (FUS) sonication on the pancreatic cancer cell. Materials and methods: The human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PaTu 8988t suspension and pancreatic carcinoma xenograft in nude mice were sonicated by FUS using sub-threshold doses. The temperature at the focus was controlled at below 60 °C. The cell apoptosis in vitro was tested by flow cytometer at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after FUS sonication. Colony formation was used to evaluate the cell growth inhibition of FUS in vitro. The tumor volume of the xenograft was measured before and after FUS sonication. Then the slides of the tumor were under hematoxylin–eosin (H and E) staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) to evaluate the effect of FUS on pancreatic carcinoma xenograft in vivo. Results: The maximum cell suspension temperature of the FUS sonication group was 55.8 ± 2.17 °C. The cell apoptosis rate peaked at 24 h after FUS sonication, the differences between the FUS sonication group and control group were statistically significant (P 3 and 1085.23 ± 217.13 mm3 (P < 0.05). H and E staining and TUNEL assay showed both necrotic and apoptotic cells. Conclusion: Sub-threshold FUS sonication could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.

  5. Roe Protein Hydrolysates of Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) Inhibit Cell Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells Involving Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Iong; Tang, Jen-Yang; Liu, Ya-Sin; Wang, Hui-Ru; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Roe protein hydrolysates were reported to have antioxidant property but the anticancer effects were less addressed, especially for oral cancer. In this study, we firstly used the ultrafiltrated roe hydrolysates (URH) derived from giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) to evaluate the impact of URH on proliferation against oral cancer cells. We found that URH dose-responsively reduced cell viability of two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) in terms of ATP assay. Using flow cytometry, URH-induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells was validated by morphological features of apoptosis, sub-G1 accumulation, and annexin V staining in dose-responsive manners. URH also induced oxidative stress in Ca9-22 cells in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/superoxide generations and mitochondrial depolarization. Taken together, these data suggest that URH is a potential natural product for antioral cancer therapy. PMID:27195297

  6. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor TopIn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → TopIn activates p53-dependent transcription in colon cancer cells. → TopIn induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells. → TopIn selectively inhibits topoisomerase I activity. → TopIn does not affect the activity of BCRP and MDR-1. -- Abstract: The tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in cellular emergency mechanisms through regulating the genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To identify small molecules that can activate p53-responsive transcription, we performed chemical screening using genetically engineered HCT116 reporter cells. We found that TopIn (7-phenyl-6H-[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-e]indole 3-oxide) efficiently activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity and induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15, thereby stabilizing the p53 protein. Furthermore, TopIn upregulated the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1, a downstream target of p53, and suppressed cellular proliferation in various colon cancer cells. Additionally, TopIn induced DNA fragmentation, caspase-3/7 activation and poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage, typical biochemical markers of apoptosis, in p53 wild-type and mutated colon cancer cells. Finally, we found that TopIn inhibited topoisomerase I activity, but not topoisomerase II, in vitro and induced the formation of the topoisomerase I-DNA complex in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Unlike camptothecin (CPT) and its derivative SN38, TopIn did not affect the activity of the ATP-binding cassette transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) or multidrug-resistant protein-1 (MDR-1). These results suggest that TopIn may present a promising new topoisomerase I-targeting anti-tumor therapeutics.

  7. β-Elemene-induced autophagy protects human gastric cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anti-cancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. The mechanism by which β-elemene kills cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate the anti-tumor effect of β-elemene on human gastric cancer cells and the molecular mechanism involved. β-Elemene inhibited the viability of human gastric cancer MGC803 and SGC7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The suppression of cell viability was due to the induction of apoptosis. A robust autophagy was observed in the cells treated with β-elemene; it was characterized by the increase of punctate LC3 dots, the cellular morphology, and the increased levels of LC3-II protein. Further study showed that β-elemene treatment up-regulated Atg5-Atg12 conjugated protein but had little effect on other autophagy-related proteins. PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 activity was inhibited by β-elemene. Knockdown of Beclin 1 with small interfering RNA, or co-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine or chlorochine enhanced significantly the antitumor effects of β-elemene. Our data provides the first evidence that β-elemene induces protective autophagy and prevents human gastric cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. A combination of β-elemene with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for advanced gastric cancer

  8. Evodiamine Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration of HCT-116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv-Cui Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Evodiamine (EVO exhibits strong anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EVO on the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116 has not been explored in detail, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, cell viability was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, and morphological changes in the nucleus were examined by fluorescence microscopy and Hoechst staining. Cell motility was detected by Transwell assay. ELISA was used to assess the protein levels of autocrine motility factor (AMF in the cell supernatant, and protein expression was determined by Western blotting. Our results showed that EVO inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells, caused accumulation of cells in S and G2/M phases, and reduced the levels of the secreted form of AMF. The protein levels of tumor suppressor protein (p53, Bcl-2 Associated X protein (Bax, B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (p-STAT3 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3 were altered in cells treated with EVO. Taken together, our results suggest that EVO modulates the activity of the p53 signaling pathway to induce apoptosis and downregulate MMP3 expression by inactivating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway through the downregulation of PGI to inhibit migration of HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells.

  9. Targeting cancer stem cells: Modulating apoptosis and stemness

    OpenAIRE

    Çolak, S.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in Europe. Stage of disease at initial presentation determines treatment strategy. Different types of treatment are available for patients with CRC. This thesis is an overview of the research that I performed to understand therapy resistance in CRC and to identify novel treatments to improve therapy. First, in chapter 2 we summarize the findings that cancer stem cel...

  10. Effects of Tatariside G Isolated from Fagopyrum tataricum Roots on Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Li; Su-Juan Wang; Wei Xia; Khalid Rahman; Yan Zhang; Hao Peng; Hong Zhang; Lu-Ping Qin

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female carcinoma. Current therapies are often unsatisfactory, especially for advanced stage patients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of tatariside G (TG) on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the possible mechanism of action involved. An MTT assay was employed to evaluate cell viability. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry (FCM) assays were used to detect cell apoptosis. The protein expression of phosphorylated J...

  11. Lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and synergizes with doxorubicin: potential therapeutic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goard Carolyn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian carcinoma is a rarely curable disease, for which new treatment options are required. As agents that block HMG-CoA reductase and the mevalonate pathway, the statin family of drugs are used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have been shown to trigger apoptosis in a tumor-specific manner. Recent clinical trials show that the addition of statins to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies can increase efficacy of targeting statin-sensitive tumors. Our goal was to assess statin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics, and then determine these mechanisms of action. Methods The effect of lovastatin on ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated alone and in combination with cisplatin and doxorubicin using several assays (MTT, TUNEL, fixed PI, PARP cleavage and synergy determined by evaluating the combination index. The mechanisms of action were evaluated using functional, molecular, and pharmacologic approaches. Results We demonstrate that lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells in a p53-independent manner and synergizes with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat recurrent cases of ovarian cancer. Lovastatin drives ovarian tumor cell death by two mechanisms: first, by blocking HMG-CoA reductase activity, and second, by sensitizing multi-drug resistant cells to doxorubicin by a novel mevalonate-independent mechanism. This inhibition of drug transport, likely through inhibition of P-glycoprotein, potentiates both DNA damage and tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions The results of this research provide pre-clinical data to warrant further evaluation of statins as potential anti-cancer agents to treat ovarian carcinoma. Many statins are inexpensive, off-patent generic drugs that are immediately available for use as anti-cancer agents. We provide evidence that lovastatin triggers apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells as a single agent by a

  12. Lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and synergizes with doxorubicin: potential therapeutic relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian carcinoma is a rarely curable disease, for which new treatment options are required. As agents that block HMG-CoA reductase and the mevalonate pathway, the statin family of drugs are used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have been shown to trigger apoptosis in a tumor-specific manner. Recent clinical trials show that the addition of statins to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies can increase efficacy of targeting statin-sensitive tumors. Our goal was to assess statin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics, and then determine these mechanisms of action. The effect of lovastatin on ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated alone and in combination with cisplatin and doxorubicin using several assays (MTT, TUNEL, fixed PI, PARP cleavage) and synergy determined by evaluating the combination index. The mechanisms of action were evaluated using functional, molecular, and pharmacologic approaches. We demonstrate that lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells in a p53-independent manner and synergizes with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat recurrent cases of ovarian cancer. Lovastatin drives ovarian tumor cell death by two mechanisms: first, by blocking HMG-CoA reductase activity, and second, by sensitizing multi-drug resistant cells to doxorubicin by a novel mevalonate-independent mechanism. This inhibition of drug transport, likely through inhibition of P-glycoprotein, potentiates both DNA damage and tumor cell apoptosis. The results of this research provide pre-clinical data to warrant further evaluation of statins as potential anti-cancer agents to treat ovarian carcinoma. Many statins are inexpensive, off-patent generic drugs that are immediately available for use as anti-cancer agents. We provide evidence that lovastatin triggers apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells as a single agent by a mevalonate-dependent mechanism. Moreover, we also show lovastatin synergizes

  13. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits cell proliferation via AKT/GSK3β/cyclinD1 pathway and induces apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Kui; Li, Juan; Wang, Zhiling

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) includes squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma, Non small cell lung carcinoma accounts for about 80% of the total lung cancer cases. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. The...

  14. Regulatory effects of ΔFosB on proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Lihui; Zheng, Huiling; Yao, Xiaotong; Zang, Wenjuan

    2016-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a vital role in tumor angiogenesis, cell migration, and invasiveness because it can degrade almost all basement membrane and extracellular matrix components. MMP-9 has been reported in many cancers including breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. ΔFosB in mammary epithelial cells has been shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. We found that ΔFosB increased the expression of MMP-9 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ΔFosB overexpression in MCF-7 cells increased cellular viability and decreased cell apoptosis. SB-3CT, an inhibitor of MMP-9, promoted apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and downregulated the expression of antiapoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in MCF-7 cells. ΔFosB increased the number of MCF-7 cells in G2/M and S phases, upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, and protected MCF-7 cells from apoptosis induced by MMP-9 inhibition. We also found that ΔFosB overexpression in MCF-7 cells inhibited Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation. Therefore, ΔFosB may be a potential target in breast cancer cell apoptosis by regulating the expression of MMP-9. PMID:26608367

  15. Selective induction of apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells by Lactobacillus kefiri (PFT), a novel kefir product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Felo, Nouran

    2015-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus kefiri (PFT), a novel kefir product, on apoptosis of gastric cancer cells (AGS), breast cancer cells (4T1), and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cells were cultured with PFT and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using 7-AAD dye and cytospin preparation. Mitochondrial dysfunction and expression of Bcl2 were monitored by flow cytometry. Results showed that PFT induced apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was detected at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml (20.8%), increased to 25.8% at 0.6 mg/ml, 37% at 1.2 mg/ml, 53.1% at 2.5 mg/ml, and peaked at 66.3% at 5.0 mg/ml. Apoptosis is associated with the decreased polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and decreased Bcl2 expression. PFT-treated AGS cells manifested membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation as identified in cytospin cytocentrifuge Giemsa stained preparations. On the other hand, flow cytometry analysis showed that PFT did not induce apoptosis in 4T1 breast cancer cells nor in PBMCs. These results suggest that PFT is safe for white blood cells and selectively induces apoptotic effects in gastric cancer cells. Hence, it may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of gastric cancers. PMID:26251956

  16. Quercetin sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through JNK-mediated cFLIP turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Min Joo; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Son, Jaekyoung

    2016-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent that can selectively kill cancer cells. Nonetheless, many cancers are resistant to TRAIL, and the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL resistance in cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer, are still unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that quercetin, a flavonoid, induces apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Although quercetin alone had no significant cytotoxic effect, when combined with TRAIL, it promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis that required mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. A BH3-only protein BID knockdown dramatically attenuated TRAIL/quercetin-induced apoptosis. The expression levels of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of quercetin, and overexpression of cFLIP was able to robustly rescue pancreatic cancer cells from TRAIL/quercetin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, quercetin activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in a dose-dependent manner, which in turn induced the proteasomal degradation of cFLIP, and JNK activation also sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that quercetin induces TRAIL-induced apoptosis via JNK activation-mediated cFLIP turnover. PMID:27477310

  17. Nanoscaled carborane ruthenium(II-arene complex inducing lung cancer cells apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new ruthenium(II-arene complex, which bearing a carborane unit, ruthenium and ferrocenyl functional groups, has a novel versatile synthetic chemistry and unique properties of the respective material at the nanoscale level. The ruthenium(II-arene complex shows significant cytotoxicity to cancer cells and tumor-inhibiting properties. However, ruthenium(II-arene complex of mechanism of anticancer activity are scarcely explored. Therefore, it is necessary to explore ruthenium(II-arene complex mechanism of anticancer activity for application in this area. Results In this study, the ruthenium(II-arene complex could significantly induce apoptosis in human lung cancer HCC827 cell line. At the concentration range of 5 μM-100 μM, ruthenium(II-arene complex had obvious cell cytotoxicity effect on HCC827 cells with IC50 values ranging 19.6 ± 5.3 μM. Additionally, our observations demonstrate that the ruthenium(II-arene complex can readily induce apoptosis in HCC827 cells, as evidenced by Annexin-V-FITC, nuclear fragmentation as well as DNA fragmentation. Treatment of HCC827 cells with the ruthenium(II-arene complex resulted in dose-dependent cell apoptosis as indicated by high cleaved Caspase-8,9 ratio. Besides ruthenium(II-arene complex caused a rapid induction of cleaved Caspase-3 activity and stimulated proteolytic cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion In this study, the ruthenium(II-arene complex could significantly induce apoptosis in human lung cancer HCC827 cell line. Treatment of HCC827 cells with the ruthenium(II-arene complex resulted in dose-dependent cell apoptosis as indicated by high cleaved Caspase-8,9 ratio. Besides ruthenium(II-arene complex caused a rapid induction of cleaved Caspase-3 activity and stimulated proteolytic cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that ruthenium(II-arene complex could be a candidate for further

  18. MicroRNA-21 directly targets MARCKS and promotes apoptosis resistance and invasion in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers in men. Recent studies have shown that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in various types of cancers including prostate cancer. Studies on glioma, colon cancer cells, hepatocellular cancer cells and breast cancer cells have indicated that miR-21 is involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. However, the roles of miR-21 in prostate cancer are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of miR-21 on prostate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were examined. In addition, the targets of miR-21 were identified by a reported RISC-coimmunoprecipitation-based biochemical method. Inactivation of miR-21 by antisense oligonucleotides in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC-3 resulted in sensitivity to apoptosis and inhibition of cell motility and invasion, whereas cell proliferation were not affected. We identified myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase c substrate (MARCKS), which plays key roles in cell motility, as a new target in prostate cancer cells. Our data suggested that miR-21 could promote apoptosis resistance, motility, and invasion in prostate cancer cells and these effects of miR-21 may be partly due to its regulation of PDCD4, TPM1, and MARCKS. Gene therapy using miR-21 inhibition strategy may therefore be useful as a prostate cancer therapy.

  19. Suppression of glucosylceramide synthase restores p53-dependent apoptosis in mutant p53 cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong-Yu; Patwardhan, Gauri A.; Bhinge, Kaustubh; Gupta, Vineet; Gu, Xin; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2011-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 plays an essential role in protecting cells from malignant transformation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mutant p53 that is detected in over 50% cases of cancers not only loses its role in suppressing of tumor but also gains oncogenic function. Strategies to convert mutant p53 into wild-type of p53 have been suggested for cancer prevention and treatment, but they face a variety of challenges. Here we report an alternate approach that involves suppression of ...

  20. LY294002 induces p53-dependent apoptosis of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-gen XING; Bao-song ZHU; Hui-hui LIU; Fang LIN; Hui-hua YAO; Zhong-qin LIANG; Zheng-hong QIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To study the effects of LY294002, an inhibitor of class Ⅰ phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), on proliferation and apoptosis of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. Methods:The MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of LY294002. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry and apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry analysis after staining DNA with propidium iodide. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent probe JC-1. Expression of p53 and PUMA was determined using real-time RT-PCR and West-ern blotting analysis. Results:The viability of SGC7901 cells was significantly reduced by LY294002 treatment. Expression of p53 and PUMA was induced, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed after treatment with LY294002. LY294002 induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion:Activation of the p53 path-way is involved in LY294002-induced SGC7901 cell death.

  1. Methyl jasmonate induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy via the ROS pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mutian; Su, Ling; Xiao, Zhenna; Liu, Xianfang; Liu, Xiangguo

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a botanical hormone that serves as a signal transduction intermediate and regulates cell death in stressed plants. MJ induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death selectively in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MJ-induced apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism through which MJ induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that MJ triggered apoptosis via the DDIT3-TN...

  2. Interferon-β-armed oncolytic adenovirus induces both apoptosis and necroptosis in cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongling Huang; Tian Xiao; Lingfeng He; Hongbin Ji; Xin-Yuan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-β (IFN-β) has been widely used in cancer therapy,but the clinical trial results are generally disappointing.Our previous studies have shown that an oncolytic adenovirus carrying IFN-β (ZD55-IFN-β) exhibits significant anti-tumor activities.However,the underlying mechanisms are not clear.Here we showed that ZD55-IFN-β infection-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner by activating the ataxia telangiectasia mutated-dependent DNA damage pathway.In addition, ZD55-IFN-β infection could initiate both caspase-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis in cancer cells.More importantly,ZD55-IFN-β showed a synergistic effect on cancer cells when combined with doxorubicin.These results suggest that the combination of ZD55-IFN-β with doxorubicin may represent a promising clinical strategy in cancer therapy.

  3. Cobalt substituted thiosemicarbazone metal complex induced apoptosis in cancer cells via activation of mitochondrial pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiosemicarbazone (TSC) and their transition metal complexes are broad class of biologically active small molecules and present a great variety of biological activity ranging from antitumour, fungicide, bacteriocide, anti inflammatory and antiviral activities. These characteristics render the whole class of compounds very interesting. In the present study, we sought to examine cytotoxic activity of thiosemicarbazone cobalt complex on various cancer cell lines along with the possible mechanism through which the compound induce apoptosis in these cell lines. Cytotoxicity of TSC cobalt complex was studied by performing standard MTT drug sensitivity assay and determining its IC50 value on various leukemic and solid cancer cell lines like HL-60, MOLT-4, K-562 and COLO-205. Cellular damage upon the treatment of test molecule was analyzed by conducting LDH release assay. DNA fragmentation and morphology of apoptotic cells were assessed respectively by performing ladder assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Role of mitochondria in the induction of cell death was studied by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) using JC-1 probe. The cytotoxicity studies confirms that TSC cobalt complex is having potent anticancer activity on HL-60, K-562, MOLT-4 and COLO-205 cell lines with the IC50 value in the range 0.225-29.00 μM. Dose dependent increase in the LDH release into the surrounding media depicts the cell membrane disintegrity. DNA fragmentation on treated cells revealed the cell death, which is commonly associated with apoptosis. Fluorescence microscopic imaging of treated cells confirms that the mode of cell death was through apoptosis. Loss of the ΔΨm in treated cells explicates the involvement of mitochondria in the cell death induction. Further increase in caspase-3 activity upon treatment corroborates that molecule induces apoptosis. Taken together, this exploratory study revealed that TSC cobalt complex possesses potent cytotoxic and

  4. RRR-α-tocopheryl succinate inhibits human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell growth by inducing apoptosis and DNA synthesis arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Kun; ZHAO Yan; Liu, Bai-He; Li, Yao; Liu, Fang; Guo, Jian; Yu, Wei-Ping

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of growth inhibition of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell with RRR-α-tocopheryl succinate (VES), a derivative of natural Vitamin E, via inducing apoptosis and DNA synthesis arrest.

  5. Paris chinensis dioscin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Lin Gao; Fu-Rong Li; Peng Jiao; Ming-Feng Yang; Xiao-Jun Zhou; Yan-Hong Si; Wen-Jian Jiang; Ting-Ting Zheng

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of Paris chinensis dioscin (PCD) and mechanisms regarding cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.METHODS: Cell viability was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) using Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, and the cell cycle was evaluated using PI staining with flow cytometry. Intracellular calcium ions were detected under fluorescence microscope. The expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins cyclin B1, CDK1, cytochrome C and caspase-3 was measured by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: PCD had an anti-proliferation effect on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment of SGC-7901 cells with PCD, apoptosis appeared in SGC-7901 cells. Morphological changes typical of apoptosis were also observed with LSCM by Annexin V/PI staining, and the cell number of the G0/G1 phase was decreased, while the number of cells in the G2/M phase was increased. Cell cycle-related proteins, such as cyclin B1 and CDK1, were all down-regulated, but caspase-3 and cytochrome C were up-regulated. Moreover, intracellular calcium accumulation occurred in PCD-treated cells. CONCLUSION: G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis induced by PCD are associated with the inhibition of CDK-activating kinase activity and the activation of Ca2+-related mitochondrion pathway in SGC-7901 cells.

  6. Apoptosis in cancer: therapeutic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Negoescu, A.

    2000-01-01

    This review outlines the principal limitations of the mechanisms of active cell death (ACD, apoptosis) as the basis of tumorigenesis and the rationale of almost all therapies of malignancy. The concentration of cancer therapy in the directon of ACD induction is presented as both the result of progressive understanding of the mechanisms of apoptosis and that of the favourable tumor environment for ACD signal transmission. The latter property induces the by-stand...

  7. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Zebularine inhibited cell growth of gastric cancer in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ► Chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. ► Zebularine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. ► Tumorigenicity was inhibited by zebularine. -- Abstract: DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine has been reported to potentiate the anti-tumor effect by reactivating the expression of tumor suppressor genes and apoptosis-related genes in various malignant cells. However, the apoptotic signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells induced by zebularine is not well understood. In the study, the effects of zebularine on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by MTT assay, Hoechst assay, Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and TUNEL assay. Zebularine was an effective inhibitor of human gastric cancer cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The effects were dose dependent. A zebularine concentration of 50 μM accounted for the inhibition of cell proliferation of 67% at 48 h. The treatment with zebularine upregulated Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 protein. Caspase-3 was activated, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Moreover, zebularine injection successfully inhibited the tumor growth via apoptosis induction which was demonstrated by TUNEL assay in xenograft tumor mouse model. These results demonstrated that zebularine induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways, and zebularine might become a therapeutic approach for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON APOPTOSIS OF GASTRIC CANCER CELLS INDUCED BY TRICHOSANTHIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙; 胡梅洁; 吴裕圻; 吴云林

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the apoptosis is involved in the mechanism of cytotoxicity of trichosanthin to gastric cancer cells. Methods Morphologic studies and TUNEL stainning were used to explore qualitatively and quantitatively the apoptotic status of gastric cancer cells before and after treatment with trichosanthin. Results In the experiment in vitro , when gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 were treated by trichosanthin (0.1μg /ml , 36h ), some typical apoptotic morphologic changes occured. A significant increase of apoptotic index ( AI ) was from (3.78±1.11 )%, (3.98±1.12)% and (3.85±1.08)% at 36, 42, 48h to (11.30 ±2.33)%, (10.22±2.00)% and (11.18±1.85)%, respectively ( P <0.01 ). In the experiment in vivo , nude mice with SGC-7901 xenografted tumor were treated by trichosanthin (0.3mg· kg-1·d-1 ,× 5d, intraperitoneal injection ), some typical apoptotic morphologic changes were observed. These apoptotic cells were limited only in xenografted tumor. AI increased significantly from (4.95±1.94 )% to (8.75± 1.38)%, (P<0.01). Conclusion The apoptosis would be involved in the mechanism of cytotoxicity of trichosanthin to gastric cancer cells.

  9. Modulatory Effects of EPA and DHA on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weikang; LONG Yueping; ZHANG Jinghui; WANG Chunyou

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the proliferation, apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 cells and the ex-pression of cyclin E mRNA, the SW1990 cells were treated with different concentrations of EPA or DHA (20, 40, 60 μg/mL) for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h respectively. By using MTT method, the inhibi-tory effects of EPA or DHA on the cell growth were assayed. Real time PCR was used to detect the expression changes of cyclin E mRNA after the SW1990 cells were treated with 40 μg/mL EPA or DHA for different time. Flow eytometry was used to test the changes of apoptostic rate in the SW1990 cells treated with different concentrations of EPA or DHA for 24 h. The results showed that EPA and DHA could inhibit the growth of SW1990 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.01). EPA or DHA could also significantly inhibit the expression of cyclin E mRNA in a time-dependent manner (P<0.05). EPA or DHA could induce the apoptosis of SW1990 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.01). It was concluded that ω-3 fatty acid could inhibit the pro- liferation of pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 cells and promote their apoptosis. The down-regulation of the cyclin E expression by ω-3 fatty acid might be one of the mechanisms for its anti-tumor effect on pancreatic cancer.

  10. Artonin E Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Dysregulation in SKOV-3 Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Hamed; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Nordin, Noraziah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Mohan, Syam; Mohd Hashim, Najihah

    2016-01-01

    Artonin E is a prenylated flavonoid isolated from the stem bark of Artocarpus elasticus Reinw.(Moraceae). This study aimed to investigate the apoptotic mechanisms induced by artonin E in a metastatic human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 in vitro. MTT assay, clonogenic assay, acridine orange and propidium iodide double staining, cell cycle and annexin V analyses were performed to explore the mode of artonin E-induced cell death at different time points. DNA laddering, activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9, multi-parametric cytotoxicity-3analysis by high-content screening, measurement of reactive oxygen species generation, and Western blot were employed to study the pathways involved in the apoptosis. MTT results showed that artonin E inhibited the growth of SKOV-3 cells, with IC50 values of 6.5±0.5μg/mL after 72 h treatment, and showed less toxicity toward a normal human ovarian cell lineT1074, with IC50 value of 32.5±0.5μg/mL. Results showed that artonin E induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This compound also promoted the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9. Further investigation into the depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c revealed that artonin E treatment induced apoptosis via regulation of the expression of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The expression levels of survivin and HSP70 proteins were also down regulated in SKOV-3 cells treated with artonin E. We propose that artonin E induced an antiproliferative effect that led to S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through dysregulation of mitochondrial pathways, particularly the pro- and anti-apoptosis signaling pathways. PMID:27019365

  11. Apoptosis induction with polo-like kinase-1 antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide of colon cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fan; Shu Zheng; Ze-Feng Xu; Jia-Yi Ding

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) on apoptosis and cell cycle of human colon cancer cell line 5W480.METHODS: After SW480 colon cancer cells were transfected with PLK1 ASODN, Northern and Western blot analyses were used to examine PLK1 gene expression in cancer cells. We studied apoptosis using terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl nick end labeling. Apoptosis and cell cycle of SW480 cells were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter scan.RESULTS: The levels of PLK1 mRNA and protein were greatly inhibited by PLK1 ASODN in SW480 cancer cells transfected with PLK1 ASODN. Apoptosis index (AI) induced PLK1 ASODN in a time- and dose-dependent manner.Results from FLM showed that sub-2N DNA content of transfected cancer cells was significantly increased and arrested at G2/M compared with control groups.CONCLUSION: PLK1 ASODN can induce apoptosis of human colon cancer cell line SW480.

  12. Targeting ceramide metabolic pathway induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sphingolipid ceramide is a pro apoptotic molecule of ceramide metabolic pathway and is hydrolyzed to proliferative metabolite, sphingosine 1 phosphate by the action of acid ceramidase. Being upregulated in the tumors of breast, acid ceramidase acts as a potential target for breast cancer therapy. We aimed at targeting this enzyme with a small molecule acid ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF 7 and MDA MB 231. Ceranib 2 effectively inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in dose and time dependant manner. Morphological apoptotic hallmarks such as chromatin condensation, fragmented chromatin were observed in AO/EtBr staining. Moreover, ladder pattern of fragmented DNA observed in DNA gel electrophoresis proved the apoptotic activity of Ceranib 2 in breast cancer cell lines. The apoptotic events were associated with significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bad, Bax and Bid) and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl 2). Interestingly, increase in sub G1 population of cell cycle phase analysis and elevated Annexin V positive cells after Ceranib 2 treatment substantiated its apoptotic activity in MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines. Thus, we report Ceranib 2 as a potent therapeutic agent against both ER+ and ER− breast cancer cell lines. - Highlights: • Acid Ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 induced apoptosis in Breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines). • Apoptosis is mediated by DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. • Ceranib 2 upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and down regulated anti-apoptotic gene expression. • More potent compared to the standard drug Tamoxifen

  13. Targeting ceramide metabolic pathway induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethakanraj, Helen Shiphrah; Babu, Thabraz Ahmed; Sudarsanan, Ganesh Babu; Duraisamy, Prabhu Kumar; Ashok Kumar, Sekar, E-mail: sekarashok@gmail.com

    2015-08-28

    The sphingolipid ceramide is a pro apoptotic molecule of ceramide metabolic pathway and is hydrolyzed to proliferative metabolite, sphingosine 1 phosphate by the action of acid ceramidase. Being upregulated in the tumors of breast, acid ceramidase acts as a potential target for breast cancer therapy. We aimed at targeting this enzyme with a small molecule acid ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF 7 and MDA MB 231. Ceranib 2 effectively inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in dose and time dependant manner. Morphological apoptotic hallmarks such as chromatin condensation, fragmented chromatin were observed in AO/EtBr staining. Moreover, ladder pattern of fragmented DNA observed in DNA gel electrophoresis proved the apoptotic activity of Ceranib 2 in breast cancer cell lines. The apoptotic events were associated with significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bad, Bax and Bid) and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl 2). Interestingly, increase in sub G1 population of cell cycle phase analysis and elevated Annexin V positive cells after Ceranib 2 treatment substantiated its apoptotic activity in MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines. Thus, we report Ceranib 2 as a potent therapeutic agent against both ER{sup +} and ER{sup −} breast cancer cell lines. - Highlights: • Acid Ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 induced apoptosis in Breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines). • Apoptosis is mediated by DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. • Ceranib 2 upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and down regulated anti-apoptotic gene expression. • More potent compared to the standard drug Tamoxifen.

  14. A novel microtubule depolymerizing colchicine analogue triggers apoptosis and autophagy in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Baljinder; Sharma, Parduman R; Bharate, Sandip B; Saxena, Ajit K; Mondhe, D M

    2016-03-01

    Colchicine is a tubulin-binding natural product isolated from Colchicum autumnale. Here we report the in vitro anticancer activity of C-ring modified semi-synthetic derivative of colchicine; N-[(7S)-1,2,3-trimethoxy-9-oxo-10-(4-phenyl-piperidin-1-yl)-5,6,7,9 tetrahydrobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl]acetamide (4h) on colon cancer HCT-116 cell line. The compound 4h was screened for anti-proliferative activity against different human cancer cell lines and was found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity against colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and Colo-205 with IC50 of 1 and 0.8 μM respectively. Cytotoxicity of the compound to the normal fR2 breast epithelial cells and normal HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells was evaluated in concentration and time-dependent manner to estimate its selectivity for cancer cells which showed much better selectivity than that of colchicine. Compound 4h induced cell death in HCT-116 cells by activating apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA blocked the production of LC3-II and reduced the cytotoxicity in response to 4h, but did not affect apoptosis, suggesting thereby that these two were independent events. Reactive oxygen species scavenger ascorbic acid pretreatment not only decreased the reactive oxygen species level but also reversed 4h induced cytotoxicity. Treatment with compound 4h depolymerized microtubules and the majority of cells arrested at the G2/M transition. Together, these data suggest that 4h has better selectivity and is a microtubule depolymerizer, which activates dual cell-death machineries, and thus, it could be a potential novel therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26919061

  15. GSH depletion enhances adenoviral bax-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tsuyoshi; Coppola, Simona; Ghibelli, Lina; Cho, Song H; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Spurgers, Kevin B; Brisbay, Shawn M; Roth, Jack A; Meyn, Raymond E; Fang, Bingliang; McDonnell, Timothy J

    2004-04-01

    The utility of dominant acting proapoptotic molecules to induce cell death in cancer cells is being evaluated in preclinical studies and clinical trials. We recently developed a binary adenoviral expression system to enable the efficient gene transfer of Bax and other proapoptotic molecules. Using this system, overexpression of Bax protein in four non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, H1299, A549, H226 and H322, was evaluated. The H322 line exhibited significant resistance to Bax-induced cell death compared to the other cell lines. H322 cells had the highest level of glutathione (GSH). GSH levels were significantly decreased following buthionine sulfoximine treatment and this coincided with enhanced apoptosis induction by Ad-Bax in H322 cells. GSH depletion enhanced Bax protein translocation to mitochondrial membranes. These findings suggest that the redox status may be a determinant of Bax-mediated cell death and that manipulation of intracellular thiols may sensitize cells to apoptosis by facilitating Bax insertion into mitochondrial membranes. PMID:15002033

  16. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by nimbolide through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, P; Gunadharini, D N; Senthilkumar, K; Banudevi, S; Arunkumar, R; Benson, C S; Sharmila, G; Arunakaran, J

    2012-11-30

    We aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of nimbolide, a limonoid present in leaves and flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) on human breast cancer cells. The molecular mechanisms involved in the apoptotic activity exerted by nimbolide were studied on the estrogen dependent (MCF-7) and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The growth inhibitory effect of nimbolide was assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis induction by nimbolide treatment was determined by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, cleavage of PARP and AO/EtBr dual staining. The modulation of apoptotic proteins (intrinsic pathway: Bax, bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, XIAP-1 and caspase-3, 9; extrinsic pathway: TRAIL, FasL, FADDR and Caspase-8) were studied by western blot and real time PCR analysis. Treatment with nimbolide resulted in dose and time-dependent inhibition of growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The occurrence of apoptosis in these cells was indicated by JC-1 staining, modulation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling molecules expression and further apoptosis was confirmed by AO/EtBr dual staining. These events were associated with: increased levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Fas-L, TRAIL, FADDR, cytochrome c and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and XIAP-1. Nimbolide induces the cleavage of pro-caspase-8, pro-caspase-3 and PARP. The above data suggest that nimbolide induces apoptosis by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. With evidence of above data it is suggested that nimbolide exhibit anticancer effect through its apoptosis-inducing property. Thus, nimbolide raises new hope for its use in anticancer therapy. PMID:23089555

  17. Effects of α-adrenoreceptor antagonists on apoptosis and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Gang Shen; Dong Zhang; Heng-Tong Hu; Jun-Hui Li; Zheng Wang; Qing-Yong Ma

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the expression of α-adrenoreceptors in pancreatic cancer cell lines PC-2 and PC-3 and the effects of α1- and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonists, yohimbine and urapidil hydrochloride, on the cell lines in vitro.METHODS: We cultured the human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines PC-2 and PC-3 and analyzed the mRNA expression of α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The effects of yohimbine and urapidil hydrochloride on cell proliferation were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiasol-2-yl)2,4,-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected using the terminal deoxyribonucleoticlyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and flow cytometry (FCM).RESULTS: PC-2 expressed rnRNA in α1- and α2-adrenoreceptors. MTT assays showed that urapidil hydrochloride had no effect on PC-3 cell lines. However,exposure to urapidil hydrochloride increased DNA synthesis in PC-2 cell lines as compared to the control group. PC-2 cell lines were sensitive to both drugs. The proliferation of the 2 cell lines was inhibited by yohimbine.Cell proliferation was inhibited by yohimbine via apoptosis induction.CONCLUSION: The expression of α1-and α2-adrenoreceptors is different in PC-2 and PC-3 cell lines,which might be indicative of their different functions. Theα2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, can inhibit the proliferation of both cell lines and induce their apoptosis,suggesting that yohimbine can be used as an anticancer drug for apoptosis of PC-2 and PC-3 cells.

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis in human cancer cells through reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Akhtar M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mohd Javed Akhtar1,2, Maqusood Ahamed3, Sudhir Kumar1, MA Majeed Khan3, Javed Ahmad4, Salman A Alrokayan31Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India; 2Fibre Toxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India; 3King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have received much attention for their implications in cancer therapy. It has been reported that ZnO NPs induce selective killing of cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms behind the anticancer response of ZnO NPs remain unclear.Methods and results: We investigated the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs against three types of cancer cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, human lung adenocarcinoma A549, and human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and two primary rat cells (astrocytes and hepatocytes. Results showed that ZnO NPs exert distinct effects on mammalian cell viability via killing of all three types of cancer cells while posing no impact on normal rat astrocytes and hepatocytes. The toxicity mechanisms of ZnO NPs were further investigated using human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Both the mRNA and protein levels of tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic gene bax were upregulated while the antiapoptotic gene bcl-2 was downregulated in ZnO NP-treated HepG2 cells. ZnO NPs were also found to induce activity of caspase-3 enzyme, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.Conclusion: Overall, our data demonstrated that ZnO NPs selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells, which is likely to be mediated by reactive oxygen species via p53 pathway, through which most of the anticancer drugs trigger apoptosis. This study provides preliminary guidance for the development of liver cancer therapy using ZnO NPs.Keywords: Zn

  19. Effect of suramin on squamous differentiation and apoptosis in three human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, A; Levitt, M L

    1996-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is fatal in approximately 90% of all cases due to the failure of systemic therapy, secondary to resistance to chemotherapy. In such malignancies new therapeutic paradigms are needed. One such approach takes advantage of normal physiologic growth regulatory mechanisms, such as terminal cellular differentiation or apoptosis. Suramin, as an antineoplastic drug, has shown efficacy in the treatment of prostate cancer and is capable of promoting differentiation in several human cancer cell lines. Little is known about the differentiating effects of suramin in lung cancer. In the present investigation we evaluated the ability of suramin to induce cross-linked envelope (CLE) formation, as a common marker for squamous differentiation and apoptosis, in three representative human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines: NCI-H226 (squamous), NCI-H358 (bronchoalveolar [adenocarcinoma]), and NCI-H596 (adenosquamous). Among agents that we have tested, suramin demonstrated the unique ability to induce spontaneous CLE formation in the two cell lines with squamous features, NCI-H226 and NCI-H596. Suramin induced CLE formation was accompanied by DNA fragmentation, a marker for apoptosis, in NCI-H596 and NCI-H358, but not in NCI-H226. Stimulation of CLE formation by suramin correlated with the rapid induction of both type II transglutaminase (TG) activity and involucrin expression. These parameters were protein synthesis independent, suggesting posttranslational mechanisms of suramin activity. Induction of differentiation/apoptosis markers by suramin did not correlate with its effect on growth. Modulation of signal transduction is a likely candidate mechanism for suramin activity in lung cancer. The relationship between growth, squamous differentiation, and apoptosis is considered. PMID:8806101

  20. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Pan; Andrew Avila; Lauren Gollahon

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and...

  1. Ursolic Acid Simultaneously Targets Multiple Signaling Pathways to Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jingshu Wang; Liqun Liu; Huijuan Qiu; Xiaohong Zhang; Wei Guo; Wangbing Chen; Yun Tian; Lingyi Fu; Dingbo Shi; Jianding Cheng; Wenlin Huang; Wuguo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid distributed in medical herbs, exerts antitumor effects and is emerging as a promising compound for cancer prevention and therapy, but its excise mechanisms of action in colon cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the molecular mechanisms by which UA inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colon cancer SW480 and LoVo cells. Treatment with UA led to significant inhibitions in cell viabi...

  2. Down-regulation of ATM Protein Sensitizes Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Radiation-induced Apoptosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Truman, Jean-Philip; Gueven, Nuri; Lavin, Martin; Leibel, Steven; Kolesnick, Richard; Fuks, Zvi; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    Treatment with the protein kinase C activator 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol 12-acetate (TPA) enables radiation-resistant LNCaP human prostate cancer cells to undergo radiation-induced apoptosis, mediated via activation of the enzyme ceramide synthase (CS) and de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid ceramide (Garzotto, M., Haimovitz-Friedman, A., Liao, W. C., White-Jones, M., Huryk, R., Heston, D. W. W., Cardon-Cardo, C., Kolesnick, R., and Fuks, Z. (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 5194-5201). Here, we show t...

  3. Parallel screening of FDA-approved antineoplastic drugs for identifying sensitizers of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to death receptor 4 and 5 are promising candidates for cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis selectively in a variety of human cancer cells, while demonstrating little cytotoxicity in normal cells. Although TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 and DR5 are considered safe and promising candidates in cancer therapy, many malignant cells are resistant to DR-mediated, TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the current work, we screened a small library of fifty-five FDA and foreign-approved anti-neoplastic drugs in order to identify candidates that sensitized resistant prostate and pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods FDA-approved drugs were screened for their ability to sensitize TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL using an MTT assay for cell viability. Analysis of variance was used to identify drugs that exhibited synergy with TRAIL. Drugs demonstrating the highest synergy were selected as leads and tested in different prostate and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and one immortalized human pancreatic epithelial cell line. Sequential and simultaneous dosing modalities were investigated and the annexin V/propidium iodide assay, in concert with fluorescence microscopy, was employed to visualize cells undergoing apoptosis. Results Fourteen drugs were identified as having synergy with TRAIL, including those whose TRAIL sensitization activities were previously unknown in either prostate or pancreatic cancer cells or both. Five leads were tested in additional cancer cell lines of which, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and mithramycin demonstrated synergy in all lines. In particular, mitoxantrone and mithramycin demonstrated significant synergy with TRAIL and led to reduction of cancer cell viability at concentrations lower than 1 μM. At these low concentrations, mitoxantrone demonstrated selectivity toward

  4. A Ribonuclease Isolated from Wild Ganoderma Lucidum Suppressed Autophagy and Triggered Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Xiuli; Liu, Wenlong; Wong, Jack H; Ng, Tzi B

    2016-01-01

    The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been consumed in China as a medicine for promoting health and longevity for thousands of years. Due to its paramount and multiple pharmaceutical effects, G. lucidum has received considerable attention from researchers and its chemical constituents as well as their respective functions were gradually unveiled by using modern research methods. Herein, we reported the isolation of a protein (Ganoderma lucidum ribonuclease, GLR) with anti-colorectal cancer activities from G. lucidum. This protein is a 17.4-kDa RNA degrading enzyme (ribonuclease) and was purified by using liquid chromatography procedures. GLR manifested potent anti-proliferative and anti-colony formation activities on HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase through the regulation of cyclin D1 and P53 expression. GLR was demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells by activating unfolded protein response and caspase-9 regulated pathways. Besides, the ability to undergo autophagy which is a stress adaption mechanism to cope with metabolic crisis was significantly suppressed by GLR treatment in HCT116 cells. The activation of apoptosis in GLR-treated HT29 cells was, however, independent of caspase-9 and the suppression of autophagy was also relatively minor. Thus the apoptosis of HT29 cells triggered by GLR was much milder than that in HCT116 cells. Our findings show that the RNase from G. lucidum may be one of the bioactive components that contribute to the anti-colorectal cancer activity of G. lucidum. PMID:27504094

  5. Core-shell nanoparticle-based peptide therapeutics and combined hyperthermia for enhanced cancer cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Birju P; Pasquale, Nicholas; De, Gejing; Tan, Tao; Ma, Jianjie; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2014-09-23

    Mitochondria-targeting peptides have garnered immense interest as potential chemotherapeutics in recent years. However, there is a clear need to develop strategies to overcome the critical limitations of peptides, such as poor solubility and the lack of target specificity, which impede their clinical applications. To this end, we report magnetic core-shell nanoparticle (MCNP)-mediated delivery of a mitochondria-targeting pro-apoptotic amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide (ATAP) to malignant brain and metastatic breast cancer cells. Conjugation of ATAP to the MCNPs significantly enhanced the chemotherapeutic efficacy of ATAP, while the presence of targeting ligands afforded selective delivery to cancer cells. Induction of MCNP-mediated hyperthermia further potentiated the efficacy of ATAP. In summary, a combination of MCNP-mediated ATAP delivery and subsequent hyperthermia resulted in an enhanced effect on mitochondrial dysfunction, thus resulting in increased cancer cell apoptosis. PMID:25133971

  6. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa [Department of Environmental Carcinogenesis and Toxicology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India); Biswas, Jaydip [Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India); Roy, Madhumita, E-mail: mitacnci@yahoo.co.in [Department of Environmental Carcinogenesis and Toxicology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, SP Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026 (India)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent

  7. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. ► Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. ► Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. ► Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. ► Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-à-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent in MCF-7 than in MDA-MB-231. However, very little change in the expression of Bid was observed. Alteration in Bcl-2 Bax

  8. Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex, a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Fuad; Azzam, Naiel; Fares, Basem; Larsen, Stig; Lindkaer-Jensen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Some cases of breast cancer are composed of clones of hormonal-independent growing cells, which do not respond to therapy. In the present study, the effect of Benzene-Poly-Carboxylic Acid Complex (BP-C1) on growth of human breast-cancer cells was tested. BP-C1 is a novel anti-cancer complex of benzene-poly-carboxylic acids with a very low concentration of cis-diammineplatinum (II) dichloride. Human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and T47D, were used. Cell viability was detected by XTT assay and apoptosis was detected by Flow Cytometry and by annexin V/FITC/PI assay. Caspases were detected by western blot analysis and gene expression was measured by using the Applied Biosystems® TaqMan® Array Plates. The results showed that exposure of the cells to BP-C1 for 48 h, significantly (P<0.001) reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and activated caspase 8 and caspace 9. Moreover, gene expression experiments indicated that BP-C1 increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (CASP8AP1, TNFRSF21, NFkB2, FADD, BCL10 and CASP8) and lowered the level of mRNA transcripts of inhibitory apoptotic genes (BCL2L11, BCL2L2 and XIAP. These findings may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of human cancer using BP-C1 analog. PMID:24523856

  9. The effect of plasma jet on morphology of the apoptosis cancer cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpour, Shahriar; Nikkhah, Maryam; Pirouzmand, Somaye; Ghomi, Hamid Reza

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, many studies have been carried out to understand the effect of non-thermal plasma on cancer cells. The previous studies showed that non-thermal plasma has apoptosis effect on cancer cells. Also they discovered that after plasma treatment three distinct regions (Death cells, Void zone and live cells) were observed in wells treated [1]. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of plasma jet on these three regions. For this purpose a variable voltage power supply with 20 kHz frequency are used experimentally. The results showed the detached cells rate were increased by increasing the voltage. [4pt] [1] A. Shashurin, M. Keidar, S. Bronnikov, R. A. Jurjus, and M. A. Stepp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 181501 (2008), DOI:10.1063/1.3020223

  10. Apoptosis of estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer and colon cancer cell lines by PTPα and Src RNAi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinmin; Resnick, Ross J.; Shalloway, David

    2016-01-01

    We show that siRNA-mediated suppression of protein tyrosine phosphatase α (PTPα) reduces Src activity 2 to 4-fold in breast, colon and other human cancer cell lines. Src and PTPα RNAi induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and colon cancer cells, but not in immortalized noncancerous breast cells, ER-positive breast cancer cells or other cancer cell types tested. RNAi of other Src family members (Fyn and Yes) or of PTP1B, a phosphatase previously suggested to be an activator of Src in breast cancer, had no effect. Although further tests with primary tumor tissues are required, the unexpected correlation between ER status and Src/PTPα dependence in breast cancer cell lines may be important for planning therapeutic strategies, and the insensitivity of normal breast cells to the RNAi highlights the potential of PTPα, which may be easier to target than Src, as a therapeutic target in ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:18183590

  11. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of different differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug

  12. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zou, Xi [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zhou, Jin-Yong [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Sun, Wei [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jian [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Xu, Jia-Li [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wang, Rui-Ping, E-mail: ruipingwang61@hotmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of different differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug.

  13. Klotho inhibits growth and promotes apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Klotho, as a new anti-aging gene, can shed into circulation and act as a multi-functional humoral factor that influences multiple biological processes. Recently, published studies suggest that klotho can also serve as a potential tumor suppressor. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of action of klotho in human lung cancer cell line A549. Methods In this study, plasmids encoding klotho or klotho specific shRNAs were constructed to overexpress or knockdown klotho in vitro. A549 cells were respectively treated with pCMV6-MYC-KL or klotho specific shRNAs. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of klotho and flow cytometry was utilized to observe and detect the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by klotho. The activation of IGF-1/insulin signal pathways in A549 cells treated by pCMV6-MYC-KL or shRNAs were evaluated by western blotting. The expression levels of bcl-2 and bax transcripts were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Overexpression of klotho reduced the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells, whereas klotho silencing in A549 cells enhanced proliferation. Klotho did not show any effects on HEK-293 cells. Klotho overexpression in A549 cells was associated with reduced IGF-1/insulin-induced phosphorylation of IGF-1R (IGF-1 receptor/IR (insulin receptor (P P P P P Conclusions Klotho can inhibit proliferation and increase apoptosis of A549 cells, this may be partly due to the inhibition of IGF-1/insulin pathways and involving regulating the expression of the apoptosis-related genes bax/bcl-2. Thus, klotho can serve as a potential tumor suppressor in A549 cells.

  14. Targeting heat shock protein 70 using gold nanorods enhances cancer cell apoptosis in low dose plasmonic photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Ali, Hala R; Rankin, Carl R; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2016-09-01

    Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a promising cancer treatment where plasmonic nanoparticles are used to convert near infrared light to localized heat to cause cell death, mainly via apoptosis and necrosis. Modulating PPTT to induce cell apoptosis is more favorable than necrosis. Herein, we used a mild treatment condition using gold nanorods (AuNRs) to trigger apoptosis and tested how different cell lines responded to it. Three different cancer cell lines of epithelial origin: HSC (oral), MCF-7 (breast) and Huh7.5 (liver) had comparable AuNRs uptake and were heated to same environmental temperature (under 50 °C). However, Huh7.5 cells displayed a significant increase in cell apoptosis after PPTT as compared to the other two cell lines. As HSP70 is known to increase cellular resistance to heat, we determined relative HSP70 levels in these cells and results indicated that Huh7.5 cells had ten-fold decreased levels of HSP70 as compared with HSC and MCF-7 cells. We then down-regulated HSP70 with a siRNA and observed that all three cell lines displayed significant reduction in viability and an increase in apoptosis after PPTT. As an enhancement to PPTT, we conjugated AuNRs with Quercetin, an inhibitor of HSP70 which displayed anti-cancer effects via apoptosis. PMID:27318931

  15. Rhein induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells via an intrinsic mitochondrial pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhein is a primary anthraquinone found in the roots of a traditional Chinese herb, rhubarb, and has been shown to have some anticancer effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of rhein on the apoptosis of the human gastric cancer line SGC-7901 and to identify the mechanism involved. SGC-7901 cells were cultured and treated with rhein (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 µM for 24, 48, or 72 h. Relative cell viability assessed by the MTT assay after treatment was 100, 99, 85, 79, 63% for 24 h; 100, 98, 80, 51, 37% for 48 h, and 100, 97, 60, 36, 15% for 72 h, respectively. Cell apoptosis was detected with TUNEL staining and quantified with flow cytometry using annexin FITC-PI staining at 48 h after 100, 200 and 300 µm rhein. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 7.3, 21.9, 43.5%, respectively. We also measured the mRNA levels of caspase-3 and -9 using real-time PCR. Treatment with 100 µM rhein for 48 h significantly increased mRNA expression of caspase-3 and -9. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-xL, and pro-caspase-3 were evaluated in rhein-treated cells. Rhein increased the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio but decreased the protein levels of Bcl-xL and pro-caspase-3. Moreover, rhein significantly increased the expression of cytochrome c and apoptotic protease activating factor 1, two critical components involved in mitochondrial pathway-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that rhein inhibits SGC-7901 proliferation by inducing apoptosis and this antitumor effect of rhein is mediated in part by an intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

  16. EHMT2 inhibitor BIX-01294 induces apoptosis through PMAIP1-USP9X-MCL1 axis in human bladder cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jing; Sun, Wendong; Hao, Xuexi; Wei, Minli; Su, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yajing; Su, Ling; Liu, Xiangguo

    2015-01-01

    BIX-01294, an euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2) inhibitor, has been reported to induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells and inhibit the proliferation of bladder cancer cells. However, the definite mechanism of the apoptosis mediated by BIX-01294 in bladder cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that BIX-01294 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Moreover, our data show BIX-01294 stimulates endoplasmic reticulum s...

  17. Effect of evodiamine on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Ren, Li; Wen, Liujing; Wang, Yu; Qi, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Evodia rutaecarpa is a plant, which has antitumor activity. Evodiamine is an alkaloid with antitumor activity present in E. rutaecarpa and has potential to be developed into a therapeutic antitumor agent. The present study investigated the effect of evodiamine on the proliferation of A549 human lung cancer cells and the mechanism underlying these effects. The results indicated that evodiamine significantly inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and the expression of reactive oxygen species, arrested the cell cycle, regulated the expression of Survivin, Bcl-2 and Cyclin B1, regulated the activity of caspase-3/8 and glutathione in tumor cells, and decreased the activity of AKT/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) and Sonic hedgehog/GLI family zinc finger 1 (SHH/GLI1) signaling pathways in A549 cells. In conclusion, the evodiamine-induced inhibition of the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells may be attributable to its ability to promote oxidative injury in the cells, induce apoptosis, arrest the cell cycle and regulate the AKT/NF‑κB and SHH/GLI1 signaling pathways, subsequently controlling the expression of tumor‑associated genes. PMID:27485202

  18. Overexpression of Bax induces apoptosis and enhances drug sensitivity of hepatocellular cancer-9204 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Yong Zheng; Guang-Shun Yang; Wei-Zhong Wang; Jiang Li; Kai-Zong Li; Wen-Xian Guan; Wen-Liang Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of overexpression of Bax in apoptotic pathways and the response of human hepatocellular cancer (HCC)-9204 cells to cell death induced by adriamycin.METHODS: The whole length of Bax cDNA was transfectrd into human HCC-9204 cells by the method of lipofectamine transfection. An inducible MT-Ⅱ regulatory system was constructed, which allowed controlled expression of protein upon addition of ZnSO4 (100 μmol/L) as an external inducer. Stable transfecting inducible expression vector containing Bax gene was performed. Expression of Bax in protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. TUNEL and flow cytometry were used to assess the effect of Bax on apoptosis. Colony assay and tetrazolium blue (MTT) assay were used to evaluate the difference in drug sensitivity of HCC-9204 cells after Bax-transfection.RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that the expression of Bax protein markedly increased in Bax-transfected cells 4 h after the addition cytoplasm and perinuclear region of HCC-9404 cells, and there was ectopic expression in cells with marked condensation of chromatin and cytoplasm (apoptotic cells). Apoptotic index significantly increased in Bax-transfected HCC-9204/Bax cells (3.6 vs 27.2, 4.2 vs 32.3, P<0.05).Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant sub-G1 peak and apoptosis in 15.4% HCC-9204/Bax cells 24 h after treatment. Furthermore, colony survival rate decreased from 66% (HCC-9204/pMD) to 45% (HCC-9204/Bax) 2 dafter ADR withdrawal. MTT assay result showed that the effects of Bax on cell viability following ADR exposure were significant as compared to the vehicle-transfected HCC-9204/pMD cells (21% vs 44%, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Overexpression of Bax not only induces apoptosis, but also sensitizes HCC-9204 cells to cell death induced by adriamycin.

  19. Antiproliferative and Molecular Mechanism of Eugenol-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Supriyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for their health-promoting potential. One such a compound which has been comprehensively used is eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, which is the active component of Syzigium aromaticum (cloves. Aromatic plants like nutmeg, basil, cinnamon and bay leaves also contain eugenol. Eugenol has a wide range of applications like perfumeries, flavorings, essential oils and in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. Increasing volumes of literature showed eugenol possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in melanoma, skin tumors, osteosarcoma, leukemia, gastric and mast cells has been well documented. This review article will highlight the antiproliferative activity and molecular mechanism of the eugenol induced apoptosis against the cancer cells and animal models.

  20. MicroRNA-125b Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis Through Suppression of Bcl-2 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aihua Zhao; Quan Zeng; Xiaoyan Xie; unnian Zhou; Wen Yue; Yali Li; Xuetao Pei

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small,noncoding RNAs which can often act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor.Several miRNAs are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).We demonstrated that miR-125b significantly suppresses HCC cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis by inhibiting the gene expression of the anti-apoptotic protein,Bcl-2.Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the 3'UTR of Bcl-2 has binding sites for miR-125b.Luciferase reporter assay confirmed the ability of miR-125b to dramatically suppress Bcl-2 transcription,suggesting that Bcl-2 is a target gene for miR-125b.We concluded that miR-125b acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatic tumor development by targeting Bcl-2 and inducing cancer cell apoptosis.

  1. Antiproliferative and molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for their health-promoting potential. One such a compound which has been comprehensively used is eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol), which is the active component of Syzigium aromaticum (cloves). Aromatic plants like nutmeg, basil, cinnamon and bay leaves also contain eugenol. Eugenol has a wide range of applications like perfumeries, flavorings, essential oils and in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. Increasing volumes of literature showed eugenol possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in melanoma, skin tumors, osteosarcoma, leukemia, gastric and mast cells has been well documented. This review article will highlight the antiproliferative activity and molecular mechanism of the eugenol induced apoptosis against the cancer cells and animal models. PMID:22634840

  2. Effect of miR-296 on the Apoptosis of Androgen-independent Prostate Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei CHENG; Run-sheng LI; Biao-yang LIN; Wei-qun WANG; Yu-hua LI; Yan GUO; Wei LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the miR-296's function in prostate carcinoma(PCa) cells. Methods In order to profile the miRNA expression in LNCaP cells, the cultured cells were stimulated with androgen after 48-h starvation, miRNA microarray analysis and Q-RT-PCR assay were performed. To characterize the effects of miR296 on PCa cells, CL-1 and PC-3 cells were transfected with miR-296 and antisense-miR-296, cell growth and apoptosis were then analyzed. Results The miR-296-5p expression was up-regulated by 2.22 folds in the CL-1 cells, which do not express significantly androgen receptor, than in LNCaP cells. Knockdown of miR-296-Sp induced apoptosis of CL-1 cells, but not LNCaP cells. However, knockdown of miR-296-Sp inhibited the growth rate of LNCaP cells cultured in absence of androgen. Conclusion MiR-296-5p could be irnportant for development of prostate cancer from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  3. Iso-suillin from Suillus flavus Induces Apoptosis in Human Small Cell Lung Cancer H446 Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Qing-Shuang; Chen, Ying; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Yan, Yong-Xin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jin-Xiu; Wang, Li-An

    2016-01-01

    Background: The suillin isoform iso-suillin is a natural substance isolated from a petroleum ether extract of the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Suillus flavus. Previous studies have found its inhibition effect on some cancer cells, and we aimed to study its effects on human small cell lung cancer H446 cell line. Methods: Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Cellular morphological changes (apoptosis and necrosis) were evaluated using an electron microscope and Hoechst 33258 staining detected by the inverted microscope. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Protein expression was determined by Western blotting analysis. Results: Here, we describe the ability of iso-suillin to inhibit the growth of H446 cells in time- and dose-dependent way. Iso-suillin had no obvious impact on normal human lymphocyte proliferation at low concentrations (9.09, 18.17, or 36.35 μmol/L) but promoted lymphocyte proliferation at a high concentration (72.70 μmol/L). After treatment of different concentrations of iso-suillin (6.82, 13.63, or 20.45 μmol/L), the apoptosis rate of H446 cells increased with increasing concentrations of iso-suillin (16.70%, 35.54%, and 49.20%, respectively, all P lung cancer treatment. PMID:27174331

  4. Telomerase activity and cell apoptosis in colon cancer cell by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene antisense oligodeoxynucleotide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-An Jiang; He-Sheng Luo; You-Yuan Zhang; Li-Fang Fan; Chong-Qing Jiang; Wei-Jin Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene antisense oligodeoxynudeotide (As-ODN) on telomerase activity and cell apoptosis in colon cancer cell line SW480.METHODS: As-ODN was transfected into cells SW480 by liposomal transfection. Cultured cells were divided into three groups: ASODN (5′GGAGCGCGCGGCATCGCGGG-3), sense oligodeoxynucleotide (5′-CCCGCGATGCCGCGCGCTCC-3; SODN) and control. The concentration of oligodeoxynucleotide and lipsome was 10 μmol/L and 16 mg/L, respectively. The activity of telomerase was examined by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and cell apoptosis was observed by morphology and flow cytometry in each group.RESULTS: Telomerase activity began to be down-regulated or inhibited when cells SW480 were treated with As-ODN for 72 h, and cell apoptosis was induced.CONCLUSION: It is suggested that hTERT As-ODN might specially inhibit the activity of telomerase in colon cancer cells and it is further proved that the hTERT gene has a significant correlation with telomerase activity. Further evidence is needed to prove whether hTERT As-ODN is a potential tool for the treatment of colon cancer.

  5. Genistein Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Breast Cancer Cells via G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the radiosensitizing effect of genistein, and the corresponding mechanisms of action on breast cancer cells with different estrogen receptor (ER status. Human breast cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 (ER-positive, harboring wild-type p53 and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative, harboring mutant p53 were irradiated with X-rays in the presence or absence of genistein. Cell survival, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis, expression of proteins related to G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis were measured with colony formation assays, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and western blot analysis, respectively. Genistein showed relatively weak toxicity to both cell lines at concentrations in the range of 5–20 μM. Using the dosage of 10 μM genistein, the sensitizer enhancement ratios after exposure to X-rays at a 10% cell survival (IC10 were 1.43 for MCF-7 and 1.36 for MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. Significantly increased DNA damages, arrested cells at G2/M phase, decreased homologous recombination repair protein Rad51 foci formation and enhanced apoptotic rates were observed in both cell lines treated by genistein combined with X-rays compared with the irradiation alone. The combined treatment obviously up-regulated the phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2, Cdc25c and Cdc2, leading to permanent G2/M phase arrest, and up-regulated Bax and p73, down-regulated Bcl-2, finally induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in both cell lines. These results suggest that genistein induces G2/M arrest by the activation of the ATM/Chk2/Cdc25C/Cdc2 checkpoint pathway and ultimately enhances the radiosensitivity of both ER+ and ER- breast cancer cells through a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  6. Oxaliplatin triggers necrosis as well as apoptosis in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ping; Zhu, Xueping [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Jin, Wei [Department of Otolaryngology, Chaohu Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Chaohu 238000 (China); Hao, Shumei; Liu, Qi [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Zhang, Linjie, E-mail: zlj33@ahmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is considered to be responsible for cell death induced by platinum anticancer drugs. While in this study, we found that, necrosis is an indispensable pathway besides apoptosis in oxaliplatin-treated gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Upon exposure to oxaliplatin, both apoptotic and necrotic features were observed. The majority of dead cells were double positive for Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed and caspase cascades were activated. However, ultrastructural changes under transmission electron microscope, coupled with the release of cellular contents, demonstrated the rupture of the plasma membrane. Oxaliplatin administration did not stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy, but elevated the protein level of Bmf. In addition, receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), but not receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and its downstream components participated in this death process. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) blocked oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely, whereas z-VAD-fmk could partially suppress cell death. Oxaliplatin treatment resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation, as indicated by the increase of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which led to NAD{sup +} and ATP depletion. PARP-1 inhibitor, olaparib, could significantly block oxaliplatin-induced cell death, thus confirming that PARP-1 activation is mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin. Phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139 and translocalization of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) are critical for this death process. Taken together, these results indicate that oxaliplatin can bypass canonical cell death pathways to kill gastric cancer cells, which may be of therapeutic advantage in the treatment of gastric cancer. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin induces apoptotic and necrotic cell death. • Nec-1 can inhibit oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely. • RIP3 and its

  7. Oxaliplatin triggers necrosis as well as apoptosis in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is considered to be responsible for cell death induced by platinum anticancer drugs. While in this study, we found that, necrosis is an indispensable pathway besides apoptosis in oxaliplatin-treated gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Upon exposure to oxaliplatin, both apoptotic and necrotic features were observed. The majority of dead cells were double positive for Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed and caspase cascades were activated. However, ultrastructural changes under transmission electron microscope, coupled with the release of cellular contents, demonstrated the rupture of the plasma membrane. Oxaliplatin administration did not stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and autophagy, but elevated the protein level of Bmf. In addition, receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), but not receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and its downstream components participated in this death process. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) blocked oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely, whereas z-VAD-fmk could partially suppress cell death. Oxaliplatin treatment resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation, as indicated by the increase of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which led to NAD+ and ATP depletion. PARP-1 inhibitor, olaparib, could significantly block oxaliplatin-induced cell death, thus confirming that PARP-1 activation is mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin. Phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139 and translocalization of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) are critical for this death process. Taken together, these results indicate that oxaliplatin can bypass canonical cell death pathways to kill gastric cancer cells, which may be of therapeutic advantage in the treatment of gastric cancer. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin induces apoptotic and necrotic cell death. • Nec-1 can inhibit oxaliplatin-induced cell death nearly completely. • RIP3 and its downstream

  8. Increase in intracellular PGE2 induces apoptosis in Bax-expressing colon cancer cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSAIDs exhibit protective properties towards some cancers, especially colon cancer. Yet, it is not clear how they play their protective role. PGE2 is generally shown as the only target of the NSAIDs anticancerous activity. However, PGE2 known targets become more and more manifold, considering both the molecular pathways involved and the target cells in the tumour. The role of PGE2 in tumour progression thus appears complex and multipurpose. To gain understanding into the role of PGE2 in colon cancer, we focused on the activity of PGE2 in apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. We observed that an increase in intracellular PGE2 induced an apoptotic cell death, which was dependent on the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax. This increase was induced by increasing PGE2 intracellular concentration, either by PGE2 microinjection or by the pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 exportation and enzymatic degradation. We present here a new sight onto PGE2 in colon cancer cells opening the way to a new prospective therapeutic strategy in cancer, alternative to NSAIDs

  9. The Signaling Cascades of Ginkgolide B-Induced Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

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    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide B, the major active component of Ginkgo biloba extracts, can bothstimulate and inhibit apoptotic signaling. Here, we demonstrate that ginkgolide B caninduce the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, leading toan increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ and nitric oxide(NO, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, activation of caspase-9 and -3,and increase the mRNA expression levels of p53 and p21, which are known to be involvedin apoptotic signaling. In addition, prevention of ROS generation by pretreatment withN-acetyl cysteine (NAC could effectively block intracellular Ca2+ concentrationsincreases and apoptosis in ginkgolide B-treated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, pretreatment withnitric oxide (NO scavengers could inhibit ginkgolide B-induced MMP change andsequent apoptotic processes. Overall, our results signify that both ROS and NO playedimportant roles in ginkgolide B-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Based on these studyresults, we propose a model for ginkgolide B-induced cell apoptosis signaling cascades inMCF-7 cells.

  10. Shikonin Induces Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Premature Senescence of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Upregulation of p53 Expression

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    Yueh-Chiao Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone pigment isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to suppress growth of various cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether this chemical could also inhibit cell growth of lung cancer cells and, if so, works via what molecular mechanism. To fulfill this, A549 lung cancer cells were treated with shikonin and then subjected to microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular analyses. Compared with the controls, shikonin significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Specially, lower concentrations of shikonin (1–2.5 μg/mL cause viability reduction; apoptosis and cellular senescence induction is associated with upregulated expressions of cell cycle- and apoptotic signaling-regulatory proteins, while higher concentrations (5–10 μg/mL precipitate both apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment of cells with pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, suppressed shikonin-induced apoptosis and premature senescence, suggesting the role of p53 in mediating the actions of shikonin on regulation of lung cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential and dose-related cytotoxic actions of shikonin on A549 lung cancer cells via p53-mediated cell fate pathways and raise shikonin a promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer in clinical practice.

  11. Heat shock protein 70 antisense oligonucleotide inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gang Zhao; Wen-Lu Shen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Heat shock protein (HSP)70 is over-expressed in human gastric cancer and plays an important role in the progression of this cancer. We investigated the effects of antisense HSP70 oligomer on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, and its potential role in gene therapy for this cancer.METHODS: Human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was treated in vitro with various concentrations of antisense HSP70 oligonucleotides at different intervals. Growth inhibition was determined as percentage by trypan blue dye exclusion test. Extracted DNA was electrophoresed on agarose gel, and distribution of cell cycle and kinetics of apoptosis induction were analyzed by propidium iodide DNA incorporation using flow cytometry, which was also used to detect the effects of antisense oligomer pretreatment on the subsequent apoptosis induced by heat shock in SGC-7901 cells. Proteins were extracted for simultaneous measurement of HSP70 expression level by SDS-PAGE Western blotting.RESULTS: The number of viable cells decreased in a doseand time-dependent manner, and ladder-like patterns of DNA fragments were observed in SGC-7901 cells treated with antisense HSP70 oligomers at a concentration of 10 μmol/L for 48 h or 8 μmol/L for 72 h, which were consistent with inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometric analysis showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic rate by HSP70 antisense oligomers. This response was accompanied with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, suggesting inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, flow cytometry also showed that pretreatment of SGC-7901 cells with HSP70 antisense oligomers enhanced the subsequent apoptosis induced by heat shock treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that HSP70 antisense oligomers inhibited HSP70 expression, which preceded apoptosis, and HSP70 was undetectable at the concentration of 10 μmol/L for 48 h or 8 μmol/L for 72 h.CONCLUSION: Antisense HSP70 oligomers

  12. Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of Three Medicinal Plants on Oral Cancer Cells KB and ORL-48

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    Mohd Zabidi Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucea javanica, Azadirachta indica, and Typhonium flagelliforme are medicinal plants commonly used to treat conditions associated with tumour formation. This study aimed to determine the antiproliferative activity of these plants extracts on KB and ORL-48 oral cancer cell lines and to suggest their mode of cell death. The concentration producing 50% cell inhibition (IC50 was determined and the activity was examined under an inverted microscope. Immunohistochemistry fluorescent staining method (TUNEL was performed to indicate the mechanism of cell death and the fragmented DNA band pattern produced was obtained for verification. Compared to Azadirachta sp. and Typhonium sp., the antiproliferative activity of Brucea sp. extract was the most potent on both KB and ORL-48 cells with IC50 of 24.37 ± 1.75 and 6.67 ± 1.15 µg/mL, respectively. Signs of cell attrition were observed 24 hr after treatment. Green fluorescent spots indicating cell death by apoptosis were observed in images of both cells following treatment with all the three extracts. DNA fragments harvested from Brucea-treated cells produced bands in a ladder pattern suggesting the apoptotic effect of the extract. It is thus concluded that Brucea sp. extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on ORL-48 cells and their action mechanism is via apoptosis.

  13. Antiproliferative and apoptosis induction of α-mangostin in T47D breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsanawong, Somchai; Innajak, Sukanda; Imoto, Masaya; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2016-05-01

    α-Mangostin extracted from mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn. is known as 'queen of fruits'. The anticancer activity of α-mangostin through apoptosis induction and related signaling pathways in human breast cancer T47D cells was investigated. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling have been shown to play important roles in apoptosis. The results showed that α-mangostin induced cell proliferation inhibition, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, increased cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, but decreased Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expression. Mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome c release were also detected. In addition, phosphorylation of ERα, HER2, PI3K, Akt and ERK1/2 were downregulated whereas p-JNK1/2 and p-p38 were upregulated. These results indicated that α-mangostin induced apoptosis associated with HER2/PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways suggesting that α-mangostin may be used as food supplement or a potential therapeutic compound for breast cancer. PMID:26892433

  14. Stool-fermented Plantago ovata husk induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells independently of molecular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Vanessa R; Giros, Anna; Xicola, Rosa M; Fluvià, Lourdes; Grzybowski, Mike; Anguera, Anna; Llor, Xavier

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that the partially fermentable fibre Plantago ovata husk (PO) may have a protective effect on colorectal cancer (CRC). We studied the potentially pro-apoptotic effect of PO and the implicated mechanisms in CRC cells with different molecular phenotypes (Caco-2, HCT116, LoVo, HT-29, SW480) after PO anaerobic fermentation with colonic bacteria as it occurs in the human colon. The fermentation products of PO induced apoptosis in all primary tumour and metastatic cell lines, independent of p53, adenomatous polyposis coli, β-catenin or cyclo-oxygenase-2 status. Apoptosis was caspase-dependent and both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were implicated. The intrinsic pathway was activated through a shift in the balance towards a pro-apoptotic environment with an up-regulation of B-cell lymphoma protein 2 homologous antagonist killer (BAK) and a down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) seen in HCT116 and LoVo cells. This resulted in mitochondrial membrane depolarisation, increased expression of caspase activators second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac)/Diablo, death effector apoptosis-inducing factor, apoptosome member apoptotic protease activating factor 1 and down-regulation of inhibitors of apoptosis Survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis in most cells. The extrinsic pathway was activated presumably through the up-regulation of death receptor (DR5). Some important differences were seen between primary tumour and metastatic CRC cells. Thus, metastatic PO-treated LoVo cells had a remarkable up-regulation of TNF-α ligand along with death-inducing signalling complex components receptor interacting protein and TNF-α receptor 1-associated death domain protein. The extrinsic pathway modulator FCICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of both spontaneous death ligand-independent and death receptor-mediated apoptosis, was significantly down-regulated after PO treatment in all primary tumour cells, but not

  15. KDM6B Elicits Cell Apoptosis by Promoting Nuclear Translocation of FOXO1 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Jun Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer and the cause of most cancer-related deaths. The molecular mechanisms that are involved in NSCLC development are currently not well understood. Accumulating evidence shows that histone demethylases play important roles in the regulation of pathological developmental processes in many diseases, including various types of cancers. Methods: Mitochondrial membrane potential assays, migration and invasion assays, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assays and western blot analysis were used in this research. Results: We found that overexpression of KDM6B, a demethylase that acts on histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27, inhibited cell growth by initiating mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and by attenuating the invasion-metastasis cascade in NSCLC cells. Moreover, our results showed that KDM6B directly interacted with FOXO1 and that overexpression of KDM6B promoted nuclear accumulation of FOXO1. The effects of KDM6B on cell apoptosis and metastasis were weakened by knockdown of FOXO1 expression. On the contrary, knocking down expression of KDM6B inhibited cell apoptosis and promoted cell growth by mitigating the nuclear translocation of FOXO1 in NSCLC cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest that KDM6B may act in a pro-apoptotic role in NSCLC by causing the nuclear translocation of FOXO1.

  16. Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells through Cdk5 Overactivation

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    Mei-Chih Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA has been believed to be an anticancer drug for a long history. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA actions on cancer cells remain diverse. In this study, the dose-dependent inhibition of RA on DU145 cell proliferation was identified. Interestingly, RA treatment triggered p35 cleavage (p25 formation and Cdk5 overactivation, and all could be blocked by Calpain inhibitor, Calpeptin (CP. Subsequently, RA-triggered DU145 apoptosis detected by sub-G1 phase accumulation and Annexin V staining could also be blocked by CP treatment. Furthermore, RA-triggered caspase 3 activation and following Cdk5 over-activation were destroyed by treatments of both CP and Cdk5 knockdown. In conclusion, we report a new mechanism in which RA could cause apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through p35 cleavage and Cdk5 over-activation. This finding may contribute to constructing a clearer image of RA function and bring RA as a valuable chemoprevention agent for prostate cancer patients.

  17. Simultaneous gene silencing of Bcl-2, XIAP and Survivin re-sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells towards apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma shows a distinct apoptosis resistance, which contributes significantly to the aggressive nature of this tumor and constrains the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. Apoptosis resistance is determined by the net balance of the cells pro-and anti-apoptotic 'control mechanisms'. Numerous dysregulated anti-apoptotic genes have been identified in pancreatic cancer and seem to contribute to the high anti-apoptotic buffering capacity. We aimed to compare the benefit of simultaneous gene silencing (SGS) of several candidate genes with conventional gene silencing of single genes. From literature search we identified the anti-apoptotic genes XIAP, Survivin and Bcl-2 as commonly upregulated in pancreatic cancer. We performed SGS and silencing of single candidate genes using siRNA molecules in two pancreatic cancer cell lines. Effectiveness of SGS was assessed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Apoptosis induction was measured by flow cytometry and caspase activation. Simultaneous gene silencing reduced expression of the three target genes effectively. Compared to silencing of a single target or control, SGS of these genes resulted in a significant higher induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. In the present study we performed a subliminal silencing of different anti-apoptotic target genes simultaneously. Compared to silencing of single target genes, SGS had a significant higher impact on apoptosis induction in pancreatic cancer cells. Thereby, we give further evidence for the concept of an anti-apoptotic buffering capacity of pancreatic cancer cells

  18. Simultaneous gene silencing of Bcl-2, XIAP and Survivin re-sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells towards apoptosis

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    Grützmann Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma shows a distinct apoptosis resistance, which contributes significantly to the aggressive nature of this tumor and constrains the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. Apoptosis resistance is determined by the net balance of the cells pro-and anti-apoptotic "control mechanisms". Numerous dysregulated anti-apoptotic genes have been identified in pancreatic cancer and seem to contribute to the high anti-apoptotic buffering capacity. We aimed to compare the benefit of simultaneous gene silencing (SGS of several candidate genes with conventional gene silencing of single genes. Methods From literature search we identified the anti-apoptotic genes XIAP, Survivin and Bcl-2 as commonly upregulated in pancreatic cancer. We performed SGS and silencing of single candidate genes using siRNA molecules in two pancreatic cancer cell lines. Effectiveness of SGS was assessed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Apoptosis induction was measured by flow cytometry and caspase activation. Results Simultaneous gene silencing reduced expression of the three target genes effectively. Compared to silencing of a single target or control, SGS of these genes resulted in a significant higher induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Conclusions In the present study we performed a subliminal silencing of different anti-apoptotic target genes simultaneously. Compared to silencing of single target genes, SGS had a significant higher impact on apoptosis induction in pancreatic cancer cells. Thereby, we give further evidence for the concept of an anti-apoptotic buffering capacity of pancreatic cancer cells.

  19. Elemene injection induced autophagy protects human hepatoma cancer cells from starvation and undergoing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Keming; Hu, Chunping; Lin, Lin; Qin, Shukui; Cai, Xueting

    2014-01-01

    Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anticancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. In an in vivo experiment, we found that apatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively inhibits VEGFR2, combined with elemene injection (Ele) for the treatment of H22 solid tumor in mice resulted in worse effectiveness than apatinib alone. Moreover, Ele could protect HepG2 cells from death induced by serum-free starvation. Further data on the mechanism study revealed that Ele induced protective autophagy and prevented human hepatoma cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. Proapoptosis effect of Ele was enhanced when proautophagy effect was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Above all, Ele has the effect of protecting cancer cells from death either in apatinib induced nutrient deficient environment or in serum-free induced starvation. A combination of elemene injection with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25152762

  20. Terpinen-4-ol Induces Apoptosis in Human Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Chieh-Shan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpinen-4-ol, a monoterpene component of the essential oils of several aromatic plants, exhibits antitumor effects. In this study, the antitumor effects of terpinen-4-ol and the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for it were evaluated and studied, respectively on human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. Our results indicated that terpinen-4-ol elicited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect, as determined by MTT assay. Increased sub-G1 population and annexin-V binding, activation of caspases 9 and 3, cleavage of poly(ADPribose polymerase (PARP, and a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP indicated involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in terpinen-4-ol-treated A549 and CL1-0 cells. Elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and a decrease in IAP family proteins XIAP and survivin were also observed following terpinen-4-ol treatment. Notably, terpinen-4-ol was able to increase p53 levels in A549 and CL1-0 cells. Diminution of p53 by RNA interference induced necrosis instead of apoptosis in A549 cells following terpinen-4-ol treatment, indicating that terpinen-4-ol-elicited apoptosis is p53-dependent. Moreover, intratumoral administration of terpinen-4-ol significantly suppressed the growth of s.c. A549 xenografts by inducing apoptosis, as confirmed by TUNEL assay. Collectively, these data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying terpinen-4-ol-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells, rendering this compound a potential anticancer drug for NSCLC.

  1. Vapor of volatile oils from Litsea cubeba seed induces apoptosis and causes cell cycle arrest in lung cancer cells.

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    Soma Seal

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a major killer in cancer related human death. Its therapeutic intervention requires superior efficient molecule(s as it often becomes resistant to present chemotherapy options. Here we report that vapor of volatile oil compounds obtained from Litsea cubeba seeds killed human NSCLC cells, A549, through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Vapor generated from the combined oils (VCO deactivated Akt, a key player in cancer cell survival and proliferation. Interestingly VCO dephosphorylated Akt at both Ser(473 and Thr(308; through the suppression of mTOR and pPDK1 respectively. As a consequence of this, diminished phosphorylation of Bad occurred along with the decreased Bcl-xL expression. This subsequently enhanced Bax levels permitting the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol which concomitantly activated caspase 9 and caspase 3 resulting apoptotic cell death. Impairment of Akt activation by VCO also deactivated Mdm2 that effected overexpression of p53 which in turn upregulated p21 expression. This causes enhanced p21 binding to cyclin D1 that halted G1 to S phase progression. Taken together, VCO produces two prong effects on lung cancer cells, it induces apoptosis and blocked cancer cell proliferation, both occurred due to the deactivation of Akt. In addition, it has another crucial advantage: VCO could be directly delivered to lung cancer tissue through inhalation.

  2. Production of interleukin‑4 in CD133+ cervical cancer stem cells promotes resistance to apoptosis and initiates tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Tao; Xin, Ying; Tong, Chun-Yan; Li, Bing; Bao, Hong-Li; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Wang, Xue-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory suggests that cancer growth and invasion is dictated by the small population of CSCs within the heterogenous tumor. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cause for chemotherapy failure and the resistance of CSCs to apoptosis. A total of ~2.3% cluster of differentiation (CD)133+ cancer stem‑like side population (SP) cells were identified in cases of uterine cervical cancer. These CD133+ SP cells were found to potently initiate tumor growth and invasion, as they exhibit transcriptional upregulation of stemness genes, including octamer‑binding transcription factor‑4, B‑cell‑specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site‑1, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, (sex determining region Y)‑box 2, Nestin and anti‑apoptotic B cell lymphoma‑2. In addition, the CD133+ SP cells showed resistance to multi‑drug treatment and apoptosis. The present study further showed that the secretion of interleukin‑4 (IL‑4) in CD133+ cervical cancer SP cells promoted cell proliferation and prevented the SP cells from apoptosis. Following the neutralization of IL‑4 with anti‑IL‑4 antibody, the CD133+ SP cells were more sensitive to drug treatment and apoptosis. Therefore, the data obtained in the present study suggested that the autocrine secretion of IL‑4 promotes increased survival and resistance to cell death in CSCs. PMID:27121303

  3. Quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133+ cancer stem cells of human colorectal HT29 cancer cell line and enhances anticancer effects of doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Movahhed, Tahereh Komeili; Barzegar, Elmira; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Azizi, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) with the CD133+ phenotype are a rare fraction of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation and resistance to treatment. Quercetin has anticancer effects with the advantage of exhibiting low side effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anticancer effects of quercetin and doxorubicin (Dox) in HT29 cancer cells and its isolated CD133+ CSCs. Materials and Methods: The CSCs from HT29 cells were isolated using CD133 antibody conjugated to magnetic beads by MACS. Anticancer effects of quercetin and Dox alone and in combination on HT29 cells and CSCs were evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. Results: The CD133+ CSCs comprised about 10% of HT29 cells. Quercetin and Dox alone and in combination inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. Quercetin enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of Dox at low concentration in both cell populations. Quercetin and Dox and their combination induced G2/M arrest in the HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. Conclusion: The CSCs were a minor population with a significantly high level of drug resistance within the HT29 cancer cells. Quercetin alone exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells and also increased cytoxicity of Dox in combination therapy. Altogether, our data showed that adding quercetin to Dox chemotherapy is an effective strategy for treatment of both CSCs and bulk tumor cells. PMID:26351552

  4. Cordycepin Induces S Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Gallbladder Cancer Cells

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    Xu-An Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the biliary tract, and this condition has a rather dismal prognosis, with an extremely low five-year survival rate. To improve the outcome of unresectable and recurrent gallbladder cancer, it is necessary to develop new effective treatments and drugs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cordycepin on human gallbladder cells and uncover the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 and colony formation assays revealed that cordycepin affected the viability and proliferation of human gallbladder cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis showed that cordycepin induced S phase arrest in human gallbladder cancer cell lines(NOZ and GBC-SD cells. Cordycepin-induced apoptosis was observed using an Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI double-staining assay, and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, western blot analysis revealed the upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-PARP and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, cyclin A and Cdk-2 in cordycepin-treated cells. Moreover, cordycepin inhibited tumor growth in nude mice bearing NOZ tumors. Our results indicate that this drug may represent an effective treatment for gallbladder carcinoma.

  5. Honokiol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid A431 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Chandrasekher, Gudiseva; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-11-01

    Honokiol is a plant lignan isolated from bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis. Recent studies from our laboratory indicated that honokiol pretreatment decreased ultraviolet B-induced skin cancer development in SKH-1 mice. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of honokiol on human epidermoid squamous carcinoma A431 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in preventing skin cancer. A431 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of honokiol for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Treatment with honokiol significantly decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol pretreatment at 50 μmol/L concentration induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest significantly (P Cdk4 and Cdk6 proteins and up-regulated the expression of Cdk's inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Pretreatment of A431 cells with honokiol leads to induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that honokiol provides its effects in squamous carcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. PMID:21908486

  6. HERG K+ channels expression in gastric cancers and analysis of its regulation in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Lü; Huiyu Li; Xiaoming Lu; Guobin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of herg 1 gene in tumor tissues from gastric carcinomas and gastric carcinoma cell lines, and study the relationship between HERG K+ channel expressions and tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. Methods: RT-PCR and PCR assays were used to detect the expression of herg 1 gene in 64 gastric carcinomas and the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. Blocking the HERG K+ channels was used to evaluate their effects on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. Results:The statistically significant expression of herg 1 gene was detected in all the gastric cancers and SGC-7901 cells, but not in normal tissues. The HERG K+ channel blocker, E-4031, increased the cell population in G0/G1 (P<0.05) and the number of apoptotic tumor cells(P<0.05). Conclusion: HERG K+ channels were expressed in all gastric carcinomas tested and these channels appear to modulate tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  7. Survivin antisense compound inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in liver cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Jian Dai; Cai-De Lu; Ri-Yong Lai; Jun-Ming Guo; Hua Meng; Wei-Sheng Chen; Jun Gu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of survivin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in liver cancer.METHODS: MTT assay was used to generate and optimize phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs)LipofectamineTM2000 (LiP) compound by varying ODNs (μg):LiP (μL) ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:5. Then, liver cancer cells (HepG2) were transfected with the compound. By using RT-PCR and Western blot, the expression levels of survivin mRNA and proteins were detected in HepG2 cells treated with antisense compounds (ODNs:LiP = 1:4), and compared with those treated with sense compounds (1:4) as control.MTT assay was applied to the determination of cell proliferation in HepG2 cells. Active caspase-3 was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. The morphological changes were assessed by electron microscopy. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was performed to detect the subcellular localization of survivin proteins in treated and untreated cells.RESULTS: Antisense compounds (1:4) down-regulated survivin expression (mRNA and protein) in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 250 nmol/L. Its maximum effect was achieved at a concentration of 500 nmol/L, at whichmRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 80%.The similar results were found in MTT assay. Antisense compound (1:4)-treated cells revealed increased caspase3-like protease activity compared with untreated cells.Untreated cells as control were primarily negative for the presence of active-caspase-3. As shown by transmission electron microscopy, treated cells with antisense compounds (1:4) resulted in morphological changes such as blebbing and loss of microvilli, vacuolization in the cytoplasm,condensation of the cytoplasm and nuclei, and fragmented chromatin. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the presence of survivin protein pool inside the cytoplasm in untreated cells. Labeled-FITC immunofluorescence staining of survivin clearly showed that survivin was distributed mainly in a spotted form inside the cytoplasm. Whereas

  8. Inhibitory effect of Polo-like kinase 1 depletion on mitosis and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Hua Chen; Bin Lan; Ying Qu; Xiao-Qing Zhang; Qu Cai; Bing-Ya Liu; Zheng-Gang Zhu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) serine/threonine kinase plays a vital role in multiple phases of mitosis in gastric cancer cells. To investigate the effect of PLK1 depletion on mitosis and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.METHODS: PLK1 expression was blocked by small RNA interference(siRNA). The expression levels of PLK1, cdc2, cyclin B and caspase 3 were detected by Western blotting. Then, PLK1 depletion, cdc2 activity,cell proliferation, cell cycle phase distribution, mitotic spindle structure, and the rate of apoptosis of the PLK1knockdown cells were observed.RESULTS: PLK1 gene knockdown was associated with increased cyclin B expression, increased cdc2 activity (but not with the expression levels), accumulation of gastric cancer cells at G2/M, improper mitotic spindle formation,delayed chromosome separation and delayed or arrested cytokinesis. Moreover, PLK1 depletion in gastric cancer cells was associated with decreased proliferation,attenuated pro-caspase 3 levels and increased apoptosis.CONCLUSION: Blockage of PLK1 expression may lead to decreased mitosis or even apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, indicating that PLK1 may be a valuable therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  9. Apoptosis induced by radionuclide 153Sm and expression of relevant genes in three different cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study apoptosis of PC-3, ER-75-30 and A549 cells induced by radionuclide 153Sm and the expression of bcl-2, bax in apoptosis cells, MTT assay was used to detect the anti-tumor effect, light microscope, transmission electron microscope, flow cytometer were used to detect apoptosis, while image analysis was used to detect the expression of bcl-2 and bax. 153Sm showed anti-tumor effect and could induce tumor cell apoptosis. Both bcl-2 and bax played an important role in apoptosis. Different kind of cells had different sensitivity to 153Sm

  10. Apoptosis induced by diallyl disulfide in human breast cancer cell line MCF.71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yong LEI; Shu-qiong YAO; Xu-yu ZU; Ze-xiang HUANG; Li-juan LIU; Miao ZHONG; Bing-yang ZHU; Sheng- song TANG; Duan-fang LIAO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS),a component of garlic,on apoptosis in human mammary cancer cell line (MCF-7) and its mechanisms.Methods:Cytotoxicity was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays.Morphology of apoptotic cells was detected by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.Apoptotic cells stained with propidium iodide were examined using flow cytometry.Protein levels were detected by Western blot analysis.Results:DADS inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and induced the apoptotic ratio to increase rapidly.Cleavage of the caspase-3 and caspase-3 substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was observed in MCF-7 cells after 24 h of treatment with DADS.When the MCF-7 cells were signal-regulated kinase (ERK),a mitogen-activated protein kinase,was inhibited after 6 h; court N-terminal kinase (JNK),that is stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK),and p38 mitogen-aetivated protein kinase were activated after 6 h.Conclusion:These results suggest that DADS both inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and induces apoptosis of MCF-7 cells.The mechanisms may include the inhibition of ERK and the activation of the SAPK/JNK and p38 pathways.

  11. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by a plumbagin derivative in estrogen positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2014-01-31

    Plumbagin [5-hydroxy- 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthaquinone] is a well-known plant derived anticancer lead compound. Several efforts have been made to synthesize its analogs and derivatives in order to increase its anticancer potential. In the present study, plumbagin and its five derivatives have been evaluated for their antiproliferative potential in one normal and four human cancer cell lines. Treatment with derivatives resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of various cancer cell lines. Prescreening of compounds led us to focus our further investigations on acetyl plumbagin, which showed remarkably low toxicity towards normal BJ cells and HepG2 cells. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined by APOPercentage staining, caspase-3/7 activation, reactive oxygen species production and cell cycle analysis. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp-7) was also measured using real time PCR. The positive staining using APOPercentage dye, increased caspase-3/7 activity, increased ROS production and enhanced mRNA expression of proapoptotic genes suggested that acetyl plumbagin exhibits anticancer effects on MCF-7 cells through its apoptosis-inducing property. A key highlighting point of the study is low toxicity of acetyl plumbagin towards normal BJ cells and negligible hepatotoxicity (data based on HepG2 cell line). Overall results showed that acetyl plumbagin with reduced toxicity might have the potential to be a new lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer. 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

  12. Combination of Potassium Pentagamavunon-0 and Doxorubicin Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Metastasis in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Herwandhani; Jenie, Riris Istighfari; Handayani, Sri; Kastian, Ria Fajarwati; Meiyanto, Edy

    2016-01-01

    A salt compound of a curcumin analogue, potassium pentagamavunon-0 (K PGV-0) has been synthesized to improve solubility of pentagamavunon-0 which has been proven to have anti-proliferative effects on several cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate cytotoxic activity and metastasis inhibition by K PGV- 0 alone and in combination with achemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (dox), in breast cancer cells. Based on MTT assay analysis, K PGV-0 showed cytotoxic activity in T47D and 4T1 cell lines with IC50 values of 94.9 μM and 49.0±0.2 μM, respectively. In general, K PGV-0+dox demonstrated synergistic effects and decreased cell viability up to 84.7% in T47D cells and 62.6% in 4T1 cells. Cell cycle modulation and apoptosis induction were examined by flow cytometry. K PGV-0 and K PGV-0+dox caused cell accumulation in G2/M phase and apoptosis induction. Regarding cancer metastasis, while K PGV-0 alone did not show any inhibition of 4T1 cell migration, K PGV-0+dox exerted inhibition. K PGV-0 and its combination with dox inhibited the activity of MMP-9 which has a pivotal role in extracellular matrix degradation. These results show that a combination of K PGV-0 and doxorubicin inhibits cancer cell growth through cell cycling, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of cell migration and MMP-9 activity. Therefore, K PGV-0 may have potential for development as a co-chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:27268651

  13. tert-Butylcarbamate-containing histone deacetylase inhibitors: apoptosis induction, cytodifferentiation, and antiproliferative activities in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sergio; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Tardugno, Maria; Benedetti, Rosaria; Labella, Donatella; Secci, Daniela; Mercurio, Ciro; Boggio, Roberto; Tomassi, Stefano; Di Maro, Salvatore; Novellino, Ettore; Altucci, Lucia; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Mai, Antonello; Cosconati, Sandro

    2013-05-01

    Herein we report novel pyrrole- and benzene-based hydroxamates (8, 10) and 2'-aminoanilides (9, 11) bearing the tert-butylcarbamate group at the CAP moiety as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Compounds 8 b and 10 c selectively inhibited HDAC6 at the nanomolar level, whereas the other hydroxamates effected an increase in acetyl-α-tubulin levels in human acute myeloid leukemia U937 cells. In the same cell line, compounds 8 b and 10 c elicited 18.4 and 21.4 % apoptosis, respectively (SAHA: 16.9 %), and the pyrrole anilide 9 c displayed the highest cytodifferentiating effect (90.9 %). In tests against a wide range of various cancer cell lines to determine its antiproliferative effects, compound 10 c exhibited growth inhibition from sub-micromolar (neuroblastoma LAN-5 and SH-SY5Y cells, chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells) to low-micromolar (lung H1299 and A549, colon HCT116 and HT29 cancer cells) concentrations. In HT29 cells, 10 c increased histone H3 acetylation, and decreased the colony-forming potential of the cancer cells by up to 60 %. PMID:23526814

  14. Mitochondrial and caspase pathways are involved in the induction of apoptosis by IB-MECA in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Hamideh; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Panjehpour, Mojtaba; Hajiahmadi, Sima

    2014-11-01

    A3 adenosine receptor agonist (IB-MECA) has been shown to play important roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines. The present study was designed to understand the mechanism underlying IB-MECA-induced apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cell lines. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of A3 adenosine receptor were detected in OVCAR-3 and Caov-4 ovarian cancer cells. IB-MECA was capable of decreasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) that was the reason for the presence of functional A3 adenosine receptor on the cell lines. IB-MECA significantly reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity of IB-MECA was suppressed by MRS1220, an A3 adenosine receptor antagonist. The growth inhibition effect of IB-MECA was related to the induction of cell apoptosis, which was manifested by annexin V-FITC staining, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potentials (ΔΨm). In addition, downregulation of the regulatory protein Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax protein by IB-MECA were also observed. These findings demonstrated that IB-MECA induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway. These suggest that A3 adenosine receptor agonists may be a potential agent for induction of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25095978

  15. Study of apoptosis in human liver cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Min Shan; Juan Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the action of apoptosis in occurrence ofliver cacinornas in vivo and the biological effect of Solanumlyratum Thumb on BEL-7404 cell line inducing apoptosis invitro.METHODS: The apoptosis in the liver carcinoma wasdetected with terminal deoxynucl neotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL); the cancer cellscultured in DMED medium were treated with extract ofSolanum lyratum Thumb and observed under microscope,and their DNA was assayed by gel electrophoresis.RESULTS: In vivo apoptotic cells in the cancer adjacenttissues inceased; in vitro treatment of liver cancers withextract of Solanum lyratum Thumb could induce the cells tomanifest a typical apoptotic morphology. Their DNA wasfractured and a characteristic ladder pattem could be foundusing electrophoresis.CONCLUSION: In vivo the apoptosis of carcinomas waslower; maybe the cells divided quickly and then the cancersoccurred. In the cancer adjacent tissues, the apoptosispricked up, and in vitro Solarium lyratum Thumb couldinduce the apoptosis of BEL-7404 cells.

  16. Programmed activation of cancer cell apoptosis: A tumor-targeted phototherapeutic topoisomerase I inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Weon Sup; Han, Jiyou; Kumar, Rajesh; Lee, Gyung Gyu; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Jong Seung

    2016-07-01

    We report here a tumor-targeting masked phototherapeutic agent 1 (PT-1). This system contains SN-38—a prodrug of the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan. Topoisomerase I is a vital enzyme that controls DNA topology during replication, transcription, and recombination. An elevated level of topoisomerase I is found in many carcinomas, making it an attractive target for the development of effective anticancer drugs. In addition, PT-1 contains both a photo-triggered moiety (nitrovanillin) and a cancer targeting unit (biotin). Upon light activation in cancer cells, PT-1 interferes with DNA re-ligation, diminishes the expression of topoisomerase I, and enhances the expression of inter alia mitochondrial apoptotic genes, death receptors, and caspase enzymes, inducing DNA damage and eventually leading to apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo studies showed significant inhibition of cancer growth and the hybrid system PT-1 thus shows promise as a programmed photo-therapeutic (“phototheranostic”).

  17. Effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of telomerase RNA on telomerase activity and cell apoptosis in human colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-An Jiang; He-Sheng Luo; Li-Fang Fan; Chong-Qing Jiang; Wei-Jin Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (As-ODN) of telomerase RNA on telomerase activity and cell apoptosis in human colon cancer.METHODS: As-ODN waS transfected into SW480 cells by liposomal transfection reagent. Telomerase activity of SW480 cells was examined by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Apoptosis was analyzed by morphology and flow cytometry.RESULTS: The telomerase activity in SW480 cells trandected with 1.0 μmol/L of As-ODN for 2-5 days, was significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner, and the cells underwent apoptosis. The missense ODN (Ms-ODN) and the control group transfected with SW480 cells did not show these changes.CONCLUSION: As-ODN can specifically inhibit the telomerase activity of SW480 cells and induce apoptosis.

  18. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells by Methanol Fraction of Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Preeja G Pillai; Suresh, P; Gitanjali Mishra

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing activities of the methanol extract from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in an attempt to determine whether the medicinal uses are supported by pharmacological effects. Cytotoxicity was determined by sulforhodamine B assay method. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing effect were evaluated in- vitro using human colon cancer cell line, COLO 205. There was statistically significant cell growth inhibition at the doses of 10, 20, 40...

  19. Metabolic Profiling-based Data-mining for an Effective Chemical Combination to Induce Apoptosis of Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Motofumi Kumazoe; Yoshinori Fujimura; Shiori Hidaka; Yoonhee Kim; Kanako Murayama; Mika Takai; Yuhui Huang; Shuya Yamashita; Motoki Murata; Daisuke Miura; Hiroyuki Wariishi; Mari Maeda-Yamamoto; Hirofumi Tachibana

    2015-01-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) induces apoptosis of cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. Several clinical trials reported that GTE was well tolerated and had potential anti-cancer efficacy. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) is the primary compound responsible for the anti-cancer effect of GTE; however, the effect of EGCG alone is limited. To identify GTE compounds capable of potentiating EGCG bioactivity, we performed metabolic profiling of 43 green tea cultivar panels by liquid ...

  20. relA over-expression reduces tumorigenicity and activates apoptosis in human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, A; Biroccio, A; Trisciuoglio, D; Cippitelli, M; Zupi, G; Bufalo, D Del

    2001-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that bcl-2 over-expression increases the malignant behaviour of the MCF7 ADR human breast cancer cell line and enhances nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-k B) transcriptional activity. Here, we investigated the direct effect of increased NF-k B activity on the tumorigenicity of MCF7 ADR cells by over-expressing the NF-k B subunit relA/p65. Surprisingly, our results demonstrated that over-expression of relA determines a considerable reduction of the tumorigenic ability in nude mice as indicated by the tumour take and the median time of tumour appearance. In vitro studies also evidenced a reduced cell proliferation and the activation of the apoptotic programme after relA over-expression. Apoptosis was associated with the production of reactive oxygen species, and the cleavage of the specific substrate Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerrase. Our data indicate that there is no general role for NF-k B in the regulation of apoptosis and tumorigenicity. In fact, even though inhibiting NF-k B activity has been reported to be lethal to tumour cells, our findings clearly suggest that an over-induction of nuclear NF-k B activity may produce the same effect. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747334

  1. Chemoradiation treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer oriented to apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis of the radiotherapy results in different modes of fractionation with etoposide modification on gamma-therapeutic apparatus and linear accelerator in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Objective effect and one year survival rates were significantly higher in the cases of accelerated fractionation regimes, while the frequency of radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis was reduced in cases of the treatment on a linear accelerator compared to gamma radiation. Modes of accelerated hyperfractionated combined with etoposide modification are aimed at the induction of ceramide apoptosis pathway, as evidenced by the dynamics of sphingomyelinase activity in serum of patients with NSCLC

  2. Apoptosis inducing effects of arsenic trioxide on human bladder cancer cell line BIU-87

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童强松; 曾甫清; 赵军; 鲁功成; 郑丽端

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the apoptosis inducing effects of arsenictrioxide (As2O3) on human bladder cancer cells and elucidate possible mechanisms. Methods After treatment with As2O3, the growth inhibition rates of human bladder cancer cell line BIU-87 were studied by MTT and cell counts methods. DNA synthesis rates were detected by 3 H-TdR assay. The morphological changes of cancer cells were observed by light and electronic microscopy and cell apoptosis rates were detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). bcl-2 gene expression of BIU-87 cells was observed by strept avidin-biotin complex (SABC) immunohistochemical method. Results As2O3 could effectively inhibit the growth of BIU-87 (P<0.05), which were time and concentration dependent. The inhibition rate of 4.0?μmol/L As2O3 for DNA synthesis of cancer cells was 55.64% (P<0.01). Partial cancer cells presented the characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis which depended on the time of exposure to drug (P<0.05). bcl-2 expression of BIU-87 cells was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion As2O3 can significantly induce apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by down-regulating the expression of the bcl-2 gene and inhibiting DNA synthesis. This provides a potentially effective method for prevention and cure of human bladder cancer.%目的观察三氧化二砷(As2O3)对人膀胱癌细胞的诱导凋亡作用并探讨其机制。方法采用细胞计数和MTT法检测As2O3对人膀胱癌细胞株BIU-87的生长抑制作用;采用3H-TdR掺入法 检测癌细胞DNA合成速率;采用普通光镜、透射电镜观察癌细胞形态学变化;采用TUNEL检测癌细胞凋 亡比率;采用SABC免疫组化观察BIU-87细胞中bcl-2的表达变化。 结果As2O3可有效地抑制BIU-87细胞的体外生长(P<0.05),并具有时间及浓度依赖性的特点。经 4μmol/LAs2O3作用后,癌细胞DNA合成抑制率为55.64%。部分膀胱癌细胞体积缩小、核固缩、染色质核 膜下聚

  3. Multidrug resistance reversal and apoptosis induction in human colon cancer cells by some flavonoids present in citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Olga; Wiśniewski, Jerzy; Sroda-Pomianek, Kamila; Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Paprocka, Maria; Duś, Danuta; Duarte, Noélia; Ferreira, Maria-José U; Michalak, Krystyna

    2012-11-26

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells constitutes one of the main reasons for chemotherapy failure. The search for nontoxic modulators that reduce MDR is a task of great importance. An ability to enhance apoptosis of resistant cells would also be beneficial. In the present study, the MDR reversal and apoptosis-inducing potency of three flavonoids produced by Citrus plants, namely, naringenin (1a), aromadendrin (2), and tangeretin (3), and the methylated naringenin derivatives (1b, 1c), have been studied in sensitive (LoVo) and multidrug-resistant (LoVo/Dx) human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity of methoxylated flavonoids was higher as compared to hydroxylated analogues. Only 3 turned out to inhibit P-glycoprotein, as demonstrated by a rhodamine 123 accumulation assay. It also increased doxorubicin accumulation in LoVo/Dx cells and enabled doxorubicin to enter cellular nuclei. In addition, 3 was found to be an effective MDR modulator in resistant cells by sensitizing them to doxorubicin. Tangeretin-induced caspase-3 activation and elevated surface phosphatidylserine exposure demonstrated its apoptosis-inducing activity in LoVo/Dx cells, while the other flavonoids evaluated were not active. Additionally, 3 was more toxic to resistant rather than to sensitive cancer cells. Its apoptosis-inducing activity was also higher in LoVo/Dx than in LoVo cells. It was concluded that the activity of 3 against multidrug-resistant cancer cells may be enhanced by its apoptosis-inducing activity. PMID:23137376

  4. Garcinol-induced apoptosis in prostate and pancreatic cancer cells is mediated by NF- kappaB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aamir; Wang, Zhiwei; Wojewoda, Christine; Ali, Raza; Kong, Dejuan; Maitah, Ma'in Y; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Bao, Bin; Padhye, Subhash; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2011-01-01

    Garcinol, obtained from Garcinia indica, is a potent antioxidant. Its anticancer activity has been investigated; however, there is no published report on its action against prostate and pancreatic cancer cells. We have earlier reported its activity against breast cancer cells, and here we tested our hypothesis that garcinol could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in prostate as well as pancreatic cancer cells. Using multiple techniques such as MTT, Histone-DNA ELISA, activated caspase assays, clonogenic assays and EMSA, we investigated the mechanism of apoptosis-inducing effect of garcinol in prostate (LNCaP, C4-2B and PC3) and pancreatic (BxPC-3) cancer cells. We found that garcinol inhibited cell growth of all the cell lines tested with a concomitant induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB signaling pathway appears to be the mechanism of apoptosis-induction because garcinol inhibited constitutive levels of NF-betaB activity, which was consistent with down-regulation of NF-betaB-regulated genes. A significant decrease in the colony forming ability of all the cell lines was also observed, suggesting the possible application of this compound against metastatic disease. In summary, our results provide pre-clinical evidence to support the use of garcinol against human prostate and pancreatic cancer, thus meriting its further investigation as a potential chemo-preventive and/or therapeutic agent. PMID:21622152

  5. Jaceosidin Induces Apoptosis in Human Ovary Cancer Cells through Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Lv

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the antiproliferation effect of Jaceosidin (4′, 5, 7-trihydroxy-3′, 6-dimethoxyflavone isolated from the herb of Artemisia vestita Wall on several human cancer cell lines. Jaceosidin significantly reduced the proliferation of CAOV-3, SKOV-3, HeLa, and PC3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A time-dependent inhibition was also observed in CAOV-3 cells by Jaceosidin. By flow cytometric analysis, we found that Jaceosidin treatment resulted in an increased apoptosis in CAOV-3 cells. The cells treated with Jaceosidin exhibited a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Jaceosidin also increased the level of cleaved caspase-9 and induced the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, while caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK significantly reversed the proapoptotic effect of Jaceosidin in CAOV-3 cells. Moreover, Jaceosidin elevated the level of cytochrome c in cytosol. These findings suggest that the anticancer effect of Jaceosidin may be contributed by an induction of apoptosis involving cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol.

  6. Spongiatriol Inhibits Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation and Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US, is highly resistant to all current chemotherapies, and its growth is facilitated by chronic inflammation. The majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines initiate signaling cascades that converge at the activation of the Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFκB, a signal transduction molecule that promotes cell survival, proliferation and angiogenesis. In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of NFκB, the HBOI library of pure compounds was screened using a reporter cell line that produces luciferin under the transcriptional control of NFκB. Seven compounds were identified through this screen, but in the case of five of them, their reported mechanism of action made them unlikely to be specific NFκB inhibitors. Spongiatriol, a marine furanoditerpenoid that was first isolated in the 1970s, is shown here to inhibit NFκB transcriptional activity in a reporter cell line, to reduce levels of phosphorylated (active NFκB in the AsPC-1 cell line, to have an IC50 for cytotoxicity in the low micromolar range against the AsPC-1, BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines, and to induce moderate but significant apoptosis in both the AsPC-1 and the Panc-1 cell lines.

  7. Sequestering survivin to functionalized nanoparticles: a strategy to enhance apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Ragini; Bandera, Yuriy P; Daniele, Michael A; Ledford, LeAnna L; Tietje, Ashlee; Kelso, Andrew A; Sehorn, Michael G; Wei, Yanzhang; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K; Foulger, Stephen H

    2016-04-01

    Survivin belongs to the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) and is present in most cancers while being below detection limits in most terminally differentiated adult tissues, making it an attractive protein to target for diagnostic and, potentially, therapeutic roles. Sub-100 nm poly(propargyl acrylate) (PA) particles were surface modified through the copper-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition of an azide-terminated survivin ligand derivative (azTM) originally proposed by Abbott Laboratories and speculated to bind directly to survivin (protein) at its dimer interface. Using affinity pull-down studies, it was determined that the PA/azTM nanoparticles selectively bind survivin and the particles can enhance apoptotic cell death in glioblastoma cell lines and other survivin over-expressing cell lines such as A549 and MCF7 relative to cells incubated with the original Abbott-derived small molecule inhibitor. PMID:26845086

  8. Combination of Proteasomal Inhibitors Lactacystin and MG132 Induced Synergistic Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Shirley

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteasome inhibitor Velcade (bortezomib/PS-341 has been shown to block the targeted proteolytic degradation of short-lived proteins that are involved in cell maintenance, growth, division, and death, advocating the use of proteasomal inhibitors as therapeutic agents. Although many studies focused on the use of one proteasomal inhibitor for therapy, we hypothesized that the combination of proteasome inhibitors Lactacystin (AG Scientific, Inc., San Diego, CA and MG132 (Biomol International, Plymouth Meeting, PA may be more effective in inducing apoptosis. Additionally, this regimen would enable the use of sublethal doses of individual drugs, thus reducing adverse effects. Results indicate a significant increase in apoptosis when LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with increasing levels of Lactacystin, MG132, or a combination of sublethal doses of these two inhibitors. Furthermore, induction in apoptosis coincided with a significant loss of IKKα, IKKβ, and IKKγ proteins and NFκB activity. In addition to describing effective therapeutic agents, we provide a model system to facilitate the investigation of the mechanism of action of these drugs and their effects on the IKK-NFκB axis.

  9. Downregulation of myosin VI reduced cell growth and increased apoptosis in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Weiqiang; Tan, Gewen; Sheng, Nengquan; Gong, Jianfeng; Yan, Jun; Chen, Di; Zhang, Huizhen; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, with the mortality increasing steadily over the last decade. Myosin VI (MYO6) expression is found to be elevated in some types of human carcinoma cell types, suggesting that it may be a sensitive biomarker for the diagnosis and follow-up. In this study, we first used the Oncomine database to explore the expression of MYO6 in CRC tissues, and then constructed a plasmid of RNA interference targeting MYO6 gene. After transfection of lentivirus targeting MYO6 into SW1116 cells, cell viability and proliferation were measured with 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assay. Cell cycle distribution was assayed by flow cytometry and apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V. MYO6 expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. It was found that MYO6 mRNA was upregulated in CRC tissues using data mining of public Oncomine microarray datasets. Depletion of MYO6 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, knockdown of MYO6 slightly arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase, but remarkably increased the proportion of the sub-G1 phase of cell with the increase of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that MYO6 may promote cell growth and may be used as a potential target for anticancer therapy of CRC. PMID:27044563

  10. Apoptosis-inducing effect of garcinol is mediated by NF-kappaB signaling in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aamir; Wang, Zhiwei; Ali, Raza; Maitah, Ma'in Y; Kong, Dejuan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Padhye, Subhash; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2010-04-15

    Garcinol, obtained from Garcinia indica in tropical regions, is used for its numerous biological effects. Its anti-cancer activity has been suggested but the mechanism of action has not been studied in-detail, especially there is no report on its action against breast cancer cells. Here we tested our hypothesis that garcinol may act as an anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing agent against breast cancer cell lines. Using multiple techniques such as MTT, Histone-DNA ELISA, Annexin V-PI staining, Western blot for activated caspases and cleaved PARP, homogenous caspase-3/7 fluorometric assay and EMSA, we investigated the mechanism of apoptosis-inducing effect of garcinol in ER-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. We found that garcinol exhibits dose-dependent cancer cell-specific growth inhibition in both the cell lines with a concomitant induction of apoptosis, and has no effect on non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Our results suggested induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by garcinol. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB signaling pathway was observed to be the mechanism of apoptosis-induction. Garcinol inhibited constitutive NF-kappaB activity, which was consistent with down-regulation of NF-kappaB-regulated genes. This is the first report on anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing action of garcinol against human breast cancer cells and the results suggest that this natural compound merits investigation as a potential chemo-preventive/-therapeutic agent, especially against breast cancer. PMID:20108249

  11. microRNA-218 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and promotes apoptosis by repressing TPD52 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • miR-218 expression is downregulated in prostate cancer. • miR-218 inhibits prostate tumor cells proliferation partially through promoting apoptosis. • miR-218 targets TPD52 by binding to its 3′-UTR. • miR-218 suppresses prostate cancer cell growth through inhibiting TPD52 expression. - Abstract: The tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is an oncogene overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC) due to gene amplification. Although the oncogenic effect of TPD52 is well recognized, how its expression is regulated is still not clear. This study tried to explore the regulative role of miR-218, a tumor suppressing miRNA on TPD52 expression and prostate cancer cell proliferation. We found the expression of miR-218 was significantly lower in PC specimens. Based on gain and loss of function analysis, we found miR-218 significantly inhibit cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that miR-218 plays a tumor suppressor role in PC cells. In addition, our data firstly demonstrated that miR-218 directly regulates oncogenic TPD52 in PC3 cells and the miR-218-TPD52 axis can regulate growth of this prostate cancer cell line. Knockdown of TPD52 resulted in significantly increased cancer cell apoptosis. Clearly understanding of oncogenic TPD52 pathways regulated by miR-218 might be helpful to reveal new therapeutic targets for PC

  12. Reduction of apoptosis by proanthocyanidin-induced autophagy in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chao; Zhou, Jie; Qin, Xiaokang; Shi, Xianming; Zeng, Qingqi; Liu, Jia; Yan, Shihai; Zhang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are widely present in the skin and seeds of various plants, with the highest content in grape seeds. Many experiments have shown that proanthocyanidins have antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro. Autophagy and apoptosis of tumor cells induced by drugs are two of the major causes of tumor cell death. However, reports on the effect of autophagy induced by drugs in tumor cells are not consistent and suggest that autophagy can have synergistic or antagonistic effects with apoptosis. This research was aimed at investigating whether proanthocyanidins induced autophagy and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 cells and to identify the mechanism of proanthocyanidins action to further determine the effect of proanthocyanidins-induced autophagy on apoptosis. MTT assay was used to examine the proanthocyanidin cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Transmission electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining were used to detect autophagy. Annexin V APC/7-AAD double staining and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were used to explore apoptosis. Western blotting was used to determine expression of proteins related to autophagy and apoptosis. Real-time quantitative PCR technology was used to determine the mRNA level of Beclin1 and BCL-2. The results showed that proanthocyanidins exhibit a significant inhibitory effect on the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 proliferation in vitro and simultaneously activate autophagy and apoptosis to promote cell death. Furthermore, when proanthocyanidin-induced autophagy is inhibited, apoptosis increases significantly, proanthocyanidins can be used together with autophagy inhibitors to enhance cytotoxicity. PMID:26572257

  13. Ritonavir blocks AKT signaling, activates apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weaver Donald W

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality from gynecological malignancies, often undetectable in early stages. The difficulty of detecting the disease in its early stages and the propensity of ovarian cancer cells to develop resistance to known chemotherapeutic treatments dramatically decreases the 5-year survival rate. Chemotherapy with paclitaxel after surgery increases median survival only by 2 to 3 years in stage IV disease highlights the need for more effective drugs. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is characterized by increased risk of several solid tumors due to its inherent nature of weakening of immune system. Recent observations point to a lower incidence of some cancers in patients treated with protease inhibitor (PI cocktail treatment known as HAART (Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy. Results Here we show that ritonavir, a HIV protease inhibitor effectively induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cell lines MDH-2774 and SKOV-3 in a dose dependent manner. Over a 3 day period with 20 μM ritonavir resulted in the cell death of over 60% for MDAH-2774 compared with 55% in case of SKOV-3 cell line. Ritonavir caused G1 cell cycle arrest of the ovarian cancer cells, mediated by down modulating levels of RB phosphorylation and depleting the G1 cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinase and increasing their inhibitors as determined by gene profile analysis. Interestingly, the treatment of ritonavir decreased the amount of phosphorylated AKT in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibition of AKT by specific siRNA synergistically increased the efficacy of the ritonavir-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that the addition of the AKT inhibitor may increase the therapeutic efficacy of ritonavir. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a potential use of ritonavir for ovarian cancer with additive effects in conjunction with conventional chemotherapeutic regimens. Since ritonavir is clinically

  14. HDAC2 deficiency sensitizes colon cancer cells to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NF-kappaB activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Pawan; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard; Klampfer, Lidija

    2008-04-15

    HDAC inhibitors exert potent anti-tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Their effects are selective for transformed cells, and we recently demonstrated that transformation of epithelial cells with k-Ras sensitizes cells to HDACi induced apoptosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ability of HDACi to modulate signaling by a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFalpha, is also restricted to cells that harbor mutant k-Ras. We used the system of two isogenic cell lines that differ by the presence of mutant k-Ras, HCT116 and Hke3 cells. Treatment of cells with TNFalpha alone did not induce apoptosis; however HDACi potentiated TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in both HCT116 and Hke3 cells. Thus, the ability of HDACi to sensitize cells to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis appears to be k-Ras independent. We demonstrated that HDACi inhibited TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional and DNA binding activity in both cell lines, underlying the increased apoptosis in cells treated with both agents. We showed that overexpression of HDAC2 enhanced TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and that silencing of HDAC2 decreased NF-kappaB activity. Finally, silencing of HDAC2 expression was sufficient to sensitize colon cancer cells to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. The ability of HDACi to interfere with NF-kappaB activity is likely to contribute to their potent anti-tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18314102

  15. Maitake (D fraction) mushroom extract induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by BAK-1 gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Raquel; Meireles, Manuela; Rocha, Ana; Pirraco, Ana; Obiol, Diego; Alonso, Eliana; Joos, Gisela; Balogh, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    For many years mushrooms have been used empirically in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. Study of the maitake mushroom, with its immunomodulatory and antitumoral properties, has led to the isolation of several bioactive compounds. One of these, D fraction, is known to reduce tumor cell viability. This study examined the effect of isolated D fraction on viability and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells (MCF7). These cells were treated with maitake (D fraction) extract at 18 μg/mL, 36 μg/mL, 91 μg/mL, 183 μg/mL, or 367 μg/mL or were left untreated (control) for 24 hours. MCF7 incubation with the maitake extract resulted in decreased cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay] in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was statistically significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner at every concentration tested (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay). Upon incubation with D fraction, a microarray assay revealed upregulation of BAK-1 and cytochrome c transcripts, 2 proteins directly involved in the apoptotic pathway. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies confirmed these findings; BAK-1 was one of most overexpressed gene, as observed by microarray assay. These findings confirm the apoptotic effect of maitake D fraction in breast cancer cells and further highlight the involvement of cytochrome c release to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c, another player in the apoptotic pathway, was also increased after incubation with D fraction in a dose-dependent manner. This finding indicates that the effect of this compound involves mitochondrial dysfunction. The identification of the molecular mechanisms by which D fraction exerts its effects is crucial for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies for cancer. PMID:21480800

  16. c-Src modulates estrogen-induced stress and apoptosis in estrogen-deprived breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ping; Griffith, Obi L; Agboke, Fadeke; Anur, Pavana; Zou, Xiaojun; McDaniel, Russell E.; Creswell, Karen; Kim, Sung Hoon; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Gray, Joe W; Jordan, V Craig

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer is an important clinical phenomenon affecting long-term survival in this disease. Identifying factors that convey cell survival in this setting may guide improvements in treatment. Estrogen (E2) can induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells that have been selected for survival after E2 deprivation for long periods (MCF-7:5C cells), but the mechanisms underlying E2-induced stress in this setting have not been elucidated. Here, we report t...

  17. Activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways antagonized sinomenine-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liping; Luan, Hong; Liu, Qingpeng; Jiang, Tingshu; Liang, Hongyuan; Dong, Xihua; Shang, Hong

    2012-05-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive component derived from a Chinese medicinal plant. Our previous studies demonstrated that SIN has cytotoxic effects on human lung cancer cells. However, the antitumor molecular mechanisms of SIN have yet to be elucidated in detail. In the present study, we further explored the effects of SIN on NCI-H460 human lung cancer cell viability and apoptosis and investigated the regulation and function of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways during SIN-induced apoptosis in various lung cancer cell lines. NCI-H460 cells were incubated with 200 µg/ml SIN for the indicated times (0, 24, 48 or 72 h). Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Akt, p-Akt, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 protein levels were detected by western blotting, respectively. Two different selective inhibitors (LY294002 for the PI3K pathway; PD98059 for the MEK/ERK pathway) were used to characterize the relative roles of PI3K/Akt and ERK in SIN-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. SIN inhibited the proliferation of NCI-H460 cells in a time-dependent manner, which was accompanied with significant activation of pAkt and pERK. LY294002 and PD98059 both significantly increased SIN-induced apoptosis in NCI-H460, NCI-H226 and NCI-H522 cells. Our findings suggest that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways antagonize SIN-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis and molecules that inhibit these pathways should potentiate the effects of SIN. This study represents a significant step forward in our understanding of the signal transduction pathways associated with the apoptosis elicited by SIN. PMID:22367396

  18. Tissue Tolerable Plasma (TTP) induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of microscopic incomplete resections of gastrointestinal cancers including pancreatic cancer has not changed considerably over the past years. Future intra-operative applications of tissue tolerable plasmas (TTP) could help to address this problem. Plasma is generated by feeding energy, like electrical discharges, to gases. The development of non-thermal atmospheric plasmas displaying spectra of temperature within or just above physiological ranges allows biological or medical applications of plasmas. We have investigated the effects of tissue tolerable plasmas (TTP) on the human pancreatic cancer cell line Colo-357 and PaTu8988T and the murine cell line 6606PDA in vitro (Annexin-V-FITC/DAPI-Assay and propidium iodide DNA staining assay) as well as in the in vivo tumour chorio-allantoic membrane (TUM-CAM) assay using Colo-357. TTP of 20 seconds (s) induced a mild elevation of an experimental surface temperature of 23.7 degree Celsius up to 26.63+/−0.40 degree Celsius. In vitro TTP significantly (p=0.0003) decreased cell viability showing the strongest effects after 20s TTP. Also, TTP effects increased over time levelling off after 72 hours (30.1+/−4.4% of dead cells (untreated control) versus 78.0+/−9.6% (20s TTP)). However, analyzing these cells for apoptosis 10s TTP revealed the largest proportion of apoptotic cells (34.8+/−7.2%, p=0.0009 versus 12.3+/−6.6%, 20s TTP) suggesting non-apoptotic cell death in the majority of cells after 20s TTP. Using solid Colo-357 tumours in the TUM-CAM model TUNEL-staining showed TTP-induced apoptosis up to a depth of tissue penetration (DETiP) of 48.8+/−12.3μm (20s TTP, p<0.0001). This was mirrored by a significant (p<0.0001) reduction of Ki-67+ proliferating cells (80.9+/−13.2% versus 37.7+/−14.6%, p<0.0001) in the top cell layers as well as typical changes on HE specimens. The bottom cell layers were not affected by TTP. Our data suggest possible future intra-operative applications of TTP to reduce

  19. Cytotoxic hydrogen bridged ruthenium quinaldamide complexes showing induced cancer cell death by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Rianne M; Allison, Simon J; Rafferty, Karen; Ghandhi, Laura; Pask, Christopher M; McGowan, Patrick C

    2016-08-16

    This report presents the first known p-cymene ruthenium quinaldamide complexes which are stabilised by a hydrogen-bridging atom, [{(p-cym)Ru(II)X(N,N)}{H(+)}{(N,N)XRu(II)(p-cym)}][PF6] (N,N = functionalised quinaldamide and X = Cl or Br). These complexes are formed by a reaction of [p-cymRu(μ-X)2]2 with a functionalised quinaldamide ligand. When filtered over NH4PF6, and under aerobic conditions the equilibrium of NH4PF6 ⇔ NH3 + HPF6 enables incorporation of HPF6 and the stabilisation of two monomeric ruthenium complexes by a bridging H(+), which are counter-balanced by a PF6 counterion. X-ray crystallographic analysis is presented for six new structures with OO distances of 2.420(4)-2.448(15) Å, which is significant for strong hydrogen bonds. Chemosensitivity studies against HCT116, A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780cis human cancer cells showed the ruthenium complexes with a bromide ancillary ligand to be more potent than those with a chloride ligand. The 4'-fluoro compounds show a reduction in potency for both chloride and bromide complexes against all cell lines, but an increase in selectivity towards cancer cells compared to non-cancer ARPE-19 cells, with a selectivity index >1. Mechanistic studies showed a clear correlation between IC50 values and induction of cell death by apoptosis. PMID:27417660

  20. Pristimerin inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Bashir A; Hassan, Hozeifa M; Guerram, Mounia; Hamdi, Aida M; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the world's most common cancers with a high mortality rate mainly due to metastasis. Our previous study showed that pristimerin had potent antitumor activities against human CRC cells. In the present study, we further evaluated pristimerin anti-tumor and anti-metastatic properties. MTT assay, Hoechst staining, Annexin V/PI double staining, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements were used to assess pristimerin cytotoxicity and apoptotic-inducing effects on HCT-116 cells. Wound healing assay and Transwell assay were used to estimate pristimerin anti-migration and anti-invasion activities on CRC cells. Meanwhile, HCT-116 xenograft model applied for investigating in vivo antitumor activities. Our results showed that pristimerin mediated in vitro HCT-116 cell death, through generation of intracellular ROS and apoptosis induction. Tumor volumes and weights measurements, pathological analysis and Tunnel assay proved that pristimerin inhibited in vivo HCT-116 xenografts growth. Pristimerin was also able to limit CRC invasion and metastasis. It caused downregulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its subsequent downstream p70S6K and E4-BP1 proteins. Collectively, pristimerin exerted both in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic and anti-metastatic effects on HCT-116 cells, suggesting that pristimerin has potential as a new anticancer drug for treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27044819

  1. HER2 Phosphorylates and Destabilizes Pro-Apoptotic PUMA, Leading to Antagonized Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Han, Woody; Paw, Ivy; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2013-01-01

    HER2 is overexpressed in 15–20% of breast cancers. HER2 overexpression is known to reduce apoptosis but the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms for HER2-mediated survival, we investigated the relationship between HER2 and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a potent apoptosis inducer. Our results showed that HER2 interacts with PUMA, which was independent of HER2 activation. In addition, we observed that HER2 interacted with PUMA i...

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in an in vivo model of spontaneous metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Lagioia, Michelle; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2004-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are rapidly emerging as a new generation of therapeutic drug in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. The mechanisms underlying its antitumor effects are not fully understood and more thorough preclinical trials are needed to determine if COX-2 inhibition represents a useful approach for prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth inhibitory mechanism of a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, in an in vivo oncogenic mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer that resembles human disease. The oncogenic mice carry the polyoma middle T antigen driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter and develop primary adenocarcinomas of the breast. Results show that oral administration of celecoxib caused significant reduction in mammary tumor burden associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis and decreased proliferation in vivo. In vivo apoptosis correlated with significant decrease in activation of protein kinase B/Akt, a cell survival signaling kinase, with increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, celecoxib treatment reduced levels of proangiogenic factor (vascular endothelial growth factor), suggesting a role of celecoxib in suppression of angiogenesis in this model. Results from these preclinical studies will form the basis for assessing the feasibility of celecoxib therapy alone or in combination with conventional therapies for treatment and/or prevention of breast cancer. PMID:15561779

  3. The potassium ion channel opener NS1619 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in A2780 ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diverse types of voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels have been shown to be involved in regulation of cell proliferation. The maxi-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK channels) may play an important role in the progression of human cancer. To explore the role of BK channels in regulation of apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells, the effects of the specific BK channel activator NS1619 on induction of apoptosis in A2780 cells were observed. Following treatment with NS1619, cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis of A2780 cells pretreated with NS1619 was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis of cellular DNA and flow cytometry. Our data demonstrate that NS1619 inhibits the proliferation of A2780 cells in a dosage and time dependent manner IC50 = 31.1 μM, for 48 h pretreatment and induces apoptosis. Western blot analyses showed that the anti-proliferation effect of NS1619 was associated with increased expression of p53, p21, and Bax. These results indicate that BK channels play an important role in regulating proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells and may induce apoptosis through induction of p21Cip1 expression in a p53-dependent manner

  4. Leaf extracts from Moricandia arvensis promote antiproliferation of human cancer cells, induce apoptosis, and enhance antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Limem, Ilef; Kilani, Soumaya; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidant activities from leaf extracts of Moricandia arvensis, which are used in traditional cooking and medicines, were investigated. The MTT assay revealed that only TOF (total oligomer flavonoids), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells. Apoptosis plays a very important role in the treatment of cancer by promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells and limiting the concurrent death of normal cells. Thus, the possible effects of M. arvensis extracts on the induction of apoptosis in human leukemic cells (K562 cells) were investigated. The electrophoretic analysis of DNA fragmentation confirms that TOF, Chl, PE, and EA extracts provoke DNA fragmentation. Using the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the antioxidant capacity of M. arvensis extracts was evaluated by the ability of each extract to inhibit malondialdehyde formation. It was revealed that EA and TOF extracts are the most active in scavenging the hydroxyl radicals. PMID:19995267

  5. Allitridi induces apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activity in human gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LAN; You-yong LU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of allitridi-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823.METHODS: Growth inhibition by allitridi was analyzed using cell growth curve and MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were detected using staining with Hoechst 33342, and confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation analysis. The protein expression affected by allitridi was determined using Western blot. The activity of caspase-3 was measured using a fluorescence assay. RESULTS: Allitridi induced apoptosis, and then inhibited cells proliferation in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823. The protein level of Bcl-2 was decreased dramatically,while Bax and p53 were not significantly affected by allitridi. The expression and activity of caspase-3 started to increase after allitridi treatment for 72 h. CONCLUSION: Allitridi induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Bcl-2, and increased caspase-3 expression and its activity.

  6. Cancer Preventive Efficacy of Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin: Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations have shown that overcoming the risk of cancer is related to the consumption of green vegetables and fruits. Many compounds from different origins, such as terrestrial plants and marine and microbial sources, have been reported to have therapeutic effects of which marine sources are the most important because the diversity of marine life is more varied than other sources. Fucoxanthin is one important compound with a marine origin and belongs to the group of carotenoids; it can be found in marine brown seaweeds, macroalgae, and diatoms, all of which have remarkable biological properties. Numerous studies have shown that fucoxanthin has considerable medicinal potential and promising applications in human health. In this review, we summarize the anticancer effects of fucoxanthin through several different mechanisms including anti-proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and anti-angiogenesis, and its possible role in the treatment of cancer.

  7. Thiazole antibiotic thiostrepton synergize with bortezomib to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul Pandit

    Full Text Available Thiazole antibiotic, thiostrepton was recently identified as proteasome inhibitor. We investigated the therapeutic potential of the combination of thiostrepton and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade on various human tumor cell lines. Combination of sub-lethal concentrations of thiostrepton and bortezomib induced potent apoptosis and inhibition of long-term colony formation in a wide variety of human cancer cell lines. The synergistic relationship between thiostrepton and bortezomib combination was also quantitatively demonstrated by calculating their combination index values that were much lower than 1 in all studied cell lines. The synergy between these drugs was based on their proteasome inhibitory activities, because thiostrepton modification, thiostrepton methyl ester, which did not have intact quinaldic acid ring and did not inhibit proteasome activity failed to demonstrate any synergy in combination with bortezomib.

  8. Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) Stigma Aqueous Extract Induces Apoptosis in Alveolar Human Lung Cancer Cells through Caspase-Dependent Pathways Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Samarghandian; Abasalt Borji; Seyed Kazem Farahmand; Reza Afshari; Saeideh Davoodi

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer. Saffron has been used in folk medicine for centuries. We investigated the potential of saffron to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in lung cancer cells (A549). We also examined the caspase-dependent pathways activation of saffron-induced apoptosis against the A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of saffron extract; then cell morphological changes, cell viability, and apoptosis were determined by the...

  9. Synergistic chemopreventive effects of curcumin and berberine on human breast cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and autophagic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Chao; Bao, Jiaolin; Jia, Xuejing; Liang, Yeer; Wang, Xiaotong; Chen, Meiwan; Su, Huanxing; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) and berberine (BBR) are renowned natural compounds that exhibit potent anticancer activities through distinct molecular mechanisms. However, the anticancer capacity of either CUR or BBR is limited. This prompted us to investigate the chemopreventive potential of co-treatment of CUR and BBR against breast cancers. The results showed that CUR and BBR in combination synergistically inhibited the growth of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells than the compounds used alone. Further study confirmed that synergistic anti-breast cancer activities of co-treatment of these two compounds was through inducing more apoptosis and autophagic cell death (ACD). The co-treatment-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and through activating ERK pathways. Our data also demonstrated that co-treatment of CUR and BBR strongly up-regulated phosphorylation of JNK and Beclin1, and decreased phosphorylated Bcl-2. Inhibition of JNK by SP600125 markedly decreased LC3-II and Beclin1, restored phosphorylated Bcl-2, and reduced the cytotoxicity induced by the two compounds in combination. These results strongly suggested that JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin1 pathway played a key role in the induction of ACD in breast cancer cells by co-treatment of CUR and BBR. This study provides an insight into the potential application of curcumin and berberine in combination for the chemoprevention and treatment of breast cancers. PMID:27263652

  10. Arsenic Trioxide Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis through Inactivation of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic trioxide has been reported to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptotic cell death in many human cancer cells including breast cancer. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activity of arsenic trioxide are still largely unknown. In the present study, we assessed the effects of arsenic trioxide on cell viability and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. For mechanistic studies, we used multiple cellular and molecular approaches such as MTT assay, apoptosis ELISA assay, gene transfection, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and invasion assays. For the first time, we found a significant reduction in cell viability in arsenic trioxide-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was consistent with induction of apoptosis and also associated with down-regulation of Notch-1 and its target genes. Taken together, our findings provide evidence showing that the down-regulation of Notch-1 by arsenic trioxide could be an effective approach, to cause down-regulation of Bcl-2, and NF-κB, resulting in the inhibition of cell growth and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that the anti-tumor activity of arsenic trioxide is in part mediated through a novel mechanism involving inactivation of Notch-1 and its target genes. We also suggest that arsenic trioxide could be further developed as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  11. Effects of berberine on proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of human breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Barzegar

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Berberine alone and in combination with doxorubicin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and altered cell cycle distribution of breast cancer cells. Therefore, berberine showed to be a good candidate for further studies as a new anticancer drug in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  12. PRIMA-1, a mutant p53 reactivator, induces apoptosis and enhances chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izetti, Patricia; Hautefeuille, Agnes; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Giacomazzi, Juliana; Alemar, Bárbara; Lenz, Guido; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Osvaldt, Alessandro Bersch; Hainaut, Pierre; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    TP53 mutation is a common event in many cancers, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, where it occurs in 50-70 % of cases. In an effort to reactivate mutant p53 protein, several new drugs are being developed, including PRIMA-1 and PRIMA-1(Met)/APR-246 (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis). PRIMA-1 has been shown to induce apoptosis in tumor cells by reactivating p53 mutants, but its effect in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. Here we investigated the effects of PRIMA-1 on cell viability, cell cycle and expression of p53-regulated proteins in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 (mutant TP53), and CAPAN-2 (wild-type TP53) pancreatic cell lines. Treatment with PRIMA-1 selectively induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in p53 mutant cells compared to CAPAN-2 cells. The growth suppressive effect of PRIMA-1 was markedly reduced in p53 mutant cell lines transfected with p53 siRNA, supporting the role of mutant p53 in PRIMA-1 induced cell death. Moreover, treatment with the thiol group donor N-acetylcysteine completely blocked PRIMA-1-induced apoptosis and reinforced the hypothesis that thiol modifications are important for PRIMA-1 biological activity. In combination treatments, PRIMA-1 enhanced the anti-tumor activity of several chemotherapic drugs against pancreatic cancer cells and also exhibited a pronounced synergistic effect in association with the Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. Taken together, our data indicate that PRIMA-1 induces apoptosis in p53 mutant pancreatic cancer cells by promoting the re-activation of p53 and inducing proapoptotic signaling pathways, providing in vitro evidence for a potential therapeutic approach in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24838627

  13. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer (MCF7) Cells by n-Hexane Extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Poppy Anjelisa Z.

    2016-01-01

    The n-hexane extract of Plectranthus amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng. reduced the proliferation of MCF7 cells. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the extract on human breast cancer cells viability and apoptosis. To detect apoptotic cells, MCF7 cells were stained with etydium bromide-acrydine orange (double staining method). Quantitative detectin of apoptotic cells was performed by fluorescens microscope. The growth of MCF7 was inhibited by treatment with n-h...

  14. Induction of Apoptosis in Hormone-resistant Human Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells by Inactivated Sendai Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; GONG Xiao Cheng; CHEN Ze Dong; XU Xiao Shuang; ZHANG Quan; XU Xiang Ming

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveInactivated Sendai virus particle [hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E)] has a potential oncolytic effect due to its ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction in cancer cellsmediated by HVJ-E has not been fully elucidated.This paper aims to investigate the underlying mechanism of apoptosis induction by HVJ-E in prostate cancer cells (PC3). MethodsPC3 cells were treated with HVJ-E at various MOI, and theninterferon-β (IFN-β) production, and the cell viability and apoptosis were detected by ELISA, MTT-based assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Next, the roles of Jak-Stat, MAPK and Akt pathways played in HVJ-E-induced apoptosis in PC3 cells were analyzed by immunoblot assay. To further evaluate the cytotoxic effect of HVJ-E on PC3 cells, HVJ-E was intratumorally injected into prostate cancers on BALB/c-nude mice, and the tumor volume was monitored for 36 days. ResultsHVJ-E induced IFN-β production and activatedJak-Stat signaling pathway, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP in PC3 prostate cancer cells post HVJ-E treatment. Furthermore, we observed for the first time that p38 and Jnk MAPKs in PC3 cells contributed to HVJ-E-induced apoptosis. In addition,intratumoralHVJ-E treatmentdisplayed a directinhibitoryeffect in anin vivo BALB/cnude mouseprostate cancermodel. ConclusionOur findingshaveprovided novel insights into the underlying mechanismsby whichHVJ-E induces apoptosisin tumor cells.

  15. Barnase as a new therapeutic agent triggering apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Edelweiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNases are currently studied as non-mutagenic alternatives to the harmful DNA-damaging anticancer drugs commonly used in clinical practice. Many mammalian RNases are not potent toxins due to the strong inhibition by ribonuclease inhibitor (RI presented in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In search of new effective anticancer RNases we studied the effects of barnase, a ribonuclease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, on human cancer cells. We found that barnase is resistant to RI. In MTT cell viability assay, barnase was cytotoxic to human carcinoma cell lines with half-inhibitory concentrations (IC(50 ranging from 0.2 to 13 microM and to leukemia cell lines with IC(50 values ranging from 2.4 to 82 microM. Also, we characterized the cytotoxic effects of barnase-based immunoRNase scFv 4D5-dibarnase, which consists of two barnase molecules serially fused to the single-chain variable fragment (scFv of humanized antibody 4D5 that recognizes the extracellular domain of cancer marker HER2. The scFv 4D5-dibarnase specifically bound to HER2-positive cells and was internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The intracellular localization of internalized scFv 4D5-dibarnase was determined by electronic microscopy. The cytotoxic effect of scFv 4D5-dibarnase on HER2-positive human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells (IC(50 = 1.8 nM was three orders of magnitude greater than that of barnase alone. Both barnase and scFv 4D5-dibarnase induced apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells accompanied by internucleosomal chromatin fragmentation, membrane blebbing, the appearance of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, and the activation of caspase-3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that barnase is a potent toxic agent for targeting to cancer cells.

  16. miR-96 regulates FOXO1-mediated cell apoptosis in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Liu, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Chao; Song, Yongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies and a leading cause of genitourinary system cancer mortality worldwide. The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1, a member of the forkhead box O (FOXO) subfamily of transcription factors, is downregulated in a number of cancers, including TCC; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we used microRNA (miRNA) target prediction algorithms to identify a conserved potential miR-96 binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of FOXO1. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and northern blot analysis, we identified that miR-96 was downregulated in TCC tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (NB), suggesting that the loss of FOXO1 expression in TCC may be mediated by miR-96. To confirm this, we transfected pre-miR-96/anti-miR-96 into the T24 TCC cell line and revealed that miR-96 expression was sufficient to significantly reduce FOXO1 expression. Conversely, FOXO1 expression was not completely restored by the inhibition of miR-96 in T24 cells. Moreover, RNA silencing of FOXO1 significantly reduced miR-96 inhibitor-mediated T24 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the miR-96 targeting of FOXO1 is upregulated in TCC; in addition, TCC tumorigenesis may be partly due to the ability of miR-96 to promote FOXO1 repression, thereby bypassing cell apoptosis controls. PMID:23741253

  17. Reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis contributes to chemosensitization effect of saikosaponins on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells

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    He Fan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saikosaponin-a and -d, two naturally occurring compounds derived from Bupleurum radix, have been shown to exert anti-cancer activity in several cancer cell lines. However, the effect of combination of saikosaponins with chemotherapeutic drugs has never been addressed. Thus, we investigated whether these two saikosaponins have chemosensitization effect on cisplatin-induced cancer cell cytotoxicity. Methods Two cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and Siha, an ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3, and a non-small cell lung cancer cell line, A549, were treated with saikosaponins or cisplatin individually or in combination. Cell death was quantitatively detected by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH using a cytotoxicity detection kit. Cellular ROS was analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by AO/EB staining, flow cytometry after Anexin V and PI staining, and Western blot for caspase activation. ROS scavengers and caspase inhibitor were used to determine the roles of ROS and apoptosis in the effects of saikosaponins on cisplatin-induced cell death. Results Both saikosaponin-a and -d sensitized cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. The dead cells showed typical apoptotic morphologies. Both early apoptotic and late apoptotic cells detected by flow cytometry were increased in saikosaponins and cisplatin cotreated cells, accompanied by activation of the caspase pathway. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD and ROS scanvengers butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC dramatically suppressed the potentiated cytotoxicity achieved by combination of saikosaponin-a or -d and cisplatin. Conclusions These results suggest that saikosaponins sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin through ROS-mediated apoptosis, and the combination of saikosaponins with cisplatin could be an effective therapeutic strategy.

  18. Fatty acid esters of phloridzin induce apoptosis of human liver cancer cells through altered gene expression.

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    Sandhya V G Nair

    Full Text Available Phloridzin (phlorizin or phloretin 2'-O-glucoside is known for blocking intestinal glucose absorption. We have investigated the anticarcinogenic effect of phloridzin and its novel derivatives using human cancer cell lines. We have synthesised novel acylated derivatives of phloridzin with six different long chain fatty acids by regioselective enzymatic acylation using Candida Antarctica lipase B. The antiproliferative effects of the new compounds were investigated in comparison with the parent compounds, phloridzin, aglycone phloretin, the six free fatty acids and chemotherapeutic drugs (sorafenib, doxorubicin and daunorubicin using human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells and acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells along with normal human and rat hepatocytes. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited significantly the growth of the two carcinoma and leukemia cells while similar treatment doses were not toxic to normal human or rat hepatocytes. The antiproliferative potency of fatty esters of phloridzin was comparable to the potency of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited DNA topoisomerases IIα activity that might induce G0/G1 phase arrest, induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3, and decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Based on the high selectivity on cancer cells, decosahexaenoic acid (DHA ester of phloridzin was selected for gene expression analysis using RT2PCR human cancer drug target array. Antiproliferative effect of DHA ester of phloridzin could be related to the down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2, growth factor receptors (EBFR family, IGF1R/IGF2, PDGFR and its downstream signalling partners (PI3k/AKT/mTOR, Ras/Raf/MAPK, cell cycle machinery (CDKs, TERT, TOP2A, TOP2B as well as epigenetics regulators (HDACs. These results suggest that fatty esters of phloridzin have potential chemotherapeutic effects

  19. Downregulation of XIAP and induction of apoptosis by the synthetic cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor GW8510 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengqin; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Lidong; Wu, Shuhong; Teraishi, Fuminori; Davis, John J; Fang, Bingliang

    2006-02-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in certain cancer cells. In order to evaluate the antitumor activity of one such inhibitor, GW8510, against human lung cancers, we analyzed the effects of GW8510 on six nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549, H1299, H460, H226, H358 and H322) and normal human fibroblast (NHFB). We treated the cells with GW8510 at concentrations of 0-10 microM, and found that it suppressed cell growth in vitro in all the lung cancer cells but not in NHFB. Subsequent study showed that GW8510 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the A549, H1299 and H460 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that GW8510 downregulated the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) but had no detectable effect on the expression of Bax, Bak, or Bcl2. GW8510 also downregulated XIAP mRNA level, suggesting that downregulation of XIAP expression occurs at the transcriptional level. Moreover, ectopic XIAP expression diminished growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by GW8510. Importantly, GW8510 was not capable of inducing apoptosis of NHFB cells. These results suggest that GW8510 might provide a treatment strategy for human NSCLC and XIAP is an important target for GW8510-induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells that occurs through inhibition of XIAP mRNA transcription. PMID:16322690

  20. Effects of MSH2 gene re-expression on estrogen induced-apoptosis of colon cancer cells LOVO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晨曦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of MSH2 gene reexpression on estrogen-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells LOVO,and to explore its mechanisms.Methods According to different plasmid and whether with estradiol intervention,colon cancer LOVO cells were divided into empty plasmid with ethanol group,empty plasmid with estradiol group,MSH2 with ethanol group,MSH2 with

  1. RNA interference-mediated silencing of speckle-type POZ protein promotes apoptosis of renal cell cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Guiling; Sun, Xiuju

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) gene on renal cell cancer (RCC) cells and to explore its possible mechanism. The A498 and ACHN RCC cells were transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA)-SPOP by lipofection methods. The silencing efficiency was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effects of SPOP silencing on cell apoptosis, cell viability, colony formation ability, cell migration ability, and chemosensitivity to Sorafenib were assessed by flow cytometry, an MTT assay, a colony formation assay, a trans-well migration assay, and a CCK-8 assay, respectively. Its effects on the expression of several cytokines were determined by a protein microarray. Relevant signaling pathways were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher; the cell viability, the colony formation, and migration ability were significantly decreased in the siRNA-SPOP group. The protein microarray screening showed that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the siRNA group was significantly decreased and that the expression of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and E-cadherin was significantly increased (P<0.05). The relevant signaling pathways were the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions pathway and extracellular matrix organization signal pathway. SPOP gene silencing induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell viability, colony formation, and migration ability, and elevated the drug sensitivity in the RCC cells. A possible mechanism is that silencing SPOP induces the differential expression of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, which are related to the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions and extracellular

  2. Mechanisms of ceramide-induced COX-2-dependent apoptosis in human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells partially overlapped with resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Delmas, Dominique; Vang, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    kinase-dependent apoptosis in human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cells, concomitant with an increase in the expression of COX-2 and p53 phosphorylation. Blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity by siRNA or NS398 correspondingly inhibited ceramide-induced p53 Ser-15 phosphorylation and apoptosis; thus COX......, resveratrol and ceramide converge on an endocytosis-requiring, ERK1/2-dependent signal transduction pathway and induction of COX-expression as an essential molecular antecedent for subsequent p53-dependent apoptosis. In addition, expressions of caspase-3 and -7 are observed. However, a p38 kinase...

  3. Effect of Photodynamic Therapy with BPD-MA on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanshan Xu; Shiming Wu; Zhigang Wang; Lehua Yu; Qing Yang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of photodynamic therapy with benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells.METHODS Rhotosensitization of BPD-MA was activated with a red light laser (632.8 nm) delivered at 10 mw/cm2 to give a total dose of 2.4 J/cm2.Cellular proliferative activity was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylethiazil-2-yl)-2,5-Diph3-eyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Cell apoptosis was determined with flow cytometry analysis and the terminal deoxyuridine nicked-labeling (TUNEL) assay.RESULTS At 24 h post photodynamic treatment, photodynamic therapy significantly decreased cellular proliferative activity. The rate of apoptosis in BIU-87 cells 8 h after photodynamic treatment significantly increased up to 26.11± 2.59% as analyzed with flow cytometry. In situ labeling of DNA cleavage products with the terminal deoxyuridine nicked-labeling (TUNEL) assay reinforced these observations, BPD-MA-mediated photosensitization increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells compared to the controls. However, laser irradiation alone, BPD-MA alone and sham radiation did not affect cellular proliferative activity or apoptosis of the human bladder cancer BIU-87 cells.CONCLUSION Photodynamic therapy with BPD-MA significantly decreases cellular proliferative activity and enhances apoptosis. Therapy using this method might be a promising approach to treat patients with bladder cancer.

  4. Viola tricolor Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Exhibits Antiangiogenic Activity on Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Sadeghnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc, n-butanol, and water fractions (0–800 μg/mL of Viola tricolor were investigated in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition, antiangiogenic effect of EtOAc fraction was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The quality of EtOAc fraction was also characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprint. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that EtOAc fraction was the most potent among all fractions with maximal effect on MCF-7 and minimal toxicity against normal murine fibroblast L929 cells. Apoptosis induction by EtOAc fraction was confirmed by increased sub-G1 peak of propidium iodide (PI stained cells. This fraction triggered the apoptotic pathway by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 level. Moreover, treatment with EtOAc fraction significantly decreased the diameter of vessels on CAM, while the number of newly formed blood vessels was not suppressed significantly. Analysis of quality of EtOAc fraction using HPLC fingerprint showed six major peaks with different retention times. The results of the present study suggest that V. tricolor has potential anticancer property by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis.

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of ROS-Mediated Oridonin-Induced Oesophageal Cancer KYSE-150 Cell Apoptosis by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Pi

    Full Text Available High levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in cells is recognized as one of the major causes of cancer cell apoptosis and has been developed into a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. However, whether apoptosis associated biophysical properties of cancer cells are related to intracellular ROS functions is still unclear. Here, for the first time, we determined the changes of biophysical properties associated with the ROS-mediated oesophageal cancer KYSE-150 cell apoptosis using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM. Oridonin was proved to induce ROS-mediated KYSE-150 cell apoptosis in a dose dependent manner, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC pretreatment. Based on AFM imaging, the morphological damage and ultrastructural changes of KYSE-150 cells were found to be closely associated with ROS-mediated oridonin-induced KYSE-150 cell apoptosis. The changes of cell stiffness determined by AFM force measurement also demonstrated ROS-dependent changes in oridonin induced KYSE-150 cell apoptosis. Our findings not only provided new insights into the anticancer effects of oridonin, but also highlighted the use of AFM as a qualitative and quantitative nanotool to detect ROS-mediated cancer cell apoptosis based on cell biophysical properties, providing novel information of the roles of ROS in cancer cell apoptosis at nanoscale.

  6. Exogenous and Endogeneous Disialosyl Ganglioside GD1b Induces Apoptosis of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Ji-Min; Kwon, Kyung-Min; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Abekura, Fukushi; Park, Jun-Young; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Kichoon; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Young-Choon; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gangliosides have been known to play a role in the regulation of apoptosis in cancer cells. This study has employed disialyl-ganglioside GD1b to apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using exogenous treatment of the cells with GD1b and endogenous expression of GD1b in MCF-7 cells. First, apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was observed after treatment of GD1b. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b reduced cell growth rates in a dose and time dependent manner during GD1b treatment, as determined by XTT assay. Among the various gangliosides, GD1b specifically induced apoptosis of the MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assays showed that GD1b specifically induces apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells with Annexin V binding for apoptotic actions in early stage and propidium iodide (PI) staining the nucleus of the MCF-7 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b activated apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP (Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase), without any change in the expression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis molecules such as Bax and Bcl-2. Second, to investigate the effect of endogenously produced GD1b on the regulation of cell function, UDP-gal: β1,3-galactosyltransferase-2 (GD1b synthase, Gal-T2) gene has been transfected into the MCF-7 cells. Using the GD1b synthase-transfectants, apoptosis-related signal proteins linked to phenotype changes were examined. Similar to the exogenous GD1b treatment, the cell growth of the GD1b synthase gene-transfectants was significantly suppressed compared with the vector-transfectant cell lines and transfection activated the apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP, but not the levels of expression of Bax and Bcl-2. GD1b-induced apoptosis was blocked by caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD. Therefore, taken together, it was concluded that GD1b could play an important role in the regulation of breast cancer apoptosis. PMID:27144558

  7. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells through mitochondria-dependent and -independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Siu-Wan; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Huang, An-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Ya-Yin; Huang, Hui-Ying; Lin, Zen-Pin; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Yang, Mei-Due; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-05-01

    Although there have been advances in the fields of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy of tongue cancer, the cure rates are still not substantially satisfactory. Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the major pungent ingredient of hot chili pepper and has been reported to have an antitumor effect on many human cancer cell types. The molecular mechanisms of the antitumor effect of capsaicin are not yet completely understood. Herein, we investigated whether capsaicin induces apoptosis in human tongue cancer cells. Capsaicin decreased the percentage of viable cells in a dose-dependent manner in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. In addition, capsaicin produced DNA fragmentation, decreased the DNA contents (sub-G1 phase), and induced G0/G1 phase arrest in SCC-4 cells. We demonstrated that capsaicin-induced apoptosis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and Ca²⁺ generations and a disruption of the mitochondrial transmenbrane potential (ΔΨ(m)). Treatment with capsaicin induced a dramatic increase in caspase-3 and -9 activities, as assessed by flow cytometric methods. A possible mechanism of capsaicin-induced apoptosis is involved in the activation of caspase-3 (one of the apoptosis-executing enzyme). Confocal laser microscope examination also showed that capsaicin induced the releases of AIF, ATF-4, and GADD153 from mitochondria of SCC-4 cells. PMID:20925121

  8. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells by Methanol Fraction of Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeja G Pillai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing activities of the methanol extract from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng in an attempt to determine whether the medicinal uses are supported by pharmacological effects. Cytotoxicity was determined by sulforhodamine B assay method. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing effect were evaluated in- vitro using human colon cancer cell line, COLO 205. There was statistically significant cell growth inhibition at the doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml methanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng. Similarly, Plectranthus amboinicus at the doses of 50 and 100 µg/ml induced apoptosis in COLO 205 cells. The results suggest that the methanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng possesses anti- proliferative and apoptosis inducing activities, supporting the folk use of this medicinal species.

  9. Belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells involve activation of TAK1-AMPK signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Belinostat activates AMPK in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. •Activation of AMPK is important for belinostat-induced cytotoxic effects. •ROS and TAK1 are involved in belinostat-induced AMPK activation. •AMPK activation mediates mTOR inhibition by belinostat. -- Abstract: Pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Recent studies have shown that belinostat, a novel pan histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was required for belinostat-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A significant AMPK activation was induced by belinostat in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of AMPK by RNAi knockdown or dominant negative (DN) mutation significantly inhibited belinostat-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Reversely, AMPK activator AICAR and A-769662 exerted strong cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Belinostat promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PANC-1 cells, increased ROS induced transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1)/AMPK association to activate AMPK. Meanwhile, anti-oxidants N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and MnTBAP as well as TAK1 shRNA knockdown suppressed belinostat-induced AMPK activation and PANC-1 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we propose that belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition require the activation of ROS-TAK1-AMPK signaling axis in cultured pancreatic cancer cells

  10. Belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells involve activation of TAK1-AMPK signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbin69@yahoo.com; Wang, Xin-bao; Chen, Li-yu; Huang, Ling; Dong, Rui-zen

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Belinostat activates AMPK in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. •Activation of AMPK is important for belinostat-induced cytotoxic effects. •ROS and TAK1 are involved in belinostat-induced AMPK activation. •AMPK activation mediates mTOR inhibition by belinostat. -- Abstract: Pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Recent studies have shown that belinostat, a novel pan histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was required for belinostat-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A significant AMPK activation was induced by belinostat in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of AMPK by RNAi knockdown or dominant negative (DN) mutation significantly inhibited belinostat-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Reversely, AMPK activator AICAR and A-769662 exerted strong cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Belinostat promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PANC-1 cells, increased ROS induced transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1)/AMPK association to activate AMPK. Meanwhile, anti-oxidants N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and MnTBAP as well as TAK1 shRNA knockdown suppressed belinostat-induced AMPK activation and PANC-1 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we propose that belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition require the activation of ROS-TAK1-AMPK signaling axis in cultured pancreatic cancer cells.

  11. Withaferin A induces apoptosis through the generation of thiol oxidation in human head and neck cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Won; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Dong Eun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone purified from the Indian medicinal plant, Withania somnifera. Withaferin A has been shown to inhibit the proliferation, metastasis, invasion and angiogenesis of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated whether withaferin A induces apoptosis in the human head and neck cancer cells, AMC-HN4. Withaferin A markedly increased the sub-G1 cell population and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which are markers of apoptosis. Pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk (z-VAD), markedly inhibited the withaferin A-induced apoptosis. However, the withaferin A-induced increase in the expression of COX-2 was not affected by treatment with z-VAD. Furthermore, withaferin A upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, reduced the withaferin A-induced production of prostaglandin E2. However, treatment with NS-398 did not affect the sub-G1 population and the cleavage of PARP. In addition, the withaferin A-induced apoptosis was independent of reactive oxygen species production. Thiol donors [N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and dithiothreitol (DTT)] reversed withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Therefore, our data suggest that withaferin A induces apoptosis through the mechanism of thiol oxidation in head and neck carcinoma cells. PMID:25351115

  12. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei

    2016-06-17

    Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. PMID:27163639

  13. Parthenolide enhances sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to TRAIL by inducing death receptor 5 and promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Lim; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Park, Young Ran; Seo, Seung Young; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, In Hee; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae-Ghon; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent. Recombinant human TRAIL has been evaluated in clinical trials, however, various malignant tumors are resistant to TRAIL. Parthenolide (PT) has recently been demonstrated as a highly effective anticancer agent and has been suggested to be used for combination therapy with other anticancer agents. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which PT sensitizes colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. HT-29 (TRAIL-resistant) and HCT116 (TRAIL-sensitive) cells were treated with PT and/or TRAIL. The results demonstrated that combined treatment induced apoptosis which was determined using MTT, cell cycle analysis, Annexin V assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. Interestingly, we confirmed that HCT116 cells have much higher death receptor (DR) 5 than HT-29 cells and PT upregulates DR5 protein level and surface expression in both cell lines. Apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway was confirmed by detecting regulation of Bcl-2 family members, p53 cytochrome C release, and caspase cascades. These results suggest that PT sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via upregulation of DR5 and mitochondria-dependent pathway. Combination treatment using PT and TRAIL may offer an effective strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance of certain CRC cells. PMID:25502339

  14. Pro-apoptosis Effect of Survivin T34A Mutant on Cancer Cells in Vitro and Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing; MA Lan; WU Hao; LIU Lian-ke

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pro-apoptosis effect of Survivin T34A mutant on cancer cells in vitro and vivo. Methods: After highly-metastasized breast cancer cells (4T1 cells) were transfected with Survivin T34A plasmid and wild survivin plasmid, cell proliferation was analyzed using tetrazolium blue (MTT) assay and apoptosis was detected with lfow cytometry. In animal experiments, mice were vaccinated subcutaneously with 4T1 cells and treated with T34A plasmid and wild survivin plasmid. The tumor volume and weight, wet weight of the lung, number of pulmonary metastasis nodule were measured. H&E staining and TUNEL detection of tumor apoptosis were performed after mice were executed. Results: The cell survival rate was signiifcantly decreased (P<0.01) and apoptotic rate increased (P<0.01) after treatment with Survivin T34A plasmid in vitro. In vivo, 4 days after treatment, tumor volume was signiifcantly smaller, mean tumor weight and mean wet weight of the lung were obviously lighter, and pulmonary metastasis nodule was evidently fewer (P<0.05). The apoptotic cells and large areas of necrosis were observed, and apoptotic index was increased (P<0.05). Conclusion:Survivin T34A can induce the apoptosis of 4T1 cells with specificity and may become a new approach to breast cancer.

  15. 14-3-3 zeta is a molecular target in guggulsterone induced apoptosis in Head and Neck cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The five-year survival rates for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are less than 50%, and the prognosis has not improved, despite advancements in standard multi-modality therapies. Hence major emphasis is being laid on identification of novel molecular targets and development of multi-targeted therapies. 14-3-3 zeta, a multifunctional phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding protein, is emerging as an effector of pro-survival signaling by binding to several proteins involved in apoptosis (Bad, FKHRL1 and ASK1) and may serve as an appropriate target for head and neck cancer therapy. Herein, we determined effect of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, on 14-3-3 zeta associated molecular pathways for abrogation of apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells. Head and neck cancer cells were treated with guggulsterone (GS). Effect of GS-treatment was evaluated using cell viability (MTT) assay and apoptosis was verified by annexin V, DNA fragmentation and M30 CytoDeath antibody assay. Mechanism of GS-induced apoptosis was determined by western blotting and co-IP assays using specific antibodies. Using in vitro models of head and neck cancer, we showed 14-3-3 zeta as a key player regulating apoptosis in GS treated SCC4 cells. Treatment with GS releases BAD from the inhibitory action of 14-3-3 zeta in proliferating HNSCC cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These events initiate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, as revealed by increased levels of cytochrome c in cytoplasmic extracts of GS-treated SCC4 cells. In addition, GS treatment significantly reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, xIAP, Mcl1, survivin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, thus committing cells to apoptosis. These events were followed by activation of caspase 9, caspase 8 and caspase 3 leading to cleavage of its downstream target, poly-ADP-ribose phosphate (PARP). GS targets 14-3-3 zeta associated cellular pathways for reducing

  16. Honokiol arrests cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and potentiates the cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Arora

    Full Text Available Survival rates for patients with pancreatic cancer are extremely poor due to its asymptomatic progression to advanced and metastatic stage for which current therapies remain largely ineffective. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents and treatment approaches are desired to improve the clinical outcome. In this study, we determined the effects of honokiol, a biologically active constituent of oriental medicinal herb Magnolia officinalis/grandiflora, on two pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaCa and Panc1, alone and in combination with the standard chemotherapeutic drug, gemcitabine. Honokiol exerted growth inhibitory effects on both the pancreatic cancer cell lines by causing cell cycle arrest at G₁ phase and induction of apoptosis. At the molecular level, honokiol markedly decreased the expression of cyclins (D1 and E and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk2 and Cdk4, and caused an increase in Cdk inhibitors, p21 and p27. Furthermore, honokiol treatment led to augmentation of Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-xL ratios to favor apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. These changes were accompanied by enhanced cytoplasmic accumulation of NF-κB with a concomitant decrease in nuclear fraction and reduced transcriptional activity of NF-κB responsive promoter. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκB-α causing its stabilization and thus increased cellular levels. Importantly, honokiol also potentiated the cytotoxic effects of gemcitabine, in part, by restricting the gemcitabine-induced nuclear accumulation of NF-κB in the treated pancreatic cancer cell lines. Altogether, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the growth inhibitory effects of honokiol in pancreatic cancer and indicate its potential usefulness as a novel natural agent in prevention and therapy.

  17. β-Carotene-induced apoptosis is mediated with loss of Ku proteins in gastric cancer AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoona; Choi, Jiyeon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-07-01

    High dietary intakes and high blood levels of β-carotene are associated with a decreased incidence of various cancers. The anticancer effect of β-carotene is related to its pro-oxidant activity. DNA repair Ku proteins, as a heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku80, play a crucial role in DNA double-strand break repair. Reductions in Ku70/80 contribute to apoptosis. Previously, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate caspase-3 which induces degradation of Ku proteins. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of β-carotene-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer AGS cells by determining cell viability, DNA fragmentation, apoptotic indices (increases in cytochrome c and Bax, decrease in Bcl-2), ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activity, Ku70/80 levels, and Ku-DNA-binding activity of the cells treated with or without antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine and caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVED-fmk. As a result, β-carotene induced apoptosis (decrease in cell viability, increases in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic indices) and caspase-3 activation, but decreased Ku70/80 levels and Ku-DNA-binding activity. β-Carotene-induced alterations (increase in caspase-3 activity, decrease in Ku proteins) and apoptosis were inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine and z-DEVED-fmk. Increment of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were suppressed by N-acetyl cysteine, but not by z-DEVED-fmk in β-carotene-treated cells. Therefore, β-carotene-induced increases in ROS and caspase-3 activity may lead to reduction of Ku70/80 levels, which results in apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Loss of Ku proteins might be the underlying mechanism for β-carotene-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. PMID:25981694

  18. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Mahmoud M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum resins obtained from trees of the Burseraceae family (Boswellia sp. are important ingredients in incense and perfumes. Extracts prepared from Boswellia sp. gum resins have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells. Methods Boswellia sacra essential oil was prepared from Omani Hougari grade resins through hydrodistillation at 78 or 100 oC for 12 hours. Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A. Apoptosis was assayed by genomic DNA fragmentation. Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to study Boswellia sacra essential oil-regulated proteins involved in apoptosis, signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. Results More abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, were present in Boswellia sacra essential oil prepared at 100 oC hydrodistillation. All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil

  19. Research of vitamin E succinate combined with paclitaxel on the apoptosis of Her-2 over-expressing breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Tingting Yan; Yan Zhao; Qiuying Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to detect apoptosis rates of Her-2 overexpression breast cancer cells, which were administrated with vitamin E succinate (VES) combined with paclitaxel at different dosages, or administrated alone; to discuss the mechanism of their actions. Methods: Using immunohistochemical method to detect Her-2 expression of MDA-MB-453 cells. Using TUNEL assay to detect apoptosis rates of MDA-MB-453 cells, with the concentrations at 10, 20 mg/L of VES and 50, 100 nmol/L of paclitaxel, and also combined together for 24 or 48 h. Then compared apoptosis action of various combinations. Results: The expression rate of 95% Her-2 was interval (63.32%, 69.60%); VES and paclitaxel both induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-453 cells, and it is dose to time dependence. It was strongest in apoptosis at 10 mg/L VES and 100 nmol/L paclitaxel in MDA-MB-453 cells 48 h later. Conclusion: VES and paclitaxel both induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-453 cells. It is stronger when the two drugs are administrated together. The mechanism is probably related to reduction of bcl-2 expression, so as to be more sensitive to paclitaxel. Synergistic effect is also possible for the two drugs influence tumor cells in different growing phases.

  20. Graphene as a nanocarrier for tamoxifen induces apoptosis in transformed cancer cell lines of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Rao, C N R

    2012-01-01

    A cationic amphiphile, cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl pyridinium bromide (PY(+) -Chol), is able to efficiently disperse exfoliated graphene (GR) in water by the physical adsorption of PY(+) -Chol on the surface of GR to form stable, dark aqueous suspensions at room temperature. The GR-PY(+) -Chol suspension can then be used to solubilize Tamoxifen Citrate (TmC), a breast cancer drug, in water. The resulting TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol is stable for a long time without any precipitation. Fluorescence emission and UV absorption spectra indicate the existence of noncovalent interactions between TmC, GR, and PY(+) -Chol in these suspensions. Electron microscopy shows the existence of segregated GR sheets and TmC 'ribbons' in the composite suspensions. Atomic force microscopy indicates the presence of 'extended' structures of GR-PY(+) -Chol, which grows wider in the presence of TmC. The slow time-dependent release of TmC is noticed in a reconstituted cell culture medium, a property useful as a drug carrier. TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol selectively enhanced the cell death (apoptosis) of the transformed cancer cells compared to normal cells. This potency is found to be true for a wide range of transformed cancer cells viz. HeLa, A549, ras oncogene-transformed NIH3T3, HepG2, MDA-MB231, MCF-7, and HEK293T compared to the normal cell HEK293 in vitro. Confocal microscopy confirmed the high efficiency of TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol in delivering the drug to the cells, compared to the suspensions devoid of GR. PMID:22102595

  1. Nilotinib reduced the viability of human ovarian cancer cells via mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, independent of JNK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tze-Chien; Yu, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Wu, Ming-Shun; Lee, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2016-03-01

    Nilotinib (AMN) induces apoptosis in various cancer cells; however the effect of AMN on human ovarian cancer cells is still unclear. A reduction in cell viability associated with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics was observed in human SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells under AMN but not sorafenib (SORA) or imatinib (STI) stimulation. Activation of apoptotic pathway including increased caspase (Casp)-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) protein cleavage by AMN was detected with disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) accompanied by decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased cytosolic cytochrome (Cyt) c/cleaved Casp-9 protein expressions was found, and AMN-induced cell death was inhibited by peptidyl Casp inhibitors, VAD, DEVD and LEHD. Increased phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein expression was detected in AMN- but not SORA- or STI-treated SKOV-3 cells, and the JNK inhibitors, SP600125 and JNKI, showed slight but significant enhancement of AMN-induced cell death in SKOV-3 cells. The intracellular peroxide level was elevated by AMN and H2O2, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented H2O2- but not AMN-induced peroxide production and apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells. AMN induction of apoptosis with increased intracellular peroxide production and JNK protein phosphorylation was also identified in human A2780 ovarian cancer cells, cisplatin-resistant A2780CP cells, and clear ES-2 cells. The evidence supporting AMN effectively reducing the viability of human ovarian cancer cells via mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis is provided. PMID:26549707

  2. Inhibition of Jak-STAT3 pathway enhances bufalin-induced apoptosis in colon cancer SW620 cells

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    Zhu Zhitu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the research is to investigate the roles of Jak-STAT3 signaling pathway in bufalin-induced apoptosis in colon cancer SW620 cells. Methods The inhibitory effects of bufalin on cell proliferation were determined by MTT (Methyl thiazolyltetrazolium assay. The morphological changes of cells were measured by Wright-Giemsa staining. The cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were tested by flow cytometry analysis. Western Blot was used to determine the protein expression of the apoptosis inhibitors livin and caspase-3, the apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2, as well as the key protein kinases in the Jak-stat3 signaling pathway, stat3 and p-stat3. Results (1 Bufalin inhibited the proliferation of SW620 cells. IC50 at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h were 76.72 ± 6.21 nmol/L, 34.05 ± 4.21 nmol/L and 16.7 ± 6.37 nmol/L. (2 Bufalin induced SW620 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, indicated by the appearance of apoptotic bodies; (3 The results from flow cytometry demonstrated that there was cell cycle G2/M phase arrest in 20 nmol/L bufalin treatment group (36.29 ± 2.11% vs 18.39 ± 1.74%, P Conclusions Bufalin not only inhibited the growth of colon cancer SW620 cells, but also induced apoptosis of SW620 cells. Activation of caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of livin and Bcl-2, as well as inhibition of Jak-stat3 signaling pathway might be the important mechanisms for the bufalin-induced apoptosis.

  3. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53 tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey.

  4. Evaluation of a curcumin analog as an anti-cancer agent inducing ER stress-mediated apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances have highlighted the importance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in cell death processes. Pharmacological interventions that effectively enhance tumor cell death through activating ER stress have attracted a great deal of attention for anti-cancer therapy. A bio-evaluation on 113 curcumin analogs against four cancer cell lines was performed through MTT assay. Furthermore, real time cell assay and flow cytometer were used to evaluate the apoptotic induction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one (B82). Western blot, RT-qPCR, and siRNA were then utilized to confirm whether B82-induced apoptosis is mediated through activating ER stress pathway. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of B82 was evaluated. B82 exhibited strong anti-tumor activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. Treatment with B82 significantly induced apoptosis in H460 cells in vitro and inhibited H460 tumor growth in vivo. Further studies demonstrated that the B82-induced apoptosis is mediated by activating ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. A new monocarbonyl analog of curcumin, B82, exhibited anti-tumor effects on H460 cells via an ER stress-mediated mechanism. B82 could be further explored as a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of NSCLC

  5. Thioredoxin-like protein 2b facilitates colon cancer cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis via NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaodi; Luo, Guanhong; Shen, Gaofei; Li, Kai; Ren, Gui; Pan, Yan; Wang, Xin; Fan, Daiming

    2015-07-28

    Our previous work identified thioredoxin-like protein 2 (Txl-2), a novel thioredoxin family member, as the target of the monoclonal antibody MC3 which can detect colon cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, the function of the most abundant isoform Txl-2b in cell proliferation and apoptosis was investigated. Txl-2 overexpression correlated with increased clinical stages. Inhibition of Txl-2b suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase, and led to responsiveness to the vincristine-induced apoptosis in SW620 cells. Txl-2b overexpression in LoVo cells had the opposite effect, which was dependent on Trx domain function. In vivo studies validated that Txl-2b expression promoted colon cancer tumorigenesis in nude mice. Further studies revealed that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling was activated by Txl-2b. Inhibition of NF-κB activation partly abrogated the pro-proliferation and anti-apoptotic phenotypes mediated by Txl-2b via reduced Cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expression and increased Caspase-3 activation. Overall, our results indicate that Txl-2b expression stimulates cancer cell proliferation, accelerates the cell cycle and contributes to apoptosis resistance in colon cancer and provides a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer treatment. PMID:25555669

  6. Britannin, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial signaling pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Fallahian, Faranak; Jafari, Seyyed Mehdi; Dolati, Masoumeh; Abdolmohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hajiahmadi, Sima; Esmaeili, Somayeh

    2015-02-01

    Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells can be a promising treatment method in cancer therapy. Naturally derived products had drawn growing attention as agent in cancer therapy. The main target of anticancer drugs may be distinct, but eventually, they lead to identical cell death pathway, which is apoptosis. Here, we indicated that britannin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Asteraceae family, has antiproliferative activity on the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and caspase-3/9 activity assay confirmed that britannin is able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. The Western blot analysis showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was noticeably decreased in response to britannin treatment, while the expression of Bax protein was increased, which were positively correlated with elevated expression of p53. Moreover, britannin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which in turn triggered the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and the subsequent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol. Taken together, these results suggest that britannin inhibits growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells through the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and may potentially serve as an agent for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25342596

  7. Ursolic acid simultaneously targets multiple signaling pathways to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshu Wang

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA, a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid distributed in medical herbs, exerts antitumor effects and is emerging as a promising compound for cancer prevention and therapy, but its excise mechanisms of action in colon cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the molecular mechanisms by which UA inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colon cancer SW480 and LoVo cells. Treatment with UA led to significant inhibitions in cell viability and clone formation and changes in cell morphology and spreading. UA also suppressed colon cancer cell migration by inhibiting MMP9 and upregulating CDH1 expression. Further studies showed that UA inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK proteins. Pretreatment with an Akt or ERK-specific inhibitor considerably abrogated the proliferation inhibition by UA. UA also significantly inhibited colon cancer cell COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Pretreatment with a COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib abrogated the UA-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, we found that UA effectively promoted NF-κB and p300 translocation from cell nuclei to cytoplasm, and attenuated the p300-mediated acetylation of NF-κB and CREB2. Pretreatment with a p300 inhibitor (roscovitine abrogated the UA-induced cell proliferation, which is reversed by p300 overexpression. Furthermore, UA treatment induced colon cancer cell apoptosis, increased the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and 9, and trigged the release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial inter-membrane space into cytosol. These results indicate that UA inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells through simultaneous modulation of the multiple signaling pathways such as MMP9/CDH1, Akt/ERK, COX-2/PGE2, p300/NF-κB/CREB2, and cytochrome c/caspase pathways.

  8. Arctigenin promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via the iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Li, Li-an; Meng, Yuan-guang; You, Yan-qin; Fu, Xiao-yu; Song, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Arctigenin is a biologically active lignan extracted from the seeds of Arctium lappa and shows anticancer activity against a variety of human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of arctigenin on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and survival and associated molecular mechanisms. Human ovarian cancer OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells were treated with arctigenin, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. Western blot analysis was used to examine signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and survivin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The involvement of STAT3/survivin/iNOS/NO signalling in arctigenin action was checked. Arctigenin treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Arctigenin-treated cells showed a 4-6 times increase in the percentage of apoptosis, compared with control cells. Pre-treatment with Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific inhibitor of caspase-3, counteracted the induction of apoptosis by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment significantly inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin and iNOS expression. Arctigenin-induced apoptosis was impaired by pre-transfection with survivin-expressing plasmid or addition of chemical nitric oxide (NO) donors. Additionally, exogenous NO prevented the suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin expression by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment inhibits the proliferation and induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Suppression of iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling is causally linked to the anticancer activity of arctigenin. Therefore, arctigenin may be applicable to anticancer therapy for ovarian cancer. PMID:24842412

  9. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by tumor necrosis factor and butyrolactone, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Belizário, J E; S. Sherwood; Beçak, W.

    1999-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is modulated by changes in the expression and activity of several cell cycle regulatory proteins. We examined the effects of TNF (1-100 ng/ml) and butyrolactone I (100 µM), a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) with high selectivity for CDK-1 and CDK-2, on three different cancer cell lines: WEHI, L929 and HeLa S3. Both compounds blocked cell growth, but only TNF induced the common events of apoptosis, i.e., chromatin conde...

  10. Pancratistatin induces apoptosis in clinical leukemia samples with minimal effect on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty James

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the effect of pancratistatin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 leukemia patients prior to clinical intervention of newly diagnosed patients, as well as others of different ages in relapse and at various disease progression states. Results Mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and leukemia patients were exposed to 1 μM pancratistatin for up to 48 h. Irrespective of leukemia type, pancratistatin induced apoptosis in the leukemic samples, with minimal effects on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear control cells. Conclusion Our results show that pancratistatin is an effective and selective anti-cancer agent with potential for advancement to clinical trials.

  11. Comparative Study on Cancer Cell Apoptosis between Gastric and Intestinal-type Human Gastric Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis of cancer cells between the gastric and intestinal-type human gastric carcinoma were compared in terms of the expression of oncogene MDM2 and CD68, the histological types, the infiltration depth, and lymph node metastasis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay was employed to stain apoptotic cells.Histochemical method(AB-PAS) was applied to stain mucus that is neutral or acidic in nature. Immunohistochemical method (SABC) was used to detect expression of MDM2 and CD6. The results showed that the mean apoptosis index (AI) of total 48 cases was 8.60±2.60. AI in the 30 intestinal type cases was significantly higher than that in the 18 gastric type cases (t=4.67, P<0.01). In the 30intestinal type cases, the spontaneous apoptosis index of MDM2 negative cases was significantly higher than that of the positive cases (t=7.16, P<0.01). And in the 18 gastric type cases, the same result was found. (t=11.39, P<0.01). The MDM2 positive ratio in gastric type cases was higher than that in intestinal type cases (x2=4.68, P<0.05). There is no significant difference in AI between cases of lymph node metastasis and non-metastasis cases in intestinal type cases (t=0.26, P>0.05). But in the gastric type cases, a significant difference existed (t=5.87, P<0.01). A significant difference in lymph node metastasis ratio was found between the two gastric carcinoma types (x2=4.48, P<0.05).The CD68 expression ratio in the 30 intestinal type cases was much lower than that in the 18 gastric type cases (t=4.29, P<0.01). AI of 25 MDM2-positive cases was much lower than that of the 23MDM2-negative cases (t=7.80, P<0.01). CD68 positive ratio in the 25 MDM2-negative cases was much lower than that in the 23 negative cases. The difference was statistically significant (t=10.90,P<0.01). Except for few cells scattering within the cancer nest, most CD68 positive cells infiltrated in the interstitium around the cancer

  12. Induction of apoptosis in MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells by Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Zoo Haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Chae, Young Lye; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus), isolated from the mycelia of G. lucidum and P. umbellatus, exerts anti‑proliferative effects against malignant cells; however, its activity against human breast cancer cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, cell proliferation was assessed using a 3-(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and poptosis was examined using annexin V‑propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The activation of caspases 7, 8 and 9 were detected in the Khz‑treated cells using western blotting. The results demonstrated that Khz increased the intracellular calcium concentration and induced the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF‑7 breast cancer cells, as determined using flow cytometry. The results also demonstrated that Khz inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the MCF‑7 cells. In addition, the mechanism by which Khz induces apoptosis in cancer cells was investigated. Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells, with a minimal effect on non‑transformed cells, suggesting its potential as an anticancer therapeutic agent. Oxidative stress is associated with apoptotic and non‑apoptotic cell death, although pro‑oxidative conditions are not a pre‑requisite for apoptosis. Assessment of the activation status of caspases 7, 8 and 9 revealed that the levels of cleaved caspases were significantly increased in the cells treated with Khz. It is widely accepted that calcium signaling is important in apoptosis, and the present study observed an increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Khz treatment. The anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptotic effects of Khz suggest that this extract may be developed as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:26648109

  13. Abrin P2 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Yang, Runmei; Zhao, Xiuyun; Qin, Dandan; Liu, Zhaoyang; Liu, Fang; Song, Xin; Li, Liqin; Feng, Renqing; Gao, Nannan

    2016-05-01

    To explore the cytotoxic mechanism of abrin P2 on human colon cancer HCT-8 cells, abrin P2 was isolated from the seed of Abrus precatorius L. It was found that abrin P2 exhibited cytotoxicity toward 12 different human cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrated that abrin P2 suppressed the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HCT-8 cells) and induced cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases. The mechanism by which abrin P2 inhibited cell proliferation was via the down-regulation of cyclin B1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki67, as well as the up-regulation of P21. In addition, abrin P2 induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in the rate of HCT-8 cell apoptosis. Treatment with both Z-VAD-FMK, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, and abrin P2 demonstrated that abrin P2 induced HCT-8 cell apoptosis via the activation of caspases. Together, our results revealed that abrin P2-induced apoptosis in HCT-8 cells was associated with the activation of caspases-3/-8/-9, the reduction in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the increase in cytochrome c release. We further showed that abrin P2 administration effectively suppressed the growth of colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. This is the first report that abrin P2 effectively inhibits colon cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro by suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. PMID:27055473

  14. Silencing of AP-4 inhibits proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and promotes apoptosis in human lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, XUANYU; GUO, WEI; CHEN, SHANSHAN; XU, YIZHUO; LI, PING; WANG, HUAQI; CHU, HEYING; LI, JUAN; DU, YUWEN; CHEN, XIAONAN; ZHANG, GUOJUN; ZHAO, GUOQIANG

    2016-01-01

    Activating enhancer-binding protein (AP)-4 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, and is involved in tumor biology. However, the role of AP-4 in human lung cancer remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of AP-4 in human lung cancer tissues and cells was investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and it was observed that the level of AP-4 was increased in tumor tissues and cells compared with their normal counterparts. AP-4 expression was knocked down by transfection with a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) in lung cancer cells, and this indicated that siRNA-mediated silencing of AP-4 inhibited cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis by modulating the expression of p21 and cyclin D1. The results of the present study suggest that AP-4 may be an oncoprotein that has a significant role in lung cancer, and that siRNA-mediated silencing of AP-4 may have therapeutic potential as a strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.

  15. shRNA Depletion of cIAP1 Sensitizes Human Ovarian Cancer Cells to Anticancer Agent-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Dong, You-Yuan; Zhang, Hong; Cui, Ying; Xie, Kai; Lou, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a potential role of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) in the development of human ovarian cancer. However, its function in the progression of ovarian cancer has not been clearly determined. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of cIAP1 gene depletion on the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells. We developed a novel short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid specifically targeting cIAP1. Cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of the shRNA-transfected cells were evaluated using MTT, Transwell chamber, and flow cytometric assays, respectively. The concentration of MMP-9 in the supernatant was detected by ELISA. Targeted depletion of cIAP1 by shRNA significantly reduced expression levels of cIAP1 mRNA and protein, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion capability in SKOV3 cells. At the same time, cIAP1 downregulation decreased the secretion of MMP-9. shRNA depletion of cIAP1 enhanced chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to Taxol and carboplatin-induced apoptosis. cIAP1 is associated with tumor progression in human ovarian cancer. Therefore, cIAP1 might be a potential target for therapeutic anticancer drugs. PMID:26168135

  16. Targeting pro-apoptotic trail receptors sensitizes HeLa cervical cancer cells to irradiation-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John H.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Meersma, Gert-Jan; Hougardy, Brigitte M. T.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; De Jong, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of irradiation in combination with drugs targeting the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor (DR)4 and DR5 and their mechanism of action in a cervical cancer cell line. Methods and Materials: Recombinant human TRAIL (rhTR

  17. Activation of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumberg Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates metabolism of diverse dietary, endobiotic, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine, and at lower levels in breast and other tissues where its function was unknown. Since many breast cancer preventive and therapeutic compounds are SXR activators, we hypothesized that some beneficial effects of these compounds are mediated through SXR. Methods To test this hypothesis, we measured proliferation of breast cancer cells in response to SXR activators and evaluated consequent changes in the expression of genes critical for proliferation and cell-cycle control using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Results were confirmed using siRNA-mediated gene knockdown. Statistical analysis was by t-test or ANOVA and a P value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results Many structurally and functionally distinct SXR activators inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase followed by apoptosis. Decreased growth in response to SXR activation was associated with stabilization of p53 and up-regulation of cell cycle regulatory and pro-apoptotic genes such as p21, PUMA and BAX. These gene expression changes were preceded by an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide in these cells. Inhibition of iNOS blocked the induction of p53. p53 knockdown inhibited up-regulation of p21 and BAX. We infer that NO is required for p53 induction and that p53 is required for up-regulation of cell cycle regulatory and apoptotic genes in this system. SXR activator-induced increases in iNOS levels were inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of SXR, indicating that SXR activation is necessary for subsequent regulation of iNOS expression. Conclusion We conclude that activation of SXR is anti-proliferative in p53 wild type breast cancer

  18. Activation of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates metabolism of diverse dietary, endobiotic, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine, and at lower levels in breast and other tissues where its function was unknown. Since many breast cancer preventive and therapeutic compounds are SXR activators, we hypothesized that some beneficial effects of these compounds are mediated through SXR. To test this hypothesis, we measured proliferation of breast cancer cells in response to SXR activators and evaluated consequent changes in the expression of genes critical for proliferation and cell-cycle control using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Results were confirmed using siRNA-mediated gene knockdown. Statistical analysis was by t-test or ANOVA and a P value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Many structurally and functionally distinct SXR activators inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase followed by apoptosis. Decreased growth in response to SXR activation was associated with stabilization of p53 and up-regulation of cell cycle regulatory and pro-apoptotic genes such as p21, PUMA and BAX. These gene expression changes were preceded by an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide in these cells. Inhibition of iNOS blocked the induction of p53. p53 knockdown inhibited up-regulation of p21 and BAX. We infer that NO is required for p53 induction and that p53 is required for up-regulation of cell cycle regulatory and apoptotic genes in this system. SXR activator-induced increases in iNOS levels were inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of SXR, indicating that SXR activation is necessary for subsequent regulation of iNOS expression. We conclude that activation of SXR is anti-proliferative in p53 wild type breast cancer cells and that this effect is mechanistically dependent upon the local

  19. Agarol, an ergosterol derivative from Agaricus blazei, induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takamitsu; Kawai, Junya; Ouchi, Kenji; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Osima, Yoshiteru; Hidemi, Rikiishi

    2016-04-01

    Agaricus blazei (A. blazei) is a mushroom with many biological effects and active ingredients. We purified a tumoricidal substance from A. blazei, an ergosterol derivative, and named it 'Agarol'. Cytotoxic effects of Agarol were determined by the MTT assay using A549, MKN45, HSC-3, and HSC-4 human carcinoma cell lines treated with Agarol. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondria membrane potential (∆ψm) were also determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to quantify the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Agarol predominantly induced apoptosis in two p53-wild cell lines (A549 and MKN45) compared to the other p53-mutant cell lines (HSC-3 and HSC-4). Further mechanistic studies revealed that induction of apoptosis is associated with increased generation of ROS, reduced ∆ψm, release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the cytosol, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Caspase-3 activities did not increase, and z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor, did not inhibit the Agarol-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that Agarol induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human carcinoma cells through a mitochondrial pathway. The in vivo anticancer activity of Agarol was confirmed in a xenograft murine model. This study suggests a molecular mechanism by which Agarol induces apoptosis in human carcinoma cells and indicates the potential use of Agarol as an anticancer agent. PMID:26893131

  20. Depletion of OLFM4 gene inhibits cell growth and increases sensitization to hydrogen peroxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced-apoptosis in gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui-hua

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4 gene is a secreted glycoprotein more commonly known as the anti-apoptotic molecule GW112. OLFM4 is found to be frequently up-regulated in many types of human tumors including gastric cancer and it was believed to play significant role in the progression of gastric cancer. Although the function of OLFM4 has been indicated in many studies, recent evidence strongly suggests a cell or tissue type-dependent role of OLFM4 in cell growth and apoptosis. The aim of this study is to examine the role of gastric cancer-specific expression of OLFM4 in cell growth and apoptosis resistance. Methods OLFM4 expression was eliminated by RNA interference in SGC-7901 and MKN45 cells. Cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell cycle and apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Tumorigenicity was analyzed in vivo. The apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α were assessed in the presence or absence of caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk. Results The elimination of OLFM4 protein by RNA interference in SGC-7901 and MKN45 cells significantly inhibits tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo by induction of cell G1 arrest (all P 2O2 or TNF α-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity (all P 2O2 or TNF α-induced apoptosis in OLFM4 knockdown cells (all P Conclusion Our study suggests that depletion of OLFM4 significantly inhibits tumorigenicity of the gastric cancer SGC-7901 and MKN45 cells. Blocking OLFM4 expression can sensitize gastric cancer cells to H2O2 or TNF α treatment by increasing caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. A combination strategy based on OLFM4 inhibition and anticancer drugs treatment may provide therapeutic potential in gastric cancer intervention.

  1. Mitochondrial localization of cyclooxygenase-2 and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in human cancer cells: Implication in apoptosis resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is inducible by myriad stimuli. The inducible COX-2 in primary cultured human cells has been reported to localize to nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and caveolae. As COX-2 plays an important role in tumor growth, we were interested in its subcellular location in cancer cells. We examined COX-2 localization in several cancer cell lines by confocal microscopy. A majority of COX-2 was colocalized with heat shock protein 60, a mitochondrial protein, in colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-15 and DLD-1), breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular cancer (HepG2) and lung cancer cells (A549) with a similar distribution pattern. By contrast, COX-2 was not localized to mitochondria in human foreskin fibroblasts or endothelial cells. Immunoblot analysis of COX-2 in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions confirmed localization of COX-2 to mitochondria in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells but not in fibroblasts. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 was colocalized with heat shock protein 60 to mitochondria not only in cancer cells (HT-29 and DLD-1) but also in fibroblasts. HT-29 which expressed more abundant mitochondrial COX-2 than DLD-1 was highly resistant to arachidonic acid and H2O2-induced apoptosis whereas DLD-1 was less resistant and human fibroblasts were highly susceptible. Treatment of HT-29 cells with sulindac or SC-236, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, resulted in loss of resistance to apoptosis. These results suggest that mitochondrial COX-2 in cancer cells confer resistance to apoptosis by reducing the proapoptotic arachidonic acid

  2. Roscovitine synergizes with conventional chemo-therapeutic drugs to induce efficient apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Salah I Abaza; Abdul-Majeed A Bahman; Rajaa J Al-Attiyah

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To examine the ability of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor(CDKI)roscovitine(Rosco)to enhance the antitumor effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents acting by different mechanisms against human colorectal cancer.METHODS:Human colorectal cancer cells were treated,individually and in combination,with Rosco,taxol,5-Fluorouracil(S-FU),doxorubicine or vinblastine.The antiproliferative effects and the type of interaction of Rosco with tested chemotherapeutic drugs were determined.Cell cycle alterations were investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter FACS analysis.Apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation assay.RESULTS:Rosco inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner.The efficacies of all tested chemotherapeutic drugs were markedly enhanced 3.0-8.42×103 and 130-5.28×103 fold in combination with 5 and 10 μg/mL Rosco,re-spectively.The combinatiou of Rosco and chemotherapeutic drugs inhibited the growth of human colorectal cancer cells in an additive or synergistic fashion,and in a time and dose dependent manner.Rosco induced apoptosis and synergized with tested chemotherapeutic drugs to induce efficient apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells.Sequential,inverted sequential and simultaneous treatment of cancer cells with combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs and Rosco arrested the growth of human colorectal cancer cells at various phases of the cell cycle as follows:Taxol/Rosco(G2/M-and S-phases),5-FU/Rosco(S-phase),Dox/Rosco(S-phase)and Vinb/Rosco(G2/M-and S-phases).CONCLUSION:Since the efficacy of many anticancer drugs depends on their ability to induce apoptotic cell death,modulation of this parameter by Cell cycle inhibitors may provide a novel chemo-preventive and chemothempeutic strategy for human colorectal cancer.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms underlying aspirin-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of cyclooxygenase-2 negative colon cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) on proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal can- cer cell line $W480 and its mechanism. METHODS: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 negative colorec- tal cancer cell line SW480 was treated with aspirin at concentrations of 2.5 retool/L, 5.0 retool/L, 10.0 mmol/L for different periods in vitro. Anti-proliferation effect of aspirin on SW480 was detected by 3-(4,5-dimeth- ylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry (FCM). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for morphological study. Apoptosis-as- sociated genes were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. RESULTS: Aspirin inhibited SW480 proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with different concentrations of aspirin significantly increased the proportions of cells at the G0/G1 phase and decreased the proportions of cells at the S- and G2/M phases in a concentration- dependent manner. Aspirin not only induced apoptosis but also caused cell necrosis at a high concentration as well. After treatment with aspirin, SW480 cells displayed typically morphological features of apoptosis and necrosis under TEM, and increased the Bcl-2 expression in cells, but the expression of Bax was down regulated. CONCLUSION: Aspirin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of SW480 cells. Its anti-tumor mechanism may arrest cell cycle and shift Bax/Bcl-2 balance in cells.

  4. CD24 cross-linking induces apoptosis in, and inhibits migration of, MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of CD24 (FL-80) cross-linking on breast cancer cells have not yet been established. We examined the impact of CD24 cross-linking on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with anti-rabbit polyclonal IgG or anti-human CD24 rabbit polyclonal antibodies to induce cross-linking, and then growth was studied. Changes in cell characteristics such as cell cycle modulation, cell death, survival in three-dimensional cultures, adhesion, and migration ability were assayed after CD24 cross-linking in MCF-7. Expression of CD24 was analyzed by flow cytometry in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells where 2% and 66% expression frequencies were observed, respectively. CD24 cross-linking resulted in time-dependent proliferation reduction in MCF-7 cells, but no reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells. MCF-7 cell survival was reduced by 15% in three-dimensional culture after CD24 cross-linking. Increased MCF-7 cell apoptosis was observed after CD24 cross-linking, but no cell cycle arrest was observed in that condition. The migration capacity of MCF-7 cells was diminished by 30% after CD24 cross-linking. Our results showed that CD24 cross-linking induced apoptosis and inhibited migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We conclude that CD24 may be considered as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer

  5. Clitocybe alexandri extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a lung cancer cell line: identification of phenolic acids with cytotoxic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Josiana A.; Almeida, Gabriela M.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Martins, Anabela; Vasconcelos, M. Helena

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are a possible rich source of biologically active compounds with potential for drug discovery. The aim of this work was to gain further insight into the citotoxicity mechanism of action of Clitocybe alexandri ethanolic extract against a lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460 cells). The effects on cell cycle profile and levels of apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the effect on the expression levels of proteins related to cellular apoptosis was also investigated by Western blo...

  6. DMS triggers apoptosis associated with the inhibition of SPHK1/NF-κB activation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in human cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kan; Pan, Qiuwei; Y. Gao; Yang, Xinyan; Wang, Shujie; Peppelenbosch, Maikel; KONG, XIANGDONG

    2013-01-01

    N,N-Dimethyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (DMS) is known to induce cell apoptosis by specifically inhibiting sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) and modulating the activity of cellular ceramide levels. The present study investigated the effects and the mechanism(s) of action of DMS in human lung cancer cells. We found that DMS dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in the human lung cancer cell line, A549. Mechanistically, treatment with DMS suppressed the activation of S...

  7. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Pan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  8. p53 is required for metformin-induced growth inhibition, senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Puyu; Zhao, Ming; Parris, Amanda B; Feng, Xiaoshan; Yang, Xiaohe

    2015-09-01

    The p53 tumor repressor gene is commonly mutated in human cancers. The tumor inhibitory effect of metformin on p53-mutated breast cancer cells remains unclear. Data from the present study demonstrated that p53 knockdown or mutation has a negative effect on metformin or phenformin-induced growth inhibition, senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We also found that p53 reactivating agent nutlin-3α and CP/31398 promoted metformin-induced growth inhibition, senescence and apoptosis in MCF-7 (wt p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mt p53) cells, respectively. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with metformin or phenformin induced increase in p53 protein levels and the transcription of its downstream target genes, Bax and p21, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrated that AMPK-mTOR signaling played a role in metformin-induced p53 up-regulation. The present study showed that p53 is required for metformin or phenformin-induced growth inhibition, senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The combination of metformin with p53 reactivating agents, like nutlin-3α and CP/31398, is a promising strategy for improving metformin-mediated anti-cancer therapy, especially for tumors with p53 mutations. PMID:26225749

  9. Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Rebecca SY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also one of the most studied topics among cell biologists. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of apoptosis is important as it plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In some, the problem is due to too much apoptosis, such as in the case of degenerative diseases while in others, too little apoptosis is the culprit. Cancer is one of the scenarios where too little apoptosis occurs, resulting in malignant cells that will not die. The mechanism of apoptosis is complex and involves many pathways. Defects can occur at any point along these pathways, leading to malignant transformation of the affected cells, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Despite being the cause of problem, apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer as it is a popular target of many treatment strategies. The abundance of literature suggests that targeting apoptosis in cancer is feasible. However, many troubling questions arise with the use of new drugs or treatment strategies that are designed to enhance apoptosis and critical tests must be passed before they can be used safely in human subjects.

  10. Inhibitory role of TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein in hypoxia-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengping; Jung, Samil; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2016-06-01

    TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein is known to be involved in many vital cellular functions. In this study, we examined the role of TRIP-Br1 in hypoxia-induced cell death. Exposure to the overcrowded and CoCl2-induced hypoxic conditions increased TRIP-Br1 expression at the protein level in six breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, Hs578D, BT549, and MDA-MB-435) but resulted in no significant change in three normal cell lines (MCF10A, MEF and NIH3T3). Our result revealed that CoCl2-induced hypoxia stimulated apoptosis and autophagy, in which TRIP-Br1 expression was found to be upregulated. Interestingly, TRIP-Br1 silencing in the MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells accelerated apoptosis and destabilization of XIAP under the CoCl2-induced hypoxic condition, implying that TRIP-Br1 may render cancer cells resistant to apoptosis through the stabilization of XIAP. We also propose that TRIP-Br1 seems to be upregulated at least partly as a result of the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and the overexpression of HIF-1α. In conclusion, our findings suggest that TRIP-Br1 functions as an oncogenic protein by providing cancer cells resistance to the hypoxia-induced cell death. PMID:27035851

  11. Pancratistatin induces apoptosis in clinical leukemia samples with minimal effect on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty James; Hamm Caroline; Griffin Carly; Pandey Siyaram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the effect of pancratistatin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 leukemia patients prior to clinical intervention of newly diagnosed patients, as well as others of different ages in relapse and at various disease progression states. Results Mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers a...

  12. Local Anesthetics Induce Apoptosis in Human Thyroid Cancer Cells through the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Ching Chang; Yi-Chiung Hsu; Chien-Liang Liu; Shih-Yuan Huang; Meng-Chun Hu; Shih-Ping Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 c...

  13. Down-regulation of survivin expression by small interfering RNA induces pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis and enhances its radiosensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Guan; Xing-Huan Xue; Zhi-Jun Dai; Xi-Jing Wang; Ang Li; Zhao-Yin Qin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of survivin in pancreatic cancer cell line PC-2 and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity.METHODS: A siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin was constructed and transfected into PC-2 cells with LipofectamineTM 2000. The down regulation of survivin expression was detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and immunohistochemical SP method and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity was detected by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The sequence-specific siRNA efficiently and specifically down-regulated the expression of survivin at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression inhibition ratio was 81.25% at mRNA level detected by semiquantitive RT-PCR and 74.24% at protein level detected by immunohistochemical method. Forty-eight hours after transfection,apoptosis was induced in 7.03% cells by siRNA and in 14.58% cells by siRNA combined with radiation.CONCLUSION: The siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin can inhibit the expression of survivin in PC-2 cells efficiently and specifically. Inhibiting the expression of survivin can induce apoptosis of PC-2 cells and enhance its radiosensitivity significantly. RNAi against survivin is of potential value in gene tnerapy of pancreatic cancer.

  14. Paris Saponin II induced apoptosis via activation of autophagy in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Man, Shuli; Wang, Yongshuai; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zhen; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-06-25

    Paris Saponin II (PSII) has been shown anticancer activity against several cancer lines through the pro-apoptotic pathway. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy taking part in the anti-cancer mechanisms of PSII. In this study, PSII induced autophagy and apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, it induced autophagy as early as 2 h after exposure to 1 μM of PSII accompanying with apoptosis. Blockade of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) attenuated apoptosis, while regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), gallic acid (GA) and H2O2 could not influence autophagy. In addition, PSII induced apoptosis via activation of autophagy, which might be associated with the activation of JNK and inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. All in all, our research increased the understanding of the role of PSII regulating autophagy and apoptosis, which would hopefully provide prospective strategies for cancer therapy. PMID:27180204

  15. A novel chenodeoxycholic derivative HS-1200 enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine whether a synthetic bile acid derivatives (HS-1200) sensitizes the radiation-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in exponential growth phase were treated with HS-1200 for 24 hours at 37 .deg. C with 5% CO2 in air atmosphere. After removal of HS-1200, cells were irradiated with 2 ∼ 8 Gy X-ray, and then cultured in drug-free media for 24-96 hours. The effect of radiation on the clonogenicity of MCF-7 cells was determined with clonogenic cell survival assay with 16 μ M of HS-1200. The induction of apoptosis was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis and Hoechst staining. The expression level of apoptosis-related molecules, such as PARP, Bax, Bcl-2, Bak and AIF, were assayed by Western blotting analysis with 40 μ M of HS-1200 combined with 8 Gy irradiation. To examine the cellular location of cytochrome c, bax and AIF immunofluorescent stainings were undertaken. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 40 μ M of HS-1200 combined with 8 Gy irradiation showed several changes associated with enhanced apoptosis by agarose gel electrophoresis and Hoechst staining. HS-1200 combined with 8 Gy irradiation treatment also enhanced production of PARP cleavage products and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio by Western blotting. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ ψ m) and increased cytochrome c staining indicated that cytochrome c had been released from the mitochondria in HS-1200 treated cells. We demonstrated that combination treatment with a synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative HS-1200 and irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). We suggest that the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in HS-1200 co-treatment group underlies the increased radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells. Further futures studies are remained elusive

  16. Grifola frondosa Glycoprotein GFG-3a Arrests S phase, Alters Proteome, and Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengjie; Zan, Xinyi; Li, Yunhong; Sun, Wenjing; Yang, Yan; Ping, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    GFG-3a is a novel glycoprotein previously purified from the fermented mycelia of Grifola frondosa with novel sugar compositions and protein sequencing. The present study aims to investigate its effects on the cell cycle, differential proteins expression, and apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Our findings revealed that GFG-3a induced the cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle at S phase. GFG-3a treatment resulted in the differential expression of 21 proteins in SGC-7901 cells by upregulating 10 proteins including RBBP4 associated with cell cycle arrest and downregulating 11 proteins including RUVBL1, NPM, HSP90AB1, and GRP78 involved in apoptosis and stress response. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis also suggested that GFG-3a could increase the expressions of Caspase-8/-3, p53, Bax, and Bad while decrease the expressions of Bcl2, Bcl-xl, PI3K, and Akt1. These results indicated that the stress response, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated, Caspase-8/-3-dependent, and PI3k/Akt pathways were involved in the GFG-3a-induced apoptosis process in SGC-7901 cells. These findings might provide a basis to prevent or treat human gastric cancer with GFG-3a and understand the tumor-inhibitory molecular mechanisms of mushroom glycoproteins. PMID:27040446

  17. Combination of survivin siRNA with neoadjuvant chemotherapy enhances apoptosis and reverses drug resistance in breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Dong

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Survivin siRNA combined with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy can significantly enhance the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to chemotherapeutics and cell apoptosis. This technology has important potential value in the therapeutic study of breast cancer.

  18. Thymoquinone up-regulates PTEN expression and induces apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of innocuous naturally occurring compounds to overcome drug resistance and cancer recalcitrance is now in the forefront of cancer research. Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive constituent of the volatile oil derived from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. TQ has shown promising anti-carcinogenic and anti-tumor activities through different mechanisms. However, the effect of TQ on cell signaling and survival pathways in resistant cancer cells has not been fully delineated. Here, we report that TQ greatly inhibits doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/DOX cell proliferation. TQ treatment increased cellular levels of PTEN proteins, resulting in a substantial decrease of phosphorylated Akt, a known regulator of cell survival. The PTEN expression was accompanied with elevation of PTEN mRNA. TQ arrested MCF-7/DOX cells at G2/M phase and increased cellular levels of p53 and p21 proteins. Flow cytometric analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a significant increase in Sub-G1 cell population and appearance of DNA ladders following TQ treatment, indicating cellular apoptosis. TQ-induced apoptosis was associated with disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases and PARP cleavage in MCF-7/DOX cells. Moreover, TQ treatment increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio via up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl2 proteins. More importantly, PTEN silencing by target specific siRNA enabled the suppression of TQ-induced apoptosis resulting in increased cell survival. Our results reveal that up-regulation of the key upstream signaling factor, PTEN, in MCF-7/DOX cells inhibited Akt phosphorylation, which ultimately causes increase in their regulatory p53 levels affecting the induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overall results provide mechanistic insights for understanding the molecular basis and utility of the anti-tumor activity of TQ.

  19. Thymoquinone up-regulates PTEN expression and induces apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arafa, El-Shaimaa A.; Zhu Qianzheng [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Shah, Zubair I. [James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wani, Gulzar; Barakat, Bassant M.; Racoma, Ira [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); El-Mahdy, Mohamed A., E-mail: Mohamed.el-mahdy@osumc.edu [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wani, Altaf A., E-mail: wani.2@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); DNA Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-10

    The use of innocuous naturally occurring compounds to overcome drug resistance and cancer recalcitrance is now in the forefront of cancer research. Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive constituent of the volatile oil derived from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. TQ has shown promising anti-carcinogenic and anti-tumor activities through different mechanisms. However, the effect of TQ on cell signaling and survival pathways in resistant cancer cells has not been fully delineated. Here, we report that TQ greatly inhibits doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/DOX cell proliferation. TQ treatment increased cellular levels of PTEN proteins, resulting in a substantial decrease of phosphorylated Akt, a known regulator of cell survival. The PTEN expression was accompanied with elevation of PTEN mRNA. TQ arrested MCF-7/DOX cells at G2/M phase and increased cellular levels of p53 and p21 proteins. Flow cytometric analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a significant increase in Sub-G1 cell population and appearance of DNA ladders following TQ treatment, indicating cellular apoptosis. TQ-induced apoptosis was associated with disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases and PARP cleavage in MCF-7/DOX cells. Moreover, TQ treatment increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio via up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl2 proteins. More importantly, PTEN silencing by target specific siRNA enabled the suppression of TQ-induced apoptosis resulting in increased cell survival. Our results reveal that up-regulation of the key upstream signaling factor, PTEN, in MCF-7/DOX cells inhibited Akt phosphorylation, which ultimately causes increase in their regulatory p53 levels affecting the induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overall results provide mechanistic insights for understanding the molecular basis and utility of the anti-tumor activity of TQ.

  20. Aciculatin induces p53-dependent apoptosis via MDM2 depletion in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yu Lai

    Full Text Available Aciculatin, a natural compound extracted from the medicinal herb Chrysopogon aciculatus, shows potent anti-cancer potency. This study is the first to prove that aciculatin induces cell death in human cancer cells and HCT116 mouse xenografts due to G1 arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The primary reason for cell cycle arrest and cell death was p53 accumulation followed by increased p21 level, dephosphorylation of Rb protein, PUMA expression, and induction of apoptotic signals such as cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. We demonstrated that p53 allele-null (-/- (p53-KO HCT116 cells were more resistant to aciculatin than cells with wild-type p53 (+/+. The same result was achieved by knocking down p53 with siRNA in p53 wild-type cells, indicating that p53 plays a crucial role in aciculatin-induced apoptosis. Although DNA damage is the most common event leading to p53 activation, we found only weak evidence of DNA damage after aciculatin treatment. Interestingly, the aciculatin-induced downregulation of MDM2, an important negative regulator of p53, contributed to p53 accumulation. The anti-cancer activity and importance of p53 after aciculatin treatment were also confirmed in the HCT116 xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that aciculatin treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inhibition of MDM2 expression, thereby inducing p53 accumulation without significant DNA damage and genome toxicity.

  1. Effect of protein kinase C alpha, caspase-3, and survivin on apoptosis of oral cancer cells induced by staurosporine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xia ZHANG; Shi-bin YU; Jing-ping OU-YANG; Dong XIA; Min WANG; Jin-rong LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To elucidate inhibition of protein kinase C α (PKC α) activity by staurosporine on apoptosis of oral cancer cell line tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCCa)cells and to clarify the role of survivin and caspase-3 in mediating apoptosis.Methods: TSCCa cell viability was measured by MTT assay after 100 nmol/L staurosporine treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified by using phase contrast microscopy, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and flow cytometry. Level of PKC α and its subcellular location were investigated using Western blot analysis.Expression of survivin and caspase-3 were evaluated using immunocytochemistry.Results: Staurosporine significantly inhibited the cell viability of TSCCa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Marked cell accumulation in G2/M phase was observed after 100 nmol/L staurosporine exposure for 6 h and 12 h. In addition,the percentage of apoptosis increased in a time-dependent manner, from 2.9% in control cultures to approximately 27.4% at 100 nmol/L staurosporine treatment for24 h. Staurosporine displayed difference in inhibitory efficacy between cytosolic and membrance-derived PKC α. The content of PKCα in membrane versus cytosol decreased quickly, from 0.45 in ethanol-treated control cultures to 0.18 after staurosporine exposure for 24 h (P<0.01). After treatment withstaurosporine, a time-dependent reduction of survivin and an activation of caspase-3 were observed in TSCCa cells. Conclusion: Staurosporine inhibited cell viability and promoted apoptosis in TSCCa cells. Inhibition of PKCα activity might be a potential mechanism for staurosporine to induce apoptosis in this cell line. The cleavage of survivin and activation of caspase-3 signaling pathway might contribute to PKC α inhibition-induced apoptosis.

  2. PPAR{gamma} ligands induce growth inhibition and apoptosis through p63 and p73 in human ovarian cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soyeon [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Innovative Research Institute for Cell Therapy, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Jung [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Dae Seog, E-mail: heo1013@snu.ac.kr [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Innovative Research Institute for Cell Therapy, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands increased the rate of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. {yields} PPAR{gamma} ligands induced p63 and p73 expression, but not p53. {yields} p63 and p73 leads to an increase in p21 expression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with treatment PPAR{gamma} ligands. {yields} These findings suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands suppressed growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulation of p63 and p73. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), can induce anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cell types. This study investigated the mechanism of the anticancer effect of TZDs on human ovarian cancer. Six human ovarian cancer cell lines (NIH:OVCAR3, SKOV3, SNU-251, SNU-8, SNU-840, and 2774) were treated with the TZD, which induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Additionally, these cell lines exhibited various expression levels of PPAR{gamma} protein as revealed by Western blotting. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, as demonstrated by the appearance of a sub-G1 peak. This observation was corroborated by the finding of increased levels of Bax, p21, PARP, and cleaved caspase 3 in TGZ-treated cells. Interestingly, when we determined the effect of p53-induced growth inhibition in these three human ovarian cancer cells, we found that they either lacked p53 or contained a mutant form of p53. Furthermore, TGZ induced the expression of endogenous or exogenous p63 and p73 proteins and p63- or p73-directed short hairpin (si) RNAs inhibited the ability of TGZ to regulate expression of p21 in these cells. Thus, our results suggest that PPAR{gamma} ligands can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells and mediate p63 and p73 expression, leading to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis. The tumor suppressive effects of PPAR{gamma} ligands

  3. PPARγ ligands induce growth inhibition and apoptosis through p63 and p73 in human ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → PPARγ ligands increased the rate of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. → PPARγ ligands induced p63 and p73 expression, but not p53. → p63 and p73 leads to an increase in p21 expression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells with treatment PPARγ ligands. → These findings suggest that PPARγ ligands suppressed growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulation of p63 and p73. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, including thiazolidinediones (TZDs), can induce anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cell types. This study investigated the mechanism of the anticancer effect of TZDs on human ovarian cancer. Six human ovarian cancer cell lines (NIH:OVCAR3, SKOV3, SNU-251, SNU-8, SNU-840, and 2774) were treated with the TZD, which induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Additionally, these cell lines exhibited various expression levels of PPARγ protein as revealed by Western blotting. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, as demonstrated by the appearance of a sub-G1 peak. This observation was corroborated by the finding of increased levels of Bax, p21, PARP, and cleaved caspase 3 in TGZ-treated cells. Interestingly, when we determined the effect of p53-induced growth inhibition in these three human ovarian cancer cells, we found that they either lacked p53 or contained a mutant form of p53. Furthermore, TGZ induced the expression of endogenous or exogenous p63 and p73 proteins and p63- or p73-directed short hairpin (si) RNAs inhibited the ability of TGZ to regulate expression of p21 in these cells. Thus, our results suggest that PPARγ ligands can induce growth suppression of ovarian cancer cells and mediate p63 and p73 expression, leading to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis. The tumor suppressive effects of PPARγ ligands may have applications for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  4. Supercritical carbon dioxide extract of Physalis peruviana induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human lung cancer H661 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Chang, Shun-Pang; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Hou, Fwu-Feuu; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2009-06-01

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a popular folk medicine used for treating cancer, leukemia, hepatitis, rheumatism and other diseases. In this study, our objectives were to examine the total flavonoid and phenol content of different PP extracts (aqueous: HWEPP; ethanolic: EEPP; supercritical carbon dioxide: SCEPP-0, SCEPP-4 and SCEPP-5) and their antiproliferative effects in human lung cancer H661 cells. Among all the extracts tested, results showed that SCEPP-5 possessed the highest total flavonoid (226.19 +/- 4.15 mg/g) and phenol (100.82 +/- 6.25 mg/g) contents. SCEPP-5 also demonstrated the most potent inhibitory effect on H661 cell proliferation. Using DNA ladder and flow cytometry analysis, SCEPP-5 effectively induced H661 cell apoptosis as demonstrated by the accumulation of Sub-G1 peak and fragmentation of DNA. SCEPP-5 not only induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, it also up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) and down-regulated the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP). Furthermore, the apoptotic induction in H661 cells was found to associate with an elevated p53 protein expression, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, these results conclude that SCEPP-5 induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, and its apoptotic induction could be mediated through the p53-dependent pathway and modification of Bax and XIAP proteins expression. The results have also provided important pharmacological backgrounds for the potential use of PP supercritical fluid extract as products for cancer prevention. PMID:19425186

  5. Plumbagin inhibits cell growth and potentiates apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells in vitro through the NF-κB signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; Shen, Lin; Lu, Fu-rong; Qin, You; Chen, Rui; Li, Jia; Li, Yan; Zhan, Han-zi; He, Yuan-qiao

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, on human gastric cancer (GC) cells. Methods: Human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901, MKN-28, and AGS were used. The cell viability was examined using CCK-8 viability assay. Cell proliferation rate was determined using both clonogenic assay and EdU incorporation assay. Apoptosis was detected via Annexin V/propidium iodide double-labeled flow cytometry. Wes...

  6. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  7. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis. GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature, could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  8. Opposing effects of estradiol- and testosterone-membrane binding sites on T47D breast cancer cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical steroid mode of action involves binding to intracellular receptors, the later acting as ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors. Recently, membrane sites for different steroids have been also identified, mediating rapid, non-genomic, steroid actions. Membrane sites for estrogen and androgen have been found in a number of different cell types, bearing or not classical intracellular receptors. In the present study, with the use of radioligand binding, flow cytometry and confocal laser microscopy, we report that T47D human breast cancer cells express specific and saturable membrane receptors for both estrogen (K D 4.06 ± 3.31 nM) and androgen (K D 7.64 ± 3.15 nM). Upon activation with BSA-conjugated, non-permeable ligands (E2-BSA and testosterone-BSA), membrane estrogen receptors protect cells from serum-deprivation-induced apoptosis, while androgen receptors induce apoptosis in serum-supplemented T47D cells. In addition, co-incubation of cells with a fixed concentration of one steroid and varying concentrations of the other reversed the abovementioned effect (apoptosis for androgen, and anti-apoptosis for E2), suggesting that the fate of the cell depends on the relative concentration of either steroid in the culture medium. We also report the identification of membrane receptors for E2 and androgen in biopsy slides from breast cancer patients. Both sites are expressed, with the staining for membrane E2 being strongly present in ER-negative, less differentiated, more aggressive tumors. These findings suggest that aromatase inhibitors may exert their beneficial effects on breast cancer by also propagating the metabolism of local steroids towards androgen, inducing thus cell apoptosis through membrane androgen receptor activation

  9. Autophagy Inhibition Enhances the Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Mangrove (Avicennia marina) Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Esau, Luke

    2015-01-10

    Aims: Avicennia marina (AM) is a widely distributed mangrove plant that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries for the treatment of a number of diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the leaf ethyl acetate extract of AM for its cytotoxic and apoptotic potential along with in-depth investigations of its mechanism of action in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Study Design: The ethyl acetate extract of leaves and stems of AM was tested against estrogen positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using various assays. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, from July 2013-June 2014. Methodology: Dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition of cancer cells was measured using MTT assay. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined using various assays: phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3/7 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell cycle analysis, autophagy, and protein expression using western blotting. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp7) was also determined using real time PCR. Results: The AM extract inhibited breast cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. We demonstrated a non-classical mode of apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells by AM extract, where ROS production altered the mitochondrial membrane potential to induce apoptosis. Breast cancer cells treated with 200 µg/ml concentration of AM extract showed increased ROS production and disrupted MMP but no PARP-1 cleavage and a marked decrease in Caspase-7 protein levels (24 and 48 h) were detected. A significant amount of autophagy was also observed at the same concentration. However, treatment of MCF-7 cells with 200 µg/ml of AM extract along with the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine, significantly increased the apoptosis from 20% to 45

  10. Isosilybin A Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells via Targeting Akt, NF-κB and Androgen Receptor Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    DEEP, GAGAN; Gangar, Subhash Chander; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Kroll, David J.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is second most malignancy in American men. Advanced stage PCA cells possess unlimited replication potential as well as resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, targeting survival mechanisms and activating apoptotic machinery in PCA cells using non-toxic phytochemicals is suggested as an attractive strategy against this deadly malignancy. In the present study, we assessed the effect of one such botanical agent, namely isosilybin A, on apoptotic machinery and key members of cel...

  11. APOPTOSIS AND PROLIFERATION OF TUMOR CELLS IN LOCALLY ADVANCED CERVICAL CANCER AFTER NEOADJUVANT INTRAARTERIAL CHEMOTHERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪琼; 岳天孚; 惠京; 张颖; 王德华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Through observing the clinical response to neoadjuvant intraarterial chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer and investigating the changes of p53 protein expression, proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells after chemotherapy, to study the relationship between biological markers and chemotherapeutic response. Methods: 20 women with locally advanced squamous cervical cancer received consecutive infusion chemotherapy of five days of cisplatin and adriamycin via the superselective uterine artery. The response to chemotherapy was evaluated by gynecologic examination and ultrasonography 3 weeks after chemotherapy. The changes of apoptotic index (AI), proliferation index (PI) and p53 expression of tumor cells were detected by immunohistochemical technique. Results: The clinical response rate of locally advanced squamous cervical cancer to uterine artery infusion chemotherapy was 70%. No change of PI was found 3 weeks after treatment, but AI significantly increased from 2.79±0.76 to 4.29±1.13 (P<0.01), and AI/PI from 5.68±1.21 to 9.00±1.95 (P<0.05). On the contrary, the expression of p53 was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Patients who responded to chemotherapy showed higher PI before chemotherapy and significantly increased AI and AI/PI after chemotherapy than non-responders (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher PI was an indication for neoadjuvant intraarterial chemotherapy. One more cycle of chemotherapy should be given to those who have significantly increased AI or AI/PI after chemotherapy, while definite treatment such as surgery or/and radiotherapy should be immediately given to those patients without increased AI or AI/PI.

  12. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors induce apoptosis in oral cavity cancer cells by increased expression of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated whether NAG-1 is induced in oral cavity cancer cells by various NSAIDs and if apoptosis induced by NSAIDs can be linked directly with the induction of NAG-1. NAG-1 expression was increased by diclofenac, aceclofenac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and sulindac sulfide, in the order of NAG-1 induction, but not by acetaminophen, piroxicam or NS-398. Diclofenac was the most effective NAG-1 inducer. Incubation with diclofenac inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The expression of NAG-1 was observed in advance of the induction of apoptosis. Conditioned medium from NAG-1-overexpressing Drosophila cells inhibited SCC 1483 cells proliferation and induced apoptosis. In summary, some NSAIDs induce NAG-1 expression in oral cavity cancer cells and the induced NAG-1 protein appears to mediate apoptosis. Therefore, NSAIDs may be considered as a possible chemopreventive agent against oral cavity cancer

  13. Effects of propranolol in combination with radiation on apoptosis and survival of gastric cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend radiotherapy as a standard treatment for patients with a high risk of recurrence in gastric cancer. Because gastric cancer demonstrates limited sensitivity to radiotherapy, a radiosensitizer might therefore be useful to enhance the radiosensitivity of patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated if propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) antagonist, could enhance radiosensitivity and explored its precise molecular mechanism in gastric cancer cells. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines (SGC-7901 and BGC-823) were treated with or without propranolol and exposed to radiation. Cell viability and clonogenic survival assays were performed, and cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were detected by western blot and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Propranolol combined with radiation decreased cell viability and clonogenic survivability. Furthermore, it also induced apoptosis in both cell lines tested, as determined by Annexin V staining. In addition, treatment with propranolol decreased the level of NF-κB and, subsequently, down-regulated VEGF, COX-2, and EGFR expression. Taken together, these results suggested that propranolol enhanced the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to radiation through the inhibition of β-ARs and the downstream NF-κB-VEGF/EGFR/COX-2 pathway

  14. Effects of propranolol in combination with radiation on apoptosis and survival of gastric cancer cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN guidelines recommend radiotherapy as a standard treatment for patients with a high risk of recurrence in gastric cancer. Because gastric cancer demonstrates limited sensitivity to radiotherapy, a radiosensitizer might therefore be useful to enhance the radiosensitivity of patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated if propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor (β-AR antagonist, could enhance radiosensitivity and explored its precise molecular mechanism in gastric cancer cells. Methods Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines (SGC-7901 and BGC-823 were treated with or without propranolol and exposed to radiation. Cell viability and clonogenic survival assays were performed, and cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR were detected by western blot and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Propranolol combined with radiation decreased cell viability and clonogenic survivability. Furthermore, it also induced apoptosis in both cell lines tested, as determined by Annexin V staining. In addition, treatment with propranolol decreased the level of NF-κB and, subsequently, down-regulated VEGF, COX-2, and EGFR expression. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggested that propranolol enhanced the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to radiation through the inhibition of β-ARs and the downstream NF-κB-VEGF/EGFR/COX-2 pathway.

  15. Zerumbone induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells via modulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimahtol Hawariah LP

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zerumbone is a cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, a herbal plant which is also known as lempoyang. This new anticancer bioactive compound from Z. zerumbet was investigated for its activity and mechanism in human liver cancer cell lines. Results Zerumbone significantly showed an antiproliferative activity upon HepG2 cells with an IC50 of 3.45 ± 0.026 μg/ml. Zerumbone was also found to inhibit the proliferation of non-malignant Chang Liver and MDBK cell lines. However the IC50 obtained was higher compared to the IC50 for HepG2 cells (> 10 μg/ml. The extent of DNA fragmentation was evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay which showed that, zerumbone significantly increased apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a time-course manner. In detail, the apoptotic process triggered by zerumbone involved the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and the suppression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. The changes that occurred in the levels of this antagonistic proteins Bax/Bcl-2, was independent of p53 since zerumbone did not affect the levels of p53 although this protein exists in a functional form. Western blotting analysis for Bax protein was further confirmed qualitatively with an immunoassay that showed the distribution of Bax protein in zerumbone-treated cells. Conclusion Therefore, zerumbone was found to induce the apoptotic process in HepG2 cells through the up and down regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein independently of functional p53 activity.

  16. L-carvone induces p53, caspase 3 mediated apoptosis and inhibits the migration of breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinaki B; Thakkar, Vasudev R

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural compounds exists that possesses significant cytotoxic as well as chemopreventive activity through induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of L-carvone, an active component of spearmint (Mentha spicata) was studied on breast cancer (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231) and normal (MCF 10A) cell lines, and insight into its mechanism of action was attained. L-carvone inhibited proliferation of MCF 7 (IC50 1.2 mM) and MDA MB 231 cells (IC50 1.0 mM) and inhibited the migration of breast cancer cell lines. L-carvone induced apoptosis as observed by nuclei fragmentation and the presence of apoptotic bodies in DAPI, AnnexinV/propidium iodide, and TUNEL assays. L-carvone exposure arrested MCF 7 cells in S phase of the cell cycle. DNA damage caused by L-carvone was apparent from the increased tail moment in COMET assay, which could be induced by an increase in ROS that was measured using a fluorescence probe. Glutathione levels were also increased. The increased level of p53, Bad, cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP explained p53 and caspase-mediated apoptosis. PMID:24611509

  17. EFFECT OF STAT3 SPECIFIC SHRNA EXPRESSION VECTOR ON PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS OF HUMAN PANCREATIC CANCER CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To construct signal transduction and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector and to investigate its inhibitory effects on STAT3 expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer. Methods Three pairs of hairpin-like oligonucleotide sequences specific for human STAT3 gene were designed and synthesized. The annealed oligonucleotide fragments were subcloned into pRNAT-U6.1/Neo plasmid. The STAT3 shRNA expressing vectors were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. STAT3 mRNA and protein expression were examined by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to detect the state of cell proliferation and cell apoptosis, respectively. Results PCR and DNA sequencing showed that the oligonucleotide fragments were correctly inserted into pRNAT-U6.1/Neo plasmid. STAT3 expression and cell proliferation in the transfected cells was inhibited significantly by three STAT3 shRNA expressing vectors (P<0.05). ConclusionSTAT3 shRNA expression vector can effectively inhibit the expression of STAT3. Silencing of STAT3 with RNAi can significantly inhibit the proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells and may provide a novel therapeutic target for treating pancreatic cancer.

  18. RNA interference-mediated silencing of speckle-type POZ protein promotes apoptosis of renal cell cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoxia Liu, Guiling Sun, Xiuju Sun Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP gene on renal cell cancer (RCC cells and to explore its possible mechanism. The A498 and ACHN RCC cells were transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA-SPOP by lipofection methods. The silencing efficiency was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effects of SPOP silencing on cell apoptosis, cell viability, colony formation ability, cell migration ability, and chemosensitivity to Sorafenib were assessed by flow cytometry, an MTT assay, a colony formation assay, a trans-well migration assay, and a CCK-8 assay, respectively. Its effects on the expression of several cytokines were determined by a protein microarray. Relevant signaling pathways were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher; the cell viability, the colony formation, and migration ability were significantly decreased in the siRNA-SPOP group. The protein microarray screening showed that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the siRNA group was significantly decreased and that the expression of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and E-cadherin was significantly increased (P<0.05. The relevant signaling pathways were the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions pathway and extracellular matrix organization signal pathway. SPOP gene silencing induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell viability, colony formation, and migration ability, and elevated the drug sensitivity in the RCC cells. A possible mechanism is that silencing SPOP induces the differential expression of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial

  19. White tea extract induces apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} and 15-lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jenny T; Nie, Wen-Xian; Tsu, I-Hsien; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Rao, Jian Yu; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Go, Vay Liang W; Serio, Kenneth J

    2010-09-01

    Emerging preclinical data suggests that tea possess anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic properties. We therefore hypothesize that white tea extract (WTE) is capable of favorably modulating apoptosis, a mechanism associated with lung tumorigenesis. We examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of WTE on the induction of apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549 (adenocarcinoma) and H520 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells. We further characterized the molecular mechanisms responsible for WTE-induced apoptosis, including the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and the 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) signaling pathways. We found that WTE was effective in inducing apoptosis in both A549 and H520 cells, and inhibition of PPAR-gamma with GW9662 partially reversed WTE-induced apoptosis. We further show that WTE increased PPAR-gamma activation and mRNA expression, concomitantly increased 15(S)-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid release, and upregulated 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 mRNA expression by A549 cells. Inhibition of 15-LOX with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NGDA), as well as caffeic acid, abrogated WTE-induced PPAR-gamma activation and upregulation of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression in A549 cells. WTE also induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A mRNA expression and activated caspase-3. Inhibition of caspase-3 abrogated WTE-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that WTE is capable of inducing apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. The induction of apoptosis seems to be mediated, in part, through the upregulation of the PPAR-gamma and 15-LOX signaling pathways, with enhanced activation of caspase-3. Our findings support the future investigation of WTE as an antineoplastic and chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. PMID:20668019

  20. Salinomycin sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells by increasing apoptosis via the prevention of G2 arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Hwa; Yoo, Hye-In; Kang, Han Sung; Ro, Jungsil [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sungpil, E-mail: yoons@ncc.re.kr [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes them by prevention of G2 arrest and reduced cyclin D1 levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal also sensitizes them by increasing DNA damage and reducing p21 level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low concentration of Sal effectively sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether Sal could sensitize cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. We demonstrated that Sal sensitized paclitaxcel (PAC)-, docetaxcel (DOC)-, vinblastin (VIN)-, or colchicine (COL)-treated cancer cell lines, suggesting that Sal has the ability to sensitize the cells to any form of microtubule-targeting drugs. Sensitization to the antimitotic drugs could be achieved with very low concentrations of Sal, suggesting that there is a possibility to minimize Sal toxicity associated with human cancer patient treatments. Sensitization by Sal increased apoptosis, which was observed by C-PARP production. Sal sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by preventing G2 arrest, suggesting that Sal contributes to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. Sal generally reduced cyclin D1 levels in PAC-, DOC-, and VIN-treated cells. In addition, Sal treatment increased pH2AX levels and reduced p21 levels in antimitotic drugs-treated cells. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying Sal sensitization to DNA-damaging compounds, radiation, and microtubule-targeting drugs are similar. Our data demonstrated that Sal sensitizes cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by increasing apoptosis through the prevention of G2 arrest via conserved Sal-sensitization mechanisms. These results may contribute to the development of Sal-based chemotherapy for cancer patients treated with antimitotic drugs.

  1. Crocus sativus L. (Saffron Stigma Aqueous Extract Induces Apoptosis in Alveolar Human Lung Cancer Cells through Caspase-Dependent Pathways Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer. Saffron has been used in folk medicine for centuries. We investigated the potential of saffron to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in lung cancer cells (A549. We also examined the caspase-dependent pathways activation of saffron-induced apoptosis against the A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of saffron extract; then cell morphological changes, cell viability, and apoptosis were determined by the normal invertmicroscope, MTT assay, Annexin V and propidium iodide, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activated caspases were detected by treatment of saffron in lung cancer cells using fluorescein-labeled inhibitors of polycaspases. The proliferation of the A549 cells were decreased after treatment with saffron in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with saffron concentrations. Saffron induced morphological changes, decreased percentage of viable cells, and induced apoptosis. Saffron could induce apoptosis in the A549 cells and activate caspase pathways. The levels of caspases involved in saffron-induced apoptosis in the A549 cells indicating caspase-dependent pathway were induced by saffron. The anticancer activity of the aqueous extract of saffron could be attributed partly to its inhibition of the cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.

  2. SIRT3 participates in glucose metabolism interruption and apoptosis induced by BH3 mimetic S1 in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xi-Yan; Kang, Jin-Song; Yang, Xiao-Chun; Su, Jing; Wu, Yao; Yan, Xiao-Yu; Xue, Ya-Nan; Xu, Ye; Liu, Yu-He; Yu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Sun, Lian-Kun

    2016-08-01

    The Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins are important cancer therapy targets; however, their role in cancer cell metabolism remains unclear. We found that the BH3-only protein mimetic S1, a novel pan Bcl-2 inhibitor, simultaneously interrupted glucose metabolism and induced apoptosis in human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells, which was related to the activation of SIRT3, a stress-responsive deacetylase. S1 interrupted the cellular glucose metabolism mainly through causing damage to mitochondrial respiration and inhibiting glycolysis. Moreover, S1 upregulated the gene and protein expression of SIRT3, and induced the translocation of SIRT3 from the nucleus to mitochondria. SIRT3 silencing reversed the effects of S1 on glucose metabolism and apoptosis through increasing the level of HK-II localized to the mitochondria, while a combination of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-DG and S1 intensified the cytotoxicity through further upregulation of SIRT3 expression. This study underscores an essential role of SIRT3 in the antitumor effect of Bcl-2 inhibitors in human ovarian cancer through regulating both metabolism and apoptosis. The manipulation of Bcl-2 inhibitors combined with the use of classic glycolysis inhibitors may be rational strategies to improve ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27277143

  3. PKCα translocation from mitochondria to nucleus is closely related to induction of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qiao(吴乔); LIU; Su(刘苏); DING; Liang(丁亮); YE; Xiaofeng(叶晓峰); SU; Wenjin(苏文金)

    2002-01-01

    PKCs have been implicated in the regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and signal transduction. It was demonstrated in this study that PKC? was located both at mitochondria and in cytosol in gastric cancer cell line BGC-823. Treatment of cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) resulted in the translocation of PKCα from both mitochondria and cytosol to nucleus as clearly shown by laser-scanning-confocal microscopy, while the protein level of PKCα was not changed by TPA treatment as detected by Western blot. The results also revealed that TPA-induced translocation of PKCα was in close association with apoptosis induction, and such association was further affirmed by other experiments where various apoptotic stimuli and specific inhibitors of PKC were used. Taken together, these findings indicate that translocation of PKCα from both mitochondria and cytosol to nucleus in gastric cancer cell is accompanied by induction of apoptosis, and may imply a new mechanism of the potential linking between cell apoptosis and PKCα translocation.

  4. Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 sensitizes human pancreatic cancer cells to death ligand-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermet, Julie; Saint-Laurent, Nathalie; Rochaix, Philippe; Cuvillier, Olivier; Levade, Thierry; Schally, Andrew V; Pradayrol, Lucien; Buscail, Louis; Susini, Christiane; Bousquet, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) gene expression is lost in 90% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We previously demonstrated that stable sst2 transfection of human pancreatic BxPC-3 cells, which do not endogenously express sst2, inhibits cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. These sst2 effects occur as a consequence of an autocrine sst2-dependent loop, whereby sst2 induces expression of its own ligand, somatostatin. Here we investigated whether sst2 induces apoptosis in sst2-transfected BxPC-3 cells. Expression of sst2 induced a 4.4- +/- 0.05-fold stimulation of apoptosis in BxPC-3 through the activation of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. sst2 also sensitized these cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), enhancing it 4.1- +/- 1.5-fold. Apoptosis in BxPC-3 cells mediated by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and CD95L was likewise increased 2.3- +/- 0.5-fold and 7.4- +/- 2.5-fold, respectively. sst2-dependent activation and cell sensitization to death ligand-induced apoptosis involved activation of the executioner caspases, key factors in both death ligand- or mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. sst2 affected both pathways: first, by up-regulating expression of TRAIL and TNFalpha receptors, DR4 and TNFRI, respectively, and sensitizing the cells to death ligand-induced initiator capase-8 activation, and, second, by down-regulating expression of the antiapoptotic mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein. These results are of interest for the clinical management of chemoresistant pancreatic adenocarcinoma by using a combined gene therapy based on the cotransfer of genes for both the sst2 and a nontoxic death ligand. PMID:12490654

  5. Cod glycopeptide with picomolar affinity to galectin-3 suppresses T-cell apoptosis and prostate cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Prasun; Kaptan, Engin; Bandyopadhyaya, Gargi; Kaczanowska, Sabina; Davila, Eduardo; Thompson, Keyata; Martin, Stuart S; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V; Vasta, Gerardo R; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2013-03-26

    Cancer metastasis and immune suppression are critical issues in cancer therapy. Here, we show that a β-galactoside-binding lectin [galectin-3 (gal3)] that recognizes the Thomsen-Friedenreich disaccharide (TFD, Galβ1,3GalNAc) present on the surface of most cancer cells is involved in promoting angiogenesis, tumor-endothelial cell adhesion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells, as well as evading immune surveillance through killing of activated T cells. To block gal3-mediated interactions, we purified a glycopeptide from cod (designated TFD100) that binds gal3 with picomolar affinity. TFD100 blocks gal3-mediated angiogenesis, tumor-endothelial cell interactions, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells in mice at nanomolar levels. Moreover, apoptosis of activated T cells induced by either recombinant gal3 or prostate cancer patient serum-associated gal3 was inhibited at nanomolar concentration of TFD100. Because the gal3-TFD interaction is a key factor driving metastasis in most epithelial cancers, this high-affinity TFD100 should be a promising antimetastatic agent for the treatment of various cancers, including prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:23479624

  6. Synergistic killing of lung cancer cells by cisplatin and radiation via autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Mingbo; Hou, Yufei; Liang, Bing; Su, Xu; Liu, Xiaodong

    2014-06-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used drug for chemotherapy, however, whether it may be used synergistically with radiotherapy remains unclear. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms of synergistic killing by radiosensitization and cisplatin, with a focus on the growth inhibition, apoptosis and autophagy of non-small cell human lung cancer cells in vitro and in a tumor xenograft in vivo. A549 cells were used for the in vitro experiments and divided into the following four treatment groups: Sham-irradiated; conventional radiotherapy (CRT) of five doses of 2 Gy every day; hyperfractionated radiotherapy of five doses of 2 Gy (1 Gy twice a day at 4 h intervals) every day; and CRT plus cisplatin. A xenograft tumor-bearing C57BL/6 model was established for the in vivo experiments and the above-mentioned treatments were administered. MTT and colony formation assays were used to detect cell viability and western blotting was performed to detect the levels of protein expression. Monodansylcadaverine staining and the immunofluorescence technique were used to analyze the autophagy rate, while flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression levels of the genes associated with apoptosis and autophagy, including microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAPLC3)-II, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) III, Beclin1, phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, caspase-3 and p21. The MTT assay demonstrated that cisplatin exhibits a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells and synergizes with radiation to promote the cell-killing effect of radiation. In the xenograft mouse model of Lewis cells, cisplatin plus ionizing radiation (IR) (five doses of 2 Gy) yielded the most significant tumor suppression. The autophagic vacuoles, the ratio of MAPLC3-II to MAPLC3-I (LC3-II/LC3-I) and the levels of Beclin1 were found to increase in all treatment

  7. Effects of tatariside G isolated from Fagopyrum tataricum roots on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Su-Juan; Xia, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female carcinoma. Current therapies are often unsatisfactory, especially for advanced stage patients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of tatariside G (TG) on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the possible mechanism of action involved. An MTT assay was employed to evaluate cell viability. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry (FCM) assays were used to detect cell apoptosis. The protein expression of phosphorylated JNK, P38, ERK and Akt and cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 was evaluated by western blot analysis. Additionally, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was measured by fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR). TG notably inhibited cell viability, enhanced the percentage of apoptotic cells, facilitated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK proteins and caspase-3 and caspase-9 cracking, downregulated the phosphorylation level of Akt, and increased the loss of MMP and the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9. TG-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of the mitochondrial death pathway. TG may be an effective candidate for chemotherapy against cervical cancer. PMID:25076146

  8. Effects of Tatariside G Isolated from Fagopyrum tataricum Roots on Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common female carcinoma. Current therapies are often unsatisfactory, especially for advanced stage patients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of tatariside G (TG on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the possible mechanism of action involved. An MTT assay was employed to evaluate cell viability. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry (FCM assays were used to detect cell apoptosis. The protein expression of phosphorylated JNK, P38, ERK and Akt and cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 was evaluated by western blot analysis. Additionally, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was measured by fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR. TG notably inhibited cell viability, enhanced the percentage of apoptotic cells, facilitated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK proteins and caspase-3 and caspase-9 cracking, downregulated the phosphorylation level of Akt, and increased the loss of MMP and the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9. TG-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of the mitochondrial death pathway. TG may be an effective candidate for chemotherapy against cervical cancer.

  9. Roles of Fas signaling pathway in vitamin E succinate-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Wu; Yao Li; Yan Zhao; Yu-Juan Shan; Wei Xia; Wei-Ping Yu; Lan Zhao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of Fas signaling pathway in vitamin E succinate-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.METHODS: Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells were treated with VES at 5, 10, 20 mg@L-1, succinic acid and vitamin E as vehicle control and condition media only as untreated (UT) control. Apoptotic morphology was observed by DAPI staining. Western blot analysis was applied to measure the expression of Fas, FADD and caspase-8 proteins. After the cells were transiently transfected with Fas and FADD antisense oligonucleotides, respectively, caspase-8 activity was determined by flurometric method.RESULTS: The morphologically apoptotic changes were observed after VES treatment by DAPI staining. 23.7 % and 89.6 % apoptosis occurred after 24 h and 48 h of 20 mg@L-1 VES treatment, respectively. The protein levels of Fas, FADD and caspase-8 were evidently increased in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of VES treatment. The blockage of Fas by transfection with Fas antisense oligonucleotides obviously inhibited the expression of FADD protein. After SGC-7901 cells were transfected with Fas and FADD antisense oligonucleotides, caspase-8 activity was obviously decreased (P<0.01), whereas Fas blocked more than FADD.CONCLUSION: VES-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells involves Fas signaling pathway including the interaction of Fas, FADD and caspase-8.

  10. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC50 of 5 μM were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by the ROS generation

  11. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yu Ran [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi-Ho [Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 404-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Ho [R and D Center, Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Yongin 446-905 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Youl [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Park, Haeil [College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunga, E-mail: sachoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC{sub 50} of 5 μM were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by

  12. Inhibition of Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 and Activation of Caspases Are Critically Involved in Gallotannin-induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyung; Kwon, Hee Young; Jung, Ji Hoon; Jung, Deok-Beom; Jeong, Arong; Cheon, Jinhong; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Although gallotannin contained in several medicinal plants was known to have multi-biological activities, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and antitumor effects, the underlying apoptotic mechanism of gallotannin is not fully understood so far. Thus, in the present study, the apoptotic mechanism of gallotannin was elucidated in DU145, PC-3, and M2182 prostate cancer cells in association with myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) signaling. Gallotannin exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity in DU145, PC-3, and M2182 prostate cancer cells. Also, gallotannin showed apoptotic morphological features and increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive cells and sub-G1 accumulation in three prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, gallotannin cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and attenuated the expression of procaspases 9 and 3 in three prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, gallotannin attenuated the expression of survival genes such as Mcl-1, B-cell lymphoma 2, and B-cell lymphoma 2 extra large in three prostate cancer cell lines. Interestingly, overexpression of Mcl-1 reversed the ability of gallotannin to cleave PARP and increase sub-G1 population in three prostate cancer cell lines. Conversely, silencing of Mcl-1 enhanced apoptosis by gallotannin in three prostate cancer cell lines by FACSCalibur (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inhibition of Mcl-1 and activation of caspases are critically involved in gallotannin-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. PMID:26014377

  13. Anti-cancer effect of Cassia auriculata leaf extract in vitro through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in human breast and larynx cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, R; Harish, C C; Pichai, R; Sakthisekaran, D; Gunasekaran, P

    2009-02-01

    The in vitro anti-cancer effect of Cassia auriculata leaf extract (CALE) was evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and human larynx carcinoma Hep-2 cell lines. CALE preferentially inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 400 and 500 microg for MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells, respectively. The results showed the anti-cancer action is due to nuclear fragmentation and condensation, associated with the appearance of A(0) peak in cell cycle analysis that is indicative of apoptosis. In addition, CALE treated MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells had decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein, eventually leading a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These results demonstrated that CALE inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells through induction of apoptosis, making CALE a candidate as new anti-cancer drug. PMID:18996213

  14. Extracts of strawberry fruits induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganatha R Somasagara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds and secondary metabolites that contribute to their biological properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Current study investigates the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB fruits in leukaemia (CEM and breast cancer (T47D cell lines ex vivo, and its cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive potential in mice models. Results of MTT, trypan blue and LDH assays suggested that MESB can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, irrespective of origin, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of mice bearing breast adenocarcinoma with MESB blocked the proliferation of tumor cells in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Histological and immunohistochemical studies suggest that MESB treatment affected tumor cell proliferation by activating apoptosis and did not result in any side effects. Finally, we show that MESB can induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by activating p73 in breast cancer cells, when tumor suppressor gene p53 is mutated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study reveals that strawberry fruits possess both cancer preventive and therapeutic values and we discuss the mechanism by which it is achieved.

  15. Taxifolin enhances andrographolide-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells via spindle assembly checkpoint activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Rong Zhang

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (Andro suppresses proliferation and triggers apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. Taxifolin (Taxi has been proposed to prevent cancer development similar to other dietary flavonoids. In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the addition of Andro alone and Andro and Taxi together on human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells were assessed. Andro inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation by mitotic arrest and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Although the effect of Taxi alone on DU145 cell proliferation was not significant, the combined use of Taxi with Andro significantly potentiated the anti-proliferative effect of increased mitotic arrest and apoptosis by enhancing the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase, and caspases-7 and -9. Andro together with Taxi enhanced microtubule polymerization in vitro, and they induced the formation of twisted and elongated spindles in the cancer cells, thus leading to mitotic arrest. In addition, we showed that depletion of MAD2, a component in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, alleviated the mitotic block induced by the two compounds, suggesting that they trigger mitotic arrest by SAC activation. This study suggests that the anti-cancer activity of Andro can be significantly enhanced in combination with Taxi by disrupting microtubule dynamics and activating the SAC.

  16. Gamma-Mangostin, a Micronutrient of Mangosteen Fruit, Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fang Chang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently colorectal cancer rates have increased rapidly in Taiwan. The treatment of colorectal cancer includes surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana is a famous Asian tropical fruit. γ-Mangostin is a xanthone derivative isolated from the fruit hull. In previous studies, we found evidence of anti-inflammatory and anti-brain tumor activities in γ-mangostin. In this study, we performed further studies to assess the apoptotic effects of γ-mangostin on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells HT29. γ-Mangostin showed concentration and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells. Microscopic observation under Giemsa staining showed that γ-mangostin induced cellular swelling and the appearance of apoptotic bodies, characteristic of apoptosis in HT29 cells. In addition, flow cytometry analysis showed an increase of hypodiploid cells in γ-mangostin-treated HT29 cells, while enhancement of intracellular peroxide production was detected in the same γ-mangostin-treated cells by DCHDA assay and DiOC6(3 staining. In view of the above results, γ-mangostin has demonstrated anticancer activity and induces apoptosis in HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The evidence suggests that γ-mangostin could serve as a micronutrient for colon cancer prevention and is a potential lead compound for the development of anti-colon cancer agents.

  17. Methyl jasmonate induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy via the ROS pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mutian; Su, Ling; Xiao, Zhenna; Liu, Xianfang; Liu, Xiangguo

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a botanical hormone that serves as a signal transduction intermediate and regulates cell death in stressed plants. MJ induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death selectively in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MJ-induced apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism through which MJ induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that MJ triggered apoptosis via the DDIT3-TNFRSF10B-CASP axis. MJ treatment significantly decreased the expression of CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator, an inhibitor of CASP8) in NSCLC cells, and ectopic expression of CFLAR partly protected cells from MJ-induced apoptosis. MJ also induced pro-apoptotic autophagy in NSCLC cells. Importantly, inhibition of ROS suppressed both MJ-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Taken together, MJ induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy in NSCLC cells through the ROS pathway. Thus, MJ and its derivative treatment may serve as a novel chemotherapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:27186395

  18. Zinc supplementation induces apoptosis and enhances antitumor efficacy of docetaxel in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocdor H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hilal Kocdor,1,2 Halil Ates,1 Suleyman Aydin,3 Ruksan Cehreli,1 Firat Soyarat,2 Pinar Kemanli,2 Duygu Harmanci,2 Hakan Cengiz,2 Mehmet Ali Kocdor4 1Institute of Oncology, Dokuz Eylul University, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir Turkey; 3Department of Biochemistry, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, 4Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey Background: Exposure to exogenous zinc results in increased apoptosis, growth inhibition, and altered oxidative stress in cancer cells. Previous studies also suggested that zinc sensitizes some cancer cells to cytotoxic agents depending on the p53 status. Therefore, zinc supplementation may show anticancer efficacy solely and may increase docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.Methods: Here, we report the effects of several concentrations of zinc combined with docetaxel on p53-wild-type (A549 and p53-null (H1299 cells. We evaluated cellular viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression as well as oxidative stress parameters, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde levels.Results: Zinc reduced the viability of A549 cells and increased the apoptotic response in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Zinc also amplified the docetaxel effects and reduced its inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values. The superoxide dismutase levels increased in all treatment groups; however, glutathione peroxidase was slightly increased in the combination treatments. Zinc also caused malondialdehyde elevations at 50 µM and 100 µM.Conclusion: Zinc has anticancer efficacy against non-small-cell lung cancer cells in the presence of functionally active p53 and enhances docetaxel efficacy in both p53-wild-type and p53-deficient cancer cells. Keywords: lung cancer, zinc, docetaxel, A549, H1299

  19. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J

    2016-01-01

    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D). PMID:26908199

  20. Hyperthermia combined with 5-fluorouracil promoted apoptosis and enhanced thermotolerance in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tao Liu,* Yan-Wei Ye,* A-li Zhu, Zhen Yang, Yang Fu, Chong-Qing Wei, Qi Liu, Chun-Lin Zhao, Guo-Jun Wang, Xie-Fu Zhang Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the proliferation inhibition and apo­ptosis-promoting effect under hyperthermia and chemotherapy treatment, at cellular level. Human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was cultivated with 5-fluorouracil at different temperatures. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined, and expression of Bcl-2 and HSP70 was measured at different treatments. Cell survival rates and inhibition rates in chemotherapy group, thermotherapy group, and thermo-chemotherapy group were drastically lower than the control group (P<0.05. For tumor cells in the thermo-chemotherapy group, survival rates and inhibition rates at three different temperatures were all significantly lower than those in chemotherapy group and thermotherapy group (P<0.05. 5-Fluorouracil induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells with a strong temperature dependence, which increased gradually with increase in temperature. At 37°C and 43°C there were significant differences between the thermotherapy group and chemotherapy group and between the thermo-chemotherapy group and thermotherapy group (P<0.01. The expression of Bcl-2 was downregulated and HSP70 was upregulated, with increase in temperature in all groups. Cell apoptosis was not significant at 46°C (P>0.05, which was probably due to thermotolerance caused by HSP70 accumulation. These results suggested that hyperthermia combined with 5-fluorouracil had a synergistic effect in promoting apoptosis and enhancing thermotolerance in gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. Keywords: gastric cancer, thermotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, Bcl-2, HSP70, thermotolerance

  1. Pinpointing differences in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in adherent and non-adherent cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Holm, Jacob Bak; Poulsen, Kristian Arild;

    2010-01-01

    have previously been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptosis. We find, however, that increase or decrease in the cellular content of glutathione and taurine has no effect on cisplatin-induced cell death in EATC and ELA. Nevertheless, knock-down of the taurine transporter TauT leads to a...

  2. Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor affects the invasion, apoptosis and vascularisation in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinguang; Ge Zhicheng; Zhang Zhongtao; Bai Zhigang; Ma Xuemei; Wang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant female diseases worldwide.It is a significant threat to every woman's health.Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is known to be abundant in endothelial cells.According to previous literature,overexpression of VEGI has been shown to inhibit tumor neovascularisation and progression in cellular and animal models,but there has been limited research on the significance of VEGI in the breast cancer.Methods In our study,cell lines MDA-MB-231 were first constructed in which VEGI mediated by lentivirus over-expressed.The effects of VEGI over-expression on MDA-MB-231 cells were investigated both in vitro and in vivo.The expression of VEGI in the MDA-MB-231 cells after infection of lentivirus was analyzed using real-time PCR and Western blotting.The effect of the biological characteristics of MDA-MB-231 cells was assessed by growth,invasion,adhesion,and migration assay with subcutaneous tumor-bearing nude mice models.Then the growth curves of the subcutaneous tumors were studied.Expressions of VEGI,CD31 and CD34 in the tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry.Results Infection of MDA-MB-231 cells within the lentivirus resulted in approximately a 1 000-fold increase in the expression of VEGI.As can be seen in the invasion,adhesion and migration assay,the over-expression of VEGI can inhibit the ability of MDA-MB-231 cells during migration,adhesion and invasion.The volume of the subcutaneous tumor in the over-expression group was distinctly and significantly less than that of the control groups.Immunohistochemistry analysis of the tumor biopsies cleady showed the expression of VEGI in the over-expression group increased while CD31 and CD34 decreased significantly.In vitro and in vivo,the early apoptosis rate and the apoptosis index were increased within the VEGI over-expression group as compared with the control group.Conclusions Taken

  3. Ceramide targets xIAP and cIAP1 to sensitize metastatic colon and breast cancer cells to apoptosis induction to suppress tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramide is a bioeffector that mediates various cellular processes, including apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying ceramide function in apoptosis is apparently cell type-dependent and is not well-understood. We aimed at identifying molecular targets of ceramide in metastatic human colon and breast cancer cells, and determining the efficacy of ceramide analog in suppression of colon and breast cancer metastasis. The activity of and mechanism underlying ceramide as a cytotoxic agent, and as a sensitizer for Fas-mediated apoptosis was analyzed in human cell lines established from primary or metastatic colon and breast cancers. The efficacy of ceramide analog LCL85 in suppression of metastasis was examined in preclinical mouse tumor models. Exposure of human colon carcinoma cells to ceramide analog LCL85 results in apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, a sublethal dose of LCL85 increased C16 ceramide content and overcame tumor cell resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Subsequently, treatment of tumor cells with exogenous C16 ceramide resulted in increased tumor cell sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis. LCL85 resembles Smac mimetic BV6 in sensitization of colon carcinoma cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis by inducing proteasomal degradation of cIAP1 and xIAP proteins. LCL85 also decreased xIAP1 and cIAP1 protein levels and sensitized metastatic human breast cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Silencing xIAP and cIAP1 with specific siRNAs significantly increased the metastatic human colon carcinoma cell sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that IAP proteins mediate apoptosis resistance in metastatic human colon carcinoma cells and ceramide induces IAP protein degradation to sensitize the tumor cells to apoptosis induction. Consistent with its apoptosis sensitization activity, subtoxic doses of LCL85 suppressed colon carcinoma cell metastatic potential in an experimental lung metastasis mouse model, as well as breast cancer growth

  4. Gecko proteins induce the apoptosis of bladder cancer 5637 cells by inhibiting Akt and activating the intrinsic caspase cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geun-Young; Park, Soon Yong; Jo, Ara; Kim, Mira; Leem, Sun-Hee; Jun, Woo-Jin; Shim, Sang In; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Jin Woong

    2015-09-01

    Gecko proteins have long been used as anti-tumor agents in oriental medicine, without any scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, their effect on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. These proteins increased the Annexin-V staining and the amount of condensed chromatin, demonstrating that the Gecko proteinsinduced cell death was caused by apoptosis. Gecko proteins suppressed Akt activation, and the overexpression of constitutively active form of myristoylated Akt prevented Gecko proteins-induced death of 5637 cells. Furthermore, Gecko proteins activated caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Gecko proteins suppressed the Akt pathway and activated the intrinsic caspase pathway, leading to the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 531-536]. PMID:26246284

  5. Quercetin Down-regulates IL-6/STAT-3 Signals to Induce Mitochondrial-mediated Apoptosis in a Non-small-cell Lung-cancer Cell Line, A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinaba Mukherjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but its anti-inflammatory effects, which are also closely linked with apoptosis, if any, on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC have not so far been critically examined. In this study, we tried to determine if quercetin had any demonstrable anti-inflammatory potential, which also could significantly contribute to inducing apoptosis in a NSCLC cell line, A549. Methods: In this context, several assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and fluorimetry, were done. Gene expression was analyzed by using a western blot analysis. Results: Results revealed that quercetin could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial depolarization by causing an imbalance in B-cell lymphoma 2/Bcl2 Antagonist X (Bcl2/Bax ratio and by down-regulating the interleukine-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. An analysis of the data revealed that quercetin could block nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activity at early hours, which might cause a down-regulation of the IL-6 titer, and the IL-6 expression, in turn, could inhibit p-STAT3 expression. Down-regulation of both the STAT3 and the NF-κB expressions might, therefore, cause down-regulation of Bcl2 activity because both are major upstream effectors of Bcl2. Alteration in Bcl2 responses might result in an imbalance in the Bcl2/Bax ratio, which could ultimately bring about mitochondria mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: Overall, the finding of this study indicates that a quercetin induced anti-inflammatory pathway in A549 cells appeared to make a significant contribution towards induction of apoptosis in NSCLC and, thus, may have a therapeutic use such as a strong apoptosis inducer in cancer cells.

  6. Characterization of the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in the regulation of apoptosis in human small and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alam, Mahmood

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) is overexpressed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but is not expressed in small cell lung cancer. Selective COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells, an effect which is associated with the regulation of intracellular MAP kinase (MAPK) signal pathways. Our aims were to characterize the effects of COX-2 inhibition by rofecoxib on apoptosis in human NSCLC and small cell lung cancer cell lines. METHODS: The human NSCLC cell line NCI-H2126 and small cell lung cancer cell line DMS-79 were used. Constitutive COX-2 protein levels were first determined by Western blot test. Levels of apoptosis were evaluated by using propidium iodide staining on FACScan analysis after incubation of NCI-H2126 and DMS-79 with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 (25 ?microM), NF-kappaB inhibitor SN50 (75 microg\\/mL), and rofecoxib at 100 and 250 microM. All statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Western blot test confirmed the presence of COX-2 enzyme in NCI-H2126 and absence in DMS-79. Interestingly, rofecoxib treatment demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis in both cell lines. Given this finding, the effect of rofecoxib on NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK pathways was also examined. Apoptosis in both cell lines was unaltered by SN50, either alone or in combination with rofecoxib. A similar phenomenon was observed in NCI-H2126 cells treated with SB202190, either alone or in combination with rofecoxib. In contrast, p38 MAPK inhibition greatly upregulated DMS-79 apoptosis in a manner that was unaltered by the addition of rofecoxib. CONCLUSIONS: Rofecoxib led to a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis in both tumor cell lines. This effect occurred independently of COX-2, NF-kappaB, and p38 MAPK pathways in DMS-79 cells. As such, rofecoxib must act on alternative pathways to regulate apoptosis in human small cell lung cancer cells.

  7. Piceatannol promotes apoptosis via up-regulation of microRNA-129 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haogang [Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Jia, Ruichun [Department of Blood Transfusion, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Wang, Chunjing; Hu, Tianming [Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Wang, Fujing, E-mail: wangfujing-hyd@163.com [Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Piceatannol induces apoptosis in cultured CRC cells. • Piceatannol promotes expression of miR-129. • miR-129 mediates proapoptotic effects of piceatannol. - Abstract: Piceatannol, a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol, has been confirmed as an antitumor agent by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and metastasis in diverse cancer. However, the effect and mechanisms of piceatannol on colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been well understood. This study aimed to test whether piceatannol could inhibit growth of CRC cells and reveal its underlying molecular mechanism. MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to measure apoptosis of CRC cells. Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 levels were analyzed by Western blot and miR-129 levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our study showed that piceatannol inhibited HCT116 and HT29 cells growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Piceatannol induced apoptosis by promoting expression of miR-129, and then inhibiting expression of Bcl-2, an known target for miR-129. Moreover, knock down of miR-129 could reverse the reduction of cell viability induced by piceatannol in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Taken together, our study unraveled the ability of piceatannol to suppress colorectal cancer growth and elucidated the participation of miR-129 in the anti-cancer action of piceatannol. Our findings suggest that piceatannol can be considered to be a promising anticancer agent for CRC.

  8. Apigenin-induced apoptosis is enhanced by inhibition of autophagy formation in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; Sung, Bokyung; Kang, Yong Jung; Kim, Dong Hwan; Jang, Jung-Yoon; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Hyun Sook; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2014-05-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid, shown to have chemopreventive and/or anticancer properties in a variety of human cancer cells. The involvement of autophagy in apigenin-induced apoptotic cell death of HCT116 human colon cancer cells was investigated. Apigenin induced suppression of cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner in HCT116 cells. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that apigenin resulted in G2/M phase arrest. This flavone also suppressed the expression of both cyclin B1 and its activating partners, Cdc2 and Cdc25c, whereas the expression of cell cycle inhibitors, such as p53 and p53-dependent p21(CIP1/WAF1), was increased after apigenin treatment. Apigenin induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and decreased the levels of procaspase-8, -9 and -3. In addition, the apigenin-treated cells exhibited autophagy, as characterized by the appearance of autophagosomes under fluorescence microscopy and the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the results of the western blot analysis revealed that the levels of LC3-II, the processed form of LC3-I, was increased by apigenin. Treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly enhanced the apoptosis induced by apigenin, which was accompanied by an increase in the levels of PARP cleavage. These results indicate that apigenin has apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing effects in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Autophagy plays a cytoprotective role in apigenin-induced apoptosis, and the combination of apigenin and an autophagy inhibitor may be a promising strategy for colon cancer control. PMID:24626522

  9. Piceatannol promotes apoptosis via up-regulation of microRNA-129 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Piceatannol induces apoptosis in cultured CRC cells. • Piceatannol promotes expression of miR-129. • miR-129 mediates proapoptotic effects of piceatannol. - Abstract: Piceatannol, a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol, has been confirmed as an antitumor agent by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and metastasis in diverse cancer. However, the effect and mechanisms of piceatannol on colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been well understood. This study aimed to test whether piceatannol could inhibit growth of CRC cells and reveal its underlying molecular mechanism. MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to measure apoptosis of CRC cells. Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 levels were analyzed by Western blot and miR-129 levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our study showed that piceatannol inhibited HCT116 and HT29 cells growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Piceatannol induced apoptosis by promoting expression of miR-129, and then inhibiting expression of Bcl-2, an known target for miR-129. Moreover, knock down of miR-129 could reverse the reduction of cell viability induced by piceatannol in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Taken together, our study unraveled the ability of piceatannol to suppress colorectal cancer growth and elucidated the participation of miR-129 in the anti-cancer action of piceatannol. Our findings suggest that piceatannol can be considered to be a promising anticancer agent for CRC

  10. Induction of C/EBP homologous protein-mediated apoptosis and autophagy by licochalcone A in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Hai; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhao-Yu; Chai, Ke; Wang, Ya-Fang; Xu, Xiao-Huang; Wang, Xiao-Wen; Lu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Yi-Tao; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA), a flavonoid isolated from the famous Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, presents obvious anti-cancer effects. In this study, the anti-cancer effects and potential mechanisms of LCA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were studied. LCA decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase release, and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in NSCLC cells while not in human embryonic lung fibroblast cells. The expression of phosphatidylethanolamine-modified microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3-II) and formation of GFP-LC3 punta, two autophagic markers, were increased after treatment with LCA. LCA-induced LC3-II expression was increased when combined with chloroquine (CQ), while knock-down of autophagy related protein (ATG) 7 or ATG5 reversed LCA-induced LC3-II expression and GFP-LC3 punta formation, suggesting that LCA induced autophagy in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of autophagy could not reverse the LCA-induced cell viability decrease and apoptosis. In addition, LCA increased the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins, such as binding immunoglobulin protein and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Knock-down of CHOP reversed LCA-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis, and autophagy. Taken together, LCA-induced autophagic effect is an accompanied phenomenon in NSCLC cells, and CHOP is critical for LCA-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis, and autophagy. PMID:27184816

  11. Licochalcone A-Induced Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells Apoptosis Triggered by Mitochondria Dysfunction and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Licochalcone A (LCA, a licorice chalconoid, is considered to be a bioactive agent with chemopreventive potential. This study investigated the mechanisms involved in LCA-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. LCA significantly inhibited cells proliferation, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and caused T24 cells apoptosis. Moreover, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase-3 activation, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals. Besides, exposure of T24 cells to LCA triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress; as indicated by the enhancement in 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153/C/EBP homology protein (GADD153/CHOP expression, ER stress-dependent apoptosis is caused by the activation of ER-specific caspase-12. All the findings from our study suggest that LCA initiates mitochondrial ROS generation and induces oxidative stress that consequently causes T24 cell apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent and the ER stress-triggered signaling pathways.

  12. Pulchrin A, a New Natural Coumarin Derivative of Enicosanthellum pulchrum, Induces Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells via Intrinsic Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noraziah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Mohan, Syam; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Othman, Rozana; Karimian, Hamed; Iman, Venus; Ramli, Noorlela; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Abdul Majid, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance presents a challenge in chemotherapy and has attracted research interest worldwide and particular attention has been given to natural compounds to overcome this difficulty. Pulchrin A, a new compound isolated from natural products has demonstrated novel potential for development as a drug. The identification of pulchrin A was conducted using several spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, liquid chromatography mass spectrometer, infrared and ultraviolet spectrometry. The cytotoxicity effects on CAOV-3 cells indicates that pulchrin A is more active than cisplatin, which has an IC50 of 22.3 μM. Significant changes in cell morphology were present, such as cell membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. The involvement of phosphatidylserine (PS) in apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC after a 24 h treatment. Apoptosis was activated through the intrinsic pathway by activation of procaspases 3 and 9 as well as cleaved caspases 3 and 9 and ended at the executioner pathway, with the occurrence of DNA laddering. Apoptosis was further confirmed via gene and protein expression levels, in which Bcl-2 protein was down-regulated and Bax protein was up-regulated. Furthermore, the CAOV-3 cell cycle was disrupted at the G0/G1 phase, leading to apoptosis. Molecular modeling of Bcl-2 proteins demonstrated a high- binding affinity, which inhibited the function of Bcl-2 proteins and led to cell death. Results of the current study can shed light on the development of new therapeutic agents, particularly, human ovarian cancer treatments. PMID:27136097

  13. Chamaejasmine Arrests Cell Cycle, Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Nuclear NF-κB Translocation in the Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MDA-MB-231

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxian Bai; Guanglu Dong; Li Cai; Hongyang Yu; Tingting Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the anticancer activity of chamaejasmine was characterized in the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Cell viability and cell cycle distribution were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blotting was performed to determine changes in levels of various proteins. Results showed that treatment with chamaejasmine (4–16 μM) inhibited cell proliferation, which correlated with G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. C...

  14. Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Huang

    Full Text Available α-Tomatine is a glycoalkaloid found in tomatoes and curcumin is a major yellow pigment of turmeric. In the present study, the combined effect of these two compounds on prostate cancer cells was studied. Treatment of different prostate cancer cells with curcumin or α-tomatine alone resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Combinations of α-tomatine and curcumin synergistically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Effects of the α-tomatine and curcumin combination were associated with synergistic inhibition of NF-κB activity and a potent decrease in the expression of its downstream gene Bcl-2 in the cells. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-ERK1/2 were found in PC-3 cells treated with α-tomatine and curcumin in combination. In animal experiment, SCID mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors were treated with α-tomatine and curcumin. Combination of α-tomatine and curcumin more potently inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors than either agent alone. Results from the present study indicate that α-tomatine in combination with curcumin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer.

  15. Curcumin inhibits intracellular fatty acid synthase and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Huijin; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Li, Xiabing; Xun, Hang; Sun, Jia; He, Wei; Lau, Hay Tong; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2016-05-01

    High levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression have been found in many tumors, including prostate, breast, and ovarian cancers, and inhibition of FAS has been reported to obstruct tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin is one of the major active ingredients of Curcuma longa, which has been proven to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the potential activity of curcumin as a FAS inhibitor for chemoprevention of breast cancer. As a result, curcumin induced human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis with the half-inhibitory concentration value of 3.63 ± 0.26 µg/ml, and blocked FAS activity, expression and mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin also regulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax and p-Akt protein expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, FAS knockdown showed similar effect as curcumin. All these results suggested that curcumin may induce cell apoptosis via inhibiting FAS. PMID:26985864

  16. Adenosine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via cyclinD1/Cdk4 and Bcl-2/Bax pathways in human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, Saeid; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Shabani, Mahdi; Fathi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Majid; Moeinifard, Marzieh

    2013-04-01

    Adenosine is a regulatory molecule with widespread physiological effects in almost every cells and acts as a potent regulator of cell growth. Adenosine has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in the several cancer cells via caspase activation and Bcl-2/Bax pathway. The present study was designed to understand the mechanism underlying adenosine-induced apoptosis in the OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells. MTT viability, BrdU and cell counting assays were used to study the cell proliferation effect of adenosine in presence of adenosine deaminase inhibitor and the nucleoside transporter inhibitor. Cell cycle analysis, propidium iodide and annexin V staining, caspase-3 activity assay, cyclinD1, Cdk4, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expressions were assessed to detect apoptosis. Adenosine significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner in OVCAR-3 cell line. Adenosine induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase via Cdk4/cyclinD1-mediated pathway. Adenosine induced apoptosis, which was determined by Annexin V-FITC staining and increased sub-G1 population. Moreover, down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression, up-regulation of Bax protein expression and activation of caspase-3 were observed in response to adenosine treatment. The results of this study suggest that extracellular adenosine induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via cyclinD1/ Cdk4 and Bcl-2/Bax pathways and caspase-3 activation. These data might suggest that adenosine could be used as an agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23345014

  17. Chinese herb related molecules of cancer-cell-apoptosis: a minireview of progress between Kanglaite injection and related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Qian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom, many scientists could not believe such kinds of clinical describes about anti-tumor effects for Chinese herb, because these describes were lack of molecular biology evidence. Kanglaite(KLT injection is an anti-tumor new drug which extracts from Chinese medicine-coix seed with modern advanced pharmaceutical technology, it is also a new biphase extended-spectrum anticancer medicine, the food and drug administration(FDA of United States also approved a phase II trial of KLT to test its efficacy in treating non-small-cell lung cancer. Some studies show it could inhibit some anti-apoptotic gene and activate some pro-apoptotic gene, its injection solution is one of the new anticancer medicine that can significantly inhibit a various kinds of tumor cells, so it has become the core of research that how to further explore KLT injection to promote tumor cell apoptosis by impacting on related genes. In this review, the relationship between KLT and some tumor cell apoptosis molecules had been discussed and reviewed generally.

  18. Chinese herb related molecules of cancer-cell-apoptosis: a minireview of progress between Kanglaite injection and related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Chang-Sheng; Dong, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom, many scientists could not believe such kinds of clinical describes about anti-tumor effects for Chinese herb, because these describes were lack of molecular biology evidence. Kanglaite(KLT) injection is an anti-tumor new drug which extracts from Chinese medicine-coix seed with modern advanced pharmaceutical technology, it is also a new biphase extended-spectrum anticancer medicine, the food and drug administration(FDA) of United States also approved a phase II trial of KLT to test its efficacy in treating non-small-cell lung cancer. Some studies show it could inhibit some anti-apoptotic gene and activate some pro-apoptotic gene, its injection solution is one of the new anticancer medicine that can significantly inhibit a various kinds of tumor cells, so it has become the core of research that how to further explore KLT injection to promote tumor cell apoptosis by impacting on related genes. In this review, the relationship between KLT and some tumor cell apoptosis molecules had been discussed and reviewed generally. PMID:18718024

  19. Embelin-Induced Apoptosis of Human Prostate Cancer Cells Is Mediated through Modulation of Akt and β-Catenin Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahee Park

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that embelin, an active component of Embelia ribes, induces apoptosis in human cancer cells, but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we have investigated the effect of embelin on the growth of human prostate cancer cells. Embelin strongly inhibited cell growth especially in human prostate cancer cell lines, including PC3, DU145, LNCaP-LN3 and normal prostate epithelial cell, RWPE-1 compared to breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T47D, hepatoma (HepG2, Hep3B, and HuH-7, or choriocarcinoma (JEG-3. We observed that embelin induced apoptosis of PC3 cells in a time-dependent manner correlated with decreased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1, increased translocation of Bax into mitochondria, and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, embelin induced voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC 1 expression and oligomerization, which may promote cytochrome c and AIF release. Because embelin was able to inhibit Akt activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, the effects on Wnt/ β-catenin signaling were determined. Embelin activated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β by preventing phosphorylation and suppressed β-catenin expression. Attenuation of β-catenin-mediated TCF transcriptional activity and gene transcription, such as cyclin D1, c-myc, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7, were shown in embelin-treated cells. The changes in β-catenin levels in response to embelin were blocked by lithium chloride, a GSK-3 inhibitor, indicating that embelin may decrease β-catenin expression via GSK-3β activation. Furthermore, exposure of PC3 cells to embelin resulted in a significant decrease in cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, these findings suggest that inhibition of Akt signaling and activation of GSK-3β partially contributes to the pro-apoptotic effect of embelin in prostate cancer cells.

  20. Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis as a novel prognostic marker in radically resected non-small cell lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, CG; van der Valk, P; Span, SW; Ludwig, Jan; Smit, EF; Kruyt, FAE; Pinedo, HM; van Tinteren, H; Giaccone, G

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the pattern of expression and the prognostic value of the inhibitor of apoptosis family member X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP; MIHA/ILP-a) in radically resected non-small cell lung cancer patients. Experimental Design: The expression of XIAP and its relationship with overal

  1. Mechanisms of arsenic trioxide induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells and protection by Bcl-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓友平; 林晨; 郑杰; 梁萧; 陈洁平; 付明; 肖培根; 吴旻

    1999-01-01

    It was recently reported that arsenic trioxide (As2O3) can induce complete remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In this present article, the biological effect of As2O3 on human cervical cancer HeLa cells and HeLa cells overexpressing Bcl-2 is studied. By MTT and colony forming ability assays, morphology alteration, flow cytometric analysis, DNA gel electrephoresis and in situ cell death detection (TUNEL), it was found that As2O3 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis of the cells. RT-PCR, Northern blot, Western blot analysis revealed that As2O3 induced HeLa cell apoptosis possibly via decreasing the expression of c-myc and viral genes. HeLa cells overexpressing Bcl-2 partly resist As2O3 induced apoptosis, which might be relative to preventing the cells from As2O3 caused G2/M block, downregulation of c-myc gene expression and inhibition of viral gene expression was also noted, However, it was found that As2O3 at a high concentratio

  2. Cellular prion protein contributes to LS 174T colon cancer cell carcinogenesis by increasing invasiveness and resistance against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Cornelius Kwang-Lee; Say, Yee-How

    2015-09-01

    As the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been implicated in carcinogenesis, we aimed to investigate the effects of cancer cell-specific PrP(C) overexpression from the invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis aspects, by performing cell motility assays, cell proliferation assays under anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent conditions, and apoptosis evasion when subjected to multiple anti-cancer drugs. Overexpression of PrP(C) in LS 174T was achieved by stable transfection. PrP(C) overexpression was shown to increase cell proliferation in anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent manners, as shown by more viable cells in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, more colonies formed in soft agar assay and increased resistance to anoikis in poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-coated surface. PrP(C) overexpression also increased cell motility and invasiveness of LS 174T. Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix using collagen- and fibronectin-coated surfaces revealed increased cell attachment in LS 174T cells overexpressing PrP(C). Analysis of apoptotic and necrotic cells by propidium iodide/annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate microscopy and 7-amino-actinomycin D/annexin V-phycoerythrin flow cytometry revealed that PrP(C) overexpression attenuated doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Human apoptosis antibody array with 35 apoptosis-related proteins revealed that three inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs)-survivin, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1)-were upregulated in LS 174T cells overexpressing PrP(C) in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the overexpression of PrP(C) could enhance the invasiveness and survival of LS 174T colorectal cancer cells, indicating that PrP(C) plays a role in colorectal cancer biology. PMID:25983001

  3. Induction of the liver cancer-down-regulated long noncoding RNA uc002mbe.2 mediates trichostatin-induced apoptosis of liver cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui; Zhong, Yun; Xie, Hui; Lai, Xiaobo; Xu, Miqing; Nie, Yuqiang; Liu, Shiming; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) plays critical roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. Considerable attention has focused on the antitumor effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor (Trichostatin A, TSA) as well as the coding gene expression-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. However, it is not known whether lncRNA has a role in TSA-induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The global expression of lncRNAs and coding genes was analyzed with the Human LncRN...

  4. Chemosensitizing effects of carbon-based nanomaterials in cancer cells: enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation as underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Kati; Ringel, Jessica; Hampel, Silke; Rieger, Christiane; Huebner, Doreen; Wirth, Manfred P.; Fuessel, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can exert antitumor activities themselves and sensitize cancer cells to conventional chemotherapeutics such as carboplatin and cisplatin. In the present study, the chemosensitizing effect of CNFs and CNTs on cancer cells of urological origin was investigated regarding the underlying mechanisms. Prostate cancer (DU-145, PC-3) and bladder cancer (EJ28) cells were treated with carbon nanomaterials (CNFs, CNTs) and chemotherapeutics (carboplatin, cisplatin) alone as well as in combination for 24 h. Forty-eight (EJ28) or 72 h (DU-145, PC-3) after the end of treatment the effects on cellular proliferation, clonogenic survival, cell death rate and cell cycle distribution were evaluated. Depending on the cell line, simultaneous administration of chemotherapeutics and carbon nanomaterials produced an additional inhibition of cellular proliferation and clonogenic survival of up to 77% and 98%, respectively, compared to the inhibitory effects of the chemotherapeutics alone. These strongly enhanced antiproliferative effects were accompanied by an elevated cell death rate, which was predominantly mediated via apoptosis and not by necrosis. The antitumor effects of combinations with CNTs were less pronounced than those with CNFs. The enhanced effects of the combinatory treatments on cellular function were mostly of additive to partly synergistic nature. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis demonstrated an arrest at the G2/M phase mediated by a monotreatment with chemotherapeutics. Following combinatory treatments, mostly less than or nearly additive increases of cell fractions in the G2/M phase could be observed. In conclusion, the pronounced chemosensitizing effects of CNFs and CNTs were mediated by an enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. The combination of carbon-based nanomaterials and conventional chemotherapeutics represents a novel

  5. Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu LIU; Zhuomin WANG; Yun BAI; Min WANG; Ying LI; Sen WEI; Qinghua ZHOU; Jun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms,and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions.In this study,we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER nega-tive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.Methods: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive).After stable cell lines were made,a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents,including doxorubicin,docetaxel,and 5-FU,was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1.The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.Results: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis.BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis.The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50,but not p46,p33,or p29,increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7.Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen,while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms.In the detection of the expression of K-ras,Hsp70,cytochrome c,Raf-1,ER-α,and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot,only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46,respectively.Furthermore,the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Distinct isoforrns of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells,and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

  6. Induction of Apoptosis by Costunolide in Bladder Cancer Cells is Mediated through ROS Generation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Tsuji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of several therapeutic options, a safer and more effective modality is urgently needed for treatment of bladder cancer. Costunolide, a member of sesquiterpene lactone family, possesses potent anticancer properties. In this study, for the first time we investigated the effects of costunolide on the cell viability and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Treatment of T24 cells with costunolide resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis which was associated with the generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm. These effects were significantly blocked when the cells were pretreated with N-acetyl- cysteine (NAC, a specific ROS inhibitor. Exposure of T24 cells to costunolide was also associated with increased expression of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, survivin and significant activation of caspase-3, and its downstream target PARP. These findings provide the rationale for further in vivo and clinical investigation of costunolide against human bladder cancer.

  7. Sequential gemcitabine and tamoxifen treatment enhances apoptosis and blocks transformation in bladder cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, HISASHI; MMEJE, CHINEDU O.; Goodwin G. Jinesh; TAOKA, RIKIYA; Kamat, Ashish M.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common malignancy for which regional or metastatic disease is identified at diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether tamoxifen (Tam), an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, can sensitize bladder cancer cell lines to gemcitabine (Gem) chemotherapy. ERα and ERβ protein levels were determined in each cell line using western blot analysis. The TCC-Sup, 5637, and RT4 bladder cancer cells were exposed to various concentrations and regimens of Tam or Gem alone or ...

  8. A new multicolor bioluminescence imaging platform to investigate NF-κB activity and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mezzanotte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluation of novel drugs for clinical development depends on screening technologies and informative preclinical models. Here we developed a multicolor bioluminescent imaging platform to simultaneously investigate transcription factor NF-κB signaling and apoptosis. METHODS: The human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 was genetically modified to express green, red and blue light emitting luciferases to monitor cell number and viability, NF-κB promoter activity and to perform specific cell sorting and detection, respectively. The pro-luciferin substrate Z-DEVD-animoluciferin was employed to determine apoptotic caspase 3/7 activity. We used the cell line for the in vitro evaluation of natural compounds and in vivo optical imaging of tumor necrosis factor TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. RESULTS: Celastrol, resveratrol, sulphoraphane and curcumin inhibited the NF-κB promoter activity significantly and in a dose dependent manner. All compounds except resveratrol induced caspase 3/7 dependent apoptosis. Multicolor bioluminescence in vivo imaging allowed the investigation of tumor growth and NF-κB induction in a mouse model of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Our new method provides an imaging platform for the identification, validation, screening and optimization of compounds acting on NF-κB signaling and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. A New Multicolor Bioluminescence Imaging Platform to Investigate NF-κB Activity and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzanotte, Laura; An, Na; Mol, Isabel M.; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Kaijzel, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of novel drugs for clinical development depends on screening technologies and informative preclinical models. Here we developed a multicolor bioluminescent imaging platform to simultaneously investigate transcription factor NF-κB signaling and apoptosis. Methods The human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) was genetically modified to express green, red and blue light emitting luciferases to monitor cell number and viability, NF-κB promoter activity and to perform specific cell sorting and detection, respectively. The pro-luciferin substrate Z-DEVD-animoluciferin was employed to determine apoptotic caspase 3/7 activity. We used the cell line for the in vitro evaluation of natural compounds and in vivo optical imaging of tumor necrosis factor TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. Results Celastrol, resveratrol, sulphoraphane and curcumin inhibited the NF-κB promoter activity significantly and in a dose dependent manner. All compounds except resveratrol induced caspase 3/7 dependent apoptosis. Multicolor bioluminescence in vivo imaging allowed the investigation of tumor growth and NF-κB induction in a mouse model of breast cancer. Conclusion Our new method provides an imaging platform for the identification, validation, screening and optimization of compounds acting on NF-κB signaling and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24465597

  10. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Kazuhiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.

  11. A carbazole alkaloid deactivates mTOR through the suppression of rictor and that induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Priyajit; Seal, Soma; Mukherjee, Sandip; Kundu, Rakesh; Bhuyan, Mantu; Barua, Nabin C; Baruah, Pranab K; Babu, Santi Prasad Sinha; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2015-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is known to be a difficult cancer to treat because of its poor prognosis, limited option for surgery, and resistance to chemo or radiotherapy. In this study, we have demonstrated that suppression of rictor expression in A549 and H1299 NSCLC cells by mahanine, a carbazole alkaloid, disrupted constitutive activation of mTOR and Akt. Mahanine suppression of rictor gene expression and consequent attenuation of its protein expression affected the inhibition of mTOR (Ser-2481) and Akt (Ser-473) phosphorylation. Since mahanine treatment revealed this new insight of rictor-mTOR relationship, we examined an association between mTOR activation with rictor expression. Interestingly, in rictor knockdown (KD) NSCLC cells, mTOR activation was significantly impaired. Transfection of rictor over-expression vector into the NSCLC cells reversed this situation. In fact, both rictor KD and mahanine treated cells showed considerably depleted phospho-mTOR level. These results indicate that rictor is required to maintain constitutive activation of mTOR in lung cancer cells. When mTOR kinase activity in rictor KD cells was examined with Akt as substrate, a significant reduction of Akt phosphorylation indicated impairment of mTOR kinase potentiality. Disruption of mTOR and Akt activation caused drastic mortality of NSCLC cancer cells through apoptosis. Hence, our study reveals a new dimension in mTOR-rictor relationship, where rictor stands to be a suitable therapeutic target for lung cancer. PMID:25893736

  12. Prostate-specific expression of Bax delivered by an adenoviral vector induces apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, S L; Rubinchik, S; Honda, T; McDonnell, T J; Dong, J Y; Norris, J S

    2001-09-01

    In prostate carcinoma, overexpression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 has been found to be associated with resistance to therapies including radiation and androgen ablation. Restoring the balance of Bcl-2 family members may result in the induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells previously resistant to treatment. To accomplish this, a strategy involving overexpression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was executed. The use of cytotoxic genes such as Bax require selective expression of the gene. In this study, we examined the ability of selective expression of Bax protein directed by a prostate-specific promoter to induce apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma. A second-generation adenoviral vector was constructed with the modified prostate-specific probasin promoter, ARR2PB, directing expression of an HA-tagged Bax gene and a green fluorescent protein reporter translated from an internal ribosome entry site (ARR2PB.Bax.GFP). ARR2PB promoter activity is tightly regulated and highly prostate specific and is responsive to androgens and glucocorticoids. The prostate-specific promoter-Bax-GFP transgene cassette was inserted into a cloning site near the right inverted terminal repeat of the adenoviral vector to retain specificity of the promoter. LNCaP cells infected with Ad/ARR(2)PB.Bax.GFP showed high levels of Bax expression 48 h after infection resulting in an 85% reduction in cell viability. Importantly, LNCaP cells stably transfected to overexpress Bcl-2 showed similar patterns of cell death when infected with Ad/ARR(2)PB.Bax.GFP, an 82% reduction in cell viability seen 48 h after infection. Apoptosis was confirmed by measuring caspase activation and using the TUNEL assay. Tissue specificity was evaluated using A549 cells (lung adenocarcinoma), SK-Hep-1 (liver cancer) cells, and Hela (cervical cancer) cells which did not show detectable expression of virally delivered Bax protein or any increase in cell death. Systemic administration of Ad/ARR2PB. Bax.GFP in nude

  13. Downregulation of ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, but promotes apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lianxin; Yang, Shuyun; He, Song; Qiang, Fulin; Cai, Jing; Liu, Rong; Gu, Changjiang; Guo, Zengya; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Chunhui; Wang, Yingying

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Previously, evidence suggested that ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) was associated with various signal transduction pathways and tumourigenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that USP14 is a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer. A Western blot analysis of USP14 was performed using seven breast cancer tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues and showed that the expression of USP14 was increased in the breast cancer tissues. Immunohistochemistry was conducted on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of breast cancer samples from 100 cases. Using Pearson's χ(2) test, it was demonstrated that USP14 expression was associated with the histological grade, lymph node status and Ki-67 expression in the tumour. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that increased USP14 expression in patients with breast cancer was associated with a poorer prognosis. In in vitro experiments, the highly migratory MDA-MB-231 cells that were treated with USP14-shRNA (shUSP14) exhibited decreased motility using Transwell migration assays. Next, we employed a starvation and re-feeding assay, and the CCK-8 assay demonstrated that USP14 regulated breast cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, we used flow cytometry to analyse cellular apoptosis following USP14 knockdown. Taken together, our results suggested that USP14 was involved in the progression of breast cancer. PMID:26712154

  14. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by tumor necrosis factor and butyrolactone, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belizário J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Induction of apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor (TNF is modulated by changes in the expression and activity of several cell cycle regulatory proteins. We examined the effects of TNF (1-100 ng/ml and butyrolactone I (100 µM, a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK with high selectivity for CDK-1 and CDK-2, on three different cancer cell lines: WEHI, L929 and HeLa S3. Both compounds blocked cell growth, but only TNF induced the common events of apoptosis, i.e., chromatin condensation and ladder pattern of DNA fragmentation in these cell lines. The TNF-induced apoptosis events were increased in the presence of butyrolactone. In vitro phosphorylation assays for exogenous histone H1 and endogenous retinoblastoma protein (pRb in the total cell lysates showed that treatment with both TNF and butyrolactone inhibited the histone H1 kinase (WEHI, L929 and HeLa and pRb kinase (WEHI activities of CDKs, as compared with the controls. The role of proteases in the TNF and butyrolactone-induced apoptosis was evaluated by comparing the number and expression of polypeptides in the cell lysates by gel electrophoresis. TNF and butyrolactone treatment caused the disappearance of several cellular protein bands in the region between 40-200 kDa, and the 110- 90- and 50-kDa proteins were identified as the major substrates, whose degradation was remarkably increased by the treatments. Interestingly, the loss of several cellular protein bands was associated with the marked accumulation of two proteins apparently of 60 and 70 kDa, which may be cleavage products of one or more proteins. These findings link the decrease of cyclin-dependent kinase activities to the increase of protease activities within the growth arrest and apoptosis pathways induced by TNF.

  15. Combination Treatment of Hydrogen Peroxide and X-Rays Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Methods and Materials: At 4h before the irradiation, PC-3 cells were exposed to 10mM ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) concentrations. Subsequently, cells were exposed to 0.1mM H2O2 just before the irradiations, which were administered with 10-MV X-rays at doses of 10Gy. Results: The percentage of apoptotic cells at 48h after X-irradiation alone, H2O2 alone, and combined X-irradiation and H2O2 was 1.85%, 4.85%, and 28.4%, respectively. With use of combined X-irradiation and H2O2, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred 4h after the irradiation. This resulted in lysosomal rupturing, mitochondrial fragmentation, and the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm from the mitochondria. In contrast, when cells were exposed to NH4Cl before the X-irradiation and H2O2 administration, apoptosis was almost completely suppressed, ROS production did not occur, lysosomal rupture and mitochondrial fragmentation were blocked, and cytochrome c was not released. Conclusions: Hydrogen peroxide strongly enhanced lysosome-dependent radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. A combined use of X-rays and H2O2 can also injure the mitochondrial cytoplasmic organelles and lead to the production of ROS that in and of itself might possibly induce apoptosis.

  16. Growth inhibition and apoptosis in cancer cells induced by polyphenolic compounds of Acacia hydaspica: Involvement of multiple signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Trembley, Janeen H; Salomon, Christine E; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Acacia hydaspica R. Parker is known for its medicinal uses in multiple ailments. In this study, we performed bioassay-guided fractionation of cytotoxic compounds from A. hydaspica and investigated their effects on growth and signaling activity in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Four active polyphenolic compounds were identified as 7-O-galloyl catechin (GC), catechin (C), methyl gallate (MG), and catechin-3-O-gallate (CG). The four compounds inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas CG and MG inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell growth. All tested compounds inhibited cell survival and colony growth in both cell lines, and there was evidence of chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies. Further, acridine orange, ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and DAPI staining demonstrated that cell death occurred partly via apoptosis in both PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In PC-3 cells treatment repressed the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, coupled with down-regulation of signaling pathways AKT, NFκB, ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT. In MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment induced reduction of CK2α, Bcl-xL, survivin and xIAP protein expression along with suppression of NFκB, JAK/STAT and PI3K pathways. Our findings suggest that certain polyphenolic compounds derived from A. hydaspica may be promising chemopreventive/therapeutic candidates against cancer. PMID:26975752

  17. [Knockdown of angiopoietin-like protein 4 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in cervical cancer SiHa cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dan; Liu, Ling; Xia, Jiyi; Wang, Chunyan; Zhan, Ping; Mao, Xiguang

    2016-04-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of lentivirus-mediated shRNA silencing of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) on the proliferation and apoptosis of cervical cancer SiHa cells. Methods The ANGPTL4 lentiviral vectors were used to transfect SiHa cells. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were respectively used to detect ANGPTL4 expression at mRNA and protein levels. The proliferation ability of SiHa cells after transfection was assessed by MTT assay and colony formation assay. The cell cycle was examined by flow cytometry. The annexin V-phycoerythrin/7-aminoactinomycin D (annexin V-PE/7-AAD) staining combined with flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of ANGPTL4 silence on the apoptosis of SiHa cells. Results After the ANGPTL4 lentiviral vectors were transfected into SiHa cells, qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that the expression of ANGPTL4 mRNA and protein were significantly inhibited in LV3-ANGPTL4 group. The MTT assay showed that the proliferation ability of SiHa cells in LV3-ANGPTL4 group was also inhibited. Colony formation assay revealed that the colony number in LV3-ANGPTL4 group was reduced. The cells in G0/G1 phase and the apoptosis rate increased in LV3-ANGPTL4 group. Conclusion The lentivirus-mediated ANGPTL4 shRNA can inhibit the proliferation, induce the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, and promote the apoptosis in SiHa cells. PMID:27053616

  18. Oridonin Up-regulates Expression of P21 and Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li, Xiang Li, Jiaxiong Wang, Zaiyuan Ye, Ji-Cheng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oridonin (ORI could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. However, the mechanism is not fully understood.Methods: Human prostate cancer (HPC cells were cultured in vitro and cell viability was detected by the CCK-8 assay. The ultrastructure changes were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM. Chemical staining with acridine orange (AO, MDC or DAPI was used to detect acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs and alternation of DNA. Expression of LC3 and P21 was detected by Western Blot. Apoptotic rates and cell cycle arrest were detected by FACS.Results: Our study demonstrated that after ORI treatment, the proliferations of human prostate cancer (HPC cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP were inhibited in a concentration and time-dependent manner. ORI induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. A large number of autophagosomes with double-membrane structure and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs were detected in the cytoplasm of HPC cells treated with ORI for 24 hours. ORI resulted in the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and recruitment of LC3-II to the autophagosomal membranes. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA reduced AVOs formation and inhibited LC3-I to LC3-II conversion. At 48 h, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and disappearance of surface microvilli were detected in ORI-treated cells. ORI induced a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells (PC-3: 5.4% to 27.0%, LNCaP: 5.3% to 31.0%. Promoting autophagy by nutrient starvation increased cell viability, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA promoted cell death. The expression of P21 was increased by ORI, which could be completely reversed by the inhibition of autophagy.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that autophagy occurred before the onset of apoptosis and protected cancer cells in ORI-treated HPC cells. P21 was involved in ORI-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Our results provide an experimental basis for understand

  19. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. ► Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. ► Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. ► Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. ► FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GC cells by regulating apoptotic signaling, which could be a promising therapeutic approach for gastric cancer.

  20. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Gui-Fen [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shi-Yao, E-mail: shiyao_chen@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Zhi-Rong [Department of Anesthesiology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing [Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Song, Dong-Li [Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis