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Sample records for cancer case-control study

  1. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meshram II; Hiwarkar PA; Kulkarni PN

    2009-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban...

  2. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  3. Cancer and polluted work places: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjuus, H; Lislerud, A; Lyngdal, P T; Omland, H; Stave, O; Langård, S

    1982-02-01

    The possible association between selected cancers and polluted work places has been studied in a hospital-based, case-control study. By dividing all jobs in the participants working career into "polluted" and "clean", a crude measure for the total industrial exposure a worker experiences throughout his life was established. Among 103 age-matched, case-control pairs the overall estimated relative risk (RR) for exposed subjects (greater than or equal to 10 years in a polluted work place) of developing cancer compared to nonexposed (less than 10 years in a polluted work place) was 1.1. The only subgroup where a significant difference was found between the cases and the controls was the lung cancer subgroup (RR = 4.0, p = 0.02, two-tailed). When the 30 lung cancer cases were compared to an alternative control group consisting of 60 subjects matched for age and smoking habits, an estimated RR of 4.5 was found. A moderate, but not significant association between lung cancer and definite asbestos exposure was also found (RR: 2.3). As most workers are exposed to a variety of industrial agents throughout their working careers, further development of methods for characterizing combined exposures are needed, both for retrospective and prospective purposes. PMID:7068240

  4. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  5. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  6. A case-control study of asthma and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasri, Wafic M; Tran, Therese H; Mulla, Zuber D

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found inverse associations between allergy and the development of certain tumors. The authors sought to determine if there was an association between asthma and ovarian cancer. A case-control study was conducted using Florida hospital data (year 2001). Discharge diagnoses were coded using the ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification). Cases were 1,582 women whose principal discharge diagnosis was a malignant neoplasm of the ovary. Two control series were used: 4,744 women whose principal diagnosis was an upper limb bone fracture, and 21,830 women whose principal diagnosis was an acute myocardial infarction. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, Medicaid status, obesity, and smoking were calculated. Cases were 30% less likely than fracture control to be asthmatics (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.99, p = .04). Similarly, cases when compared to acute myocardial infarction controls were significantly less likely to have asthma (adjusted OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87, p = .005). The results of this statewide exploratory study suggest that individuals with asthma may have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer than nonasthmatics. PMID:20439229

  7. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  8. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  9. Thrombosis in ovarian cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, R L; Fry, D J; Swindell, R.; McGurk, A; Clamp, A R; Jayson, G C; Hasan, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombotic events are common in cancer patients and have been associated with an adverse prognosis in large registry-based studies. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 417 patients with ovarian cancer treated at a tertiary cancer centre between 2006 and 2009 was studied to identify the incidence and risk factors for thrombotic events and the prognostic impact of thrombosis. Patient outcomes were evaluated against a matched control group without thrombosis. Results: Ninety-nine thro...

  10. Endometrial cancer following treatment for breast cancer: a case-control study in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewertz, M.; S.G. Machado; Boice, J. D.; Jensen, O M

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of endometrial cancer subsequent to breast cancer, a case-control study was carried out in Denmark. Between 1943-1977, 115 cases of histologically confirmed endometrial carcinoma developed more than 3 months after the diagnosis of a primary breast cancer in 51,638 women. A total of 235 breast cancer patients with no second primary cancer were matched to the cases on age, calendar year of diagnosis, and survival with an intact uterus. Identification of cases and controls r...

  11. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  12. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  13. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sørensen, Inge Juul;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were selected...... randomly for each patient from the Danish Central Population Register. Information on malignancies was obtained through the Danish Cancer Registry. Occurrence of malignancies before WG diagnosis among patients and before WG diagnosis of their matched case among controls (reference date) was compared...... by calculation of prevalence odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with cancer before WG, while 194 controls were diagnosed with cancer before the reference date (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9, 2.2). Among specific malignancies, a significantly increased prevalence was found for testis cancer (OR 6...

  14. Spatial Analysis of Childhood Cancer: A Case/Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Diana Gómez-Barroso; Ibon Tamayo; Javier García-Pérez; Antonio Morales; Elena Pardo Romaguera; Gonzalo López-Abente

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. Objective The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of t...

  15. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  16. Meta-Analysis of a Multi-Ethnic, Breast Cancer Case-Control Targeted Sequencing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ablorh, Akweley

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women, is a heritable disease with nearly one hundred known genetic risk factors. Using next generation sequencing, we explored the contribution of genetics at 12 GWAS-identified loci to breast cancer susceptibility in a multi-ethnic breast cancer case-control study. Methods: The study population consists of 4,611 breast cancer cases and controls (2,316 cases and 2,295 controls) from four mutually exclusive ethnicities: Africa...

  17. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  18. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  19. A Case-Control Study of Oral Contraceptive Use and Incident Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Strom, Brian L; Palmer, Julie R

    2008-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer, largely on the basis of studies conducted before 1990. In the Case-Control Surveillance Study, a US hospital-based case-control study of medication use and cancer, the authors assessed the relation of OC use to breast cancer risk among 907 case women with incident invasive breast cancer (731 white, 176 black) and 1,711 controls (1,152 white, 559 black) interviewed from 1993 to 2007. They evaluated whether the asso...

  20. Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Olsson, Ann; Pesch, Beate; Kromhout, Hans; Straif, Kurt; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies reported an excess of lung cancer among these workers. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control

  1. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  2. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  3. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga E.; Rexha T.; Çeliku S.; Mariani E.

    2013-01-01

    In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal group...

  4. Probiotic Beverage with Soy Isoflavone Consumption for Breast Cancer Prevention: A Case-control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Hirota, Saya; Tomotaki, Ai; Sato, Nobuaki; Hozumi, Yasuo; Anan, Keisei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Tokuda, Yutaka; Masuda, Norikazu; Ohsumi, Shozo; Ohno, Shinji; Takahashi, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how beverages containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (BLS) and soy isoflavone consumption since adolescence affected the incidence of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, three hundred and six cases with breast cancer and 662 controls aged 40 to 55 were matched for age and residential area and included in the analyses. Diet, lifestyle and other breast cancer risk factors were investigated using the self-administered questionnaire an...

  5. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Kleinerman, R; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; La Vecchia, C

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Because the etiology of thyroid cancer is not well described, we conducted a pooled analysis of all published case-control studies, as well as two identified unpublished studies. This paper describes the major characteristics of the 14 studies included in the analysis, as well as the stat

  6. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A.; P.M Durgawale; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  7. Columnar cell lesions and subsequent breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aroner, Sarah A.; Collins, Laura Christine; Schnitt, Stuart Jay; Connolly, James Leo; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla May

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Histologic and genetic evidence suggests that at least some columnar cell lesions (CCL) of the breast represent precursor lesions in the low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. However, the risk of subsequent breast cancer associated with the presence of CCL in a benign breast biopsy is poorly understood.Methods The authors examined the association between the presence of CCL and subsequent breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breast c...

  8. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal car...

  9. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  10. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco AL; De Stefani E; Deneo-Pellegrini H

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC) in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s) coefficients were taken as estimates of rel...

  11. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  12. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  13. Nested case-control study on the risk factors of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jian Cai; Xi-Yong Liu; Xi-Yuan Ma; Kai-Yan Yao; Shu Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer andrectal cancer.METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted ina cohort of 64 693 subjects who participated in a colorectalcancer screening program from 1989 to 1998 in Jiashancounty, Zhejiang, China. 196 cases of colorectal cancer weredetected from 1990 to 1998 as the case group and 980non-colorectal cancer subjects, matched with factors of age,gender, resident location, were randomly selected from the64 693 cohort as controls. By using univariate analysis andmutivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the oddsratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) werecalculated between colorectal cancer and personal habits,dietary factors, as well as intestinal related symptoms.RESULTS: The mutivariate analysis results showed that aftermatched with age, sex and resident location, mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were closelyassociated with colon cancer and rectal cancer, OR values forthe mucous blood stool history were 3.508 (95 %CI: 1.370-8.985) and 2.139 (95 %CI: 1.040-4.402) respectively; for themixed drinking water sources, 2.387 (95 %CI: 1.243-4.587)and 1.951 (95 %CI: 1.086-3.506) respectively. All reachedthe significant level with a P-value less than 0.05.CONCLUSION: The study suggested that mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were therisk factors of colon cancer and rectal cancer. There was noany significant association between dietary habits and theincidence of colorectal cancer.

  14. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  15. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann;

    2013-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil......Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  16. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  17. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  18. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) μg/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42–3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53–33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  19. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreccio Catterina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  20. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li-Juan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Tang, Lu-Ying [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630 (China); He, Jian-Rong [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center, Guangzhou 510623 (China); Su, Yi; Cen, Yu-Ling; Yu, Dan-Dan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Bang-Hua [The Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Lin, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Wei-Qing [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Song, Er-Wei, E-mail: songerwei02@yahoo.com.cn [The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiang West, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Ren, Ze-Fang, E-mail: renzef@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) {mu}g/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42-3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53-33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  1. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  2. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. PMID:26020580

  3. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memon, Anjum (Div. of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (United Kingdom)), E-mail: a.memon@bsms.ac.uk; Godward, Sara (Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Williams, Dillwyn (Thyroid Carcinogenesis Research Group, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Siddique, Iqbal (Dept. of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait)); Al-Saleh, Khalid (Kuwait Cancer Control Centre, Ministry of Health (Kuwait))

    2010-05-15

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. Methods. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Results. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend <0.0001). The association did not vary appreciably by age, gender, nationality, level of education, or parity. Discussion. These findings, based on self-report by cases/controls, provide some support to the hypothesis that exposure to dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  4. Diet as risk for lung cancer: a Swedish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Gosta; Rylander, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to study lung cancer in relation to dietary habits, occupational exposure, and living in urban or country areas. Suspect lung cancer cases in West Sweden and population controls were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire. The study comprised 177 female and 359 male cases and 916 controls. The cases mainly comprised former and current smokers (82% female, 95% male). For the analysis, cases were divided into the histological diagnoses adenocarcinoma and squamous cell, small cell, and adenosquamous cell carcinomas, as well as into smoking categories. A high frequency of consumption of vegetables was significantly related to a lower risk for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell and adenosquamous cell carcinoma among men and adenocarcinoma among women. A low odds ratio in the highest quartile of vegetable consumption in men was seen in all smoking categories. There were no significant protective effects from fruit in the different lung cancer subgroups, although a significant trend was found for heavy-smoking females. A high consumption of milk was related to an increased risk for lung cancer, especially adenosquamous cell carcinoma. The results suggest that the protective effect or risk due to dietary factors may affect different forms of lung cancer. The results from this as well as previous studies suggest a complex interaction between diet and lung cancer risk, involving the types of lung cancer as well as consumption patterns in the population.

  5. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  6. Case-control study of radon and lung cancer in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is known to cause lung cancer in humans; however, there remain uncertainties about the effects associated with residential exposures. This case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer was conducted in five counties in New Jersey and involved 561 cases and 740 controls. A yearlong α-track detector measurement of radon was completed for ∼93% of all residences lived in at the time of interview (a total of 2063). While the odds ratios (ORs) for whole data were suggestive of an increased risk for exposures >75 Bq m-3, these associations were not statistically significant. The adjusted excess OR (EOR) per 100 Bq m-3 was -0.13 (95% CI: -0.30 to 0.44) for males, 0.29 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.70) for females and 0.05 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.56) for all subjects combined. An analysis of radon effects by histological type of lung cancer showed that the OR was strongest for small/oat cell carcinomas in both males and females. There was no statistical heterogeneity of radon effects by demographic factors (age at disease occurrence, education level and type of respondent). Analysis by categories of smoking status, frequency or duration did not modify the risk estimates of radon on lung cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with an earlier population-based study of radon and lung cancer among New Jersey women, and with the North American pooling of case control radon seven studies, including the previous New Jersey study. Several uncertainties regarding radon measurements and assumptions of exposure history may have resulted in underestimation of a true exposure-response relationship. (authors)

  7. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p < 0.01). In each stratum and overall, nulliparous women appeared to be at h...

  8. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  9. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  10. Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Thakur; Bhupender Gupta; Anmol Gupta; Raman Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    In Himachal Pradesh, cancer cervix is a major public health problem since it ranks as the number one female cancer. A case-control study of 226 newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed cases of cancer cervix and equal number of matched controls was conducted at Regional Cancer Center, Himachal Pradesh during the period from July 2008 to October 2009 with the objective to study the common factors associated with cancer cervix. Univariate analysis identified 10 risk factors associated sig...

  11. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  12. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Goldenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively. Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively. There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002; however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]. Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening.

  13. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  14. Breast cancer risk and drinking water contaminated by wastewater: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Christopher H

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking water contaminated by wastewater is a potential source of exposure to mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds from commercial products and excreted natural and pharmaceutical hormones. These contaminants are hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has a history of wastewater contamination in many, but not all, of its public water supplies; and the region has a history of higher breast cancer incidence that is unexplained by the population's age, in-migration, mammography use, or established breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to drinking water contaminated by wastewater increases the risk of breast cancer. Methods Participants were 824 Cape Cod women diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988–1995 and 745 controls who lived in homes served by public drinking water supplies and never lived in a home served by a Cape Cod private well. We assessed each woman's exposure yearly since 1972 at each of her Cape Cod addresses, using nitrate nitrogen (nitrate-N levels measured in public wells and pumping volumes for the wells. Nitrate-N is an established wastewater indicator in the region. As an alternative drinking water quality indicator, we calculated the fraction of recharge zones in residential, commercial, and pesticide land use areas. Results After controlling for established breast cancer risk factors, mammography, and length of residence on Cape Cod, results showed no consistent association between breast cancer and average annual nitrate-N (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 0.6 – 5.0 for ≥ 1.2 vs. Conclusion Results did not provide evidence of an association between breast cancer and drinking water contaminated by wastewater. The computer mapping methods used in this study to link routine measurements required by the Safe Drinking Water Act with interview data can enhance individual-level epidemiologic studies of multiple health

  15. Risk factors of breast cancer in Dezful city of Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Jafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women and features increasing trends of incidence rates. Worldwide, yearly about 1.67 million of new cases and 522,000 of deaths from breast cancer are registered. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of breast cancer in women and to identify high risk groups. Methods: In a case-control study, 170 women with breast cancer who were registered in cancer registration system from 2011 to 2015 at Dezful City, Iran, were compared with 170 healthy women with confirmation of mammography. After age matching of groups, the needed information about risk factors and demographic information including information, educational level, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, and age at menopause, breastfeeding, stress, abortion, alcohol use and smoking, hormone therapy and physical activity was collected by a questionnaire. The analysis of collected data was performed by using odds ratio and logistic regression model and SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. The statistical significance was set at a two-sided p-value of %5. Results: The results of this study showed that, women with the family history [OR: 6.78 (95% CI: 2.15-21.41] and women with the stress history [OR: 4.86 (95% CI: 2.46-9.59] had higher risk of breast canser, while women with the history of having physical activity at least once a week [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.65] and women with the history breast feeding for 3 to 4 years [OR: 0.36 (95% CI: 0.16-0.81] had lower risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: It is recommended that the mentioned risk factors and protective factors be considered in first and second level (screening of preventive programs.

  16. MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from 44 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the few proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association between MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were not consistent. METHODS: We carried out a meta-analysis of 44 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. RESULTS: Overall, significant association of the T allele with cancer susceptibility was verified with meta-analysis under a recessive genetic model (P<0.001, OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.24-1.50 and TT versus CC comparison (P=0.001, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50. In subgroup analysis, a significant increased risk was found for lung cancer (TT versus CC, P=0.027, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63; recessive genetic model, P=0.32, OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58, whereas risk of colorectal cancer was significantly low under a dominant genetic model (P=0.019, OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97. Additionally, a significant association between TT genetic model and total cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.014, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; recessive genetic model, P=0.009, OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61, but not in the Asian population. An increased risk for lung cancer was also verified in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.035, OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.53; recessive genetic model, P=0.048, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of certain cancers.

  17. MGMT Leu84Phe Polymorphism Contributes to Cancer Susceptibility: Evidence from 44 Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuicui; Sun, Yan; Jia, Chuanliang; Zhang, Lijing; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Li, Xiaodong; Lang, Juntian; Song, Xicheng

    2013-01-01

    Background O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the few proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association between MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were not consistent. Methods We carried out a meta-analysis of 44 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Leu84Phe polymorphism and cancer risk. Results Overall, significant association of the T allele with cancer susceptibility was verified with meta-analysis under a recessive genetic model (P<0.001, OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.24-1.50) and TT versus CC comparison (P=0.001, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50). In subgroup analysis, a significant increased risk was found for lung cancer (TT versus CC, P=0.027, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63; recessive genetic model, P=0.32, OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58), whereas risk of colorectal cancer was significantly low under a dominant genetic model (P=0.019, OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97). Additionally, a significant association between TT genetic model and total cancer risk was found in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.014, OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; recessive genetic model, P=0.009, OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61), but not in the Asian population. An increased risk for lung cancer was also verified in the Caucasian population (TT versus CC, P=0.035, OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.53; recessive genetic model, P=0.048, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.01-2.45). Conclusions These results suggest that MGMT Leu84Phe polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of certain cancers. PMID:24086516

  18. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo-Antelo, Ana Marina; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Abal Arca, José; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer has multiple risk factors and tobacco is the main one. Diet plays a role, but no clear effect has been consistently observed for different fruit and vegetable consumption. We aim to assess the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk through a hospital-based case-control study in Spanish population. We recruited incident lung cancer cases in 2 Spanish hospitals from 2004 to 2008. Controls were individuals attending hospital for trivial surgery. Cases and controls were older than 30 and did not have a neoplasic history. We collected information on lifestyle with special emphases on tobacco and dietary habits. We included 371 cases and 496 controls. We found no protective effect for overall fruit consumption. For green leafy vegetables, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32-2.69), and for other vegetables the OR was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.40-1.48) for the categories compared. We observed a reduced risk for broccoli and pumpkin intake. Although fruit consumption does not seem to be associated with a lower lung cancer risk, only the frequent consumption of specific green leafy vegetables and other vegetables might be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer.

  19. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23608001

  20. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer inci...

  1. Green tea and the prevention of breast cancer: a case-control study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Huang, Jiang-ping; Xie, Xing

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Tea has anticarcinogenic effects against breast cancer in experimental studies. However, epidemiologic evidence that tea protects against breast cancer has been inconsistent. A case-control study was conducted in Southeast China between 2004 and 2005. The incidence cases were 1009 female patients aged 20-87 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer. The 1009 age-matched controls were healthy women randomly recruited from breast disease clinics. Information on duration, frequency, quantity, preparation, type of tea consumption, diet and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals. Compared with non-tea drinkers, green tea drinkers tended to reside in urban, have better education and have higher consumption of coffee, alcohol, soy, vegetables and fruits. After adjusting established and potential confounders, green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. The ORs were 0.87 (0.73-1.04) in women consuming 1-249 g of dried green tea leaves per annum, 0.68 (0.54-0.86) for 250-499 g per annum, 0.59 (0.45-0.77) for 500-749 g per annum and 0.61 (0.48-0.78) for >or=750 g per annum, with a statistically significant test for trend (P consumption of green tea can protect against breast cancer. More research to closely examine the relationship between tea consumption and breast cancer risk is warranted. PMID:17183063

  2. Case-Control Study of Dietary Pattern and Other Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rates of gastric cancer reported from Ardabil Province of Iran, are among thehighest in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for gastric cancer inArdabil Province.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 128 adults with mean age of 56.5 ± 12.8 yrold in Ardebil City, Iran in 2010 – 2011. Forty-two people with gastric cancer and 86 healthypeople were recruited. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Fastingblood samples were taken for measurement of IgG and IgA indices against Helicobacter pylori infection.Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Independent sample t-test.Results: Diet and H. pylori infection indices had the significant relationship with gastric cancer(P<0.05. Among dietary patterns, drinking hot tea, low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, andunsaturated fat were the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. In gastric cancer patients, the levelsof serum IgG and IgA as indicator of H. pylori infection were significantly (P<0.05 higherthan the healthy subjects (IgG 37.7 ± 29.3 vs. 16.9 ± 11.1 U/ml and IgA 50.5 ± 44.7 vs. 22.9 ±15.8 U/ml. No significant relationship was observed between tobacco smoking and alcohol consumptionwith gastric cancer.Conclusion: Dietary pattern especially drinking hot tea and low consumption of unsaturated fat,fresh vegetables, and fruits, as well as H. pylori infection were the most important risk factors ingastric cancer patients.

  3. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m3 for cases and 51 Bq/m3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m3, the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m3, were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  4. Silica exposure and lung cancer in ceramic workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Volovics, A; Slangen, J J; Van Vliet, K

    1990-03-01

    The results are presented from a case-control study, concerning the possible relation between silica exposure in the Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer. For this purpose 381 male, age-matched pairs of primary lung cancer cases and controls were selected from the pathology department of the University Hospital in the region, where two large ceramic companies are located. Information about employment in the ceramic industry was obtained from the personnel and financial administration departments of the two companies. On the basis of job titles a panel of occupational hygiene experts reached consensus about the qualitative exposures of each individual worker. Twenty one per cent of the cases were employed in the ceramic industry, compared with 19% of the controls (odds ratio 1.11; 95% Cl: 0.77-1.61). Although the average employment period of cases and their relative silica exposure surpassed those of controls, odds ratios for long duration of employment and considerable exposure to respirable silica dust did not reach statistical significance. After constructing a qualitative exposure index, based on the amount and duration of exposure, a tendency towards a positive correlation with lung cancer emerged. No relation between specific histological tumour cell types and working in the ceramic industry emerged. Although the study does not suggest a consistent cause-effect relation between silica exposure in the regional, Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer, an increased risk for the high exposure group in the past can not be totally excluded.

  5. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients. PMID:27253153

  6. Breast cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Danilo; Costa, Maria; Thuler, Luiz; Garces, Alvaro; Aquino, Luciana; Bines, José

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE may result in significant morbidity, a substantial economic burden and even leads to patients' death. Risk factor identification and management of VTE in breast cancer patients remains poorly studied. We evaluated breast cancer patients' baseline and treatment characteristics in predicting VTE occurrence as well as its prognosis. We conducted a case-control study of all breast cancer patients with a VTE diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA) in Brazil. Two hundred and twenty five patients developed VTE and were compared with 225 controls, in the 5-year study period. The bulk of the thrombotic events were unilateral (94.2%) VTEs of the lower extremity (78.7%), largely proximally located (78%). VTE occurred more often within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of cancer (66.2%), being more common in the first 6 months (21.8%). Significant predictors of developing VTE were age 50 years and over (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.16-2.95), PS equal to or above 3 (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26), and the presence of a CVC (OR 2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.62). This large retrospective analysis of VTE in breast cancer patients confirms that most events occur early in the treatment course. The incidence of VTE was associated with patients' age, PS, and the presence of CVC. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate outpatient thromboprophylaxis for selected groups of patients.

  7. A case-control study of diet and lung cancer in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; Xu, T; Lin, Q; Wang, C; Zhao, F; Wang, G; Chen, Y; Yang, Y

    1997-06-11

    A case-control study involving interviews with 227 lung-cancer cases and 227 matched hospital controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province in northeast China to examine the influence of dietary factors on the risk of developing lung cancer. Lung-cancer cases were all incident cases judged to be suitable candidates for tumor removal by surgery. Controls were selected among hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic and non-lung disease. The overall male lung-cancer risks associated with cigarette smoking were similar to those reported in other Chinese studies but quite low compared to risks in Western countries. However, the subjects in this study were relatively young (average age 53.2), had started to smoke on average at a relatively old age (21.3 years), and only smoked an average of 18.7 cigarettes per day. Lung-cancer risk was not strongly associated with any of the nutrients examined, when all cases were compared to all controls. However, the data were suggestive of differences in the relationship of diet to risk among smokers and non-smokers. Cautious interpretation is required because of the wide confidence intervals due to limited sample size. Among the smokers, only higher beta-carotene was associated with estimates suggesting a lowered risk. Among non-smokers, the evidence suggested that increased vegetable consumption might reduce risk, consumption of any fruit might reduce risk but beta-carotene was unrelated to risk. The differences observed in the relationship of diet to lung-cancer risk between Chinese smokers and non-smokers warrant further study.

  8. Risk factors for the gastric cardia cancer: a case-control study in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Zong-Li Zheng; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The incidence of gastric cardia cancer has greatlyincreased in the past 2-3 decades, however, the risk factorsfor the disease are still not clearly understood. Theinvestigations among Chinese population on the risk factorsof gastric cardia cancer were also scarcely reported. Wetherefore conducted a case-control study in Fujian province,China, to investigate the potential risk and protective factorsof this disease.METHODS: 191 cardia and 190 non-cardia gastric cancercases, and a total of 222 control cases were included in thisstudy. Standard questionnaires were used in collectingepidemiological factors and the data were then analyzed bythe unconditional logistic regression model.RESULTS: As the factors such as age, gender, smoking,alcohol consumption, and family history of gastric cancerwere controlled, a multivariable analysis was conducted,which revealed that there was a significant correlationbetween the dietary habits such as irregular meal, over andfast eating, and the gastric cardia cancer with the odds ratios(ORs) of 4.2 (95 % confidence interval: 2.3-7.7), 4.7 (2.1-10.8), and 2.7 (1.3-5.3) respectively. Other correlations werealso observed between the gastric cardia cancer and theconsumption of salty fish or pickled vegetable, smoking,and the family cancer history with the ORs of 5.5 (1.4-19.5),1.8 (1.0-3.0), 2.1 (1.3-3.5), and 3.8 (2.3-6.2) respectively.In contrast, the negative correlations were found existingbetween the intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, the useof refrigerator, and the gastric cardia cancer, with the ORsof 0.4 (0.2-0.9), 0.2 (0.1-0.5), and 0.2 (0.1-0.4),respectively. However, dietary habits were associated lesswith non-cardia gastric cancer compared with its cardiacounterpart.CONCLUSION: Dietary habits might be one of the riskfactors for the cardia carcinogenesis among Chinesepopulation.

  9. A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, E; Kleinerman, R A; Boice, J D; LiVolsi, V A; Flannery, J T; Fraumeni, J F

    1987-07-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of thyroid cancer (159 cases and 285 controls) was conducted in Connecticut. Prior radiotherapy to the head or neck was reported by 12% of the cases and 4% of the controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.9]. Risk was inversely related to age at irradiation and was highest among children exposed under age 10. Few persons born after 1945 received prior radiotherapy, consistent with the declining use of radiation to treat benign conditions in the 1950's. Among females the radiogenic risk appeared to be potentiated by the number of subsequent live-births. Other significant risk factors included a history of benign thyroid nodules (OR = 33) or goiter (OR = 5.6). Miscarriage and multiparity increased risk but only among women who developed thyroid cancer before age 35 years. Consumption of shellfish (a rich source of iodine) seemed to increase the risk of follicular thyroid cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogen-containing vegetables appeared to reduce risk of total thyroid cancer, possibly because of their cruciferous nature. A significantly low risk was observed among persons of English descent, whereas Italian ancestry appeared to increase risk. No significant associations were found with a number of suspected risk factors: diagnostic x-rays, radioactive isotope scans, occupational radiation exposure, tonsillectomy, Jewish ethnicity, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, lactation suppressants, menopausal estrogens, most other common medications, and water source. New associations were suggested for obesity among females (OR = 1.5), surgically treated benign breast disease (OR = 1.6), use of spironolactone (OR = 4.3) or vitamin D supplements (OR = 1.8), and a family history of thyroid cancer (OR = 5.2). About 9% of the incident thyroid cancers could be attributed to prior head and neck irradiation, 4% to goiter, and 17% to thyroid nodular disease, leaving the etiology of most

  10. Oral and pharyngeal cancer and occupation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, W W; Schoenberg, J B; Kelsey, J L; Wilcox, H B; McLaughlin, J K; Greenberg, R S; Preston-Martin, S; Austin, D F; Stemhagen, A; Blot, W J

    1992-07-01

    We studied the relation between occupation and oral and pharyngeal cancer with a population-based case-control study conducted in four areas of the United States. The study group included 1,114 incident male and female cases and 1,268 frequency-matched controls. After adjustment for age, race, smoking, alcohol, and study location, an analysis of lifetime occupational histories revealed a small number of noteworthy associations. Risk was increased among male carpet installers (23 cases, 4 controls), with an adjusted odds ratio of 7.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4-24.9], and tended to rise with longer duration of employment. A decreased risk was found among male and female textile mill workers (odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.88). Previously reported increases in oral cancer risks among printing workers, electrical and electronics workers, and workers other than carpet installers who were possibly exposed to formaldehyde were not found in this study. For several employment groups, including male machinists, primary metal industry workers, petroleum industry workers, painters, furniture and fixture industry workers, woodworking machine operators, and workers with inferred exposure to fossil fuel combustion, odds ratios were approximately 2.0 for cancers of pharyngeal sites.

  11. Reproductive factors and oesophageal cancer in Chinese women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies showed that sex hormone might play a role in the development of oesophageal cancer in Western countries. However, evidence from Chinese populations is still lacking. Methods We performed a hospital-based case-control study in Guangzhou, China. From June 2006 to May 2009, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 73 cases and 157 controls. Cases were Chinese females with newly diagnosed primary oesophageal cancer. Controls were hospitalized individuals without cancer and frequency matched by age groups. The interviews included questions about childbearing and menarche history, together with potential confounders. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of factors. Results Women who had given birth before were not at increased risk compared to childless women (adjusted OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.48 ~ 2.85. The risk of oesophageal cancer increased with age at first birth: the adjusted OR for women first giving birth at age 25 or later was 2.02 (95% CI: 1.01 ~ 4.04 compared with those reporting their first birth before age 22. History of spontaneous abortion was not significantly associated with increased risk (adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.49 ~ 3.83. No significant association was observed between menstrual variables (age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation and risk of oesophageal cancer. Conclusions Giving birth at later age may increase the risk of oesophageal cancer in women. Further studies in Chinese populations with larger sample sizes are still needed.

  12. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  13. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  14. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis.

  15. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis. PMID:3232687

  16. Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Paddock Lisa E; Chandran Urmila; King Melony; Bandera Elisa V; Rodriguez-Rodriguez Lorna; Olson Sara H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (C...

  17. Case-control study of bladder cancer and drinking water arsenic in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan, Yan; Bates, Michael N; Smith, Allan H

    2003-12-15

    Numerous epidemiologic investigations have identified links between high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water and cancer, although the risks at lower exposures are largely unknown. This paper presents the results of a case-control study of arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer in seven counties in the western United States. These counties contain the largest populations historically exposed to drinking water arsenic at concentrations near 100 microg/liter. All incident cases diagnosed from 1994 to 2000 were recruited. Individual data on water sources, water consumption patterns, smoking, and other factors were collected for 181 cases and 328 controls. Overall, no increased risks were identified for arsenic intakes greater than 80 microg/day (odds ratio=0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.57; linear trend, p=0.48). These risks are below predictions based on high dose studies from Taiwan. When the analysis was focused on exposures 40 or more years ago, an odds ratio of 3.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 9.42; linear trend, p<0.01) was identified for intakes greater than 80 microg/day (median intake, 177 microg/day) in smokers. These data provide some evidence that smokers who ingest arsenic at concentrations near 200 microg/day may be at increased risk of bladder cancer.

  18. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk. PMID:25063520

  19. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  20. Radon and Lung Cancer Case-Control Study in Middle Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pilot phase of radon and lung cancer case-control study has been performed in Karpinsk and Pervouralsk towns of Middle Ural region of Russia. The case group consists of 341 persons with lung cancer and living in that towns at least five previous years. The lung cancer diagnoses were carefully verified by instrumental techniques and 70% of its were morphologically validated. The persons for the control group (448) were chosen from the population living in that towns at least five years taking into account the age and sex. The special epidemiological questionnaire was developed which includes the items by the groups of factors as follow: clinical data, social factors, chronic lung diseases, life habit, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diet preference etc. The epidemiological questionnaires were fulfilled for each member of case and control groups. Radon gas concentration and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration measurements had been performed using nuclear track detectors and grab sampling accordingly in the dwellings of case and control groups members. By preliminary estimation the odds ratios are 1, 0.91, 1.2, 1.1 in the ranges of radon and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration 0-6, 3-13, 13-36 and 36-370 Bq/m3 respectively. The deeper and more rigorous analysis as well as different independent approaches will be discussed in the paper.(author)

  1. A case-control study on fat-to-muscle ratio and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Boeing, Heiner; De Stefani, Eduardo; Schulz, Mandy; Schulze, Matthias; Pischon, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze detailed anthropometric characterization for risk of breast cancer in Uruguayan women. The design was a case-control study. The setting was Pereira Rossell Women's Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay. Subjects were 343 incident breast cancer cases and 1,042 frequency-matched healthy controls who were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story; and a series of skin folds, circumferences, and diameters were measured to calculate fat and muscle fractions and the derived fat-to-muscle ratio (FMR). Odds ratio (ORs) coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Muscle fraction was negatively associated with risk [OR for highest quartile = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-0.34], fat fraction was positively associated (OR = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.62-5.80), and FMR was positively associated (OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 2.99-6.62). Stratified analyses by body mass index levels also showed risk increases for the highest tertiles of FMR, always displaying significant linear trends. Since increases of risk were found in overweight and in normal weight women, results suggest that fractions and amount of muscle and fat components might be risk factors for breast cancer on the basis of currently existing metabolic and immune interrelationships between adipose and muscular tissue given by glutamine, exercise-derived myokines, and other cytokines produced by these tissues. PMID:19838918

  2. Recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer: a case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Bain, Christopher J; Jordan, Susan J; Nagle, Christina M; Green, Adèle C; Whiteman, David C; Webb, Penelope M

    2007-11-01

    It remains unclear whether physical activity is associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk. We therefore examined the association between recreational physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer in a national population-based case-control study in Australia. We also systematically reviewed all the available evidence linking physical activity with ovarian cancer to provide the best summary estimate of the association. The case-control study included women ages 18 to 79 years with a new diagnosis of invasive (n=1,269) or borderline (n=311) epithelial ovarian cancer identified through a network of clinics, physicians, and state cancer registries throughout Australia. Controls (n=1,509) were randomly selected from the national electoral roll and were frequency matched to cases by age and state. For the systematic review, we identified eligible studies using Medline, the ISI Science Citation Index, and manual review of retrieved references, and included all case-control or cohort studies that permitted assessment of an association between physical activity (recreational/occupational/sedentary behavior) and histologically confirmed ovarian cancer. Meta-analysis was restricted to the subset of these studies that reported on recreational physical activity. In our case-control study, we observed weakly inverse or null associations between recreational physical activity and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer overall. There was no evidence that the effects varied by tumor behavior or histologic subtype. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, which gave summary estimates of 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.85) for case-control studies and 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.17) for cohort studies for the risk of ovarian cancer associated with highest versus lowest levels of recreational physical activity. Thus, pooled results from observational studies suggest that a modest inverse association exists between level of recreational physical activity and

  3. Risk factors for breast cancer by oestrogen receptor status: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J A; Rohan, T E; Cant, E. L.; Horsfall, D. J.; Tilley, W D

    1989-01-01

    Data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, and involving 451 case-control pairs, were analysed to determine whether the associations of menstrual, reproductive, dietary and other factors with risk of breast cancer differed by oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Data on ER status were available for 380 cases. The proportion of tumours which were ER+ increased with age, and there was a higher proportion of ER+ tumours in post-menopausal than in premenopa...

  4. A case-control study of bladder cancer in the United States rubber and tyre industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, H; Smith, A H; McMichael, A J; Jones, F S; Monson, R R; Tyroler, H A

    1981-08-01

    A case-control study of bladder cancer was conducted in five United States rubber and tyre companies to determine if there were high-risk jobs and work areas within the industry. The study included 220 male cases of bladder cancer, of whom 107 were identified from hospital record reviews and 113 from death certificates. Each case was matched individually with two industry controls by sex, race, year of birth, and company. One control was matched additionally by year of hire and duration of employment. Comparisons of cases and controls not matched by year of hire and age of hire showed no differences for those variables, which suggests that age and calendar period of first exposure to the industry were not risk determinants. When the work histories of both cases and controls were contrasted it was found that cases were more likely than controls to have worked in milling (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91) and calender operation (OR = 2.21) jobs. The relative risk estimates for milling and calender operation both exhibited linear trends of increase with duration of exposure. Milling and calender operation jobs entail potential exposures to volatilised reaction products from heated rubber stock. A better understanding of aetiological associations with job type will require more detailed characterisation of the work environment with regard to the sources and levels of aromatic amines and other suspected bladder carcinogens. PMID:7272236

  5. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  6. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Dones, Raul D.; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria; Villar-Prados, Alejandro; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Heriberto; Fonseca-Williams, Sharon; Velazquez, Francisco E.; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Lopez-Diaz, Sofia M.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45) and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36) was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2%) CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males) and in 1 of 36 (2.8%) controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males) with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49). HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted. PMID:26904111

  7. A case-control study of dietary and nondietary factors in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, T; Marshall, J; Graham, S; Mettlin, C; Swanson, M

    1983-10-01

    A case-control study is presented that estimates ovarian cancer risk for various factors, including diet. Data collected by interview between 1957 and 1965 for 274 white women aged 30-79 years with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary are compared to data similarly collected for 1,034 hospital controls. Relative risk estimates are presented for the total group as well as for premonopausal (ages 30-49) and postmenopausal (ages 50-79) are groups. In the total group, cancer risk increased with increasing age at first marriage (P less than .01) and previous history of benign breast disease (P less than 0.1), and risk decreased with increasing number of previous pregnancies (P less than .01). In the 50- to 79-year age group, a marginally significant trend for decreasing risk with increasing obesity was observed (P less than .10). There was no significant risk (i.e., P less than .10) associated with the consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, coffee, tea, total dietary protein, vitamin C, or fat at any age. In the 30- to 49-year age group only, increased risk (P less than .01) was seen in women reporting diets low in fiber and vitamin A from fruit and vegetable sources. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the apparent protective effect of vitamin A in the 30- to 49-year age group (but not dietary fiber) was independent of the nondietary factors analyzed in this study (P less than .05). PMID:6578362

  8. Occupational exposure to the sun and risk of skin and lip cancer among male wage earners in Denmark: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Jørgensen, Ane Dahl; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study.......We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study....

  9. Calibration and seasonal adjustment for matched case-control studies of vitamin D and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, Mitchell H; Wu, Jincao; Wang, Molin; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Cook, Nancy R; Eliassen, A Heather; McCullough, Marjorie L; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ziegler, Regina G; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-06-15

    Vitamin D measurements are influenced by seasonal variation and specific assay used. Motivated by multicenter studies of associations of vitamin D with cancer, we formulated an analytic framework for matched case-control data that accounts for seasonal variation and calibrates to a reference assay. Calibration data were obtained from controls sampled within decile strata of the uncalibrated vitamin D values. Seasonal sine-cosine series were fit to control data. Practical findings included the following: (1) failure to adjust for season and calibrate increased variance, bias, and mean square error and (2) analysis of continuous vitamin D requires a variance adjustment for variation in the calibration estimate. An advantage of the continuous linear risk model is that results are independent of the reference date for seasonal adjustment. (3) For categorical risk models, procedures based on categorizing the seasonally adjusted and calibrated vitamin D have near nominal operating characteristics; estimates of log odds ratios are not robust to choice of seasonal reference date, however. Thus, public health recommendations based on categories of vitamin D should also define the time of year to which they refer. This work supports the use of simple methods for calibration and seasonal adjustment and is informing analytic approaches for the multicenter Vitamin D Pooling Project for Breast and Colorectal Cancer. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:27133461

  10. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-05-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p risk compared to those who had different number of births (OR=12.5, 95%, CI: 2.4-63.8). Evaluation of early age at menarche and late age at menopause, showed statistically significant increased risk. Furthermore, increased risk was observed between pre-menopausal women and never-married nulliparity women, respectively (OR=1.44 95%, CI: 0.88-2.36; OR=8.98, 95%, CI: 1.44 - 56.14), but ovarian cancer risk was reduced for hysterectomized women. These findings suggest that Albanian women have risk factors similar to women in western countries. PMID:23725504

  11. Diet and breast cancer: a case-control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouyanni, K; Trichopoulos, D; Boyle, P; Xirouchaki, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lisseos, B; Vasilaros, S; MacMahon, B

    1986-12-15

    A case-control study of the role of diet in the etiology of breast cancer was conducted in Athens, Greece. There are reasons to believe that the diet of the Greek population is characterized by greater heterogeneity than that in most countries where such studies have been undertaken. The case series consisted of 120 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer admitted to either of two teaching hospitals over a 12-month period. The controls were 120 patients admitted to a teaching hospital for trauma and orthopedic conditions during the same period. Dietary histories concerning the frequency of consumption of 120 foods and drinks were obtained by interview. Cases reported significantly less frequent consumption of vegetables as a group and, within that group, specifically of cucumber, lettuce and raw carrot. After adjustment for potential external confounding variables and for confounding between food categories, the odds ratio for persons in the highest quintile of vegetable consumers, relative to those in the lowest quintile, was 0.09 with 95% confidence limits 0.03-0.30. That is to say, the lowest quintile of vegetable consumers had about 10 times the breast cancer risk of the highest quintile. For a score based on consumption of only the 3 specified salad items the odds ratio over the extreme quartiles was 0.12 (0.05-0.32). There was no association with consumption of fats and oils, alcohol or coffee, and no significant association with any other major food category (including alcohol and coffee) after adjustment for confounding variables. PMID:3793261

  12. Environmental and occupational cancer in Argentina: a case-control lung cancer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos Elena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks for lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in a developing country where lung cancer is the first cause of mortality from cancer in men. The study involved 200 men with lung cancer and 397 hospital controls. The OR for current smokers was 8.5, whereas former smokers displayed an OR of 5.3. The fraction attributable to smoking was 85%. Statistically significant high ORs were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (4.5, 95% CI:1.02-20.2, sawmills and wood mills (4.6, 95% CI:1.1-18.4, chemicals/plastics (1.8, 95% CI:1.04-3.2, and pottery, glass, or mineral manufactures (3.4, 95% CI:1.1-10.6. Other high, but not statistically significant, risks were observed for employment in leather shoe industry and repair (2.1, 95% CI:0.8-5.4, rubber industries (3.4, 95% CI:0.9-12.4, metal workers, including welders (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.4, motor vehicle mechanics (2.0, 95% CI:0.9-4.2, workers in cleaning services (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.5, and for workers in agriculture (2.4, 95% CI:0.9-6.0. Although some of the present results may be due to chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.

  13. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to compare the risk of different estrogens, progestins, and combinations. Results A total of 3593 cases of breast cancer were identified and compared with 9098 controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for breast cancer (BC associated with current or past use of HRT was 1.2 (1.1–1.3, and almost identical for lag times from 6 months to 6 years prior to diagnosis. No significant trend of increasing BC risk was found with increasing duration of HRT use, or time since first or last use in aggregate. Many established BC risk factors significantly modified the effect of HRT on BC risk, particularly first-degree family history of BC, higher age, lower education, higher body mass index (BMI, and never having used oral contraceptives (OCs during lifetime. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT formulation groups (estrogens, progestins, and combinations were too small for strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the BC risk seems not to vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in BC risk was observed between HRT containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion The BC risk of HRT use is rather small. Low risk estimates for BC and a high potential for

  14. XPG Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility: A Two-Stage Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhuo, Zhen-Jian; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene polymorphisms may modulate colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. In this study, we performed a two-stage case-control study to comprehensively investigate the associations of five polymorphisms in the XPG gene with CRC risk in 1,901 cases and 1,976 controls from Southern China, including rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, rs2296147 T>C, rs1047768 T>C and rs873601 G>A. After combining data from two stages, we found that three of the studied polymorphisms (rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, and rs873601 G>A) were significantly associated with CRC susceptibility. After adjustment for age and gender, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that carriers of the rs2094258 T alleles had an increased CRC risk [CT vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.36; TT vs. CC: adjusted OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.18-1.89; TT vs. CT/CC: adjusted OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.10-1.72]. Likely, rs873601 A allele also conferred increased CRC susceptibility. In contrast, a protective association was identified between rs751402 C>T polymorphism and the risk of CRC. In summary, our results indicated that these three polymorphisms were found to associate with CRC susceptibility in a Southern Chinese population.

  15. Lung cancer risk and welding--preliminary results from an ongoing case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöckel, K H; Ahrens, W; Bolm-Audorff, U

    1994-06-01

    In a hospital-based case-control study, 391 male cases or primary lung cancer and the same number of controls--matched by sex, age, and region--were personally interviewed for their job and smoking histories. The data reported reflect the midpoint of a study aiming at a total of 1,000 cases. One objective of the study was to assess confounding by asbestos exposure in what was thought to be a welding-associated risk. While the odds ratios (OR) increased steeply with cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke and were raised also for lifelong asbestos exposure of over 4,100 working hours (OR = 1.91), the effect of welding exposure was reduced after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos. Furthermore, no consistent dose-response relationship could be shown in relation to welding hours. Therefore the present study supports the hypothesis that some, if not all, of the excess risk of welders observed in the literature may be due to the exposure to asbestos. The finding that the subgroup of employees in the aircraft industry showed an increased odds ratio of 2.14 after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos deserves further attention. This suggests the need for further research on the role of berryllium-containing alloys, which has been suggested by other authors.

  16. Use of dairy products, lactose, and calcium and risk of ovarian cancer - results from a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Jensen, Allan; Søgaard, Marie;

    2012-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the association between use of dairy products and risk of ovarian cancer, but results are conflicting. Using data from a large Danish population-based case-control study we here further examined the association between dairy consumption, lactose...

  17. Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, F; Ron, E; Wax, Y; Modan, B

    1985-03-01

    A dietary case-control study based on 818 newly diagnosed breast cancer (BC) patients was conducted in Israel between 1975 and 1978. The role of coffee and total methylxanthine intake from coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, and cocoa drinks was evaluated in the BC patients as compared to that in two matched control populations [surgical controls (SC) and neighborhood controls (NC)]. Because it has been suggested that caffeine enhances mammary carcinogenesis in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diets, analysis was done also in relation to fat consumption. When comparison was done to both matched control groups, a nonsignificant negative association was found between consumption of cups of coffee and BC (odds ratios of greater than or equal to 4 cups of coffee/day vs. less than or equal to 1 per week = 0.6 for BC/NC and 0.7 for BC/SC). This association was observed in all 3 ethnic subgroups studied. The pattern was stronger among the high-fat consumers after controlling for several hormonal confounding factors (two-tailed P-value for linear trend = 0.06 for SC and P = 0.05 for NC). In addition, when the consumption of methylxanthine of BC patients was compared to that of benign breast patients, adjusted by age and ethnic group, a diminished risk was found (odds ratio for BC of the highest level of methylxanthine vs. lowest level = 0.59). PMID:3856060

  18. Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of women on Long Island, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Satia, Jessie A.; Britton, Julie A.; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of 1434 cases and 1440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which included 11...

  19. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Graber Nora J; Fischman Daniel; Cheriyath Pramil; Nookala Vinod; Joshi Monika; Farooq Umar; Stellman Steven D; Muscat Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides ...

  20. Colorectal cancer: A case control study of dietary factors, King Faisal specialist hospital and researh center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nashar, Reem M.; Khalid S Almurshed

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to assess various dietary factors and the nutritional status of hospitalized patients with colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A case-controlled study of fifty newly-admitted patients at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia diagnosed with colorectal cancer were interviewed to collect data on various dietary factors and their nutritional status. Their data were compared with a sex-matched control group aged fifty. ...

  1. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronco AL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Results show a positive association for the fat fraction (OR for highest quartile =4.19, 95% CI (95% Confidence Interval 2.70-6.50 as well as for the fat-to-muscle ratio (OR=4.68, 95% CI 2.98-7.36. Muscle fraction was inversely associated with risk (OR=0.53 95% CI 0.36-0.78. High endomorphism was the only somatotype variable associated to the disease risk (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.54, however, losing its association when fat amount was included in the regression model. Stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI levels, bone weight, age groups and number of live births also showed risk increases for the highest fat fractions, displaying significant linear trends. Albeit most of the literature reports a putative slight protective effect for a high BMI in premenopausal women, our results suggest that fat fraction, amount and distribution might play a role as predisposing factors for premenopausal BC.

  2. Intake of dietary fat and vitamin in relation to breast cancer risk in Korean women: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Min Hee; Lee, Sang Sun; Jung, Pa Jong; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2003-01-01

    To investigate association between breast cancer risk and nutrients intake in Korean women, a case-control study was carried out, at Seoul, Korea. Incident cases (n=224) were identified through the cancer biopsy between February 1999 and December 2000 at two University hospitals in Seoul. Hospital-based controls (n=250) were selected from patients in the same hospitals, during the same periods. Food intake was investigated semiquantitative frequency questionnaire (98 items) by trained dietiti...

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: evidence fron a retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study

  4. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, J.Y.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  5. A case-control study of gastric cancer and nutritional factors in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornée, J; Pobel, D; Riboli, E; Guyader, M; Hémon, B

    1995-02-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Marseille (France) to investigate the relationship between usual diet and risk of gastric cancer. Patients with histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma were identified in 8 major centres for gastric surgery. Controls were selected in specialized medical centres from patients undergoing functional reeducation for injuries or trauma, according to the age and sex distributions of the cases. The study involved 92 cases and 128 controls who were interviewed with a dietary history questionnaire on their usual diet during the year preceding first symptoms for cases, or preceding interview for controls. Odds ratios for specific foods were calculated after adjustment for age, sex, occupation and energy intake. A reduced risk was observed for consumption of raw vegetables (OR2: 0.55; OR3: 0.41 for the second and third tertiles, respectively), fresh fruit (OR2: 0.63; OR3: 0.50), vegetable oil (OR2: 0.60; OR3: 0.52), pasta and rice (OR2: 1.06; OR3: 0.50) whereas consumption of cakes and pastries (OR2: 1.02; OR3: 2.96), sugar and confectionery (OR2: 0.96; OR3: 1.68) was associated with an increased risk. An increased risk was found for intake of saturated fat (OR2: 1.49; OR3: 1.67), simple sugars (OR2: 1.18; OR3: 1.78) and calcium (OR2: 1.84; OR3: 2.57). A decreased risk was observed with intake of fiber (OR2: 0.49; OR3: 0.59), fibre from vegetables and fruit (OR2: 0.83; OR3: 0.53) and iron (OR2: 0.70; OR3: 0.41). PMID:7489774

  6. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel Ruthann A; Aschengrau Ann; Zota Ami R; Brody Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  7. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  8. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  9. Modifiable Risk of Breast Cancer in Northeast Iran: Hope for the Future. A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motie, Mohammad R; Besharat, Sima; Torkjazi, Reza; Shojaa, Mahdieh; Besharat, Mahsa; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Besharat, Saba; Fateme, Arab Ameri

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Its prevalence is increasing annually by 2%. The determination of modifiable risk factors has been the subject of various studies. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of breast cancer in women in Golestan Province. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case-control study was conducted among women with breast cancer recorded in the cancer registry system between 2004 and 2006 (n = 134), and their age-matched healthy neighbors (n = 133). Data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Age at marriage, menarche and pregnancy, breast feeding, positive family history, marital status, and educational level were not significantly correlated with risk of breast cancer, but age at menopause (cohort study is recommended. PMID:22419899

  10. Cancer risk in long-term users of valproate: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Friis, Søren; Bjerrum, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) have shown promise as targeted cancer therapy. Valproate, an older anticonvulsant, has been shown to possess HDAC inhibitory activity. We undertook this case-control study to clarify whether long-term users of valproate had a reduced cancer in......-term valproate use is not associated with a reduced cancer risk. Our study does not support HDAC inhibition as a pharmacologic principle for general chemoprevention.......BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) have shown promise as targeted cancer therapy. Valproate, an older anticonvulsant, has been shown to possess HDAC inhibitory activity. We undertook this case-control study to clarify whether long-term users of valproate had a reduced cancer...... incidence. If so, it would support HDAC inhibition as a pharmacologic principle in chemoprevention. METHODS: We identified 149,417 incident cancer cases in Denmark during the study period 2000 through 2005, and 597,668 age- and gender-matched controls. Data on history of cancer, past hospital admission...

  11. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann;

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil......Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil...

  12. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjisavvas Andreas; Loizidou Maria A; Middleton Nicos; Michael Thalia; Papachristoforou Rena; Kakouri Eleni; Daniel Maria; Papadopoulos Panayiotis; Malas Simon; Marcou Yiola; Kyriacou Kyriacos

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigati...

  13. Correlates of Lymphedema in Women with Breast Cancer: a Case Control Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Behnam; Sayar, Negin; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Zakeri, Zeinab; Talei, Asra; Rostami, Sara; Khademi, Sahar; Sabzi Sarvestani, Amene; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the burden of breast cancer (BC) continues to increase. BC related lymphedema (BCRL) is currently non curable and as a life time risk it affects at least 25% of BC patients. Knowing more about BCRL and appropriate control of its modifiable risk factors can improve quality of life (QOL) of the affected patients. In this case control study to detect factors, 400 women with BCRL (as the case group) and 283 patients with BC without lymphedema (as the control group) that were referred to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences affiliated BC clinic center were assessed. The data were analyzed in SPSS. The mean age of the case group was 52.3±11.0 years and of the control group was 50.1±10.9 years. In patients with BCRL, 203(50.7%) had left (Lt) side BC and in non- lymphedema group 151 (53.3%) had Lt side BC. Out of all BCRL patients, 204 (51%) had lymphedema in all parts of their affected upper extremities, 100 (25%) had swelling in the arm and forearm and 23 (5.7%) had edema in both the upper extremity and trunk. Edema, heaviness, concern about changing body image, pain and paresthesia were the most common signs/symptoms among patients with BCRL. In BCRL patients, the difference of circumference between the affected upper limb and non-affected limb was 4.4±2.5 cm and the difference in volume displacement was 528.7±374.4 milliliters. Multiple variable analysis showed that moderate to severe activity (OR; odds ratio =14, 95% CI: 2.6-73.3 ), invasiveness of BC (OR =13.7, 95% CI: 7.3-25.6), modified radical mastectomy (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-7.9), BMI =>25 (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2-8.7), radiotherapy (OR=3.9, 95% CI: 1.8-8.2 ), past history of limb damage (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and the number of excised lymph nodes (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09) were the significant predictors of lymphedema in women with BC. Modifiable risk factors of BCRL such as non-guided moderate to severe physical activity, high BMI and trauma to the limb should be controlled as early as possible in

  14. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  15. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  16. Replication of Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in a Danish Case-Control Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the main causes for cancer morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies and multiple variant models have been...... developed to predict prostate cancer risk. The association between genetic markers and clinico-pathological tumor variables has, however, been inconsistent. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 previously identified prostate cancer-associated risk SNPs were genotyped in 648 prostate cancer cases and 526 age......-matched controls. Family history was obtained by questionnaire. Age at diagnosis, clinical tumor variables including pre- and postoperative PSA, Gleason score, and T stage were obtained from prospectively collected clinical data (Aarhus Prostate Cancer Study). The SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom and Taqman...

  17. Fish intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 15 case-control and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-yue Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies have shown that fish consumption may modify the risk of ovarian cancer. However, these studies yielded controversial results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between fish intake and ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database for all relevant studies up to August 2013. We pooled the relative risks (RR from individual studies using fixed-effect or random-effect model, and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. RESULTS: A total of 15 (ten case-control, and five cohort studies were included in the present meta-analysis, representing data for 889,033 female subjects and 6,087 ovarian cancer cases. We found that total fish intake was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 1.04 95% CI [0.89, 1.22] as well as case-control studies (RR = 0.90, 95% CI [0.73,1.12]. There was no evidence of publication bias as suggested by Begg's test (P = 0.55 and Egger's test(P = 0.29. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis showed that total fish consumption was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Further analysis on different fish species and food preparation methods should be conducted in future studies.

  18. Role of reproductive factors in breast cancer in a low-risk area: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, D.N.; Ganesh, B.; P.B Desai

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study of 689 breast cancer patients seen at Tata Memorial Hospital during the period 1980-84 was carried out. During the same period 711 females who attended the hospital without a history of benign breast lesions or gynaecological complaints were selected as controls. Patients were interviewed by trained investigators to collect data on reproductive factors, menstrual history, tobacco smoking and chewing habit, dietary practices (vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet) and alcohol...

  19. Circulating C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Risks of Colon and Rectal Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Boeing, Heiner; Jansen, Eugene; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Riboli, Elio; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Morois, Sophie; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Leufkens, Anke M.; Peeters, Petra H.; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bonet, Catalina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Goran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E.; Spencer, Elizabeth; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Pischon, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using

  20. Risk assessment of tobacco, alcohol and diet in cancers of base tongue and oral tongue--a case control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao D; Desai P

    1998-01-01

    This is a retrospective case-control study of male tongue cancer patients seen at Tata memorial Hospital, Bombay, during the years 1980-84. The purpose of the study was to identify the association of tobacco, alcohol, diet and literacy status with respect to cancers of two sub sites of tongue namely anterior portion of the tongue (AT) (ICD 1411-1414) and base of the tongue (BT) (ICD 1410). There were 142 male AT patients and 495 BT patients interviewed during the period. 635 interviewed male ...

  1. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Zhenggang Zhu; Jun Zhang; Min Yan; Bingya Liu; Jianian Zhang; Jun Ji; Zhiwei Wang; Lei Liu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for m...

  2. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and lung cancer risk: a large case-control study in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Espiridion, Beatriz; Chen, Meng; Chang, Joe Y; Lu, Charles; Chang, David W; Roth, Jack A; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Telomere dysfunction is a crucial event in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with lung cancer risk, but the relationship has remained controversial. In this study, we investigated whether the association might be confounded by study of different histological subtypes of lung cancer. We measured relative telomere lengths in patients in a large case-control study of lung cancer and performed stratified analyses according to the two major histologic subtypes [adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)]. Notably, patients with adenocarcinoma had longer telomeres than controls, whereas patients with SCC had shorter telomeres compared with controls. Long telomeres were associated with increased risk of adenocarcinoma, with the highest risk associated with female sex, younger age (telomeres were protective against SCC, particularly in male patients. Our results extend the concept that telomere length affects risk of lung cancer in a manner that differs with histologic subtype.

  3. A longitudinal case-control study on goals in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulkers, Esther; Janse, Moniek; Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Kamps, Willem A.; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed betw

  4. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  5. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or worsening of the health status at an

  6. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors in men: a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Antonio Varo; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Díaz-Molina, Carmen; Requena Tapia, Maria José; Abdel-Rahman, Amira Gamal; Navajas, Rafael Fernández-Crehuet

    2006-12-01

    The rising incidence of urinary bladder cancer is alarming and potential relationships with different risk factors have been postulated. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible relationship between different environmental risk factors and urinary bladder cancer. All men with urinary bladder cancer who were admitted to the Department of Urology of Reina Sofia University Hospital of Cordoba, Spain over 1 year were included in our study. Men were administered an interview questionnaire, which included data on history of known urinary bladder cancer risk factors. Comparisons between men with urinary bladder cancer (cases) and those with nonmalignant urological disease (controls) were made. The study included 74 cases and 89 controls. The variables associated with malignant lesions on univariate analysis were age, smoking and drinking alcohol. Meanwhile, fish, poultry and beef consumption were proved to be protective factors. The risk factors identified by the logistic regression analysis were age, smoking and fluid intake. The independent protective factors on the multivariate analysis were fish and poultry consumptions. Smoking was found to be the principal independent risk factors for urinary bladder cancer. Our results call for further investigation of urinary bladder cancer risk factors; future studies should preferably be performed on large prospective cohorts, to increase their validity. PMID:17106329

  7. Oncogenic CagA promotes gastric cancer risk via activating ERK signaling pathways: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jeong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CagA cellular interaction via activation of the ERK signaling pathway may be a starting point in the development of gastric cancer. This study aimed to evaluate whether genes involved in ERK downstream signaling pathways activated by CagA are susceptible genetic markers for gastric cancer. METHODS: In the discovery phase, a total of 580 SNPs within +/-5 kbp of 30 candidate genes were genotyped to examine an association with gastric cancer risk in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (100 incident gastric cancer case-control sets. The most significant SNPs (raw or permutated p value<0.02 identified in the discovery analysis were re-evaluated in the extension phase using unconditional logistic regression model (400 gastric cancer case-control sets. Combined analyses including pooled- and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize all the results. RESULTS: 24 SNPs in eight genes (ERK, Dock180, C3G, Rap1, Src, CrkL, Mek and Crk were significantly associated with gastric cancer risk in the individual SNP analyses in the discovery phase (p<0.05. In the extension analyses, ERK rs5999749, Dock180 rs4635002 and C3G rs7853122 showed marginally significant gene-dose effects for gastric cancer. Consistently, final combined analysis presented the SNPs as significantly associated with gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.56, [95% CI: 1.19-2.06], OR = 0.61, [95% CI: 0.43-0.87], OR = 0.59, [95% CI: 0.54-0.76], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ERK rs5999749, Dock180 rs4635002 and C3G rs7853122 are genetic determinants in gastric carcinogenesis.

  8. Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuesheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis. Results Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers.

  9. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Interleukin gene polymorphisms and breast cancer: a case control study and systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross SS

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukins and cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of many solid cancers. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs identified in cytokine genes are thought to influence the expression or function of these proteins and many have been evaluated for their role in inflammatory disease and cancer predisposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate any role of specific SNPs in the interleukin genes IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4R, IL6 and IL10 in predisposition to breast cancer susceptibility and severity. Methods Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in key cytokine genes were genotyped in breast cancer patients and in appropriate healthy volunteers who were similar in age, race and sex. Genotyping was performed using a high throughput allelic discrimination method. Data on clinico-pathological details and survival were collected. A systematic review of Medline English literature was done to retrieve previous studies of these polymorphisms in breast cancer. Results None of the polymorphisms studied showed any overall predisposition to breast cancer susceptibility, severity or to time to death or occurrence of distant metastases. The results of the systematic review are summarised. Conclusion Polymorphisms within key interleukin genes (IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4R, IL6 and IL10 do not appear to play a significant overall role in breast cancer susceptibility or severity.

  11. A case-control study of diet and lung cancer in Kerala, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Varghese, C; Duffy, S W; Padmakumary, G; Day, N E; Nair, M K

    1994-09-01

    A total of 281 male lung-cancer patients were identified from the hospital cancer registry in the Regional Cancer Centre in Trivandrum. The controls were selected from the visitors and patients' bystanders in the hospital. The recruitment of cases and controls started in 1990, and the present study used the cases registered in the first year. The questionnaire administered to cases and controls collected information on tobacco smoking and alcohol habits. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire and were analyzed by multiple logistic regression producing odds ratio estimates of the relative risk and deviance chi-squared tests of significance. Analysis was done on the computer package, EGRET. All models included age, education, religion and smoking to adjust for the effect of confounding. Green vegetables and bananas were found to have a protective association with lung cancer. The odds ratio associated with the highest quartile of vegetable consumption compared with the lowest was 0.32 (95% confidence interval 0.13, 0.78). Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated pumpkins and onions as the most consistently significant protective factors. Animal protein foods and dairy products were found to have a predisposing effect on lung cancer in this study. The expected influence of smoking on lung cancer (a considerable increase in risk among smokers) provided evidence of the reliability of the data. In conclusion the results from this study show that diet has a role in lung cancer aetiology, although the association is weak compared to the effects of smoking. PMID:8077047

  12. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and premenopausal breast cancer risk in a German case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Sascha; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Linseisen, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological data have linked vitamin D to breast cancer prevention. Beside dietary intake, endogenous production of vitamin D substantially contributes to a subject's vitamin D status. Most studies, however, have assessed dietary intake only. Although differential effects of vitamin D on premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer have been discussed, this is the first study to investigate the association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], as indicator of the overa...

  13. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 21 case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Mette T.; Kjær, Susanne K.; Dehlendorff, Christian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Klaus K. Andersen; Høgdall, Estrid; Webb, Penelope M.; Jordan, Susan J; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Lurie, Galina; Pamela J Thompson; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T.; Ness, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology. Methods We used data from 21 case–control studies of ovarian cancer (19,066...

  14. Thymidylate synthase genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk:a meta-analysis of 37 case-control studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jian; WANG Pei-pei; ZHUANG Yan-yan; CHEN Wen-jie; HUANG Feng-ting; ZHANG Shi-neng

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the association between polymorphisms of thymidylate synthase (TS)and cancer risk in diverse populations but with conflicting results.By pooling the relatively small samples in each study,it is possible to evaluate the association using a meta-analysis.Methods A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies on TS on a 28-bp tandem repeats in 5′untranslated region (5′UTR) and a 6-bp insertion (ins) and deletion (del) mutation in 3′UTR of the gene and cancer risk.Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed and random effect model.Results Our meta-analysis on a total of 13307 cancer cases and 18226 control subjects from 37 published case-control studies showed no significant association between the risk of cancer and the 5′UTR 28-bp tandem repeats polymorphism (3R/3R vs.2R/2R:OR=1.06,95% CI,0.93-1.20) or the 3′UTR 6-bp ins/del polymorphism (del6/del6 vs.ins6/ins6:0R=0.93,95% CI,0.81-1.08) with significant between-study heterogeneity.In the cancer type- and ethnic subgroup-stratification analyses,we did not find any association between TS polymorphisms and cancer risk either.Conclusion TS 5′UTR 28-bp tandem repeats and 3′UTR 6-bp ins/del polymorphisms may not be associated with cancer risk.

  15. A case-control study of lung cancer in Polish women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachtan, J. [M Sklodowska Curie Member Institute, Krakow (Poland)

    2002-07-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the influence of active and passive smoking, cancer family history, occupational exposure, usual diet and alcohol consumption on female lung cancer risk. A total of 242 women with histologically confirmed primary lung cancer and 352 healthy controls were involved in the study. All subjects were interviewed in the hospital. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Multivariate analysis has shown that smoking was the most strongly active risk factor in female lung cancer, Positive dose-response relationship was observed between lung cancer risk and number of pack-years. Passive smoking exposure during childhood significantly increased the risk (OR=2.65). There was also observed a significantly increased risk of lung cancer among women who had siblings with history of cancer (OR=3.42). Occupational exposure to coal dust, acid fumes (sulphuric and/or hydrochloric) and materials used for rubber making significantly increased the risk. Frequent intake of carrots (at least five times a week) and also daily intake of other vegetables significantly lowered the risk (OR=0.13, OR=0.24). A significant protective effect was also observed in women frequently using margarine on bread (OR=0.14). Vodka drinkers showed significantly higher risk than non-drinking women. The analysis of dose-response relationship in reference to vodka drinking, also confirmed significant influence of this factor on the risk.

  16. Lung cancer and environmental radon exposure: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer accounts for approximately 100,000 deaths annually and nearly 30% of these are due to factors other than smoking. The prognosis for lung cancer is very poor and control of this disease depends on the identification and manipulation of etiologic agents. Radon is a demonstrated pulmonary carcinogen among uranium miners and is a ubiquitous environmental agent. This study addresses two principal issues: (a) the assessment of the potential health effects due to radon exposure from radioactive waste disposal in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, and (b) the broader scientific question of the existence of an association between lung cancer and environmental radon exposure. Indoor radon concentrations were taken in the homes of 50 lung cancer cases and 48 ASHD controls as an index of cumulative exposure. The distribution of concentrations was similar among case and control homes. The range of exposures was within background expectations as were lung cancer rates in the area. There was, furthermore, no geographic clustering of cases near the tailings site. Although an association between lung cancer and environmental radon exposure cannot be ruled out, the evidence suggests that radon exposure due to the disposal of tailings did not have a significant impact on the health of the residents living in the area and that indoor radon is not an important lung cancer risk factor at concentrations less than about 4pCi/I

  17. Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Russnes, Kjell M; Möller, Elisabeth; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Carlsen,Monica; Blomhoff, Rune; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Adami, Hans-Olov; Grönberg, Henrik; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background The total intake of dietary antioxidants may reduce prostate cancer risk but available data are sparse and the possible role of supplements unclear. We investigated the potential association between total and dietary antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in a Swedish population. Methods We used FFQ data from 1499 cases and 1112 controls in the population based case–control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). The ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay was use...

  18. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.35 (1.11-1.65. Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI of 1.30 (1.05-1.61. Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively. An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (Ptrend<0.001. Positive associations and dose-response relationships were found among postmenopausal women and all subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status of breast cancer.Passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  19. Disentangling the Association between Statins, Cholesterol, and Colorectal Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Ronac; Lewis, James D.; Scott, Frank I.; Ahmad, Tariq; Goldberg, David S.; Datta, Jashodeep; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Boursi, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Several prior studies have found an association between statin use and reduced risk of colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that these findings may be due to systematic bias and examined the independent association of colorectal cancer risk with statin use, serum cholesterol, and change in cholesterol concentration. Methods and Findings 22,163 colorectal cancer cases and 86,538 matched controls between 1995 and 2013 were identified within The Health Improvement Network (THIN) a population-representative database. Conditional logistic regression models estimated colorectal cancer risk with statin use, serum total cholesterol (mmol/L), and change in total cholesterol level. We confirmed a decreased risk of colorectal cancer with statin use (long-term: odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91–0.99; short-term: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85–0.99). However, to assess whether the observed association may result from indication bias, a subgroup analysis was conducted among patients prescribed a statin. In this subgroup (n = 5,102 cases, n = 19,032 controls), 3.1% of case subjects and 3.1% of controls discontinued therapy. The risk of colorectal cancer was not significantly different among those who continued statin therapy and those who discontinued (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79–1.22). Increased serum cholesterol was independently associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer (OR, 0.89 per mmol/L increase; 95% CI, 0.87–0.91); the association was only present if serum cholesterol was measured near the cancer diagnosis (24 mo: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93–1.03). Decreases in serum total cholesterol >1 mmol/L ≥1 year prior to cancer diagnosis were associated with subsequent colorectal cancer (statin users: OR, 1.25; 95 CI%, 1.03–1.53; nonusers: OR, 2.36; 95 CI%, 1.78–3.12). As an observational study, limitations included incomplete data and residual confounding. Conclusions Although the risk of colorectal cancer was lower in statin users versus

  20. A nested case-control study on female breast cancer risk among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To research whether prolonged or repeated low-level ionizing radiation can induce female breast cancer or not and to investigate other risk factors related to breast cancer risk, a nested case-control study was done. Methods: 30 cases of breast cancers were enrolled in the study, 4 normal persons were selected from X-ray workers as controls to match each case. Logistic regression model was used for risk analysis. Results: 1) Accumulative breast dose is a significant risk factor, odds ratio (OR) between two dose levels (10c Gy) is 1.73 (95%CI = 1.05-2.84). 2) ORs of other two factors, obesity and family history of breast cancer, are 4.07 (P = 0.01) and 26.67 (P = 0.024) respectively. 3) Interaction may exist between occupational X-ray exposure and obesity or non-lactation. Conclusions: Longtime and low-level occupational X-ray exposure may relate to excess risk of female breast cancer among medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Family history of breast cancer and obesity are also the significant risk factors of the cancer. The existence of obesity and non-lactation may enhance the effect of radiation-induced breast cancer

  1. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Kidney Cancer in Uniquely Exposed Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H.; Durán, Viviana; Barlaro, Teresa; Benítez, Hugo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Juan José; Moore, Lee E.; Acevedo, Johanna; Vásquez, María Isabel; Pérez, Liliana; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that ingested arsenic causes lung, bladder, and skin cancer. However, a similar conclusion was not made for kidney cancer because of a lack of research with individual data on exposure and dose-response. With its unusual geology, high exposures, and good information on past arsenic water concentrations, northern Chile is one of the best places in the world to investigate the carcinogenicity of arsenic. We performed a case-control study in 2007–2010 of 122 kidney cancer cases and 640 population-based controls with individual data on exposure and potential confounders. Cases included 76 renal cell, 24 transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter, and 22 other kidney cancers. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, the adjusted odds ratios by average arsenic intakes of 1,000 µg/day (median water concentrations of 60, 300, and 860 µg/L) were 1.00, 5.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.65, 19.82), and 11.09 (95% confidence interval: 3.60, 34.16) (Ptrend < 0.001), respectively. Odds ratios were not elevated for renal cell cancer. With these new findings, including evidence of dose-response, we believe there is now sufficient evidence in humans that drinking-water arsenic causes renal pelvis and ureter cancer. PMID:23764934

  2. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer in Urban Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PingpingBao; LifengGao; DakeLiu; MenghuaTao; FanJin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the possible risk factors for stomach cancer among men and women in Shanghai, China. METHODS In urban Shanghai, in-person interviews were completed for 311 cases newly diagnosed with stomach cancer of ages 30-74. Data were collected from April 1999 to October 1999 and compared to 1579 population-based controls (controls in three cancer studies used together). Information on demographic variables, smoking, diet consumption and others was collected from all subjects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to adjust the possible factors. RESULTS Stomach cancer risk in men rose with smoking, eating hot and fried foods, chronic gastritis and a family history of gastric cancer among men; the risk among women was associated with the consumption of preserved,pickled and fried foods,heavy drinking, chronic gastritis, a history of ulcer disease and a family history of gastric cancer. A doseresponse relationship was found (trends test, P<0.01) among men smokers. In contrast, the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, beans (especially soybeans) and soy products, plant oil, and eggs and egg products, was inversely associated with stomach cancer risk. After adjustment of the potential confounding variables, these associations remained significant. CONCLUSIONS The present findings provide further evidence that smoking, eating salted foods (especially salted vegetables), oil-fried foods(including fried cereal, eggs, and peanuts), chronic gastritis, a family history of gastric cancer and so on increase the risk of stomach carcinoma in Shanghai. Fresh vegetables and fruits, beans and soybean products (even after adjusted for use of fresh vegetables and fruits), plant oil, and so on may have protective effects.

  3. Genetic association of deleted in colorectal carcinoma variants with breast cancer risk: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghan; Wang, Xijing; Fu, Sidney W; Wang, Meng; Kang, Huafeng; Guan, Haitao; Zhang, Shuqun; Ma, Xiaobin; Lin, Shuai; Liu, Kang; Feng, Yanjing; Dai, Cong; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-05-31

    Deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), a netrin-1 dependence receptor, is correlated with cell progression, migration, and adhesion. Evidence indicated that DCC was frequently down-regulated in many cancers. However, the association of DCC with breast cancer remains uncertain. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the impact of three DCC gene variants (rs2229080, rs7504990, and rs4078288) on breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. This study included 560 breast cancer patients and 583 age-matched healthy controls from Northwest China. The three gene variants were genotyped via Sequenom MassARRAY. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were utilized to evaluate the associations. We found that individuals with the rs2229080 C/G, C/C, and C/G-CC genotypes had a higher breast cancer risk, and the minor allele C was associated with increased breast cancer risk in an allele model. We observed a significantly decreased breast cancer risk with the rs7504990 C/T, T/T, and C/T-T/T genotypes, and the minor allele T was protective against breast cancer in an allele model. In addition, rs2229080 was associated with the axillary lymph node (LN) metastasis status. An age-stratified analysis revealed an association between rs2229080 and reduced breast cancer risk among older patients (≥ 49 years). Furthermore, the haplotype analysis showed that the Crs2229080Crs7504990Ars4078288 haplotype was associated with a decreased breast cancer risk. However, the results indicated a lack of association between rs4078288 and breast cancer risk. These findings affirmed that rs2229080 and rs7504990 polymorphisms in DCC might be related with breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women.

  4. Risk factors for breast cancer for women in Punjab, Pakistan:Results from a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghausia Masood Gilani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades an increase in the incidence of breast cancer has been observed in the previously low-risk Asian countries. This study is designed to determine the risk factors of breast cancer for Pakistani women as little information exists in this regard. A case-control study of 564 female breast cancer cases diagnosed at the two cancer hospitals at Lahore (INMOL and SKMCH during the time period Jan 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 1998 was carried out. Four hundred and forty eight women aged 24-80 years out of 564 cases were complete with respect to defined criteria and were eligible for the study. Population-based controls were selected to match for age of cases in the ratio 1:2. The data were analyzed considering ‘all women’ and then separate analyses were done for ‘premenopausal’ and ‘postmenopausal women’. Women with family history of breast cancer, history of consanguineous marriage, smoking and high BMI (≥28 are at increased risk of breast cancer for all three groups. Early menarche (45 years was a strong determinant of breast cancer. Higher number of full-term pregnancies (>3 was protective for ‘all women’ and ‘premenopausal women’ but in case of ‘postmenopausal women’ the poor with higher number of pregnancies were significantly protected. Late age at first FTP (>25 years is a significant risk factor for postmenopausal women.

  5. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melak, Dawit [Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ferreccio, Catterina [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Kalman, David [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Parra, Roxana [Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 μg/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 μg/L (median = 60 μg/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 μg/L.

  6. Antioxidant defense markers modulated by glutathione S-transferase genetic polymorphism: results of lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Edyta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Gromadzinska, Jolanta

    2007-12-01

    Oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are suspected to be related to carcinogenesis by different cellular mechanisms. Hence, our study aimed at identifying potential relationships between antioxidant defense parameters measured in blood and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms of four GST izoenzymes in lung cancer patients and reference individuals. The case-control study included 404 lung cancer patients and 410 non-cancer subjects as controls, matched by age, gender and place of living (central Poland). In control subjects with GSTM3*A/*A, GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null + GSTT1 null, GSTM3*A/*A + GSTT1 null genotype, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in controls possessing respective potential protective GST genotypes. Controls with GSTM3*A/*A + GSTP1*B genotype presented significantly higher ceruloplasmin activity (P < 0.05) than GSTM3*B + GSTP1*A/*A carriers. Zinc level was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in controls and cases with GSTP1*B + GSTT1 null genotype and in cases with GSTM1 null + GSTP1*B genotype, when compared with respective potential protective GST genotypes. This case-control study indicates that particular defective GST genotypes may enhance the defense against oxidative stress. The potential relationship between the investigated antioxidative enzymes and microelements, and common functional genetic polymorphism of GST was observed mostly in control subjects. PMID:18850183

  7. Diagnostic value of the copper/zinc ratio in digestive cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, J L; Romero, R R; Robles, J A; Montemayor, A C; Isoard, F; Estanes, A; Uribe, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the copper/zinc ratio (Cu/Zn ratio) in the evaluation of a large group of patients with digestive cancer compared to gender and age-matched control subjects. A total of 282 patients was studied and separated into three groups: group I (n = 75), patients with digestive cancer, group II (n = 112), patients with benign digestive disease, and group III (n = 95), healthy subjects. Serum levels of copper and zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the serum levels of copper (mg/dL) in patients with digestive cancer (91.6 +/- 27.3, p cancer (1.45 +/- .58, p copper/zinc ratio was 82.2%, with a specificity of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 45.8% and a negative predictive value of 91.3%. In conclusion, Cu/Zn ratio was found to be considerably higher in patients with digestive cancer compared to age- and gender-matched controls, with a sensitivity of 82.2% that might be useful in the evaluation of suspected malignancy.

  8. Association between chronic viral hepatitis infection and breast cancer risk: a nationwide population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Fu-Hsiung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Taiwan, there is a high incidence of breast cancer and a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. In this case-control study, we used a population-based insurance dataset to evaluate whether breast cancer in women is associated with chronic viral hepatitis infection. Methods From the claims data, we identified 1,958 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer during the period 2000-2008. A randomly selected, age-matched cohort of 7,832 subjects without cancer was selected for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to calculate odds ratios of breast cancer associated with viral hepatitis after adjustment for age, residential area, occupation, urbanization, and income. The age-specific ( Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV, or the prevalence of combined HBC/HBV infection between breast cancer patients and control subjects (p = 0.48. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, however, revealed that age Conclusions HCV infection, but not HBV infection, appears to be associated with early onset risk of breast cancer in areas endemic for HCV and HBV. This finding needs to be replicated in further studies.

  9. CYP17 gene polymorphism in relation to breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Rylander-Rudqvist, Tove; Humphreys, Keith; Ahlberg, Susanne; Jonasdottir, Gudrun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chia, Kee Seng; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Persson, Ingemar; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Wedrén, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The c.1-34T>C 5' promoter region polymorphism in cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogen, has been associated with breast cancer risk, but most previous studies have been relatively small. Methods We genotyped 1,544 incident cases of primary breast cancer and 1,502 population controls, all postmenopausal Swedish women, for the CYP17 c.1-34T>C polymorphism and calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression ...

  10. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2010-08-11

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  11. Breast cancer risk among Finnish cabin attendants: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kojo, K; Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies have found increased breast cancer risk among female cabin crew. This has been suggested to reflect lifestyle factors (for example, age at first birth), other confounding factors (for example, age at menarche), or occupational factors such as exposure to cosmic radiation and circadian rhythm alterations due to repeated jet lag.

  12. Obesity, inflammatory markers, and endometrial cancer risk : a prospective case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Becker, Susen; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Stegger, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Rohrmann, Sabine; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Altzibar, Jone M.; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hallmans, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim J.; Slimani, Nadia; Hainaut, Pierre; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 rece

  13. Reproductive factors and breast cancer: A case-control study in tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Bhadoria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical, animal, and epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that cancer is a hormonally mediated disease and several factors that influence hormonal status or are markers of change in hormonal status have been shown to be associated with the risk of breast cancer. Aims: To identify the association of various reproductive factors with breast cancer. Settings and Design: A hospital-based, matched, case-control study. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and three hundred and twenty normal healthy individuals constituted the study population. The subjects in the control group were matched individually with the cases for their age ± 2 years and socioeconomic status. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each individual to collect information on identification data, socio-demographic profile, and reproductive factors. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were used. The conditional univariate logistic regression analysis (unadjusted odds ratio and confidence intervals was used to calculate the significance level of each variable followed by multivariate regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: The cases had a lower mean age at menarche, higher age at marriage, higher mean age at last child birth, lower mean duration of breastfeeding, higher number of abortions, late age at menopause, history of oral contraceptive pills, and a family history of breast cancer as compared to the controls. The results of the present study revealed a strong association of reproductive factors with breast cancer in the Indian population.

  14. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and kidney cancer in uniquely exposed Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H; Durán, Viviana; Barlaro, Teresa; Benítez, Hugo; Valdés, Rodrigo; Aguirre, Juan José; Moore, Lee E; Acevedo, Johanna; Vásquez, María Isabel; Pérez, Liliana; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Cantor, Kenneth P; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that ingested arsenic causes lung, bladder, and skin cancer. However, a similar conclusion was not made for kidney cancer because of a lack of research with individual data on exposure and dose-response. With its unusual geology, high exposures, and good information on past arsenic water concentrations, northern Chile is one of the best places in the world to investigate the carcinogenicity of arsenic. We performed a case-control study in 2007-2010 of 122 kidney cancer cases and 640 population-based controls with individual data on exposure and potential confounders. Cases included 76 renal cell, 24 transitional cell renal pelvis and ureter, and 22 other kidney cancers. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, the adjusted odds ratios by average arsenic intakes of 1,000 µg/day (median water concentrations of 60, 300, and 860 µg/L) were 1.00, 5.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.65, 19.82), and 11.09 (95% confidence interval: 3.60, 34.16) (Ptrend water arsenic causes renal pelvis and ureter cancer.

  15. Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Keun-Young

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older paternal age may increase the germ cell mutation rate in the offspring. Maternal age may also mediate in utero exposure to pregnancy hormones in the offspring. To evaluate the association between paternal and maternal age at birth with the risk of breast cancer in female offspring, a case-control study was conducted in Korea. Methods Histologically confirmed breast cancer cases (n = 1,011 and controls (n = 1,011 with no present or previous history of cancer, matched on year of birth and menopausal status, were selected from several teaching hospitals and community in Seoul during 1995–2003. Information on paternal and maternal ages and other factors was collected by interviewed questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were estimated by unconditional logistic regression model adjusting for family history of breast cancer in 1st or 2nd degree relatives, and lifetime estrogen exposure duration. Results The risk of breast cancer significantly increased as the paternal age increased (p for trend = 0.025. The association was stronger after controlling for maternal age; women whose fathers were aged ≥40 years at their birth had 1.6-fold increased risk of breast cancer compared with fathers aged Conclusion These findings suggest that older paternal age increases the risk of breast cancer in their female offspring.

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and altered risk of lung cancer in a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been consistently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, previous studies have had limited ability to determine whether the association is due to smoking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE population-based case-control study recruited 2100 cases and 2120 controls, of whom 1934 cases and 2108 controls reported about diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD (chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, or asthma more than 1 year before enrollment. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. After adjustment for smoking, other previous lung diseases, and study design variables, lung cancer risk was elevated among individuals with a history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5, emphysema (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.8, or COPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0-3.1. Among current smokers, association between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was strongest among lighter smokers. Asthma was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in males (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the associations of personal history of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD with increased risk of lung cancer are not entirely due to smoking. Inflammatory processes may both contribute to COPD and be important for lung carcinogenesis.

  17. Use of benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine related drugs and the risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Andersen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    .02), liver 1.81 (95% CI 1.18, 2.80), lung 1.38 (95% CI 1.23, 1.54), pancreas 1.35 (95% CI 1.02, 1.79) and kidney 1.39 (95% CI 1.01, 1.91). For tobacco-related cancers, the OR was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09, 1.22) and for the remaining cancer sites 1.01 (95% CI 0.94, 1.08). Sub-group analyses revealed only small......AIM: Studies of the carcinogenic potential of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZRD) have been equivocal. A recent study reported a 35% excess cancer risk among users of hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. METHOD: Using Danish nationwide registers, we conducted a matched case-control study...... of the association between BZRD and cancer risk. During 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2009, we identified 152 510 cases with a first time cancer who were matched (1:8) by age and gender to 1,220,317 cancer-free controls. A new-user design was applied by excluding all subjects who had used anxiolytics, hypnotics...

  18. Assessment of a questionnaire for breast cancer case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Kregzdyte, Rima; Rugyte, Danguole Ceslava; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Mechonosina, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess criterion validity and external reliability of a questionnaire on risk factors for breast cancer. Materials and Methods. Women with breast cancer diagnosis (the cases) (N=40) and matched individuals without cancer (the controls) (N=40) were asked to fill in a questionnaire twice: on a day of admission to hospital (Q1) and on a day before discharge (Q2), with a time interval of 4-6 days. The questionnaire included questions (N=150) on demographic and socioeconomic factors, diseases in the past, family history of cancer, woman's health, smoking, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and work environment. Criterion validity of the questionnaire Q2 relative to reference questionnaire Q1 was assessed with the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC); external reliability of the questionnaire was measured in terms of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results. The responses to most of the questions on socioeconomic factors, family history on cancer, female health, lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity) correlated substantially in both the cases and the controls with SCC and ICC>0.7 (pcases drank at the ages up to 25 years and 26-35 years as well as time of use of estrogen and estrogens-progestin during menopause by the cases. Moderate and substantial SCC and ICC were determined for different food items. Only the response of the cases on veal consumption did not correlate significantly. Conclusions. The questionnaire on breast cancer risk factors is valid and reliable for most of the questions included. PMID:23803031

  19. Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Epplein, Meira; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Franke, Adrian A.; Cooney, Robert V.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Brian E Henderson; Kolonel, Laurence N; Goodman, Marc T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Assessments by the handful of prospective studies of the association of serum antioxidants and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This multiethnic nested case-control study sought to examine the association of plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Methods From the biospecimen subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort Study, 286 incident postmenopausal breast cancer cases were matched to 535 controls on age, sex, ethnicit...

  20. Association between microRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk based on the findings of 66 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Pin Ma

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules, which participate in diverse biological processes and may regulate tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNA may contribute to diverse functional consequences, including cancer development, by altering miRNA expression. Numerous studies have shown the association between miRNA SNPs and cancer risk; however, the results are generally debatable and inconclusive, mainly due to limited statistical power. To assess the relationship between the five most common SNPs (miR-146a rs2910164, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-499 rs3746444, miR-149 rs2292832, and miR-27a rs895919 and the risk cancer development, we performed a meta-analysis of 66 published case-control studies. Crude odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals were used to investigate the strength of the association. No association was observed between rs2910164 and cancer risk in the overall group. However, in stratified analysis, we found that either the rs2910164 C allele or the CC genotype was protective against bladder cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and colorectal cancer, whereas it was a risk factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN. Further, rs11614913 was found to be significantly associated with decreased cancer risk, in particular, for bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and SCCHN. For miR-499, a significant association was found between the rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer risk in pooled analysis. In subgroup analysis, similar results were mainly observed for breast cancer. Finally, no association was found between rs2292832 and rs895919 polymorphisms and cancer risk in the overall group and in stratified analysis. In summary, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-146a rs2910164, and miR-499 rs3746444 are risk factors for cancer development, whereas mir-149 rs2292832 and miR-27a rs895919 are not associated with cancer risk.

  1. A case-control study of lung cancer in Karachi, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhurgri, Y.; Decullier, E.; Bhurgri, A.; Sheikh Nassar; Ahmed Usman; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P. [Karachi Cancer Registry, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the causes of lung cancer in Pakistan. 320 patients (282 men and 38 women) with lung cancer treated at the Liaquat National Post Graduate Medical Centre, the Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center and the Civil Hospital, all in Karachi, and 640 controls (561 men and 79 women) were enrolled. A total of 275 patients and 222 controls reported having a history of smoking (57% of men and 14% of women). An increased risk of developing lung cancer was observed among individuals with a history of smoking (odds ratio (OR) 22.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-37.3) and among current smokers (OR 30.2; 95% CI 17.8-51.3). The risk decreased with the number of years since quitting (most apparent 10 years after smoking cessation). Chewing betel quid (containing betel leaf, lime, areca nut and tobacco) was only marginally associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, heavy exposure to this habit resulted in a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). The OR for snuff use was significantly increased (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.7), with a significant trend with years of exposure and average level of consumption. Having ever lived in a flat with a heating system (coal, wood, electricity and kerosene) was associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI 2.5-5.3). Using gas, electricity or kerosene for cooking was associated with a reduced OR compared with the use of wood, whereas the OR for the use of coal was 2.7 (95& CI 0.9-8.7). The primary role of tobacco smoking as the cause of lung cancer in Pakistan was confirmed. 13 refs.

  2. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdaninia Mariam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.

  3. Change of mammographic density predicts the risk of contralateral breast cancer - a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Maria EC; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Humphreys, Keith; Czene, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but it is unknown whether density at first breast cancer diagnosis and changes during follow-up influences risk of non-simultaneous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Methods We collected mammograms for CBC-patients (cases, N = 211) and unilateral breast cancer patients (controls, N = 211), individually matched on age and calendar period of first breast cancer diagnosis, type of adjuvant therapy and length of follow-...

  4. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer in California and Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphiné, David C; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R; Bates, Michael N; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-08-02

    Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002-2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55-3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59-4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks.

  5. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7-7.6), working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7-3.7), and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females. PMID:20838608

  6. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphiné, David C.; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R.; Bates, Michael N.; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks. PMID:23917816

  7. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Bates

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53 in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38 in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks.

  8. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001. Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7–7.6, working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7–3.7, and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  9. Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddock Lisa E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service lists, and area sampling. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls were included in analyses. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations with total phytoestrogens, as well as isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and glycitein, lignans (matairesinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and coumestrol. Results No statistically significant associations were found with any of the phytoestrogens under evaluation. However, there was a suggestion of an inverse association with total phytoestrogen consumption (from foods and supplements, with an odds ratio (OR of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.38-1.00; p for trend: 0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of consumption, after adjusting for reproductive covariates, age, race, education, BMI, and total energy. Further adjustment for smoking and physical activity attenuated risk estimates (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.41-1.08. There was little evidence of an inverse association for isoflavones, lignans, or coumestrol. Conclusions This study provided some suggestion that phytoestrogen consumption may decrease ovarian cancer risk, although results did not reach statistical significance.

  10. Blood fatty acid patterns are associated with prostate cancer risk in a prospective nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Sesso, Howard D.; Campos, Hannia; Ma, Jing; Stampfer1, Meir J.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating fatty acids are highly correlated with each other and analyzing fatty acid patterns could better capture their interactions and their relation to prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the associations between data-derived blood fatty acid patterns and prostate cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the Physicians’ Health Study. Fatty acids levels were measured in whole blood samples of 476 cases and their matched controls by age and smoking status. Fatty acid patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Two patterns explaining 40.9% of total variation in blood fatty acid levels were identified. Pattern 1, which mainly reflects polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, was suggestively positively related to prostate cancer risk (ORquintile 5 vs. quintile 1=1.37, 95%CI=0.91–2.05, Ptrend=0.07). Pattern 2, which largely reflects de novo lipogenesis, was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer risk (ORquintile5 vs quintile1=1.63, 95%CI=1.04–2.55, Ptrend=0.02). This association was similar across tumor stage, grade, clinical aggressiveness categories and follow-up time. Conclusion The two patterns of fatty acids we identified were consistent with known interactions between fatty acid intake and metabolism. A pattern suggestive of higher activity in the de novo lipogenesis pathway was related to higher risk of prostate cancer. PMID:27488836

  11. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose–response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7–16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6–35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  12. Perfluorinated compounds are related to breast cancer risk in greenlandic inuit: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvad Gert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer for women in the western world. From very few cases an extraordinary increase in BC was observed in the Inuit population of Greenland and Canada although still lower than in western populations. Previous data suggest that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs might contribute to the risk of BC. Rat studies showed that perfluorinated compounds (PFCs cause significantly increase in mammary fibroadenomas. This study aimed at evaluating the association between serum levels of POPs/PFCs in Greenlandic Inuit BC cases and their controls, and whether the combined POP related effect on nuclear hormone receptors affect BC risk. Methods Thirty-one BC cases and 115 controls were sampled during 2000-2003 from various Greenlandic districts. The serum levels of POPs, PFCs, some metals and the combined serum POP related effect on estrogen- (ER, androgen- (AR and Ah-receptor (AhR transactivity were determined. Independent student t-test was used to compare the differences and the odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression models. Results We observed for the very first time a significant association between serum PFC levels and the risk of BC. The BC cases also showed a significantly higher concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls at the highest quartile. Also for the combined serum POP induced agonistic AR transactivity significant association to BC risk was found, and cases elicited a higher frequency of samples with significant POP related hormone-like agonistic ER transactivity. The AhR toxic equivalent was lowest in cases. Conclusions The level of serum POPs, particularly PFCs, might be risk factors in the development of BC in Inuit. Hormone disruption by the combined serum POP related xenoestrogenic and xenoandrogenic activities may contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer in Inuit. Further investigations are needed to document these study conclusions.

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2A6 in a Case-Control Study on Bladder Cancer in Japanese Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumondai, Masaki; Hosono, Hiroki; Orikasa, Kazuhiko; Arai, Yoichi; Arai, Tomio; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Ozono, Seiichiro; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Takayama, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Several of the procarcinogens inhaled in tobacco smoke, the primary risk factor for bladder cancer, are activated by CYP2A6. The association between the whole-gene deletion of CYP2A6 (CYP2A6*4) and a reduced risk of bladder cancer was suggested in Chinese Han smokers. However, there is no evidence for association between the risk of bladder cancer and CYP2A6 genotypes in the Japanese population. Using genomic DNA from smokers of the Japanese population (163 bladder cancer patients and 116 controls), we conducted a case-control study to assess the association between CYP2A6 polymorphisms and the risk of bladder cancer. Determination of CYP2A6 genotypes was carried out by amplifying each exon of CYP2A6 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. The CYP2A6*4 allele was identified by an allele-specific PCR assay. Bladder cancer risk was evaluated using the activity score (AS) system based on CYP2A6 genotypes. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the AS 0, AS 0.5, AS 1.0, and AS 1.5 groups were 0.46 (0.12-1.83), 0.43 (0.15-1.25), 0.86 (0.40-1.86), and 1.36 (0.60-3.06), respectively. In conclusion, although decreased CYP2A6 AS tended to reduce the risk of bladder cancer in Japanese smokers, no significant association was recognized in this population. However, given the relatively small size of the sample, further study is required to conclude the lack of a statistically significant association between CYP2A6 genotypes and the risk of bladder cancer. PMID:26725431

  14. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

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    Aragonés Nuria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39, which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92, residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38. In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76, whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  15. Mate Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in Uruguay: a Case- Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Regarding 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South American regions), most epidemiologic studies showed positive associations with risk of some cancers, (e.g. upper aerodigestive tract), but evidence on breast cancer (BC) risk is limited to a previous multi-site study, which reported a non significant odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.67-1.09, p for trend=0.31) for the highest quartile of intake. The present study was conducted in order to further assess associations of 'mate' intake with BC risk. We combined two databases of women belonging to public and private healthcare hospitals. The sample included 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls interviewed with a specific questionnaire featured by socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire of 64 items, also analyzing 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit, intensity of intake). ORs and their 95%CI were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest quartile of 'mate' intake was inversely associated with BC risk (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.57, p for trend women (OR=0.36), among other results. As conclusions, we found evidence of a significant inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC risk. PMID:27039789

  16. Association of a mammographic parenchymal pattern (MPP) descriptor with breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Zhou, Chuan; Helvie, Mark A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman

    2010-03-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of improving breast cancer risk prediction by computerized mammographic parenchymal pattern (MPP) analysis. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association of the MPP measures with breast cancer risk. The case group included 168 contralateral CC-view mammograms of breast cancer patients dated at least one year prior to cancer diagnosis, and the control group included 522 CC-view mammograms from one breast of normal subjects. We extracted and compared four types of statistical texture feature spaces that included run length statistics and region size statistics (RLS/RSS) features, spatial gray level dependence (SGLD) features, gray level difference statistics (GLDS) features, and the feature space combining these three types of texture features. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with stepwise feature selection was trained and tested with leave-one-case-out resampling to evaluate whether the breast parenchyma of future cancer patients could be distinguished from those of normal subjects in each feature space. The areas under ROC curves (Az) were 0.71, 0.72, 0.71 and 0.76 for the four feature spaces, respectively. The Az obtained from the combined feature space was significantly (pbreast cancer risk and four categories of MPP measures: 0.2 (C4) while patient age was treated as a confounding factor. The adjusted ORs of breast cancer for C2, C3 and C4 were 3.23, 7.77 and 25.43, respectively. The preliminary result indicated that our proposed computerized MPP measures were strongly associated with breast cancer risk.

  17. Occupational risk factors for testicular cancer: a registry-based case-control study in Rhineland Palatinate – Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lamyaa; Hammer, Gaël P.; Emrich, Katharina; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Testicular cancer affects mainly men below the age of 50. An association with occupation and social status has been suggested but risk factors are not well understood. A registry-based case-control study focusing on occupation was performed in Germany. Methods: All 348 testicular cancer cases with available gainful occupational information registered between 2000 and 2005; as well as 564 suitable controls (from a pool of other cancers) were drawn from the Cancer Registry of Rhineland-Palatinate. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Slightly elevated OR were observed for technicians and related professionals (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00–2.63) and for clerical support workers (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.14–2.56). This increase was highest in the age group 20–50 for technicians (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.23–3.33) and clerks (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.30–3.09), respectively. An association with testicular cancer was observed for no other occupation. Conclusion: An increased risk of testicular cancer was observed for technicians and related professionals and clerical support workers. This could be related to socioeconomic status or sedentary life style, two factors that were identified in previous studies. While the feasibility of a purely registry-based study was shown, missing occupational data and the choice of cancer controls represent challenges to the validity of this approach. PMID:24265602

  18. Associations of serum organohalogen levels and prostate cancer risk: Results from a case-control study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Na; Chia, Sin Eng; Ong, Choon Nam; Kelly, Barry C

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that elevated exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer. As part of a hospital-based case-control study of the Singaporean male population, we investigated associations between organohalogen exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Trace residue concentrations of 74 organohalogen contaminants, including several PCBs, OCPs and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), were determined in serum samples (n = 120) using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A variety of OCPs, PCBs and HFRs were detected in samples of both patients and controls. Mean concentrations of p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 187 were significantly higher (p 67th) were 5.67 (95% CI, 2.37-13.54) and 2.14 (95% CI, 0.99 to 4.66), respectively. The results suggest that exposure to DDTs and PCBs may be associated with prostate cancer risk in Singaporean males. No such association was observed for the organohalogen flame retardants studied, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The study provides novel information regarding the occurrence, levels and potential associations with prostate cancer risk for several organohalogen contaminants in the Singapore population. However, further investigation and analyses should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  19. Antibodies against six human herpesviruses in relation to seven cancers in black South Africans: A case control study

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    Ruff P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with certain human herpesviruses have been established as risk factors for some cancer types. For example, Epstein-Barr Virus is considered a cause of Burkitt's lymphoma and other immunosuppression related lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Several other human herpesviruses have been linked to cancers but the totality of evidence is inconclusive. Methods We conducted a systematic sub-study from within an ongoing case control study of adult black South Africans to investigate the relationship between antibodies to six human herpesviruses and seven cancer groups that may be caused by infectious agents. Subjects had incident cancers of the oral cavity(n = 88, the cervix(n = 53, the prostate(n = 66, Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 83, non-Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 80, multiple myeloma(n = 94 or leukaemia(n = 203. For comparison, patients with other cancers(n = 95 or cardiovascular disease(n = 101 were randomly selected from within the study. Patients were interviewed and their blood was tested for IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV-EBNA, CMV and HHV-6 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Because these viruses are highly prevalent in this population, optical density results from the assays were used as an indirect, quantitative measure of antibody level. Results There was significant variation in the mean log antibody measures for HSV-2, VZV, CMV and HHV-6 between the disease groups. However, none of the specific cancer groups had significantly higher mean log antibody measures for any of the viruses compared to either control group. In a more detailed examination of seven associations between cancers and herpesviruses for which there had been prior reports, two statistically significant associations were found: a decreasing risk of myeloid leukaemia and an increasing risk of oral cancer with increasing tertiles of antibodies against HHV-6 compared to all other patients (p-trend = 0.03 and 0

  20. [Dietary factors and oral cancer: a case-control study in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Góis Filho, José Francisco de; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino de; Abrahão, Márcio; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Eluf Neto, José; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2007-03-01

    Dietary factors associated with oral cancer were investigated in a case-control hospital-based study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2002. A total of 835 subjects, 366 with histologically confirmed incident cases of oral-cavity or pharyngeal cancer and 469 controls participated in the study. Dietary data were collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained from unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Inverse associations with risk of oral cancer were found for the highest intake of beans, OR = 0.37 (95%CI: 0.22-0.64), raw vegetables, OR = 0.51 (95%CI: 0.29-0.93) and the intermediate tertile of rice and pasta intake, OR = 0.56 (95%CI: 0.38-0.83). Positive associations were observed for the highest intake of eggs, OR = 1.84 (95%CI: 1.23-2.75), potatoes, OR = 2.22 (95%CI: 1.53-3.25), and milk, OR= 1.80 (95%CI: 1.09-2.98). Some traditional Brazilian foods like rice and beans emerged as protective factors against oral cancer, independently of other risk factors. PMID:17334570

  1. Understanding non-compliance to colorectal cancer screening: a case control study, nested in a randomised trial [ISRCTN83029072

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    Borgia Piero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major limit to colorectal cancer screening effectiveness is often low compliance. We studied the reasons for non compliance and determinants of compliance to faecal occult blood tests in Lazio, Italy. Methods This is a case-control study nested within a trial that tested the effect of type of test and provider on colorectal cancer screening compliance. Non compliant trial subjects were classified as cases, and compliant subjects were classified as controls. We sampled 600 cases and 600 controls matched by their general practitioner, half were invited for screening at the hospital, and the other half directly at their general practitioner's office. Cases and controls answered questions on: distance from test provider, logistical problems, perception of colorectal cancer risk, confidence in screening efficacy, fear of results, presence of colorectal cancer in the family, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Results About 31% of cases never received the letter offering free screening, and 17% of the sampled population had already been screened. The first reported reason for non-compliance was "lack of time" (30%; the major determinant of compliance was the distance from the test provider: odds ratio >30 minutes vs Conclusion To increase compliance, screening programmes must involve test providers who are geographically close to the target population.

  2. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  3. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.ruano@usc.es [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); García-Lavandeira, José Antonio [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Preventive Medicine, A Coruña University Hospital Complex, Coruña (Spain); Torres-Durán, María [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Parente-Lamelas, Isaura [Service of Neumology, Ourense Hospital Complex, Ourense (Spain); Leiro-Fernández, Virginia [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Montero-Martínez, Carmen [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of A Coruña, Coruña (Spain); González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio [Service of Neumology, Santiago de Compostela University Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Martínez, Cristina [National Institute of Silicosis, University Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Castro-Añón, Olalla [Service of Neumology, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Mejuto-Martí, María José [Service of Neumology, Hospital Arquitecto Marcide, Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  4. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years

  5. Serum α-Tocopherol and γ-Tocopherol Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk in the PLCO Screening Trial: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Ulrike Peters; Jiyoung Ahn; Friesen, Marlin D.; Elio Riboli; Hayes, Richard B; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin E compounds exhibit prostate cancer preventive properties experimentally, but serologic investigations of tocopherols, and randomized controlled trials of supplementation in particular, have been inconsistent. Many studies suggest protective effects among smokers and for aggressive prostate cancer, however. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer S...

  6. Leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphism and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women: A case control study

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    Anyanwu Stanley N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin, a 16 kDa polypeptide hormone, implicated in various physiological processes, exerts its action through the leptin receptor, a member of the class I cytokine receptor family. Both leptin and leptin receptor have recently been implicated in processes leading to breast cancer initiation and progression in animal models and humans. An A to G transition mutation in codon 223 in exon 6 of the leptin receptor gene, resulting in glutamine to arginine substitution (Gln223Arg, lies within the first of two putative leptin-binding regions and may be associated with impaired signaling capacity of the leptin receptor. This study was designed to assess the role of this polymorphism in breast cancer susceptibility in Nigerian women. Methods We utilized a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay to evaluate the association between the Gln223Arg polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene and breast risk in Nigeria in a case control study involving 209 women with breast cancer and 209 controls without the disease. Study participants were recruited from surgical outpatient clinics and surgical wards of four University Teaching Hospitals located in Midwestern and southeastern Nigeria between September 2002 and April 2004. Results Premenopausal women carrying at least one LEPR 223Arg allele were at a modestly increased risk of breast cancer after adjusting for confounders (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–3.2, p = 0.07. There was no association with postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.4–1.8, p = 0.68. Conclusion Our results suggest that the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism in the extracellular domain of the LEPR receptor gene is associated with a modestly increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer in Nigerian women.

  7. Leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphism and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women: A case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leptin, a 16 kDa polypeptide hormone, implicated in various physiological processes, exerts its action through the leptin receptor, a member of the class I cytokine receptor family. Both leptin and leptin receptor have recently been implicated in processes leading to breast cancer initiation and progression in animal models and humans. An A to G transition mutation in codon 223 in exon 6 of the leptin receptor gene, resulting in glutamine to arginine substitution (Gln223Arg), lies within the first of two putative leptin-binding regions and may be associated with impaired signaling capacity of the leptin receptor. This study was designed to assess the role of this polymorphism in breast cancer susceptibility in Nigerian women. We utilized a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to evaluate the association between the Gln223Arg polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene and breast risk in Nigeria in a case control study involving 209 women with breast cancer and 209 controls without the disease. Study participants were recruited from surgical outpatient clinics and surgical wards of four University Teaching Hospitals located in Midwestern and southeastern Nigeria between September 2002 and April 2004. Premenopausal women carrying at least one LEPR 223Arg allele were at a modestly increased risk of breast cancer after adjusting for confounders (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–3.2, p = 0.07). There was no association with postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.4–1.8, p = 0.68). Our results suggest that the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism in the extracellular domain of the LEPR receptor gene is associated with a modestly increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer in Nigerian women

  8. Digitoxin medication and cancer; case control and internal dose-response studies

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    Spigset Olav

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digitoxin induces apoptosis in different human malignant cell lines in vitro. In this paper we investigated if patients taking digitoxin for cardiac disease have a different cancer incidence compared to the general population. Methods Computer stored data on digitoxin concentrations in plasma from 9271 patients with cardiac disease were used to define a user population. Age and sex matched controls from the Norwegian Cancer Registry were used to calculate the number of expected cancer cases. Results The population on digitoxin showed a higher incidence of cancer compared to the control population. However, an additional analysis showed that the population on digitoxin had a general increased risk of cancer already, before the start on digitoxin. Leukemia/lymphoma were the cancer types which stood out with the highest risk in the digitoxin population before starting on digitoxin. This indicates that yet unknown risk factors exist for cardiovascular disease and lymphoproliferative cancer. An internal dose-response analysis revealed a relationship between high plasma concentration of digitoxin and a lower risk for leukemia/lymphoma and for cancer of the kidney/urinary tract. Conclusion Morbidity and mortality are high in the population on digitoxin, due to high age and cardiac disease.These factors disturb efforts to isolate an eventual anticancer effect of digitoxin in this setting. Still, the results may indicate an anticancer effect of digitoxin for leukemia/lymphoma and kidney/urinary tract cancers. Prospective clinical cancer trials have to be done to find out if digitoxin and other cardiac glycosides are useful as anticancer agents.

  9. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high and low risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Veer, van 't P.; Wu, P.; Wang, P.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-

  10. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.M.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Veer, P. van 't; Wu, D.L.; Wang, P.H.; Yang, J.; Qin, Y.; Mu, L.N.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-

  11. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a case-control study in north-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Lee, A H; Xu, F; Zhang, T; Lei, J; Binns, C W

    2014-01-01

    The north-western region of China carries a big burden of esophageal cancer with incidence above the national average. This study ascertained the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer in this remote part of China. A case-control study was undertaken in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 359 incident esophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual fruit and vegetable consumption was obtained by face-to-face interview using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the associations. The esophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less fruits (mean 364.3, standard deviation [SD] 497.4 g) and vegetables (mean 711.4, SD 727.9 g) daily than their counterparts without the disease (mean 496.5, SD 634.4 g and mean 894.5, SD 746.1 g, respectively). The adjusted odds ratios were 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.33-0.71) and 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.32-0.68) for consuming at least 515 g of fruits and 940 g of vegetables per day, respectively, relative to at most 170 g and 520 g. With respect to nutrients contained in fruits and vegetables, intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-cryptoxanthin, potassium, and magnesium at high levels also reduced the esophageal cancer risk. In conclusion, inverse associations were evident between consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of esophageal cancer for adults residing in north-west China.

  12. Breastfeeding Reduces Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in North India

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    Babita

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Breastfeeding has a significant role in reducing breast cancer, and so information, education, and communication activities for the promotion of breastfeeding and creating awareness about this fatal disease are the need of the hour.

  13. A Case-control Study on Non-smoking Primary Lung Cancers in Sichuan, China

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    Feifei LIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing in recent years. The aim of this investigation is to explore main risk factors of non-smoking primary lung cancers in Sichuan province in order to provide more accurate data for clinical. Methods One hundred and fourty-five non-smoking pairs of cases and 145 of controls were matched by age and sex. The patients were newly-diagnosed definitely as primary lung cancer at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from March to December 2009. Results Seventeen exposure factors were explored as epidemic agents for non-smoking lung cancer in Sichuan by using univariate analysis; mutivariate conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that passive smoking, moved into newly renovated homes over the past 10 years, family cancer history from second/third-degree relatives, lack of emotion regulation, heavy work pressure and poor quality of sleep were main risk agents for the non-smoking lung cancer incidence with OR 2.267 (95%CI: 1.231-4.177, 5.080 (95%CI: 1.632-15.817, 7.937 (95%CI: 1.815-34.705, 2.491 (95%CI: 1.230-4.738, 5.769 (95%CI: 2.030-16.396, 2.538 (95%CI: 1.277-4.861, respectively. While higher body mass index, eating fruit and vegetable and regular participating in physical exercise might be protective factors with OR 0.419 (95%CI: 0.226-0.779, 0.344 (95%CI: 0.155-0.762, 0.507 (95%CI: 0.274-0.937, respectively. Conclusion The occurrence of non-smoking primary lung cancer associated with a variety of exposure factors including passive smoking, history of exposure to harmful environmental, family cancer history, mental and psychological factors in Sichuan Province.

  14. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27-0.46) and 0.37 (0.28-0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35-3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19-0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12-0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18-0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11-0.71); 0.27 (0.13-0.54); 0.45 (0.25-0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  15. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Saedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer.  Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors.   Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3% were female and the remaining 338 (60.7% were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013.   Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran.

  16. A case-control study on the relationship between salt intake and salty taste and risk of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Guang Yang; Chuan-Bo Chen; Zhi-Xin Wang; Yu-Pei Liu; Xiao-Yuan Wen; Shan-Feng Zhang; Tong-Wen Sun

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between salt in-take and salty taste and risk of gastric cancer. METHODS: A 1:2 matched hospital based case-control study including 300 patients with gastric cancer and 600 cancer-free subjects as controls. Subjects were interviewed with a structured questionnaire containing 80 items, which elicited information on dietary, lifestyle habits, smoking and drinking histories. Subjects were tested for salt taste sensitivity threshold (STST) using concentrated saline solutions (0.22-58.4 g/L). Condition-al logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Alcohol and tobacco consumption increased the risk of gastric cancer [OR (95% CI) was 2.27 (1.27-4.04) for alcohol and 2.41 (1.51-3.87) for tobac-co]. A protective effect was observed in frequent con-sumption of fresh vegetable and fruit [OR (95% CI) was 0.92 (0.58-0.98) for fresh vegetable and 0.87 (0.67-0.93) for fruit]. Strong association was found between STST ≥ 5 and gastric cancer [OR = 5.71 (3.18-6.72)]. In-creased STST score was significantly associated with salted food intake and salty taste preference (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A high STST score is strongly associat-ed with gastric cancer risk. STST can be used to evalu-ate an inherited characteristic of salt preference, and it is a simple index to verify the salt intake in clinic.

  17. Epidemiological adaptation of quartz exposure modeling in Swedish aluminum foundries: nested case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Håkan B; Bellander, Tom

    2003-12-01

    In a recent cohort study in aluminum foundries and remelting plants an unexpectedly high risk of lung cancer was found in workers in sand foundries. On the basis of present and historical measurement data, we developed a statistical model for exposure to total dust and crystalline quartz for different jobs and time periods. Cumulative dose estimates of total dust and crystalline quartz were calculated and used in a nested case-control study in the cohort. From the cohort of foundry workers (n = 5016), 46 cases of lung cancer were identified. The final analysis was performed on 31 cases and 233 controls with one year or more of employment. Historical measurement data from the 1960s and onward were collected, totaling 203 total dust and 103 crystalline quartz exposure observations. Regression models, using the determinants of job title, time period, type of foundry, and size of production, were developed for assessing historical total dust and crystalline quartz air concentrations. These estimates were used to calculate individual cumulative exposure in the case-control study. In the multiple linear regression analysis, the determinants explained much of the variations in dust level (r(2) = 0.58). The explained variation in crystalline quartz was much lower (r(2) = 0.13). The regression coefficients for the type of foundry, time period, and size of production were statistically significant for total dust. On the basis of the regression analysis, the final models were used to calculate individual cumulative exposures. The calculated cumulative dust and quartz exposures averaged 33 mg/m(3) * year and 0.42 mg/m(3) * year, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) were not significant, but showed dose-response trends for both dust and crystalline quartz. PMID:14612297

  18. Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Camilla T., E-mail: Camilla.thellenberg@onkologi.umu.se [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE-171 77 (Sweden); Bergh, Anders [Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Melin, Beatrice [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden)

    2011-11-08

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP) for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Umeå (Umeå, Sweden) identified BPH cases (n = 7,901) that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR). Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR), and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17–1.35) ], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47–0.73) ]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening.

  19. Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP) for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Umeå (Umeå, Sweden) identified BPH cases (n = 7,901) that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR). Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR), and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17–1.35) ], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47–0.73) ]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening

  20. A case control study of lung cancer and exposure to chrysotile and amphibole at a slovenian asbestos-cement plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodic Fikfak, M; Kriebel, D; Quinn, M M; Eisen, E A; Wegman, D H

    2007-04-01

    A lung cancer case-control study was conducted in a Slovenian asbestos-cement factory for which unusually good records of asbestos exposures were available. The cohort consisted of all 6714 workers employed at the Salonit Anhovo factory after 31 December 1946 who worked there for at least one day between 1964 and 1994. Fifty-eight histologically confirmed cases of primary lung cancer and 290 controls were selected from the cohort. Working life exposure histories to amphibole and chrysotile forms of asbestos were estimated separately. Airborne asbestos concentrations were low. For example, the arithmetic mean exposure to all forms of asbestos in the highest exposure period (1947-1971) was 1.2 f/cm(3). Chrysotile asbestos made up about 90% of this exposure (mean 1.1 f/cm(3)), whereas amphibole accounted for 10% (0.1 f/cm(3)). Comparing those above and below the 90 percentile of cumulative exposure, the odds ratios for all asbestos, chrysotile and amphibole were 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0, respectively, but confidence intervals were wide. There are only a few asbestos-lung cancer studies with high-quality exposure data and exposures in this low range. Though imprecise, the findings are important to the ongoing debate about asbestos risks. PMID:17351264

  1. Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Melin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Umeå (Umeå, Sweden identified BPH cases (n = 7,901 that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR. Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR, and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17–1.35], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47–0.73]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening.

  2. Case-control study of bladder cancer in New Jersey. I. Occupational exposures in white males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, J B; Stemhagen, A; Mogielnicki, A P; Altman, R; Abe, T; Mason, T J

    1984-05-01

    The occupational bladder cancer risk for New Jersey white males was estimated with the use of both industry-job title-based and exposure-based analyses of data from 658 incident cases and 1,258 general population controls. The overall bladder cancer risk attributable to occupational exposures was estimated as 20-22%. A wide variety of employment categories and exposures contributed to this risk. Odds ratios were significantly high for employment as garage and gas station workers and food counter workers and/or cooks and for exposure to leather, rubber, paint, printing ink, and other organic compounds. Odds ratios for textile mill workers, chemical workers, and metal workers for the a priori high-risk employment category and odds ratios for those exposed to dyes, chlorinated compounds, and rubber showed significant differences between younger and older subjects. Bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposures was not limited to persons with initial exposures before 25 years of age. However, there was significantly decreasing risk for bladder cancer with increasing age at first exposure for chemical workers and metal workers and for the a priori high-risk materials and metals. Drivers and/or deliverymen and miscellaneous laborers had significantly increasing bladder cancer risk with increasing duration of employment.

  3. Occupation and skin cancer: the results of the HELIOS-I multicenter case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafà Lorenzo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most frequent tumour among Caucasian populations worldwide. Among the risk factors associated with this tumour, there are host-related factors and several environmental agents. A greater likelihood of high exposure to physical agents (with the exception of solar radiation and chemical agents depends on the work setting. Our objective is to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in NMSC, with special emphasis on risk factors other than solar radiation and skin type. Methods We analysed 1585 cases (1333 basal cell carcinoma (BCC and 183 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and 1507 controls drawn from the Helios-I multicenter study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using logistic regression mixed models. Results For NMSC as a whole (both histological types, miners and quarrymen, secondary education teachers, and masons registered excess risk, regardless of exposure to solar radiation and skin type (OR 7.04, 95% CI 2.44–20.31; OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05–2.89 and OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04–2.27, respectively. Frequency of BCC proved higher among railway engine drivers and firemen (OR 4.55; 95% CI 0.96–21.57, specialised farmers (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.05–2.59 and salesmen (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.05–2.86, in addition to miners and quarrymen and secondary education teachers (OR 7.96; 95% CI 2.72–23.23 and OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.05–2.94 respectively. The occupations that registered a higher risk of SCC (though not of BCC were those involving direct contact with livestock, construction workers not elsewhere classified (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.12–7.74, stationary engine and related equipment operators not elsewhere classified (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.13–21.04 and masons (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.36–4.78. Conclusion Exposure to hazardous air pollutants, arsenic, ionizing radiations and burns may explain a good part of the associations observed in this study. The Helios study affords an

  4. Case-control study of anthropometric measures and testicular cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eGiannandrea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs is poorly understood. Recent epidemiological findings suggest that TGCT risk is determined very early in life, although the available data are still conflicting. The rapid growth of the testes during puberty may be another period of vulnerability. Body size has received increasing attention as possible risk factor for TC. To clarify the relation of body size and its anthropometric variables to TGCT risk, the authors analyzed data from 272 cases and 382 controls with regard to height (cm, weight (Kg and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Overall, participants in the highest quartile of height were more likely to be diagnosed with TGCTs than participants in the lowest quartile of height, OR 2.22 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.25-3.93; adjusted; ptrend = 0.033. Moreover, histological seminoma subgroup was significantly associated with tallness, very tall men (>182 cm having a seminoma TGCT risk of OR=2.44 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.19-4.97; adjusted; ptrend = 0.011. There was also a significant inverse association of TGCT with increasing BMI (ptrend = 0.001; age-adjusted analysis and this association was equally present in both histological subgroups. These preliminary results indicate that testicular cancer is inversely associated with BMI and positively associated with height, in particular with seminoma subtype. Several studies have reported similar findings on body size. As adult height is largely determined by high-calorie intake in childhood and influenced by hormonal factors at puberty, increased attention to postnatal exposures in this interval may help elucidate the etiology of TGCTs.

  5. Leukaemia and occupation: a New Zealand Cancer Registry-based case-control Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLean, D.; 't Mannetje, A.; Dryson, E.; Walls, C.; McKenzie, F.; Maule, M.; Cheng, S.; Cunningham, C.; Kromhout, H.; Boffetta, P.; Blair, A.; Pearce, N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the association between occupation and leukaemia. METHODS: We interviewed 225 cases (aged 20-75 years) notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2003-04, and 471 controls randomly selected from the Electoral Roll collecting demographic details, information on potentia

  6. Prediagnostic serum selenium in a case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattre, E; Thomassen, Y; Thoresen, S O; Haldorsen, T; Lund-Larsen, P G; Theodorsen, L; Aaseth, J

    1989-03-01

    Sera from 43 persons who developed thyroid cancer on an average 4.8 years after blood sampling were compared with sera from controls. Three controls per case matched for sex, age, place of residence and year of blood sampling, with regard to serum selenium and serum copper. Cases were significantly lower in serum selenium than controls, and the estimated odds ratio of thyroid cancer increased from 1 for levels greater than or equal to 1.65 mumol/l, to 6.1 for levels 1.26-1.64 mumol/l, to 7.7 for levels less than or equal to 1.25 mumol/l. When time from blood sampling to diagnosis of the case was considered, it could be shown that the protective effect of high serum selenium concentrations was restricted to the last (less than 7) years prior to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The serum selenium concentration of cases tended to decrease relative to controls the shorter time was from blood sampling to the diagnosis. There was no difference between cases and controls with regard to serum copper.

  7. [Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in women. (Results of a case control study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutuc, C

    1982-08-01

    Smoking habits of 297 female lung cancer patients (Kreyberg I: 202, Kreyberg II: 95) and 580 controls were analyzed. In addition tar exposures (TE) were calculated. Calculation of TE includes amount of consumptions, duration and the tar yields of all cigarette brands ever smoked. These are significant more smokers among patients (63%) and patients with a K I tumor (80%) compared to the controls (21%); K II: 29%. All patients and patients with a K I tumor had a significant longer smoking career (39.3 years; 39.6 years) and a higher tar exposure (TE = 1767; TE - 1810) compared to the controls (31.9 years, TE = 1146). K II: 37.4 years, TE = 1508. Lung cancer risks (adj. for TE) and population attributable risks (PAR) were: all age groups R = 7.3*, PAR = 54%; less than 40 years R = 1.1, PAR = 3%; 41-50 years R = 4.2*, PAR = 42% ; 51-60 years R = 7.6*, PAR = 62%; 61-70 years R = 7.8*, PAR = 54%; greater than 71 years R = 8.0*, PAR = 55%. Lung cancer risks (adj. for age) in relation to tar exposure and attributable risks (AR) were: TE less than 500: all cases R = 1.5, AT = 34% (KIR = 2.9, K II R = 0.8); TE 501-1000: all cases R = 4.2*, AR = 76% (KIR = 9.9*, K II R - 1.1): TE 1001-2000: all cases R = 12.1*, AR = 92% (KIR = 27.2*, K II R = 2.6**); TE 2001-3000: all cases R = 11.1*, AR = 91% (KIR = 25.2*, K II R = 2.0); TE greater than 3001: all cases R = 13.0*, AR = 92% (KIR = 29.3*, K II R = 3.3). These is a significant increase of risk of cigarette smokers beyond a TE of 501, which could be identified as a sort of critical exposure. There is a pronounced dose response relationship between cigarette smoking in relation to TE and lung cancer risk as concerning K I tumors but not KII tumors. Lung cancer risks in relation to age began smoking: less than 19 years R = 7.8*; 19 years and above R = 6.5*. *P less than 1%, **P less than 5%. PMID:7148206

  8. Glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 genotypes and the risk of gastric cancer: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Shun-Zhang Yu; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2001-01-01

    AIM Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs are involved in the detoxification of many potential carcinogens and appear to play a critical role in the protection from the effects of carcinogens. The contribution of glutathione Stransferases M1 and T1 genotypes to susceptibility to the risk of gastric cancer and their interaction with cigarette smoking are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and gastric cancer. METHODS A population based case - control study was carried out in a high-risk area, Changle County, Fujian Province, China. The epidemiological data were collected by a standard questionnaire and blood samples were obtained from 95 incidence gastric cancer cases and 94 healthy controls. A polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence or absence of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in genomic DNA. Logistic regression model was employed in the data analysis. RESULTS An increase in risk for gastric cancer was found among carriers of GSTM1 null genotype. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 2.63 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.17-5.88], after controlling for age,gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and fish sauce intake. The frequency of GSTT1 null genotype in cancer cases (43.16%) was not significantly different from that in controls (50.00%). However, the risk for gastric cancer in those with GSTM1 null and GSTT1 nonnull genotype was significantly higher than in those with both GSTM1 and GSTT1 non-null genotype (OR = 2.77,95% Cl 1.15- 6.77). Compared with those subjects who never smoked and had normal GSTM1 genotype, Ors were 1.60 (95% CI: 0.62- 4.19) for never smokers with GSTM1 null type, 2.33 (95% CI 0.88- 6.28) for smokers with normal GSTM1, and 8.06 (95% CI 2.83- 23.67) for smokers with GSTM1 null type. CONCLUSIONS GSTM1 gene polymorphisms may be associated with genetic susceptibility of stomach cancer and may modulate tobacco

  9. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Xu; Yu-Jing Fang; Yu-Ming Chen; Min-Shan Lu; Zhi-Zhong Pan; Bo Yan; Xiao Zhong; Cai-Xia Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate log...

  10. Statin use and the risk of colorectal cancer:A population-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Hsuan Cheng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Shu-Chen Ho; Shang-Shyue Tsai; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Toinvestigatewhethertheuseo.. Statinsisassoci-o investigate wwhether the use ofstatins is associated wwith colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in Taiwwan. Data wwere retrospectively collected f..rom the Taiwwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Cases consisted of.. All patients wwho were aged 50 years and older and had a first-time diagnosis of.. Colorectal cancer betwween the period 2005 and 2008. The controls matched to cases by age, sex, and index date. Adjusted odds ratios (Ors) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We examined 1156 colorectal cancer cases and 4624 controls. The unadjusted Ors .or any statin prescription wwas 1.10 (95% CI=0.94-1.30)andthead- andthead-=1.330) and the adjusted OR 1.09 (95% CI=0.91-1.30).Whenstatin Whenstatin=Whenstatin0.91-1.330). When statin use categorized by cumulative dose, the adjusted Ors wwere 0.99 (95% CI=0.78-1.27).orthegroupwith ith=ith0.778-1.277) or the group wwith cumulative statin use beloww 105 def..ined daily doses (DDDs); 1.077 (95% CI=0.78-1.49) .orthegroupwith ith=ith0.778-or the group cumulative statin use betwween 106 and 298.66 DDDs; and 1.330 (95% CI=0.96-1.75).orthegroupwithcu- ithcu-=1.775) or the group wwith cumulative statin use of. 298.66 DDDs or more compared with nonusers. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide support for a protective effect of statins against colorectal cancer.

  11. Childhood cancer and residential radon exposure - results of a population-based case-control study in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaletsch, U.; Kaatsch, P.; Meinert, R.; Schuez, J.; Michaelis, J. [Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55101 Mainz (Germany); Czarwinski, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Fachbereich ST, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    A population-based case-control study on risk factors for childhood malignancies was used to investigate a previously reported association between elevated indoor radon concentrations and childhood cancer, with special regard to leukaemia. The patients were all children suffering from leukaemia and common solid tumours (nephroblastoma, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, central nervous system (CNS) tumours) diagnosed between July 1988 and June 1993 in Lower Saxony (Germany) and aged less than 15 years. Two population-based control groups were matched by age and gender to the leukaemia patients. Long-term (1 year) radon measurements were performed in those homes where the children had been living for at least 1 year, with particular attention being paid to those rooms where they had stayed most of the time. Due to the sequential study design, radon measurements in these rooms could only be done for 36% (82 leukaemias, 82 solid tumours and 209 controls) of the 1038 families initially contacted. Overall mean indoor radon concentrations (27 Bq m{sup -3}) were low compared with the measured levels in other studies. Using a prespecified cutpoint of 70 Bq m{sup -3}, no association with indoor radon concentrations was seen for the leukaemias (odds ratio (OR): 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.32-5.33); however, the risk estimates were elevated for the solid tumours (OR: 2.61; 95% CI: 0.96-7.13), mainly based on 6 CNS tumours. We did not find any evidence for an association between indoor radon and childhood leukaemia, which is in line with a recently published American case-control study. There is little support for an association with CNS tumours in the literature. (orig.)

  12. Drugs with potential chemopreventive properties in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer--a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Louise

    2015-07-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because the disease in the majority of patients is diagnosed at an advanced stage as a result of nonspecific symptoms and lack of efficient screening methods. Because of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and the challenge of early detection of the disease, identification of protective factors is important. It has been suggested that some commonly used drugs may have a protective effect against cancer, including ovarian cancer; however, the literature on chemopreventive measures for ovarian cancer is sparse and the results are inconclusive. Most previous studies have substantial methodological constraints, including limited study size and self-reporting of drug use, which introduces potential recall bias and misclassification. This PhD thesis includes a nationwide case-control study to evaluate associations between use of drugs with potential chemopreventive properties and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The study is nested in the entire Danish female population using data from the following nationwide registries: the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Prescription Registry, the Danish National Patient Register, and registries in Statistics Denmark on fertility, education, and income. Information from the included registries is linked by use of the unique personal identification number assigned to all Danish citizens. The cases were all women in Denmark with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during 2000-2009 (Paper 1) and 2000-2011 (Papers 2 and 3), identified in the Cancer Registry. Age-matched female population controls were randomly selected from the Civil Registration System by risk-set sampling. We required that cases and controls have no history of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) and that controls not previously have undergone bilateral oophorectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy. The total study population comprised 3741 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 50,576 controls in

  13. Duration of Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer in a Case-Control Study in the Midwest and the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS Cohort

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    Sarah A Henry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Studies have shown a relationship between history of diabetes and the risk of pancreatic cancer; however, the temporal relation between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is not clearly established. Objectives Diabetes and diabetes duration were examined in relation to pancreatic cancer in a population-based case-control study and prospective cohort. Methods Case-control study: pancreatic cancer cases (n=200 from the Midwest were frequency matched by age and sex to population controls (n=673. Logistic regression yielded odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Iowa Women’s Health Study (IWHS cohort: 292 incident pancreatic cancer cases occurred between 1986-2008 among 36,084 post-menopausal, initially cancer-free women. Diabetes status and diagnosis age were ascertained at baseline and follow-ups. Proportional hazards regression yielded hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI for pancreatic cancer in relation to baseline diabetes. Time-dependent analyses accounted for diabetes diagnosed after baseline. A nested-case control analysis assessed diabetes duration as a risk factor. Results In the case-control study, compared to participants without diabetes, the multivariate ORs (95% CI for pancreatic cancer were 2.35 (1.24-4.47 for those with diabetes and 4.00 (0.94-16.9, 2.79 (0.97-8.04, and 2.40 (0.97-5.98 for diabetes durations of 2-5 years, 5.1-10 years, and more than 10 years, respectively. In IWHS, compared to no diabetes, multivariate-adjusted HRs for pancreatic cancer were 1.86 (1.23-2.83 for baseline diabetes and 1.94 (1.40-2.69 adding diabetes during follow-up. In an IWHS nested case-control analysis, ORs were 1.70 (0.78- 3.67, 2.62 (1.48-4.65, and 2.10 (1.36-3.24 for diabetes durations of 2-5 years, 5.1-10 years and more than 10 years, respectively, versus no diabetes. Conclusions Diabetes is associated with pancreatic cancer risk and this is similar across different duration categories.

  14. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor expression in non-cancerous bronchial epithelia is associated with lung cancer: a case-control study

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    Egloff Ann Marie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal bronchial tissue expression of GRPR, which encodes the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, has been previously reported by us to be associated with lung cancer risk in 78 subjects, especially in females. We sought to define the contribution of GRPR expression in bronchial epithelia to lung cancer risk in a larger case-control study where adjustments could be made for tobacco exposure and sex. Methods We evaluated GRPR mRNA levels in histologically normal bronchial epithelial cells from 224 lung cancer patients and 107 surgical cancer-free controls. Associations with lung cancer were tested using logistic regression models. Results Bronchial GRPR expression was significantly associated with lung cancer (OR = 4.76; 95% CI = 2.32-9.77 in a multivariable logistic regression (MLR model adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and pulmonary function. MLR analysis stratified by smoking status indicated that ORs were higher in never and former smokers (OR = 7.74; 95% CI = 2.96-20.25 compared to active smokers (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 0.46-6.33. GRPR expression did not differ by subject sex, and lung cancer risk associated with GRPR expression was not modified by sex. Conclusions GRPR expression in non-cancerous bronchial epithelium was significantly associated with the presence of lung cancer in never and former smokers. The association in never and former smokers was found in males and females. Association with lung cancer did not differ by sex in any smoking group.

  15. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs

  16. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-ming Guo; Xue-ning Duan; Shu-de Cui; Fu-guo Tian; Xu-chen Cao; Cui-zhi Geng; Zhi-min Fan; Xiang Wang; Shu Wang; Hong-chuan Jiang; Jian-guo Zhang; Feng Jin; Jin-hai Tang; Hong Liang; Zhen-lin Yang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family...

  17. Lung Cancer Risk from Occupational and Environmental Radon and Role of Smoking in Two Czech Nested Case-Control Studies

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    Ladislav Tomasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from combined exposure to radon and smoking. Methodologically, it is based on case-control studies nested within two Czech cohort studies of nearly 11,000 miners followed-up for mortality in 1952–2010 and nearly 12,000 inhabitants exposed to high levels of radon in homes, with mortality follow-up in 1960–2010. In addition to recorded radon exposure, these studies use information on smoking collected from the subjects or their relatives. A total of 1,029 and 370 cases with smoking information have been observed in the occupational and environmental (residential studies, respectively. Three or four control subjects have been individually matched to cases according to sex, year of birth, and age. The combined effect from radon and smoking is analyzed in terms of geometric mixture models of which the additive and multiplicative models are special cases. The resulting models are relatively close to the additive interaction (mixing parameter 0.2 and 0.3 in the occupational and residential studies, respectively. The impact of the resulting model in the residential radon study is illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in hypothetical populations of smokers and non-smokers. In comparison to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk from the best geometric mixture model is considerably higher, particularly in the non-smoking population.

  18. Some further results on incorporating risk factor information in assessing the dependence between paired failure times arising from case-control family studies: an application to prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li; Prentice, Ross L; Stanford, Janet L

    2002-03-30

    In a typical case-control family study, detailed risk factor information is often collected on cases and controls, but not on their relatives for reasons of cost and logistical difficulty in locating the relatives. The impact of missing risk factor information for relatives on estimation of the strength of dependence between the disease risk of pairs of relatives is largely unknown. In this paper, we extend our earlier work on estimating the dependence of ages at onset between paired relatives from case-control family data to include covariates on cases and controls, and possibly relatives. Using population-based case-control families as our basic data structure, we study the effect of missing covariates for relatives and/or cases and controls on the bias of certain dependence parameter estimators via a simulation study. Finally we illustrate various analyses using a case-control family study of early onset prostate cancer. PMID:11870822

  19. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

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    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias stratified by beliefs about heredity. Results Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3 and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0. Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6 and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed

  20. Lung cancer risk, exposure to radon and tobacco consumption in a nested case-control study of French uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: A nested case-control study was conducted among the French uranium miners cohort in order to assess the effect of protract ed radon exposure on lung cancer risk taking into account tobacco consumption. Material and methods: One hundred uranium miners employed by the French company CEA-COGEMA and who died of a lung cancer between 1980 and 1994 were identified as cases among the cohort. For each case, five controls were randomly matched on birth period and attained age at the time of death of the corresponding case. Cumulated radon exposure during employment was reconstructed for each of these 100 cases and 500 controls. Smoking habits were retrospectively determined from three complementary sources: 1) medical files, 2) forms filled in by occupational physicians and 3) questionnaires applied in face-to-face interviews, phone calls or mailings. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A multiplicative model was fitted to assess the joint effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk. Results: Smoking status was established for 62 cases and 320 controls and two categories ('ever smokers' vs. 'never smokers') were defined. Ninety percent of the cases and 73% of the controls were classified as 'ever smokers'. Mean five-year lagged cumulated radon exposures were 82.0 and 47.6 working level months (WLM) for the cases and the controls, respectively. The excess relative risk per WLM (ERR/WLM) was 1.1% with a 95%-confidence interval (CI) of 0.2-2.0%. When adjusting for smoking, radon exposure effect was little modified (ERR/WLM = 0.8%, 95% -CI = 0.1- 2.8%). The effect of smoking on lung cancer risk was comparable to results reported in previous miners cohorts (OR = 3.04, 95% -CI = 1.20-7.70). Discussion: A consequent effort was carried out to collect smoking status from three sources for the miners included in this nested case-control study. This analysis shows that, when adjusting on

  1. Reduced Risk of Human Lung Cancer by Selective Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2 Blockade: Results of a Case Control Study

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    Randall E. Harris, Joanne Beebe-Donk, Galal A. Alshafie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a case control study of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 blocking agents and lung cancer. A total of 492 newly diagnosed lung cancer cases were ascertained during January 1, 2002 to September 30, 2004, at The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio. All cases were confirmed by examination of the pathology report. Healthy population controls without cancer were ascertained during the same time period. Controls were frequency matched at a rate of 2:1 to the cases by age, gender, and county of residence. We collected information on type, frequency, and duration of use of selective COX-2 inhibitors (primarily celecoxib or rofecoxib and nonselective NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and aspirin. Estimates of odds ratios (OR were obtained with adjustment for cigarette smoking, age and other potential confounders using logistic regression analysis. Odds Ratios for selective COX-2 inhibitors were adjusted for past use of other NSAIDs. Use of any selective COX-2 inhibitor for more than one year produced a significant (60% reduction in the risk of lung cancer (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.19-0.81. Observed risk reductions were consistent for men (OR=0.26, 95% CI=0.10-0.62 and women (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.24-1.13 and for individual COX-2 inhibitors (OR=0.28, 95% CI=-0.12-0.67, for celecoxib and OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.19-1.56, for rofecoxib. Intake of ibuprofen or aspirin also produced significant risk reductions (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.23-0.73 and OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.34-0.82, respectively, whereas acetaminophen, an analgesic with negligible COX-2 activity, had no effect on the risk (OR=1.36, 95% CI=0.53-3.37. This investigation demonstrates for the first time that selective COX-2 blocking agents have strong potential for the chemoprevention of human lung cancer.

  2. EFFECT OF NEBULIZED COLISTIN ON THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT: A PROSPECTIVE PILOT CASE-CONTROL STUDY FROM A SINGLE CANCER CENTER

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    Iyad M Ghonimat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized colistin (NC is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC, while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult ICU in King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC. In the case group, 22(88% patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit. The median number of changes (range per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2(1-3, 2(1-6, and 1(1-2, respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  3. A case control study on risk factors of breast cancer among women attending MNJ Cancer Hospital, Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, B. Nirmala; BabuRao, B.; K., Anil kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer has become one of the ten leading causes of death in India. Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed malignancy in India, it ranks second to cervical cancer. Globally, breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer among women, with an estimated 1.67 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (25% of all cancers) and ranks second overall (12% of all cancers). It is now the most common cancer both in developed (794,000 cases) and developing regions (883,000 cases).Objectives: 1...

  4. Genetic analysis of the vitamin D receptor gene in two epithelial cancers: melanoma and breast cancer case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin D serum levels have been found to be related to sun exposure and diet, together with cell differentiation, growth control and consequently, cancer risk. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotypes may influence cancer risk; however, no epidemiological studies in sporadic breast cancer (BC) or malignant melanoma (MM) have been performed in a southern European population. In this study, the VDR gene has been evaluated in two epithelial cancers BC and MM. We have conducted an analysis in 549 consecutive and non-related sporadic BC cases and 556 controls, all from the Spanish population, and 283 MM cases and 245 controls. Genotyping analyses were carried out on four putatively functional SNPs within the VDR gene. An association with the minor allele A of the non-synonymous SNP rs2228570 (rs10735810, FokI, Met1Thr) was observed for BC, with an estimated odds ratio (OR) of 1.26 (95% CI = 1.02–1.57; p = 0.036). The synonymous variant rs731236 (TaqI) appeared to be associated with protection from BC (OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.64–0.99; p = 0.047). No statistically significant associations with MM were observed for any SNP. Nevertheless, sub-group analyses revealed an association between rs2228570 (FokI) and absence of childhood sunburns (OR = 0.65, p = 0.003), between the 3'utr SNP rs739837 (BglI) and fair skin (OR = 1.31, p = 0.048), and between the promoter SNP rs4516035 and the more aggressive tumour location in head-neck and trunk (OR = 1.54, p = 0.020). In summary, we observed associations between SNPs in the VDR gene and BC risk, and a comprehensive analysis using clinical and tumour characteristics as outcome variables has revealed potential associations with MM. These associations required confirmation in independent studies

  5. Risk of lung cancer associated with six types of chlorinated solvents: results from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods: Two case-control studies of occupation and lung cancer were conducted in Montreal, including 2,016 cases and 2,001 population controls. Occupational exposure to a host of agents was evaluated using a combination of subject-reported job history and expert assessment. We e...

  6. The association between dietary lignans, phytoestrogen-rich foods, and fiber intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a German case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Vrieling, A.; Heinz, J.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Linseisen, J.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are structurally similar to estrogens and may affect breast cancer risk by mimicking estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In Western societies, whole grains and possibly soy foods are rich sources of phytoestrogens. A population-based case-control study in German postmenopausal women

  7. Lung cancer risk among cooks when accounting for tobacco smoking : a pooled analysis of case-control studies from Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigert, Carolina; Gustavsson, Per; Straif, Kurt; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Schüz, Joachim; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Pesatori, Angela C; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Siemiatycki, Jack; Pintos, Javier; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Simonato, Lorenzo; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Tardón, Adonina; Zaridze, David; Field, John; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Olsson, Ann C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among cooks, while controlling for smoking habits. METHODS: We used data from the SYNERGY project including pooled information on lifetime work histories and smoking habits from 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and C

  8. Pesticide exposure and lymphohaematopoietic cancers: a case-control study in an agricultural region (Larissa, Thessaly, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadoulis Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causality of lymphohaematopoietic cancers (LHC is multifactorial and studies investigating the association between chemical exposure and LHC have produced variable results. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between exposure to pesticides and LHC in an agricultural region of Greece. Methods A structured questionnaire was employed in a hospital-based case control study to gather information on demographics, occupation, exposure to pesticides, agricultural practices, family and medical history and smoking. To control for confounders, backward conditional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used. To assess the dose-response relationship between exposure and disease, the chi-square test for trend was used. Results Three hundred and fifty-four (354 histologically confirmed LHC cases diagnosed from 2004 to 2006 and 455 sex- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Pesticide exposure was associated with total LHC cases (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.04, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.00-3.51 and leukaemia (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.09-4.20. A dose-response pattern was observed for total LHC cases (P = 0.004, MDS (P = 0.024 and leukaemia (P = 0.002. Pesticide exposure was independently associated with total LHC cases (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.00 - 2.00 and leukaemia (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.02-4.12 after controlling for age, smoking and family history (cancers, LHC and immunological disorders. Smoking during application of pesticides was strongly associated with total LHC cases (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.81-5.98, MDS (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.18-12.11, leukaemia (OR 10.15, 95% CI 2.15-65.69 and lymphoma (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.02-8.00. This association was even stronger for total LHC cases (OR 18.18, 95% CI 2.38-381.17 when eating simultaneously with pesticide application. Conclusions Lymphohaematopoietic cancers were associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. Smoking and eating

  9. An Italian population-based case-control study on the association between farming and cancer: Are pesticides a plausible risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Christian; Carcagnì, Antonella; Sacco, Sara; Palin, Lucio Antonio; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano; Guido, Davide

    2016-05-01

    This population-based case-control study investigated the association between farming (a proxy for pesticide exposure) and cancer in the Vercelli suburban area (northwest Italy). The residents, aged 25 to 79 years, in the above-mentioned area during the period 2002-2009 were considered. Cases were all the first hospital admissions for cancer. Controls were all the subjects not included in the cases and not excluded from the study. Cases and controls were classified according to whether they occupationally resulted farmers or nonfarmers during the period 1965-2009. Cancer odds ratios (ORs) between farmers and nonfarmers were calculated with generalized linear mixed models adjusted by gender and age. Farmers showed higher odds for all cancers (OR=1.459; p < .001), nonmelanoma skin cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. The results suggest a plausible association between pesticide exposure and cancer occurrence. PMID:25942634

  10. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and risk of renal cell cancer: a population-based case-control study

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    Siddiqui Tariq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney and renal pelvis cancers account for 4% of all new cancer cases in the United States, among which 85% are renal cell carcinomas (RCC. While cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for RCC, little is known about the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to RCC incidence. This study assesses the role of smoking and ETS on RCC incidence using a population-based case-control design in Florida and Georgia. Methods Incident cases (n = 335 were identified from hospital records and the Florida cancer registry, and population controls (n = 337 frequency-matched by age (+/- 5 years, gender, and race were identified through random-digit dialing. In-person interviews assessed smoking history and lifetime exposure to ETS at home, work, and public spaces. Home ETS was measured in both years and hours of exposure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression, controlled for age, gender, race, and BMI. Results Cases were more likely to have smoked 20 or more pack-years, compared with never-smokers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.93 – 1.95. A protective effect was found for smoking cessation, beginning with 11–20 years of cessation (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18–0.85 and ending with 51 or more years of cessation (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.39 in comparison with those having quit for 1–10 years. Among never-smokers, cases were more likely to report home ETS exposure of greater than 20 years, compared with those never exposed to home ETS (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.14–4.18. Home ETS associations were comparable when measured in lifetime hours of exposure, with cases more likely to report 30,000 or more hours of home ETS exposure (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20–4.69. Highest quartiles of combined home/work ETS exposure among never-smokers, especially with public ETS exposure, increased RCC risk by 2 to 4 times. Conclusion These findings confirm known associations between smoking and RCC and establish a

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis and invasive cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.S.; Bosetti, C; Munoz, N.; Herrero, R; Bosch, F.X.; Eluf-Neto, J; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ; Franceschi, S; Peeling, RW

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection is consistently associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) after accounting for the strong effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a case-control study of 1,238 cases of ICC and 1,100 control women from 7 countr

  12. Low-Grade Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Risk of Invasive Post-Menopausal Breast Cancer - A Nested Case-Control Study from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana A Dias

    Full Text Available Although cancer promotes inflammation, the role of inflammation in tumor-genesis is less well established. The aim was to examine if low-grade inflammation is related to post-menopausal breast cancer risk, and if obesity modifies this association.In the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, a nested case-control study was defined among 8,513 women free of cancer and aged 55-73 years at baseline (1991-96; 459 were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during follow-up (until December 31st, 2010. In laboratory analyses of blood from 446 cases, and 885 controls (matched on age and date of blood sampling we examined systemic inflammation markers: oxidized (ox-LDL, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, white blood cells, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for breast cancer risk was calculated using multivariable conditional logistic regression.Inverse associations with breast cancer were seen in fully-adjusted models, for 2nd and 3rd tertiles of ox-LDL, OR (95% CI: 0.65 (0.47-0.90, 0.63 (0.45-0.89 respectively, p-trend = 0.01; and for the 3rd tertile of TNF-α, 0.65 (0.43-0.99, p-trend = 0.04. In contrast, those in the highest IL-1β category had higher risk, 1.71 (1.05-2.79, p-trend = 0.01. Obesity did not modify associations between inflammation biomarkers and breast cancer.Our study does not suggest that low-grade inflammation increase the risk of post-menopausal breast cancer.

  13. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk in relation to joint estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a case-control study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nishino, Yoshikazu; Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fukamachi, Kayoko; Sato, Ikuro; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    An association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk has been hypothesized. However, results from previous studies have been inconsistent. This case-control study investigated the association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk in terms of estrogen-receptor/progesterone-receptor (ER/PgR) status. From among female patients aged 30 years and over admitted to a single hospital in Japan between 1997 and 2011, 1,263 breast cancer cases (672 ER+/PgR+, 158 ER+/PgR-, 22 ER-/PgR+, 308 ...

  14. Impact of Circulating Vitamin D Binding Protein Levels on the Association Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been associated with elevated pancreatic cancer risk. As this is contrary to an expected inverse association between vitamin D status and cancer, we examined whether vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary carrier of vitamin D compounds in circulation, plays a role in this relationship. Prediagnostic serum DBP and 25(OH)D were studied in relation to risk of pancreatic cancer in a nested case-control study of 234 pancre...

  15. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, D.T.; Samanic, C.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Schleiff, P.L.; Travis, W.D.; Ziegler, R.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure-

  16. Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Kamangar, Farin; Fahimi, Saman; Shakeri, Ramin; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Vahedi, Homayoon; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Saidi, Farrokh; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iran, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of o...

  17. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMIbreast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed.

  18. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B;

    2010-01-01

    Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the...... Breast Cancer Association Consortium....

  19. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  20. Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: A case-control study from a Chinese center

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chao-Qun; Feng, Jue-Ping; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is prone to developing peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). This case-control study was to compare the efficacy and safety of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) versus CRS plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Chinese patients with CRC PC. Methods The 62 consecutive PC patients were treated with CRS (Control group, n = 29) or CRS + HIPEC (Study group, n = 33). The primary end point was overall survival (OS), the secondary end points were per...

  1. An Italian population-based case-control study on the association between farming and cancer: Are pesticides a plausible risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Christian; Carcagnì, Antonella; Sacco, Sara; Palin, Lucio Antonio; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano; Guido, Davide

    2016-05-01

    This population-based case-control study investigated the association between farming (a proxy for pesticide exposure) and cancer in the Vercelli suburban area (northwest Italy). The residents, aged 25 to 79 years, in the above-mentioned area during the period 2002-2009 were considered. Cases were all the first hospital admissions for cancer. Controls were all the subjects not included in the cases and not excluded from the study. Cases and controls were classified according to whether they occupationally resulted farmers or nonfarmers during the period 1965-2009. Cancer odds ratios (ORs) between farmers and nonfarmers were calculated with generalized linear mixed models adjusted by gender and age. Farmers showed higher odds for all cancers (OR=1.459; p plausible association between pesticide exposure and cancer occurrence.

  2. Statins Attenuate Helicobacter pylori CagA Translocation and Reduce Incidence of Gastric Cancer: In Vitro and Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Jung; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Yu-An; Feng, Chun-Lung; Chen, Chih-Jung; Kao, Min-Chuan; Lai, Chih-Ho; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The correlation of Helicobacter pylori and the etiology of gastric cancer was substantially certain. Cholesterol-rich microdomains (also called lipid rafts), which provide platforms for signaling, are associated with H. pylori-induced pathogenesis leading to gastric cancer. Patients who have been prescribed statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, have exhibited a reduced risk of several types of cancer. However, no studies have addressed the effect of statins on H. pylori-associated gastric cancer from the antineoplastic perspective. In this study, we showed that treatment of gastric epithelial cells with simvastatin reduced the level of cellular cholesterol and led to attenuation of translocation and phosphorylation of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), which is recognized as a major determinant of gastric cancer development. Additionally, a nationwide case-control study based on data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was conducted. A population-based case-control study revealed that patients who used simvastatin exhibited a significantly reduced risk of gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.83). In patients exhibiting H. pylori infection who were prescribed simvastatin, the adjusted OR for gastric cancer was 0.25 (95% CI = 0.12-0.50). Our results combined an in vitro study with a nationwide population analysis reveal that statin use might be a feasible approach to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric cancer.

  3. Statins Attenuate Helicobacter pylori CagA Translocation and Reduce Incidence of Gastric Cancer: In Vitro and Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung Lin

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The correlation of Helicobacter pylori and the etiology of gastric cancer was substantially certain. Cholesterol-rich microdomains (also called lipid rafts, which provide platforms for signaling, are associated with H. pylori-induced pathogenesis leading to gastric cancer. Patients who have been prescribed statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, have exhibited a reduced risk of several types of cancer. However, no studies have addressed the effect of statins on H. pylori-associated gastric cancer from the antineoplastic perspective. In this study, we showed that treatment of gastric epithelial cells with simvastatin reduced the level of cellular cholesterol and led to attenuation of translocation and phosphorylation of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA, which is recognized as a major determinant of gastric cancer development. Additionally, a nationwide case-control study based on data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD was conducted. A population-based case-control study revealed that patients who used simvastatin exhibited a significantly reduced risk of gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.70-0.83. In patients exhibiting H. pylori infection who were prescribed simvastatin, the adjusted OR for gastric cancer was 0.25 (95% CI = 0.12-0.50. Our results combined an in vitro study with a nationwide population analysis reveal that statin use might be a feasible approach to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric cancer.

  4. The Use of Antihypertensive Medication and the Risk of Breast Cancer in a Case-Control Study in a Spanish Population: The MCC-Spain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Palazuelos, Camilo; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Lope, Virginia; Tusquets, Ignasi; Alonso, M. Henar; Moreno, Victor; Amiano, Pilar; Molina de la Torre, Antonio José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tardon, Adonina; Camacho, Antonio; Peiro-Perez, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Muñoz, Montse; Michelena-Echeveste, Maria Jesus; Ortega Valin, Luis; Guevara, Marcela; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; Llorca, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The evidence on the relationship between breast cancer and different types of antihypertensive drugs taken for at least 5 years is limited and inconsistent. Furthermore, the debate has recently been fueled again with new data reporting an increased risk of breast cancer among women with a long history of use of antihypertensive drugs compared with nonusers. Methods In this case-control study, we report the antihypertensive drugs–breast cancer relationship in 1,736 breast cancer cases and 1,895 healthy controls; results are reported stratifying by the women’s characteristics (i.e., menopausal status or body mass index category) tumor characteristics and length of use of antihypertensive drugs. Results The relationship among breast cancer and use of calcium channel blockers (CCB) for 5 or more years had odds ratio (OR) = 1.77 (95% CI, 0.99 to 3.17). Stratifying by BMI, the OR increased significantly in the group with BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.54, 95% CI, 1.24 to 5.22). CCBs were even more strongly associated with more aggressive tumors, (OR for invasive tumors = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.53; OR for non ductal cancers = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.73 to 9.05; OR for Erbb2+ cancer = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.20 to 7.32). On the other hand, premenopausal women were the only group in which angiotensin II receptor blockers may be associated with breast cancer (OR = 4.27, 95% CI = 1.32 to 13.84) but this could not be identified with any type or stage. Use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and diuretics were not associated with risk. Conclusions In this large population-based study we found that long term use of calcium channel blockers is associated with some subtypes of breast cancer (and with breast cancer in overweight women). PMID:27508297

  5. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts and epithelial ovarian cancer: a nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26376083

  6. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hystad Perry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2 and a chemical transport model (for O3. The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51, while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38 and O3 (R2 = 0.56. Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6, 17.7 ppb (4.1, and 26.4 ppb (3.4 respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years. Approximately 50

  7. Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer : a case-control study from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, Martine M.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Aben, Katja K. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Kampman, Ellen; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye use and bladd

  8. Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.M.; Gago-Dominguez, M.; Aben, K.K.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kampman, E.; Vermeulen, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye u

  9. Searching for early breast cancer biomarkers by serum protein profiling of pre-diagnostic serum; a nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum protein profiles have been investigated frequently to discover early biomarkers for breast cancer. So far, these studies used biological samples collected at or after diagnosis. This may limit these studies' value in the search for cancer biomarkers because of the often advanced tumor stage, and consequently risk of reverse causality. We present for the first time pre-diagnostic serum protein profiles in relation to breast cancer, using the Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition) cohort. In a nested case-control design we compared 68 women diagnosed with breast cancer within three years after enrollment, with 68 matched controls for differences in serum protein profiles. All samples were analyzed with SELDI-TOF MS (surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry). In a subset of 20 case-control pairs, the serum proteome was identified and relatively quantified using isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) and online two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS (2D-nanoLC-MS/MS). Two SELDI-TOF MS peaks with m/z 3323 and 8939, which probably represent doubly charged apolipoprotein C-I and C3a des-arginine anaphylatoxin (C3adesArg), were higher in pre-diagnostic breast cancer serum (p = 0.02 and p = 0.06, respectively). With 2D-nanoLC-MS/MS, afamin, apolipoprotein E and isoform 1 of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4) were found to be higher in pre-diagnostic breast cancer (p < 0.05), while alpha-2-macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin were lower (p < 0.05). C3adesArg and ITIH4 have previously been related to the presence of symptomatic and/or mammographically detectable breast cancer. We show that serum protein profiles are already altered up to three years before breast cancer detection

  10. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B;

    2010-01-01

    Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in th...

  11. Sun exposure may increase risk of prostate cancer in the high UV environment of New South Wales, Australia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini; Smith, David P; Egger, Sam; Hughes, Ann Maree; Kaldor, John M; Clements, Mark; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2012-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight may influence risk of prostate cancer. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we examined the relationship between sun exposure at 30 and 50 years of age and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study combining the NSW prostate cancer care and outcome study (cases) and the NSW non-Hodgkin's lymphoma study (controls). Prostate cancer risk increased with increasing estimated sun exposure (adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartiles of average weekly sun exposure in the warmer months 2.07 95% CI: 1.36-3.15) and this increase was most evident with weekend sun exposure (adjusted OR=5.55, 95% CI: 2.94-10.48). High sun sensitivity was also positively associated with risk for prostate cancer (adjusted OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.09-2.44). The apparent effects of weekly sun exposure did not vary by disease aggressiveness. Our results suggest that increasing sun exposure in mid-adult years increases prostate cancer risk in a high ambient solar UV environment. Given that previous studies, conducted mainly in low solar UV environments, have generally found evidence of a negative association, our findings suggest there may be a U-shaped relationship between solar UV exposure and prostate cancer. Further studies are needed to test the hypothesis that high solar UV exposure is a risk factor for prostate cancer and to explore possible mechanisms for such an association. PMID:22173996

  12. Individual Differences in Arsenic Metabolism and Lung Cancer in a Case-Control Study in Cordoba, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan, Yan; Kalman, Dave; Rey, Omar A.; Skibola, Christine F.; Dauphine, Dave; Basu, Anamika; Porter, Kristin E.; Hubbard, Alan; Bates, Michael N.; Smith, Martyn T.; Smith, Allan H.

    2010-01-01

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although in most people this process is not complete. Previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary MMA (%MMA) and increased risks of several arsenic-related diseases, although none of these reported on lung cancer. In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were assessed in 45 lung cancer cases and 75 controls from arsenic-exposed areas in Cordoba, ...

  13. Effects of lifestyle and single nucleotide polymorphisms on breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoo, Taeko; Taira, Naruto; Nishiyama,Keiko; Nogami, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Motoki,Takayuki; Shien, Tadahiko; Matsuoka, Junji; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Ishihara, Setsuko; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Kensuke; Ishibe, Youichi; Ogasawara, Yutaka; Komoike, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle factors, including food and nutrition, physical activity, body composition and reproductive factors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk, but few studies of these factors have been performed in the Japanese population. Thus, the goals of this study were to validate the association between reported SNPs and breast cancer risk in the Japanese population and to evaluate the effects of SNP genotypes and lifestyle factors on breas...

  14. Elevated bladder cancer risk due to colorants--a statewide case-control study in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Heitmann, Peter; Gieseler, Frank; Hodzic, Jasmin; Masche, Nicolas; Bolt, Hermann M; Geller, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Occupational exposure to aromatic amines is a known bladder cancer risk factor, whereas the impact of exposure to azo dyes, which may release aromatic amines in humans, is at present controversial. Therefore, the impact of occupational exposures to colorants was investigated in 156 bladder cancer cases and 336 controls in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. All bladder cancer cases and controls (diagnosed with prostate cancer) requested after-care treatment. The subjects were investigated using a questionnaire for all occupations ever performed for more than 6 mo and for exposures to several possible occupational and nonoccupational bladder carcinogens. The relative bladder cancer risk was adjusted for age and smoking. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for bladder cancer was elevated in 7 painters (OR 1.98, 95% CI 0.64-6.11), 4 hairdressers (OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.85-28.39), and 16 cases who reported a wood processing occupation (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.58-2.41). Ten of these 16 cases reported chronic exposure to colorants (OR 1.84, 95% CI 0.68-4.95). The results of this epidemiological study confirm the hypothesis that individuals exposed to colorants show an elevated bladder cancer risk.

  15. A hospital based case control study of female breast cancer risk factors in a Sub-Saharan African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamour Gueye

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In this study, reproductive factors as early menarche or menopausal status were not associative to the risk of breast cancer and the early age at diagnosis and the positive history of breast cancer suggest a genetic pattern of this disease in Senegalese woman. But this fact is difficult to confirm for financial reasons. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2328-2332

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Koichi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Methods We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133 and A1298C (rs1801131 polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P Conclusions The C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Although the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk, a significant interaction with drinking was observed. Future studies incorporating data on folate intake may undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the MTHFR polymorphisms in lung cancer development.

  17. Risk factors for endometrial cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Yakir; Rosen, Barry; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Lynch, Henry T; Moller, Pal; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Karlan, Beth; Eng, Charis; Gilchrist, Dawna; Neuhausen, Susan L; Eisen, Andrea; Friedman, Eitan; Euhus, David; Ping, Sun; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    BRCA mutation carriers may use tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention or treatment. Hormone replacement therapy is often prescribed after surgical menopause and oral contraceptives are recommended for ovarian cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of these medications and other risk factors on endometrial cancer risk in BRCA carriers. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were identified from a registry of mutation carriers. Cases were 83 women who had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Controls were 1027 matched women who did not develop endometrial cancer and who had an intact uterus. All women completed a baseline questionnaire, which included questions about ages at menarche and menopause, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy use, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, breast cancer history and tamoxifen use. We estimated the odds ratio associated with each risk factor in a multivariate analysis. No differences were found between cases and controls in terms of age at menarche, BMI, smoking, or oral contraceptive use. In a multivariate analysis, for women taking estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy, the odds ratio was 0.23 (95% CI 0.03-1.78, p = 0.16), and for women taking progesterone-only hormone replacement therapy the odds ratio was 6.91 (95% CI 0.99-98.1, p = 0.05). The adjusted odds ratio for endometrial cancer associated with a history of tamoxifen use was 3.50 (95% CI 1.51-8.10, p = 0.003). The observed increased risk of endometrial cancer associated with progesterone-only therapy merits further study. PMID:25838159

  18. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreimer, Aimee R.; Brennan, Paul; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsague, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larranaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Ramon Quiros, J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The c

  19. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection and intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer of the uterine cervix: a case-control study in Zaragoza, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moros Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The raw incidence of cancer of the uterine cervix is Spain is 7,8 per 100.000 inhabitants (adjusted incidence is 5.6. The incidence of this tumor is still low, but a steady increase has been seen, probably related to increasing risk factors. Aim To determine the frequency of infection by different types of human papillomavirus (HPV in Papanicolau smears from women with and without cancer of the uterine cervix in Spain. Patients and methods A case-control study was performed in women with and without cervical cancer from Zaragoza, Spain. Pap smears from 600 cases (540 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasms (CIN and 60 with invasive cancer and 1200 controls (women without those lesions were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and typed by oligonucleotide microarray-based detection. Results HPV was detected in 93.3% of all samples with invasive cancer versus 17.5% of controls. OR for invasive cancer was 55 (95% CI 21.5–140,5. Statistically significant associations were also found for different grades of cervical dysplasia. Conclusion The strong association found between HPV infection, specifically types 16 and 18 and cancer of the uterine cervix in Zaragoza, Spain, stresses the importance of ongoing efforts to institute a vaccine program with recently approved HPV vaccines in order to prevent cervical cancer in this population.

  20. TP53 genetic polymorphisms, interactions with lifestyle factors and lung cancer risk: a case control study in a Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pathway-based genotyping analysis suggested rs2078486 was a novel TP53 SNP, but very few studies replicate this association. TP53 rs1042522 is the most commonly studied SNP, but very few studies examined its potential interaction with environmental factors in relation to lung cancer risk. This study aims to examine associations between two TP53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2078486, rs1042522), their potential interaction with environmental factors and risk of lung cancer. A case–control study was conducted in Taiyuan, China. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Multiplicative and additive interactions between TP53 SNPs and lifestyle factors were evaluated. Variant TP53 rs2078486 SNP was significantly associated with elevated lung cancer risk among smokers (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08 - 2.67) and individuals with high indoor air pollution exposure (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.00-2.30). Significant or borderline significant multiplicative and additive interactions were found between TP53 rs2078486 polymorphism with smoking and indoor air pollution exposure. The variant genotype of TP53 SNP rs1042522 significantly increased lung cancer risk in the total population (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), but there was no evidence of heterogeneity among individuals with different lifestyle factors. This study confirmed that TP53 rs2078486 SNP is potentially a novel TP53 SNP that may affect lung cancer risk. Our study also suggested potential synergetic effects of TP53 rs2078486 SNP with smoking and indoor air pollution exposure on lung cancer risk

  1. Analysis of the joint effects of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk in three nested case-control studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objectives: Three case-control studies nested in the French (Fr), German (Ge) and Czech (Cz) cohorts of uranium miners were conducted in the frame of a European research Project, named Alpha-Risk, on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures. These case-control studies aimed at assessing the effect of protracted radon exposure on lung cancer risk taking into account individual tobacco consumption. Material and methods: In the three case-control studies, cases were miners of the corresponding cohort who died of lung cancer (100, 704, 672 cases for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively). For each case, controls were randomly matched on birth period and attained age at the time of death of the corresponding case (500, 1398 and 1491 controls for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively). Cumulated radon exposure during employment was obtained from ambient and individual measurements for the Fr and Cz studies, and from a job exposure matrix for the Ge study. Smoking habits were retrospectively determined from medical archives and questionnaires applied in face-to-face interviews, phone calls or mailings. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A multiplicative model was fitted to assess the joint effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk. Results: Smoking status was established for 62, 421, and 672 cases and 320, 620, and 1491 controls for the Fr, Ge, and Cz study, respectively. Two categories ('ever smokers' vs. 'never smokers') were defined. The percentages of 'ever-smokers' were 90%, 95%, and 92% for the cases and 73%, 75%, and 73% for the controls, for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively. Mean five-year lagged cumulated radon exposures were 115, 717 and 174 working level months (WLM) for the cases, and 71, 505 and 118 WLM for the controls, for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively. The excess relative risk per WLM (ERR/WLM) was 0.98% with a 95

  2. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women whose age is less than 40 years: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation).

  3. Exposure to bisphosphonates and risk of cancer: a protocol for nested case-control studies using the QResearch primary care database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Yana; Coupland, Carol; Hippisley-Cox, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Bisphosphonates are becoming a common treatment for osteoporosis particularly after discovery of the association between hormone replacement therapy and increased risk of breast cancer. As osteoporosis develops with age, treatment is a long-term intervention. Randomised control trials typically have limited follow-up times, which restricts investigation of the effects of the drugs on risk of primary cancers. A few observational studies have demonstrated a reduced risk of breast cancer and possibly of endometrial cancer in bisphosphonate users. Two epidemiological studies have studied the effect of the drugs on oesophageal cancer but did not reach any definite conclusions. So far, no effects on colorectal and stomach cancer have been shown. This study will investigate the association of bisphosphonates with risks of the 10 most common primary cancers. Methods and analysis A series of nested case-control studies will be based on the general population using records from 660 UK general practices within the QResearch Database. Cases will be patients with primary cancers diagnosed between 1996 and 2011. Each case will be matched by age, sex, practice and calendar year to five controls, who are alive and registered with the practice at the time of diagnosis of the case. Exposure to bisphosphonates will be defined as at least one prescription during the study period. For the most common cancers with substantial numbers of observations, the effect of the duration of the treatment and different types of bisphosphonates will be studied. Conditional logistic regression will be applied to produce ORs adjusted for smoking status, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, cancer-specific co-morbidities and use of other medications. PMID:22240651

  4. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium: a combined case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Couch, Fergus J.; Benitez, Javier; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Maria Pilar; Malats, Nuria; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Gibson, Lorna J.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of liv...

  5. Association between the BsmI Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and Breast Cancer Risk: Results from a Pakistani Case-Control Study.

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    Muhammad Usman Rashid

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is postulated to decrease the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation via the vitamin D receptor (VDR. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the VDR gene, rs1544410 (BsmI and rs2228570 (FokI, are inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasian populations, while data for Asians are scarce. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of these SNPs to breast cancer risk in Pakistani breast cancer patients and in controls participating in a hospital-based breast cancer case-control study (PAK-BCCC.Genotyping of the BsmI and FokI SNPs was performed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of 463 genetically enriched female breast cancer cases with known BRCA1/2 status and in 1,012 controls from Pakistan. The association between SNP genotypes and breast cancer risk was investigated by logistic regression adjusted for potential breast cancer risk factors and stratified by BRCA1/2 status and family history. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were reported.The b allele of the BsmI was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (per b allele OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49, P = 0.003. Subgroup analysis revealed that this effect was restricted to BRCA1/2 non-carriers (per b allele OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.59, P = 0.002 and was stronger in those who reported a positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (per b allele OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.22, P = 0.002. No association with breast cancer risk was detected for the FokI SNP.The BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in Pakistani women negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations.

  6. Pretreatment Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer Prognostic Characteristics: A Case-Control and a Case-Series Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Sucheston, Lara E.; Millen, Amy E.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Nesline, Mary K.; Davis, Warren; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Hwang, Helena; Kulkarni, Swati; Edge, Stephen B.; O'Connor, Tracey L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. Methods and Findings In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08–0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. Conclusion In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant

  7. Pretreatment serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer prognostic characteristics: a case-control and a case-series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER, and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001. Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03. Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL, significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002. In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08-0.53 than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.56. The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. CONCLUSION: In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings

  8. Individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer in a case-control study in Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although in most people this process is not complete. Previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary MMA (%MMA) and increased risks of several arsenic-related diseases, although none of these reported on lung cancer. In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were assessed in 45 lung cancer cases and 75 controls from arsenic-exposed areas in Cordoba, Argentina. Folate has also been linked to arsenic-disease susceptibility, thus an exploratory assessment of associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes, arsenic methylation, and lung cancer was also conducted. In analyses limited to subjects with metabolite concentrations above detection limits, the mean %MMA was higher in cases than in controls (17.5% versus 14.3%, p = 0.01). The lung cancer odds ratio for subjects with %MMA in the upper tertile compared to those in the lowest tertile was 3.09 (95% CI, 1.08-8.81). Although the study size was too small for a definitive conclusion, there was an indication that lung cancer risks might be highest in those with a high %MMA who also carried cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) rs234709 and rs4920037 variant alleles. This study is the first to report an association between individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer, a leading cause of arsenic-related mortality. These results add to the increasing body of evidence that variation in arsenic metabolism plays an important role in arsenic-disease susceptibility.

  9. Gene × Gene interaction between MnSOD and GPX-1 and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ-line mutations in genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM can cause a substantial increase in risk of breast cancer. However, these mutations are rare in the general population, and account for little of the incidence of sporadic breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, research has been focused on examining associations between common polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. To date, few associations have been described. This has led to the hypothesis that breast cancer is a complex disease, whereby a constellation of very low penetrance alleles need to be carried to present a risk phenotype. Polymorphisms in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1) genes have been proposed as low penetrance alleles, and have not been clearly associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether variants at both polymorphisms, while not independently associated with breast cancer risk, could influence breast cancer risk when considered together. A case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study was performed comparing 1262 women diagnosed with breast cancer to 1533 disease free women. The MnSOD (Val16Ala, rs1799725) and GPX-1 (Pro198Leu, rs1050450) were genotyped via TaqMan assay. Disease risk was evaluated using logistic regression. While neither allele alone shows any change in breast cancer risk, an increase in the risk of breast cancer (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.09 – 3.19) is observed in individuals who carry both the Ala16Ala genotype of MnSOD and the Leu198Leu genotype of GPX-1. Polymorphisms in the GPX-1 and MnSOD genes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer

  10. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

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    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  11. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years) Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Giulia; Furlan, Daniela; Sahnane, Nora; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Domati, Federica; Pedroni, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%). KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p = 0.02). Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:26557847

  12. Estrogen and progesterone receptor gene polymorphisms and sporadic breast cancer risk: a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, L P; Milne, R L; Barroso, E; Cuadros, M; Arias, J I; Ruibal, A; Benítez, J; Ribas, G

    2006-07-15

    Estrogens, and to a lesser extent progesterones, influence the proliferation, differentiation and physiology of breast tissue as well as the development and progression of breast cancer. Genetic variants in the steroid hormone receptor genes ESR1 and PGR (belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily) could therefore modify sporadic breast cancer susceptibility. Two studies have shown a protective effect associated with variants in ESR1 in 2 distinct populations. We studied 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1 and 4 in PGR in 550 consecutive and unrelated sporadic Spanish breast cancer patients and 564 healthy Spanish controls. We observed a dominant protective effect for the S10S variant in ESR1, with an estimated odds ratio (OR) of 0.75 (95% CI = 0.58-0.97; p = 0.03) although functional studies did not show changes in the RNA stability. A small subset of individuals carried a haplotype combination that corroborates this protection. No other SNP considered in either gene was found to be associated with sporadic breast cancer. Our results obtained in a European population confirm the protective role of the S10S variant in ESR1, previously reported in an Asian and a European-American population. PMID:16477637

  13. Genetic variation in TLR or NFkappaB pathways and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) are important in inflammation and cancer. We examined the association between breast cancer risk and 233 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms within 31 candidate genes involved in TLR or NFκB pathways. This population-based study in the Seattle area included 845 invasive breast cancer cases, diagnosed between 1997 and 1999, and 807 controls aged 65–79. Variant alleles in four genes were associated with breast cancer risk based on gene-level tests: MAP3K1, MMP9, TANK, and TLR9. These results were similar when the risk of breast cancer was examined within ductal and luminal subtypes. Subsequent exploratory pathway analyses using the GRASS algorithm found no associations for genes in TLR or NFκB pathways. Using publicly available CGEMS GWAS data to validate significant findings (N = 1,145 cases, N = 1,142 controls), rs889312 near MAP3K1 was confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk (P = 0.04, OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01–1.30). Further, two SNPs in TANK that were significant in our data, rs17705608 (P = 0.05) and rs7309 (P = 0.04), had similar risk estimates in the CGEMS data (rs17705608 OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72–0.96; CGEMS OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80–1.01 and rs7309 OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73–0.95; CGEMS OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81–1.02). Our findings suggest plausible associations between breast cancer risk and genes in TLR or NFκB pathways. Given the few suggestive associations in our data and the compelling biologic rationale for an association between genetic variation in these pathways and breast cancer risk, further studies are warranted that examine these effects

  14. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

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    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  15. Association between mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis of 20 case-control studies.

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    Qiaoli Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs profiles can be used as diagnostic markers for human cancers. The associations between mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1 SNPs rs889312 A>C, rs16886165 T>G and breast cancer risk have been widely evaluated, but the results were inconsistent. To derive a conclusive assessment of the associations, we performed a meta-analysis by combining data from all eligible case-control studies up to date. METHODS: By searching PubMed, ISI web of knowledge, Embase and Cochrane databases, we identified all eligible studies published before September 2013. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of associations in fixed-effect or random-effect model. False-positive report probability (FPRP was calculated to confirm the significance of the results. RESULTS: A total of 59670 cases in 20 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for SNPs rs889312 and rs16886165 polymorphisms with a per-allele OR of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.09-1.13 and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.09-1.20 respectively. For rs889312, in subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were identified in Europeans and Asians, but not in Africans. When stratified by estrogen receptor (ER expression status, rs889312 was associated with both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. Results from the FPRP analyses were consistent with and supportive to the above results. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that rs889312-C allele and rs16886165-G allele might be risk factors for breast cancer, especially in Europeans and Asians.

  16. Do genetic factors protect for early onset lung cancer? A case control study before the age of 50 years

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    Jilge Bettina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset lung cancer shows some familial aggregation, pointing to a genetic predisposition. This study was set up to investigate the role of candidate genes in the susceptibility to lung cancer patients younger than 51 years at diagnosis. Methods 246 patients with a primary, histologically or cytologically confirmed neoplasm, recruited from 2000 to 2003 in major lung clinics across Germany, were matched to 223 unrelated healthy controls. 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes with reported associations to lung cancer have been genotyped. Results Genetic associations or gene-smoking interactions was found for GPX1(Pro200Leu and EPHX1(His113Tyr. Carriers of the Leu-allele of GPX1(Pro200Leu showed a significant risk reduction of OR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4–0.8, p = 0.002 in general and of OR = 0.3 (95% CI:0.1–0.8, p = 0.012 within heavy smokers. We could also find a risk decreasing genetic effect for His-carriers of EPHX1(His113Tyr for moderate smokers (OR = 0.2, 95% CI:0.1–0.7, p = 0.012. Considered both variants together, a monotone decrease of the OR was found for smokers (OR of 0.20; 95% CI: 0.07–0.60 for each protective allele. Conclusion Smoking is the most important risk factor for young lung cancer patients. However, this study provides some support for the T-Allel of GPX1(Pro200Leu and the C-Allele of EPHX1(His113Tyr to play a protective role in early onset lung cancer susceptibility.

  17. Oral contraceptives and cancers of the breast and of the female genital tract. Interim results from a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Fasoli, M.; Franceschi, S.; Gentile, A.; Negri, E; Parazzini, F.; Tognoni, G

    1986-01-01

    We analysed data from a case-control investigation conducted in Milan, Northern Italy, to evaluate the relation between the use of combination oral contraceptives and the risk of cancers of the breast, ovary, endometrium and cervix uteri. For the present analysis, 776 cases of histologically confirmed breast cancer, 406 of epithelial ovarian cancer and 170 of endometrial cancer aged under 60 were compared with a group of 1,282 subjects below age 60 admitted for a spectrum of acute conditions ...

  18. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

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    Rank Fritz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. Methods The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78. The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. Results The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01. Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7, but no dose-response relation was apparent. Conclusion The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified.

  19. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78). The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN) tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01). Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7), but no dose-response relation was apparent. The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified

  20. Diet and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study: does the threat of disease have an influence on recall bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, S; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, M; Kataja, V; Uusitupa, M

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that recall bias may explain the discrepant results between case-control and cohort studies on diet and the risk of breast cancer. Two control groups were used for this case-control study of 25 to 75-year-old breast cancer cases (n = 310). The first group consisted of population controls drawn from the Finnish National Population Register (n = 454). The second group consisted of women who were referred to the same examinations as were the cases because of clinical suspicion of breast disease but who were later diagnosed as healthy (referral controls; n = 506). Because the diagnosis was unknown at the time of interview, it was possible to assess by comparing the two control groups whether the self-reporting of diet changed under the threat of disease. Dietary habits were examined using a validated, self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Premenopausal women misreported their consumption of liquid milk products, tea, and sugar. Reporting bias was also associated with the intake of fat and vitamins. Postmenopausal women misreported consumption of milk products. When recall bias was taken into consideration, milk was associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer, whereas high consumption of poultry or high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and vitamin E were related to lower risk. The study suggested that oil, milk, cheese, coffee and beta-carotene may act as protective factors in postmenopausal women, whereas butter and cream may be risk factors for breast cancer. In summary, it is possible that some food items may be overreported or underreported under the threat of disease in health-conscious population. However, most of the results in this study were not modified by recall bias. PMID:10360338

  1. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer risk: a population-based nested case-control study.

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    Salaheddin M Mahmud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite strong laboratory evidence that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs could prevent prostate cancer, epidemiological studies have so far reported conflicting results. Most studies were limited by lack of information on dosage and duration of use of the different classes of NSAIDs. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using data from Saskatchewan Prescription Drug Plan (SPDP and Cancer Registry to examine the effects of dose and duration of use of five classes of NSAIDs on prostate cancer risk. Cases (N = 9,007 were men aged ≥40 years diagnosed with prostatic carcinoma between 1985 and 2000, and were matched to four controls on age and duration of SPDP membership. Detailed histories of exposure to prescription NSAIDs and other drugs were obtained from the SPDP. RESULTS: Any use of propionates (e.g., ibuprofen, naproxen was associated with a modest reduction in prostate cancer risk (Odds ratio = 0.90; 95%CI 0.84-0.95, whereas use of other NSAIDs was not. In particular, we did not observe the hypothesized inverse association with aspirin use (1.01; 0.95-1.07. There was no clear evidence of dose-response or duration-response relationships for any of the examined NSAID classes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest modest benefits of at least some NSAIDs in reducing prostate cancer risk.

  2. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259) and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941). However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk

  3. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeager Meredith

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. Results None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259 and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941. However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. Conclusion These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk.

  4. Mood disorders and risk of lung cancer in the EAGLE case-control study and in the U.S. Veterans Affairs inpatient cohort.

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    David E Capo-Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mood disorders may affect lung cancer risk. We evaluated this hypothesis in two large studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined 1,939 lung cancer cases and 2,102 controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE case-control study conducted in Italy (2002-2005, and 82,945 inpatients with a lung cancer diagnosis and 3,586,299 person-years without a lung cancer diagnosis in the U.S. Veterans Affairs Inpatient Cohort (VA study, composed of veterans with a VA hospital admission (1969-1996. In EAGLE, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, with extensive adjustment for tobacco smoking and multiple lifestyle factors. In the VA study, we estimated lung cancer relative risks (RRs and 95% CIs with time-dependent Poisson regression, adjusting for attained age, calendar year, hospital visits, time within the study, and related previous medical diagnoses. In EAGLE, we found decreased lung cancer risk in subjects with a personal history of mood disorders (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.44-0.79, based on 121 lung cancer incident cases and 192 controls and family history of mood disorders (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.77, based on 223 lung cancer cases and 345 controls. The VA study analyses yielded similar results (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.71-0.77, based on 2,304 incident lung cancer cases and 177,267 non-cancer person-years in men with discharge diagnoses for mood disorders. History of mood disorders was associated with nicotine dependence, alcohol and substance use and psychometric scales of depressive and anxiety symptoms in controls for these studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The consistent finding of a relationship between mood disorders and lung cancer risk across two large studies calls for further research into the complex interplay of risk factors associated with these two widespread and debilitating diseases. Although we adjusted for smoking effects in EAGLE, residual confounding of the results by

  5. Innate immunity and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL related genes in a nested case-control study for gastric cancer risk.

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    Sue K Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genetic variants regulating the host immune system may contribute to the susceptibility for the development of gastric cancer. Little is known about the role of the innate immunity- and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL-related genes for gastric cancer risk. This nested case-control study was conducted to identify candidate genes for gastric cancer risk for future studies. METHODS: In the Discovery phase, 3,072 SNPs in 203 innate immunity- and 264 NHL-related genes using the Illumine GoldenGateTM OPA Panel were analyzed in 42 matched case-control sets selected from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC. Six significant SNPs in four innate immunity (DEFA6, DEFB1, JAK3, and ACAA1 and 11 SNPs in nine NHL-related genes (INSL3, CHMP7, BCL2L11, TNFRSF8, RAD50, CASP7, CHUK, CD79B, and CLDN9 with a permutated p-value <0.01 were re-genotyped in the Replication phase among 386 cases and 348 controls. Odds ratios (ORs for gastric cancer risk were estimated adjusting for age, smoking status, and H. pylori and CagA sero-positivity. Summarized ORs in the total study population (428 cases and 390 controls are presented using pooled- and meta-analyses. RESULTS: Four SNPS had no heterogeneity across the phases: in the meta-analysis, DEFA6 rs13275170 and DEFB1 rs2738169 had both a 1.3-fold increased odds ratio (OR for gastric cancer (95% CIs = 1.1-1.6; and 1.1-1.5, respectively. INSL3 rs10421916 and rs11088680 had both a 0.8-fold decreased OR for gastric cancer (95% CIs = 0.7-0.97; and 0.7-0.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that certain variants in the innate immunity and NHL-related genes affect the gastric cancer risk, perhaps by modulating infection-inflammation-immunity mechanisms that remain to be defined.

  6. Association between 5p12 genomic markers and breast cancer susceptibility: evidence from 19 case-control studies.

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    Xiaofeng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between polymorphisms on 5p12 and breast cancer (BC has been widely evaluated since it was first identified through genome-wide association approach; however, the studies have yielded contradictory results. We sought to investigate this inconsistency by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis on two wildly studied polymorphisms (rs10941679 and rs4415084 on 5p12. METHODS: Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of association. The random-effects model was applied, addressing heterogeneity and publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles involving 100,083 cases and 163,894 controls were included. An overall random-effects per-allele OR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06-1.12; P = 4.5 × 10(-8 and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.05-1.12; P = 4.2 × 10(-7 was found for the rs10941679 and rs4415084 polymorphism respectively. Significant results were found in Asians and Caucasians when stratified by ethnicity; whereas no significant associations were found among Africans/African-Americans. Similar results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic models. In addition, we find both rs4415084 and rs10941679 conferred significantly greater risks of ER-positive breast cancer than of ER-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that rs10941679-G allele and rs4415084-T allele might be risk-conferring factors for the development of breast cancer, especially in Caucasians and East-Asians.

  7. Dietary choline and betaine intake, choline-metabolising genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Feng; Luo, Wei-Ping; Lin, Fang-Yu; Lian, Zhen-Qiang; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Yan, Bo; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case-control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (P interaction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (P interaction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.

  8. Human Mammary Tumor Virus (HMTV Infection and Risk of Human Breast Cancer: An Adaptive Meta-Analysis for Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is ongoing debate about the association between Human Mammary Tumor Virus (HMTV infection and breast cancer. A systematic review (SR published in 2014 revealed that there was a statistically significant association. However, there was suspected duplication of the studies selected in that SR, and it also presented the need for a more detailed subgroup analysis by region. Therefore, the present study repeated the meta-analysis with the addition of relevant papers published before October 2015. Methods: Using the papers selected for the previous SR, a list was made of the references, and the “cited articles” and “similar articles” provided by PubMed. Of these, we only selected case-control studies that used PCR to detect the HMTV gene in tissue. The criterion for duplication was papers that showed identical researcher names or affiliated institutions. Among duplicated papers, the one with the largest number of samples was chosen. The meta-analysis was used to obtain summary odds ratio (SOR and 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: A total of 13 case-control studies were selected. The total number of the case and control groups was 1,878 and 1,204 persons, respectively. The results of the meta-analysis for these 13 papers showed that HMTV infection increased the risk of breast cancer (SOR=8.37, 95% CI: 2.29-23.39; I-squared = 98.4%. Conclusion: In the sub-group analysis, there was statistical significance for North America, the Mediterranean, and Australia. The results of this study support the claim that HMTV infection increases the risk of human breast cancer.

  9. Serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol concentrations and prostate cancer risk in the PLCO Screening Trial: a nested case-control study.

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    Stephanie J Weinstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin E compounds exhibit prostate cancer preventive properties experimentally, but serologic investigations of tocopherols, and randomized controlled trials of supplementation in particular, have been inconsistent. Many studies suggest protective effects among smokers and for aggressive prostate cancer, however. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, with 680 prostate cancer cases and 824 frequency-matched controls. Multivariate-adjusted, conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for tocopherol quintiles. RESULTS: Serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol were inversely correlated (r = -0.24, p<0.0001. Higher serum α-tocopherol was associated with significantly lower prostate cancer risk (OR for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.92, p-trend 0.05. By contrast, risk was non-significantly elevated among men with higher γ-tocopherol concentrations (OR for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 1.35, 95% CI 0.92-1.97, p-trend 0.41. The inverse association between prostate cancer and α-tocopherol was restricted to current and recently former smokers, but was only slightly stronger for aggressive disease. By contrast, the increased risk for higher γ-tocopherol was more pronounced for less aggressive cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate higher α-tocopherol status is associated with decreased risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly among smokers. Although two recent controlled trials did not substantiate an earlier finding of lower prostate cancer incidence and mortality in response to supplementation with a relatively low dose of α-tocopherol, higher α-tocopherol status may be beneficial with respect to prostate cancer risk among smokers. Determining what stage of prostate cancer

  10. Clinical significance of ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism in esophageal cancer: evidence from 31 case-control studies

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    Zhao TT

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tingting Zhao,1* Chun Wang,1* Lili Shen,1* Dongying Gu,1 Zhi Xu,1 Xunlei Zhang,2 Yong Xu,1 Jinfei Chen1 1Department of Oncology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Department of Oncology, Nantong Tumor Hospital, Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2, a critical enzyme for the detoxification of alcohol, is associated with many types of cancers. To verify the relationship of ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism and esophageal cancer (EC, we performed a meta-analysis of a total of 31 published data including 8,510 patients and 16,197 controls. Methods: The pooled odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated using a fixed or random-effects model. Heterogeneity (PH, publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were also determined. Results: Although a protective effort was found in the rs671 homozygote comparison (AA/GG: OR=0.69; 95% CI=0.48–0.98, the heterozygote comparison was apparently associated with the risk of EC, particularly in the Chinese population (AG/GG: OR=1.39; 95% CI=1.03–1.87. Alcohol consumption remarkably increased this risk, especially in the AG genotype. Drinking men with the AG genotype appeared to show a higher risk (AG/GG: OR=4.39; 95% CI=1.24–6.55 than drinking women. Conclusion: The present meta-analysis provided advanced information regarding the association of the ALDH2 A>G polymorphism and EC. Taken together, insights from this study suggested an enhanced effect on the development of EC through a genetic–environmental interaction. Keywords: aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, esophageal cancer, EC, meta-analysis

  11. Genetic polymorphism in HLA-G 3'UTR 14-bp ins/del and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Huang, Haohai; Liao, Dan; Ling, Huahuang; Su, Bingguang; Cai, Maode

    2015-08-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that the human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) 14 bp ins/del polymorphism might be related to cancer susceptibility. However, epidemiologic findings have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of case-control study to derive a more precise estimation of this association. Electronic databases were searched to identify all eligible studies of HLA-G 14 bp ins/del polymorphism and cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association in fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to heterogeneity. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analyses based on cancer type, ethnicity, source of controls and sample size were also performed. A total of 14 case-control studies, involving 2,757 cases and 3,972 controls, were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analysis showed that there is no significant relationship between the HLA-G 14 bp ins/del polymorphism and cancer susceptibility under the genetic models (for the allele model del vs. ins: OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.00-1.27; for the homozygote comparison model del/del vs. ins/ins: OR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.95-1.56; for the dominant model del/del + ins/del vs. ins/ins: OR 1.15, 95 % CI 0.94-1.42; for recessive model del/del vs. ins/del + ins/ins: OR 1.13, 95 % CI 0.96-1.34; respectively). Subgroup analyses indicated significant association among breast cancer, population based control and the large sample size group in some genetic models. Our investigations demonstrate that genotypes for the HLA-G 14 bp ins/del polymorphism may be not associated with overall cancer risk. In a subgroup meta-analysis, however, HLA-G 14-bp ins/del polymorphism might contribute to breast cancer susceptibility.

  12. Risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer and type of alcoholic beverage: a European multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marron, Manuela

    2012-07-01

    The general relationship between cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and alcohol drinking is established. Nevertheless, it is uncertain whether different types of alcoholic beverages (wine, beer and liquor) carry different UADT cancer risks. Our study included 2,001 UADT cancer cases and 2,125 controls from 14 centres in 10 European countries. All cases were histologically or cytologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas. Controls were frequency matched by sex, age and centre. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 %CI) adjusted for age, sex, centre, education level, vegetable and fruit intake, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, where appropriate. Risk of beverage-specific alcohol consumption were calculated among \\'pure drinker\\' who consumed one beverage type exclusively, among \\'predominant drinkers\\' who consumed one beverage type to more than 66 % and among \\'mixed drinkers\\' who consumed more than one beverage type to similar proportions. Compared to never drinkers and adjusted for cumulative alcohol consumption, the OR and 95 %CI for wine, beer and liquor drinking, respectively, were 1.24 (0.86, 1.78), 1.54 (1.05, 2.27) and 0.94 (0.53, 1.64) among \\'pure drinkers\\' (p value for heterogeneity across beverage types = 0.306), 1.05 (0.76,1.47), 1.25 (0.87,1.79) and 1.43 (0.95, 2.16) among \\'predominant drinkers\\' (p value = 0.456), and 1.09 (0.79, 1.50), 1.20 (0.88, 1.63) and 1.12 (0.82, 1.53) among \\'mixed drinkers\\' (p value = 0.889). Risk of UADT cancer increased with increasing consumption of all three alcohol beverage types. Our findings underscore the strong and comparable carcinogenic effect of ethanol in wine, beer and liquor on organs of the UADT.

  13. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer--Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study.

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    Aleksander Galas

    Full Text Available There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon.The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer.A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006, stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007 and total aberrations (p = 0.009. There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50-80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations.The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy.

  14. Risk of breast cancer by type of menopausal hormone therapy: a case-control study among post-menopausal women in France.

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    Emilie Cordina-Duverger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is extensive epidemiological evidence that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT increases breast cancer risk, particularly combinations of estrogen and progestagen (EP. We investigated the effects of the specific formulations and types of therapies used by French women. Progestagen constituents, regimen (continuous or sequential treatment by the progestagen, and time interval between onset of menopause and start of MHT were examined. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in France in 1555 menopausal women (739 cases and 816 controls. Detailed information on MHT use was obtained during in-person interviews. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval adjusted for breast cancer risk factors were calculated. RESULTS: We found that breast cancer risk differed by type of progestagen among current users of EP therapies. No increased risk was apparent among EP therapy users treated with natural micronized progesterone. Among users of EP therapy containing a synthetic progestin, the odds ratio was 1.57 (0.99-2.49 for progesterone-derived and 3.35 (1.07-10.4 for testosterone-derived progestagen. Women with continuous regimen were at greater risk than women treated sequentially, but regimen and type of progestagen could not be investigated independently, as almost all EP combinations containing a testosterone-derivative were administered continuously and vice-versa. Tibolone was also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Early users of MHT after onset of menopause were at greater risk than users who delayed treatment. CONCLUSION: This study confirms differential effects on breast cancer risk of progestagens and regimens specifically used in France. Formulation of EP therapies containing natural progesterone, frequently prescribed in France, was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer but may poorly protect against endometrial cancer.

  15. Early pregnancy IGF-I and placental GH and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Grankvist, Kjell; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Lundin, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling may promote ovarian tumor development by exerting mitotic, antiapoptotic and proangiogenic effects. During pregnancy, maternal production of IGF-I is regulated by placental growth hormone (GH). Parity is an established protective factor for ovarian cancer, however, no prior study has evaluated placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Prior prospective studies on the association between IGF-I and EOC in nonpregnant populations were inconclusive and did not address associations in subtypes of EOC. Among members of the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort, we identified 1,045 EOC cases, diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011 and 2,658 individually matched controls. Placental GH and IGF-I were measured in serum from the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis or selection as control. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for tertiles and a doubling of hormone concentrations. Higher IGF-I was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in risk for invasive [ORT3 vs. T1 : 0.79 (0.62-1.02); ptrend  = 0.07] and endometrioid tumors [ORT3 vs. T1 : 0.55 (0.28-1.07); ptrend  = 0.07]. The protective association between higher IGF-I levels and risk of invasive EOC was stronger in analyses limited to women aged study provides the first data on placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and EOC risk overall and by subtype. Our data suggest higher IGF-I levels in pregnancy may be associated with lower risk of invasive and endometrioid EOC. PMID:25516257

  16. Association between H-RAS T81C genetic polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: A population based case-control study in China

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    Li Qilong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal cancer, such as gastric, colon and rectal cancer, is a major medical and economic burden worldwide. However, the exact mechanism of gastrointestinal cancer development still remains unclear. RAS genes have been elucidated as major participants in the development and progression of a series of human tumours and the single nucleotide polymorphism at H-RAS cDNA position 81 was demonstrated to contribute to the risks of bladder, oral and thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that this polymorphisms in H-RAS could influence susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer as well, and we conducted this study to test the hypothesis in Chinese population. Methods A population based case-control study, including 296 cases with gastrointestinal cancer and 448 healthy controls selected from a Chinese population was conducted. H-RAS T81C polymorphism was genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. Results In the healthy controls, the TT, TC and CC genotypes frequencies of H-RAS T81C polymorphism, were 79.24%, 19.87% and 0.89%, respectively, and the C allele frequency was 10.83%. Compared with TT genotype, the TC genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (adjusted OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 2.21–6.08, while the CC genotype showed an increased risk as well (adjusted OR = 3.29, 95%CI = 0.54–19.86, but it was not statistically significant. In contrast, the frequency of TC genotype was not significantly increased in colon cancer and rectal cancer patients. Further analysis was performed by combining TC and CC genotypes compared against TT genotype. As a result, a statistically significant risk with adjusted OR of 3.65 (95%CI, 2.22–6.00 was found in gastric cancer, while no significant association of H-RAS T81C polymorphism with colon cancer and rectal cancer was observed. Conclusion These findings indicate, for the first time, that there

  17. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; García-Pérez Javier; López-Cima María; López-Abente Gonzalo; Tardón Adonina; Pollán Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based...

  18. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an in......Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown aetiology. In addition to genetic and hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected of playing a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated...

  19. High consumption of vegetable and fruit colour groups is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-04-14

    The colour of the edible portion of vegetables and fruit reflects the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. No existing studies have examined the relationship between the intake of vegetable and fruit colour groups and the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2014 in Guangzhou, China, in which 1057 consecutively recruited cases of colorectal cancer were frequency-matched to 1057 controls by age (5-year interval), sex and residence (rural/urban). A validated FFQ was used to collect dietary information during face-to-face interviews. Vegetables and fruit were classified into four groups according to the colour of their primarily edible parts: green; orange/yellow; red/purple; white. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI. A higher consumption of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, with adjusted OR of 0·16 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·22) for orange/yellow, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) for red/purple and 0·53 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·70) for white vegetables and fruit when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared. Total vegetable intake and total fruit intake have also been found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the intake of green vegetable and fruit was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study, therefore, suggest that a greater intake of orange/yellow, red/purple and white vegetables and fruit is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

  20. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence. PMID:24889992

  1. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence.

  2. Association of estrogen receptor beta variants and serum levels of estradiol with risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Huanlei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous estrogens may play a vital role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Estrogen receptor beta is the predominant subtype which mediates the biological effect of estrogens, while loss of expression of estrogen receptor beta has been indicated as a common step in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. Epidemiological studies have revealed several functional polymorphisms of estrogen receptor beta (ESR2 for cancer risk, but relevant study in CRC is limited, particularly in men. This study aimed to investigate the association of circulating estradiol and variations of ESR2 with CRC risk in men. Methods We initiated a case–control study consisting of 390 patients with CRC and 445 healthy controls in men only. We genotyped ESR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs1256049 and rs4986938 and measured serum estradiol concentration using chemilluminescence immunoassay. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the associations between these variables and CRC risk. Results ESR2 rs1256049 CT/TT genotypes were associated with reduced risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR], 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.0, while rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes were associated with increased risk of CRC (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0–2.1. In addition, the CRC risk increased with the number of risk genotypes of these two SNPs in a dose–response manner (Ptrend, 0.003. Specifically, subjects carrying risk genotypes of both SNPs had the highest risk of CRC (OR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.3–3.3.. Moreover, serum estradiol concentration alone was associated with risk of CRC in men (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, 1.0–1.3. However, individuals presenting both rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes and high level of serum estradiol had a high risk of CRC (OR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.4–3.9, compared with those presenting CC genotype and low level of serum estradiol. The similar joint results were not observed for SNP rs1256049. Conclusions These results suggest that endogenous

  3. Cancer risk in long-term users of vitamin K antagonists: A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that long-term use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) has a cancer chemopreventive effect. Such an effect would have considerable implications in terms of understanding tumor biology. To evaluate if long-term VKA treatment influences the risk of developing cancer, we performed...

  4. DNA Methylation in Pre-Diagnostic Serum Samples of Breast Cancer Cases: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Jennifer D.; Cairns, Paul; Shore, Roy E.; Klein, Catherine B.; Wirgin, Isaac; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Promoter methylation of tumor-suppressor genes is a frequent and early event in breast carcinogenesis. Paired tumor tissue and serum samples from women with breast cancer show that promoter methylation is detectable in both sample types, with good concordance. This suggests the potential for these serum markers to be used for breast cancer detection.

  5. A case-control study of the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overexpression of the HER2 proto-oncogene in human cancer cells has been associated with a poor prognosis, and survival improves with therapy targeting the HER2 gene. Animal studies and protein modeling suggest that the Ile655Val polymorphism located in the transmembrane domain of the HER2 protein might influence breast cancer development by altering the efficiency of homodimerization. To investigate this genetic polymorphism, incident cases of invasive breast cancer (N = 1,094) and population controls of a similar age (N = 976) were interviewed during 2001 to 2003 regarding their risk factors for breast cancer. By using DNA collected from buccal samples mailed by the participants, the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism was evaluated with the Applied Biosystems allelic discrimination assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by logistic regression adjusted for numerous breast cancer risk factors. Analysis was restricted to women with self-reported European descent. Prevalence of the Val/Val genotype was 5.6% in cases and 7.1% in controls. In comparison with the Ile/Ile genotype, the Ile/Val genotype was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.18), whereas the Val/Val genotype was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.92). This inverse association seemed strongest in older women (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.89 for women aged more than 55 years), women without a family history of breast cancer (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.84), postmenopausal women with greater body mass index (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.91 for a body mass index of 25.3 kg/m2 or more), and cases diagnosed with non-localized breast cancer (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.90). Although results from our population-based case-control study show an inverse association between the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism and risk of invasive breast cancer, most other studies of this single-nucleotide polymorphism suggest an overall null

  6. 8q24 sequence variants in relation to prostate cancer risk among men of African descent: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanCleave Tiva T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human chromosome 8q24 has been implicated in prostate tumorigenesis. Methods Consequently, we evaluated seven 8q24 sequence variants relative to prostate cancer (PCA in a case-control study involving men of African descent. Genetic alterations were detected in germ-line DNA from 195 incident PCA cases and 531 controls using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Inheritance of the 8q24 rs16901979 T allele corresponded to a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of developing PCA for our test group. These findings were validated using multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR and permutation testing (p = 0.038. The remaining 8q24 targets were not significantly related to PCA outcomes. Conclusions Although compelling evidence suggests that the 8q24 rs16901979 locus may serve as an effective PCA predictor, our findings require additional evaluation in larger studies.

  7. Oral Bisphosphonates and Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Risks in Asians with Osteoporosis: A Nested Case-Control Study Using National Retrospective Cohort Sample Data from Korea.

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    Sun-Young Jung

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate can irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa and increase the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer. The relatively high prevalence of upper gastrointestinal cancers and the widespread use of bisphosphonate in Korea call for further investigation. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer after exposure to oral bisphosphonates in Korean patients with osteoporosis.We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database of Korea from 2002 to 2013. Among osteoporotic patients (>40 years, cases were defined as incident diagnosis of esophageal or gastric cancer between 2006 and 2013. For each case, four controls were matched for age, sex, and income level by type of insurance. We categorized bisphosphonate use as non-user, recent user, past user, and past and recent user, depending on prescription in two periods (1 to 2 years and 2 to 4 years prior to the index date. We also assessed the duration of bisphosphonate use by measuring cumulative duration of exposure (CDE. To examine the association between oral bisphosphonates and esophageal or gastric cancer, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for concomitant diseases.A total of 1,708 cases and 6,832 controls were identified. The aORs (95% CIs of recent, past, and continuous bisphosphonate use compared to non-users were 1.18 (0.93-1.51, 1.04 (0.83-1.29, and 1.25 (0.95-1.58, respectively. In addition, no significant association was observed by CDE, even when different outcome definitions were applied.This study did not prove an increased risk of esophageal or gastric cancer risk associated with bisphosphonate use, with respect to both risk windows and duration of exposure, in an Asian population-based, real-world setting.

  8. Onset and relapse of psychiatric disorders following early breast cancer: a case-control study. : Mental health of primary breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Gandubert, Catherine; Carrière, Isabelle; Escot, Chantal; Soulier, Maryvonne; Hermès, Aziz; Boulet, Patrick; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to evaluate the mental status of primary early breast cancer survivors according to DSM-IV criteria, distinguishing new psychiatric diagnosis, which started after the cancer diagnosis from relapse. METHODS: A comparative study of 144 breast cancer survivors and 125 women without previous history of cancer was carried out. Neuropsychiatric symptomatology was assessed retrospectively using standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini Internat...

  9. Risk factors related to female breast cancer in regions of Northeast China: a 1:3 matched case-control population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-gang; JIA Cun-xian; GENG Cui-zhi; TANG Jin-hai; ZHANG Jin; LIU Li-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in China,but no definite risk and protective factors for breast cancer have been identified in Chinese females.This study was designed to identify the risk factors for female breast cancer in North and East China.Methods A 1:3 matched,case-control study was conducted.All of the subjects in the case and control groups were selected from a previous epidemiological survey of 122 058 females aged 25 to 70 years.Single and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to study potential factors in the development of breast cancer.Results Significant differences at the level of α=0.20 between case and control groups were observed for the following factors:economic status,social status,family annual income,bean product consumption,body mass index (BMI),family history of breast cancer in the first or second degree,number of miscarriages,menstrual pattern,benign breast disease history,nipple leakage,inverted nipple,history of diabetes mellitus,history of hypertension,history of ovarian cyst,physical exercise,current and global quality of life satisfaction,healthy behavior and prevention,and scores of breast cancer-related knowledge.After Cox-regression model analysis (α=0.10),six factors were found to be significantly related to breast cancer,of which the ORs and 95%C/s were:BMI,1.696 (1.169-2.460,P=0.005); benign breast disease history,2.672 (0.848-8.416,P=0.093); family history of breast cancer,7.080 (1.758-28.551,P=0.006); number of miscarriages,1.738 (1.014-2.978,P=0.044); global quality of life satisfaction,3.044 (1.804-5.136,P=0.000); healthy behavior and prevention,3.294 (1.692-6.412,P=0.000).Conclusions A comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer was identified.Women should be educated about a healthy lifestyle,especially those with a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease.

  10. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk in relation to joint estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Yoshikazu; Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fukamachi, Kayoko; Sato, Ikuro; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    An association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk has been hypothesized. However, results from previous studies have been inconsistent. This case-control study investigated the association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk in terms of estrogen-receptor/progesterone-receptor (ER/PgR) status. From among female patients aged 30 years and over admitted to a single hospital in Japan between 1997 and 2011, 1,263 breast cancer cases (672 ER+/PgR+, 158 ER+/PgR-, 22 ER-/PgR+, 308 ER-/PgR- and 103 missing) and 3,160 controls were selected. History of smoking (ever, never), some smoking-related measures, and passive smoking from husbands (ever, never) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Polytomous logistic regression and tests for heterogeneity across ER+/PgR + and ER-/PgR- were conducted. For any hormone receptor subtype, no significant association was observed between history of smoking (ever, never) and breast cancer risk. Analysis of smoking-related measures revealed that starting to smoke at an early age of ≤19 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal ER-/PgR- cancer (odds ratio = 7.01, 95% confidence interval: 2.07-23.73). Other measures of smoking such as the number of cigarettes per day, the duration of smoking, and start of smoking before the first birth were not associated with breast cancer risk for any receptor subtype. There was no association between passive smoking (ever, never) and breast cancer risk for any of the four subtypes. These results indicate that history of smoking and passive smoking from husbands may have no overall effect on breast cancer risk for any hormone receptor subtype. However, it is possible that women who start to smoke as teenagers may have a higher risk of developing postmenopausal ER-/PgR- cancer. Further studies are needed to clarify the association of smoking with breast cancer risk, especially the role of starting to smoke at an early age. PMID

  11. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

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    Camila Niclis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils, Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains, Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products, and Cheese (cheeses. High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099 and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128 showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.

  12. The Joint Effects of Lifestyle Factors and Comorbidities on the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Large Chinese Retrospective Case-Control Study.

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    Junjie Hang

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. In previous epidemiologic studies, the respective correlation between lifestyle factors and comorbidity and CRC has been extensively studied. However, little is known about their joint effects on CRC.We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 1,144 diagnosed CRC patients and 60,549 community controls. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants about their socio-demographic factors, anthropometric measures, comorbidity history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs for each factor. According to the results from logistic regression model, we further developed healthy lifestyle index (HLI and comorbidity history index (CHI to investigate their independent and joint effects on CRC risk.Four lifestyle factors (including physical activities, sleep, red meat and vegetable consumption and four types of comorbidity (including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, history of inflammatory bowel disease and polyps were found to be independently associated with the risk of CRC in multivariant logistic regression model. Intriguingly, their combined pattern- HLI and CHI demonstrated significant correlation with CRC risk independently (ORHLI: 3.91, 95%CI: 3.13-4.88; ORCHI: 2.49, 95%CI: 2.11-2.93 and jointly (OR: 10.33, 95%CI: 6.59-16.18.There are synergistic effects of lifestyle factors and comorbidity on the risk of colorectal cancer in the Chinese population.

  13. Prostate cancer risk factors: a UK population based case-control study centered on chronic diseases, medications, sunlight and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Fredie

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer risk has been associated with several environmental factors but there is little information to indicate the effects of timing and of lifetime exposures that may add to the risk. This thesis aims to investigate the association of six main areas that may contribute to prostate cancer risk (1) body shape & fat distribution, (2) chronic diseases/conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischaemic heart diseases and hypercholesterolemia), (3) statin medications (4) p...

  14. Coffee consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer: Evidence from a case-control study of female hormone-related cancers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Kaoru; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Toru; Tajima, Kazuo

    2007-03-01

    Coffee has become a popular beverage worldwide. Caffeine, a major ingredient of coffee, has been proposed to have a favorable affect on the modulation of circulating estrogen levels and therefore may be of importance in developments on hormone-related cancers. However, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. We examined the relationship between intake of coffee and hormone-related cancer risk among Japanese women using data from the hospital-based epidemiological research program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). In total, 2122 breast, 229 endometrial and 166 ovarian cancer cases were included, and 12 425 women, confirmed as free of cancer, were recruited as the control group. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis. A statistically significant inverse association between risk of endometrial cancer and coffee consumption was noted in Japanese women, with no clear association evident for breast and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to non-drinker, the OR of daily drinking of 1-2 cups and 3 or more cups per day for endometrial cancer were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43-0.94) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.19-0.87), respectively, and the linear trend was also statistically significant (P cancer. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of endometrial cancer in Japanese subjects. Given the scarcity of studies of coffee intake and endometrial cancer and other hormone-dependent cancer risk, additional investigations are warranted. PMID:17270030

  15. The association between active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social network on the development of lung cancer in smokers: a case-control study

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    Schmidt Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study analyses the effect of active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social networks on the development of lung cancer in patients who smoke. Our hypothesis is that study participants who lack social networks and do not actively participate in a sports club are at a greater risk for lung cancer than those who do. Methods Data for the study were taken from the Cologne Smoking Study (CoSmoS, a retrospective case-control study examining potential psychosocial risk factors for the development of lung cancer. Our sample consisted of n = 158 participants who had suffered lung cancer (diagnosis in the patient document and n = 144 control group participants. Both groups had a history of smoking. Data on social networks were collected by asking participants whether they participated in a sports club and about the number of friends and relatives in their social environment. In addition, sociodemographic data (gender, age, education, marital status, residence and religion, physical activity and data on pack years (the cumulative number of cigarettes smoked by an individual, calculated by multiplying the number of cigarettes smoked per day by the number of years the person has smoked divided by 20 were collected to control for potential confounders. Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results The results reveal that participants who are physically active are at a lower risk of lung cancer than those who are not (adjusted OR = 0.53*; CI = 0.29-0.97. Older age and lower education seem also to be risk factors for the development of lung cancer. The extent of smoking, furthermore, measured by pack years is statistically significant. Active participation in a sports club, number of friends and relatives had no statistically significant influence on the development of the cancer. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that there is a lower risk for physically active participants to develop

  16. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  17. Polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, interaction with environmental exposures, and bladder cancer risk in a case-control study in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Hung, Rayjean J; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Donato, Francesco; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Hautefeuille, Agnes; Boffetta, Paolo; Porru, Stefano

    2003-11-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupational exposures are the main known risk factors for bladder cancer, causing direct and indirect damage to DNA. Repair of DNA damage is under genetic control, and DNA repair genes may play a key role in maintaining genome integrity and preventing cancer development. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes resulting in variation of DNA repair efficiency may therefore be associated with bladder cancer risk. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Brescia, Italy, to assess the relationship between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 (Arg(399)Gln), XRCC3 (Thr(241)Met), and XPD (Lys(751)Gln) and bladder cancer risk. A total of 201 male incident bladder cancer cases and 214 male controls with urological nonneoplastic diseases were recruited and frequency-matched on age, period, and hospital of recruitment. Detailed information was collected using a semistructured questionnaire on demographic, dietary, environmental, and occupational factors. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis. The XRCC3 codon 241 variant genotype exhibited a protective effect against bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR), 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.93], which was prominent among heavy smokers (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.88) but not among never and light smokers. No overall impact of the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism was found (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.59-1.28), but a protective influence of the homozygous variant was suggested among heavy smokers (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.14-1.02). XPD polymorphisms did not show an association with bladder cancer (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.62-1.37). There was no statistical evidence of an interaction between these three genetic polymorphisms and either tobacco smoking or occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines. The XRCC3 codon 241 polymorphism had an overall protective effect against bladder cancer that was most apparent among heavy smokers. Similarly, the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism also had

  18. Validation of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire in an adult Belgian population: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, M T; Kellen, E; Zeegers, M P; van Dongen, M C J M S; Dagnelie, P C; Muls, E; Buntinx, F

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to collect dietary data for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Thirty-seven men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium. Participants completed the IMMIDIET FFQ, a 7-day diet diary and a 24-hour diet recall. Median intakes and inter-quartile ranges were calculated for 27 foods and nutrients from each dietary assessment method. All dietary factors were log-transformed and adjusted for energy using the nutrient density method. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the different dietary assessment methods. Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess levels of agreement between the dietary methods. Energy, fruit and vegetable intake estimates were higher from the IMMIDIET FFQ compared with the two reference methods.The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 7-day diary were meat (0.58), bread (0.44), fruit (0.38) and fish (0.38). The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recall were for fruit (0.72), fat (0.48), alcohol (0.44), cholesterol (0.42), monounsaturated fatty acid (0.42) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.41). Generally, correlation was lower for the micro-nutrients except for phosphorus (0.42), vitamin C (0.41) and calcium (0.40). The IMMIDIET FFQ is an appropriate instrument to measure usual dietary intake for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Further investigation of nutritional assessment methods is necessary. PMID:21485759

  19. Serum antibodies against genitourinary infectious agents in prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia patients: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Marek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of many human malignancies. Whether prostate cancer (PCa - an important health issue in the aging male population in the Western world - belongs to these conditions has been a matter of research since the 1970 s. Persistent serum antibodies are a proof of present or past infection. The aim of this study was to compare serum antibodies against genitourinary infectious agents between PCa patients and controls with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. We hypothesized that elevated serum antibody levels or higher seroprevalence in PCa patients would suggest an association of genitourinary infection in patient history and elevated PCa risk. Methods A total of 434 males who had undergone open prostate surgery in a single institution were included in the study: 329 PCa patients and 105 controls with BPH. The subjects' serum samples were analysed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, complement fixation test and indirect immunofluorescence for the presence of antibodies against common genitourinary infectious agents: human papillomavirus (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33, herpes simplex virus (HSV 1 and 2, human cytomegalovirus (CMV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum. Antibody seroprevalence and mean serum antibody levels were compared between cases and controls. Tumour grade and stage were correlated with serological findings. Results PCa patients were more likely to harbour antibodies against Ureaplasma urealyticum (odds ratio (OR 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.08-4.28. Men with BPH were more often seropositive for HPV 18 and Chlamydia trachomatis (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.09-0.61 and OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.21-0.99, respectively and had higher mean serum CMV antibody levels than PCa patients (p = 0.0004. Among PCa patients, antibodies against HPV 6 were associated with a higher Gleason score (p = 0.0305. Conclusions

  20. Joint effects of folate intake and one-carbon-metabolizing genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Li, Bin; Lin, Fang-Yu; Yan, Bo; Du, Yu-Feng; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the joint effects of folate intake, polymorphisms of 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthesis reductase (MTRR) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes and breast cancer risk. A case-control study of 570 consecutively recruited breast cancer cases and 576 controls was conducted in Guangzhou, China. Multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression approach were used to evaluate gene-gene interaction. The covariates were chosen based on comparison of baseline characteristics of cases and controls. Folate intake was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. The MTRRrs162036 GG genotype was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.85]. Compared with the wild-type group (MTRRrs162036 AA with MTRrs1805087 AA) MTRRrs162036 AA with MTRrs1805087 GA + GG was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.48-1.03). With the combined MTHFRrs1801131 TT and MTHFRrs1801133 GG genotypes as a reference, MTHFRrs1801131 TT with MTHFRrs1801133 GA + AA was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57 - 1.08) and MTHFRrs1801131 GT + GG with MTHFRrs1801133 GA + AA was associated with an increased risk (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.88-2.05). The joint impact of MTRRrs162036 and MTRrs1805087, MTHFRrs1801131 and MTHFRrs1801133, folate and MTHFRrs1801133 may contribute to breast cancer risk.

  1. Sequence variations in DNA repair gene XPC is associated with lung cancer risk in a Chinese population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein, xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC), participates in recognizing DNA lesions and initiating DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Because mutations in XPC cause a high risk of cancer in XP patients, we hypothesized that inherited sequence variations in XPC may alter DNA repair and thus susceptibility to cancer. In this hospital-based case-control study, we investigated five XPC tagging, common single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagging SNPs) in 1,010 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 1,011 matched cancer free controls in a Chinese population. In individual tagging SNP analysis, we found that rs3731055AG+AA variant genotypes were associated with a significantly decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56–0.90] but an increased risk of small cell carcinomas [adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.07]. Furthermore, we found that haplotype ACCCA was associated with a decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma [OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62–0.97] but an increased risk of small cell carcinomas [OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.04–2.71], which reflected the presence of rs3731055A allele in this haplotype. Further stratified analysis revealed that the protective effect of rs3731055AG+AA on risk of lung adenocarcinoma was more evident among young subjects (age ≤ 60) and never smokers. These results suggest that inherited sequence variations in XPC may modulate risk of lung cancer, especially lung adenocarcinoma, in Chinese populations. However, these findings need to be verified in larger confirmatory studies with more comprehensively selected tagging SNPs

  2. CYP1A1, mEH, and GSTM1 Polymophisms and Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer: A Spanish Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Lema, L; Ruano-Ravina, A; Juiz Crespo, M A; Kelsey, K T; Loidi, L; Barros-Dios, J M

    2008-01-01

    Background. Genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the detoxification pathways of carcinogenic substances may influence cancer risk. Methods. Case-control study that investigates the relationship between CYP1A1 Ile/Val, exon 4 mEH, and GSTM1 null genetic polymorphism and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer examining the interaction between these genes, tobacco, and alcohol. 92 incident cases and 130 consecutive hospital-based controls have been included. Results. No significant associations were found for any of the genotypes assessed. The estimated risk was slightly elevated in subjects with the wild type of the mEH gene and the null GSTM1 genotype. For exon 4 mEH heterozygous polymorphism, the risk was slightly lower for heavy smokers than for light smokers. The inverse association was observed for the GSTM1 null genotype. Conclusions. The results suggest that exon 4 mEH and GSTM1 null polymorphisms might influence oral and pharyngeal cancer. PMID:19259333

  3. CYP1A1, mEH, and GSTM1 Polymophisms and Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer: A Spanish Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Varela-Lema

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the detoxification pathways of carcinogenic substances may influence cancer risk. Methods. Case-control study that investigates the relationship between CYP1A1 Ile/Val, exon 4 mEH, and GSTM1 null genetic polymorphism and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer examining the interaction between these genes, tobacco, and alcohol. 92 incident cases and 130 consecutive hospital-based controls have been included. Results. No significant associations were found for any of the genotypes assessed. The estimated risk was slightly elevated in subjects with the wild type of the mEH gene and the null GSTM1 genotype. For exon 4 mEH heterozygous polymorphism, the risk was slightly lower for heavy smokers than for light smokers. The inverse association was observed for the GSTM1 null genotype. Conclusions. The results suggest that exon 4 mEH and GSTM1 null polymorphisms might influence oral and pharyngeal cancer.

  4. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Castelló; Miguel Martín; Amparo Ruiz; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Virginia Lope; Silvia Antolín; Pedro Sánchez; Manuel Ramos; Antonio Antón; Montserrat Muñoz; Begoña Bermejo; Ana De Juan-Ferré; Carlos Jara; José I Chacón

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the W...

  5. Frequent Use of Antibiotics Is Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk : Results of a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Vincent K; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Smeets, Hugo M.; Siersema, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microbiotical dysbiosis induced by a Western diet seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Few other factors with an effect on the colonic microbiota and their association with CRC have been evaluated. AIM: We investigated whether the use of an

  6. Relationship between cyclooxygenase 8473T>C polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Young

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. DNA sequence variations in the COX-2 gene may lead to altered COX-2 production and/or activity, and so they cause inter-individual differences in the susceptibility to lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association between the 8473T>C polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the COX-2 gene and the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population. Methods The COX-2 genotypes were determined using PCR-based primer-introduced restriction analysis in 582 lung cancer patients and in 582 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age and gender. Results The distribution of the COX-2 8473T>C genotypes was not significantly different between the overall lung cancer cases and the controls. However, when the cases were categorized by the tumor histology, the combined 8473 TC + CC genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of adenocarcinoma as compared with the 8473 TT genotype (adjusted OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46–0.90, P = 0.01. On the stratification analysis, the protective effect of the combined 8473 TC + CC genotype against adenocarcinoma was statistically significant in the males, older individuals and ever-smokers (adjusted OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.39–0.91, P = 0.02; adjusted OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.33–0.93, P = 0.03; and adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.37–0.87, P = 0.01, respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that the COX-2 8473T>C polymorphism could be used as a marker for the genetic susceptibility to adenocarcinoma of the lung.

  7. Relationship between cyclooxygenase 8473T>C polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. DNA sequence variations in the COX-2 gene may lead to altered COX-2 production and/or activity, and so they cause inter-individual differences in the susceptibility to lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association between the 8473T>C polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the COX-2 gene and the risk of lung cancer in a Korean population. The COX-2 genotypes were determined using PCR-based primer-introduced restriction analysis in 582 lung cancer patients and in 582 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age and gender. The distribution of the COX-2 8473T>C genotypes was not significantly different between the overall lung cancer cases and the controls. However, when the cases were categorized by the tumor histology, the combined 8473 TC + CC genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of adenocarcinoma as compared with the 8473 TT genotype (adjusted OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46–0.90, P = 0.01). On the stratification analysis, the protective effect of the combined 8473 TC + CC genotype against adenocarcinoma was statistically significant in the males, older individuals and ever-smokers (adjusted OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.39–0.91, P = 0.02; adjusted OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.33–0.93, P = 0.03; and adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.37–0.87, P = 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that the COX-2 8473T>C polymorphism could be used as a marker for the genetic susceptibility to adenocarcinoma of the lung

  8. Case-control study on beneficial effect of regular consumption of apples on colorectal cancer risk in a population with relatively low intake of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Popiela, Tadeusz; Kulig, Jan; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Sowa, Agata; Musial, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory in-vitro studies and animal experiments showing the potential health benefits from apples raises the question to what extent the regular consumption of apples in humans may have a beneficial effect on colorectal cancer risk. A total of 592 incident cases of colorectal cancer have been enrolled in a hospital-based case-control study. The comparison group included 765 controls chosen from the patients of the same hospital without history of cancer and admitted for treatment of nonneoplastic conditions. Interviews of both cases and controls were conducted in the hospital setting by trained interviewers. The median intake of fruits among cases was lower than in controls (9.5 vs. 11 servings/week) and the difference was statistically significant. Apples were the most frequent fruit consumed by the study participants and about 80% of variability in the total fruit consumption resulted from the intake of apples. We did not observe any significant statistical differences in consumption of berries, citrus, or stone fruits and other kinds of fruits across cases and controls. The adjusted estimates of colorectal cancer risk related to the daily consumption of apples (in quintiles) were based on the unconditional multivariate logistic model, which considered the set of potential confounding variables such as demographic characteristics of participants (age, gender, place of residency, marital status, tobacco smoking), total energy intake, intake of vegetables and fruits without apples. The results of the logistic analysis showed that the adjusted risk of colorectal cancer inversely correlated with daily number of apple servings. The reduced risk of colorectal cancer of border significance level was already observed at the consumption of at least one apple a day (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI: 0.39-1.09), but at the intake of more than one apple a day the risk was reduced by about 50% (odds ratio=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79). Neither the consumption of vegetables nor other

  9. Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE: a multicenter, population-based case-control study in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luce Danièle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational causes of respiratory cancers need to be further investigated: the role of occupational exposures in the aetiology of head and neck cancers remains largely unknown, and there are still substantial uncertainties for a number of suspected lung carcinogens. The main objective of the study is to examine occupational risk factors for lung and head and neck cancers. Methods/design ICARE is a multi-center, population-based case-control study, which included a group of 2926 lung cancer cases, a group of 2415 head and neck cancer cases, and a common control group of 3555 subjects. Incident cases were identified in collaboration with cancer registries, in 10 geographical areas. The control group was a random sample of the population of these areas, with a distribution by sex and age comparable to that of the cases, and a distribution by socioeconomic status comparable to that of the population. Subjects were interviewed face to face, using a standardized questionnaire collecting particularly information on tobacco and alcohol consumption, residential history and a detailed description of occupational history. Biological samples were also collected from study subjects. The main occupational exposures of interest are asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chromium and nickel compounds, arsenic, wood dust, textile dust, solvents, strong acids, cutting fluids, silica, diesel fumes, welding fumes. The complete list of exposures of interest includes more than 60 substances. Occupational exposure assessment will use several complementary methods: case-by-case evaluation of exposure by experts; development and use of algorithms to assess exposure from the questionnaires; application of job-exposure matrices. Discussion The large number of subjects should allow to uncover exposures associated with moderate increase in risks, and to evaluate risks associated with infrequent or widely

  10. A nested case-control study of adjuvant hormonal therapy persistence and compliance, and early breast cancer recurrence in women with stage I-III breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Non-persistence and non-compliance are common in women prescribed hormonal therapy for breast cancer, but little is known about their influence on recurrence. Methods: A nested case–control study of associations between hormonal therapy non-persistence and non-compliance and the risk of early recurrence in women with stage I–III breast cancer was undertaken. Cases, defined as women with a breast cancer recurrence within 4 years of hormonal therapy initiati...

  11. Does a more refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume and confounders alter risk estimates from a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Michela; Ferro, Gilles; Burstyn, Igor;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study.......To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study....

  12. Genetic association between NFKB1 −94 ins/del ATTG Promoter Polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 42 case-control studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Xie, Tianhang; Xu, Jin; Wang, Haoyang; Zeng, Weinan; Rao, Shuquan; Zhou, Kai; Pei, Fuxing; Zhou, Zongke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have indicated that the functional -94 ins/del ATTG polymorphism in the promoter region of human nuclear factor-kappa B1 (NFKB1) gene may be associated with cancer risk. However, some studies yielded conflicting results. To clarify precise association, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 42 case-control studies involving 43,000 subjects (18,222 cases and 24,778 controls). The overall results suggested that the -94 ins/del ATTG polymorphism had a decreased risk for cancer, reaching significant levels in five genetic models (dominant model: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79–0.95, P = 0.002; recessive model: OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74–0.94, P = 0.003; homozygous model: OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.90, P = 0.001; heterozygous model: OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83–0.98, P = 0.011; allelic model: OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.83–0.96, P = 0.002). Furthermore, the -94 ins/del ATTG polymorphism could confer a decreased or increased risk for cancer development among Asians and Caucasians, respectively. Additionally, the stratification analysis revealed a significant association between the variant and decreased risk of oral, ovarian, and nasopharyngeal cancer in Asians. After we adjusted p values using the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate method to account for multiple comparisons, these associations remained. PMID:27443693

  13. Sex hormones and the risk of keratinocyte cancers among women in the United States: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence F; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Gossai, Anala; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-07-15

    Men are at a higher risk of developing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) than women, but there is emerging evidence that women may be experiencing greater increases in the incidence rates of these malignancies than men. One possible explanation is the expanding use of sex steroids among women, although only a few studies have examined this hypothesis. As part of a population-based, case-control study of women in New Hampshire, USA, we sought to evaluate the risk of SCC, BCC, and early-onset BCC in relation to exogenous and endogenous sex hormones. We found that oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with an increased risk of SCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) and BCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), particularly high estrogen dose (>50 mg) OC use. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use also related to SCC, with an elevated OR largely for progestin use (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8). Additionally, both OC use and combination HRT use were associated with more aggressive BCC subtypes. In contrast, menstrual and reproductive history did not appear to influence keratinocyte cancer risk in our data. Our findings provide evidence that use of sex steroids may enhance risk of keratinocyte cancer. PMID:26941014

  14. Sex hormones and the risk of keratinocyte cancers among women in the United States: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence F; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Gossai, Anala; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-07-15

    Men are at a higher risk of developing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) than women, but there is emerging evidence that women may be experiencing greater increases in the incidence rates of these malignancies than men. One possible explanation is the expanding use of sex steroids among women, although only a few studies have examined this hypothesis. As part of a population-based, case-control study of women in New Hampshire, USA, we sought to evaluate the risk of SCC, BCC, and early-onset BCC in relation to exogenous and endogenous sex hormones. We found that oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with an increased risk of SCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) and BCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), particularly high estrogen dose (>50 mg) OC use. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use also related to SCC, with an elevated OR largely for progestin use (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8). Additionally, both OC use and combination HRT use were associated with more aggressive BCC subtypes. In contrast, menstrual and reproductive history did not appear to influence keratinocyte cancer risk in our data. Our findings provide evidence that use of sex steroids may enhance risk of keratinocyte cancer.

  15. A nested case-control study of leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number and renal cell carcinoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Hosgood, H Dean; Liu, Chin-San; Chow, Wong-Ho; Shuch, Brian; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Lin, Ta-Tsung; Moore, Lee E; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Purdue, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is vulnerable to mutations, and the number of copies of mtDNA per cell may increase to compensate for DNA damage. Case-control studies have reported associations between altered mtDNA copy number and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, this association has not been investigated prospectively. We conducted a nested case-control study (252 cases and 504 controls) of RCC risk in relation to pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNA copy number in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. mtDNA copy number was measured in triplicate using a fluorescence-based quantitative PCR assay; samples from 22 cases and 36 controls could not be assayed, leaving 230 cases and 468 controls for analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. High mtDNA copy number was associated with an increased risk of RCC, both overall (highest quartile versus lowest: OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.2; P trend = 0.002) and among cases diagnosed ≥6 years after blood collection (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4-5.0; P trend = 0.003). These findings did not differ significantly by sex, body mass index, history of hypertension or smoking status (P interaction ≥ 0.3). Results of this study suggest that high pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNA copy number, a suspected marker of oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, is associated with increased future RCC risk. PMID:24398668

  16. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  17. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Gulnar Azevedo S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  18. Transanal Pull-Through Procedure with Delayed versus Immediate Coloanal Anastomosis for Anus-Preserving Curative Resection of Lower Rectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong; Huang, Ping; Ren, Qing-Gui

    2016-06-01

    This case-control study compared the effectiveness and safety of transanal pull-through procedure (TPP) with delayed or immediate coloanal anastomosis (CAA) for anus-preserving curative resection of lower rectal cancer. Lower rectal cancer patients (n = 128) were hospitalized between January 2003 and December 2013 for elective anus-preserving curative resection through a TPP with delayed (n = 72) or immediate (n = 56) CAA. Main outcome measures including surgical safety, resection radicality, and defecation function were assessed. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, gross pathology, histology, and tumor-node-metastasis staging. Both the delayed and immediate CAA TPPs had similar resection radicality and safety profiles. The immediate CAA was associated with a significantly higher risk of anastomotic leakage and defecation impairment. None of patients in the delayed CAA group experienced anastomotic leakage. In conclusion, TPP with delayed CAA may be superior to immediate CAA in minimizing the risk of anastomotic leakage and relevant surgical morbidities, and does not require a temporary ileostomy and second-look restoration of ostomy. PMID:27305886

  19. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  20. Case-control design as investigative approach to assessing cancer etiology: development and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, B; Filipovic, S; Petrovic, B; Nikolic, M

    2012-01-01

    The case-control method evolved out of analyses of series of cases. The analytic form of the case-control study can be found in the 19th century medical literature, but did not appear to be viewed as a special or distinct methodology. The first modern case-control study was the Janet Lane-Claypon's study of breast cancer in 1926, but the design was used only sporadically in medicine until 1950, when 4 published casecontrol studies linked smoking and lung cancer. These 1950s studies synthesized the essential elements of the case-control comparison, produced a conceptual shift within epidemiology, and laid the foundation for the rapid development of the case-control design in the subsequent half century. The powerful consistency of these case-control studies, and the replication of their findings in later prospective studies, promoted the general acceptance of the case-control study as a scientific tool in clinical research. Newer case-control studies have benefited from the advances in design, execution and analysis since 1950s. These advances include more rigorous selection and matching of case and control population, improved interviewing techniques, location of the design within a general framework of epidemiologic strategies for relating exposure to disease, understanding of the measures of effect, and application of increasingly sophisticated statistical procedures to findings. This review traces the development and future perspectives of the case-control design to assessing cancer etiology. With illustrations drawn primarily from the literature on its use and the value of its results to unravelling the etiology of malignant diseases, we tried to explore if the case-control approach firmly ensconced in epidemiology as investigational tool and rivals in importance the more straightforward cohort approach. PMID:23033277

  1. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants.We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22-60 years and diagnosed in 2000-2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval (95% CI from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented.After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.36 among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10-1.48. We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005. Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50.Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be concluded however that safety of hair dyes in relation to

  2. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castaño, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma β-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend = 0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend = 0.08. For α- and β-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and γ-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted.

  3. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer: a nested case-control study in EuroSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although prostate cancer (PCa incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV− men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV− men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. Methods: Men with PCa (n=21 and up to two matched controls (n=40 with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA, free PSA (fPSA, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed models were used to describe kinetics. Results: Sixty-one men were included with a median six (IQR 2–9 years follow-up. Time between last sample and PCa was seven (4–11 months. Cases and controls were well matched at first sample, with a median age of 51 (IQR 48–57 and CD4 of 437 (243–610 cells/mm3. Median tPSA [2.8 (IQR: 1.6–4.6 and 0.8 (0.5–1.2 µg/L] and fPSA [0.4 (0.2–0.8 and 0.3 (0.2–0.4 µg/L] levels were higher in cases than controls at first sample. Both tPSA and fPSA increased significantly over time in cases (Figure 1, to a median at last sample of 6.1 (4.7–9.5 and 0.9 (0.6–1.3 µg/L, respectively, but were stable in controls, with a median at last sample of 0.8 (0.5–1.4 and 0.2 (0.2–0.4 µg/L (Figure. Higher levels of tPSA and fPSA were associated with higher odds of PCa at first sample [OR for 2-fold higher 4.7 (CI: 1.7–12.9 and 5.4 (1.7–17.4]. Elevated tPSA values in cases were detectable ≥5 years before PCa (p0.7. The most informative predictor of PCa was tPSA (AUC=0.9, followed by fPSA (0.8. Testosterone (AUC = 0.5 and SHBG

  4. Pooling case-control studies for enhanced evidence on occupational risk factors in lung cancer research - the SYNERGY project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, Ann; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Pesch, Beate; Behrens, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Explore quantitative exposure-response association for exposure to asbestos, crystalline silica, nickel, chromium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the general population; further study effects on specific cell types and potential interaction with smoking and co-occurring occupatio

  5. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Rodrigo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. Methods We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. Results HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031. HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 – 294.670. DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027–0.223, p = 0.00001. Conclusion Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the

  6. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity) and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP) of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031). HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 – 294.670). DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027–0.223, p = 0.00001). Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the first study in Mexican population where high resolutions HLA

  7. Pooling case-control studies for enhanced evidence on occupational risk factors in lung cancer research - the SYNERGY project.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Ann; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Pesch, Beate; Behrens, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Explore quantitative exposure-response association for exposure to asbestos, crystalline silica, nickel, chromium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the general population; further study effects on specific cell types and potential interaction with smoking and co-occurring occupational exposures.\

  8. Riscos ocupacionais para o câncer de laringe: um estudo caso-controle Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Guerra Sartor

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo e o consumo de álcool são os fatores de risco mais bem estabelecidos para o câncer de laringe. Com relação aos fatores ocupacionais, o único carcinógeno estabelecido é a exposição a névoas de ácidos inorgânicos fortes. Entretanto, asbesto, pesticidas, tintas, gases de combustão de gasolina e diesel e poeiras, entre outros, aparecem na literatura como agentes ocupacionais que aumentam o risco de câncer de laringe. Um estudo caso-controle de base hospitalar foi conduzido para investigar fatores de risco ocupacionais para câncer de laringe. Foram coletadas informações detalhadas sobre tabagismo, consumo de álcool e história ocupacional de 122 casos de câncer de laringe e 187 controles pareados por freqüência (segundo sexo e idade. Encontrou-se risco aumentado de câncer de laringe nos indivíduos com exposição à sílica cristalina livre respirável (OR = 1,83; IC95%: 1,00-3,36, à fuligem (de carvão mineral, coque, madeira, óleo combustível (OR = 1,78; IC95%: 1,03-3,03, a fumos em geral (OR = 2,55; IC95%: 1,14-5,67 e a animais vivos (OR = 1,80; IC95%: 1,02-3,19.The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age. Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36, soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood (odds ratio - OR = 1

  9. Impact of tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water on the risk of breast cancer: Using a dose model to assess exposure in a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozonoff David

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A population-based case-control study was undertaken in 1997 to investigate the association between tetrachloroethylene (PCE exposure from public drinking water and breast cancer among permanent residents of the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. PCE, a volatile organic chemical, leached from the vinyl lining of certain water distribution pipes into drinking water from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. The measure of exposure in the original study, referred to as the relative delivered dose (RDD, was based on an amount of PCE in the tap water entering the home and estimated with a mathematical model that involved only characteristics of the distribution system. Methods In the current analysis, we constructed a personal delivered dose (PDD model that included personal information on tap water consumption and bathing habits so that inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption were also considered. We reanalyzed the association between PCE and breast cancer and compared the results to the original RDD analysis of subjects with complete data. Results The PDD model produced higher adjusted odds ratios than the RDD model for exposures > 50th and >75th percentile when shorter latency periods were considered, and for exposures th and >90th percentile when longer latency periods were considered. Overall, however, the results from the PDD analysis did not differ greatly from the RDD analysis. Conclusion The inputs that most heavily influenced the PDD model were initial water concentration and duration of exposure. These variables were also included in the RDD model. In this study population, personal factors like bath and shower temperature, bathing frequencies and durations, and water consumption did not differ greatly among subjects, so including this information in the model did not significantly change subjects' exposure classification.

  10. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Porru

    Full Text Available DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028, whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006 was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001, coffee (p<0.001, cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041 and MnSOD (p = 0.009 and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008 were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different

  11. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Freisling, Heinz; Peeters, Petra H; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Fiano, Valentina; Galassom, Rocco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

  12. The TGFBR1*6A allele is not associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TGF-β receptor type I is a mediator of growth inhibitory signals. TGFBR1*6A (rs11466445) is a common polymorphic variant of the TGF-β receptor I gene and has been associated with tumour susceptibility. Nevertheless, the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TGFBR1*6A and colorectal cancer, age, sex, tumour location and tumour stage in a Spanish population. The case-control study involved 800 Spanish subjects: 400 sporadic colorectal cancer patients and 400 age-, sex-, and ethnic-matched controls. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the TGFBR1*6A polymorphism were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. Analysis of somatic mutations at the GCG repeat of TGFBR1 exon 1 and germline allele-specific expression were also conducted to obtain further information on the contribution of the TGFBR1*6A allele to CRC susceptibility. There was no statistically significant association between the TGFBR1*6A allele and CRC (p > 0.05). The OR was 1.147 (95% CI: 0.799–1.647) for carriers of the TGFBR1*6A allele and 0.878 (95% CI: 0.306–2.520) for homozygous TGFBR1*6A individuals compared with the reference. The frequency of the polymorphism was not affected by age, sex or tumour stage. The TGFBR1*6A allele was more prevalent among colon tumour patients than among rectal tumour patients. Tumour somatic mutations were found in only two of 69 cases (2.9%). Both cases involved a GCG deletion that changed genotype 9A/9A in normal DNA to genotype 9A/8A. Interestingly, these two tumours were positive for microsatellite instability, suggesting that these mutations originated because of a deficient DNA mismatch repair system. Allele-specific expression of the 9A allele was detected in seven of the 14 heterozygous 9A/6A tumour cases. This could have been caused by linkage disequilibrium of the TGFBR1*6A allele with

  13. 食管癌危险因素的病例对照研究%A Case-control Study on the Risk Factors for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄力伟; 黄文博; 林艺萍; 林志豪; 谢娇娥; 许丽秀

    2014-01-01

    目的了解食管癌的危险因素,为指导食管癌的防治工作提供依据。方法采用病例对照研究的方法对40例食管癌患者及160名健康人为对照进行食管癌危险因素的条件logistic回归分析。结果年龄超过50岁、文盲、食管炎病史、肿瘤家族史、长期吸烟、酗酒、不良饮食习惯、精神创伤使、长期抑郁状态、接触放射线是食管癌的危险因素;新鲜水果蔬菜、瘦肉是食管癌的保护因素。结论对于年龄超过50岁、文盲、食管炎病史、肿瘤家族史、长期吸烟、长期大量饮酒、不良饮食习惯、巨大的精神创伤史、长期处于抑郁状态、接触放射线的人群应列为食管癌的重点预防对象。%Objective To know about the risk factors of esophageal cancer ( EC) and provide the reference for the prevention and treatment of EC. Methods The data of 40 patients with esophageal cancer and 160 healthy people were analyzed by conditional logis-tic regression analysis based on case-control study. Results The risk factors include age ( more than 50 years old) , illiteracy, history of esophagitis, family history of cancer, long-term smoking, alcohol abuse, poor eating habits, history of trauma, long-term depres-sion and exposure to radiation. Fresh fruits, vegetables and lean meat are listed as protective factors. Conclusion For people more than 50 years old, of illiteracy, with history of esophagitis, family history of cancer, long-term smoking, alcohol abuse, poor eating habits, history of trauma, long-term depression and exposure to radiation should be listed as the key prevention object.

  14. Thyroid cancer among children and adolescents in Russia following the Chernobyl accident. Retrospective estimation of thyroid doses and case - control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    residing of the population for determining the dynamic contamination of milk and greens; (4) multichamber model of the dairy for the 'Russian' cow adjusted on direct experimental data; (5) standard age dependent multichamber ICRP model of the man; (6) the data from the special questionnaire about changes of his (her) diet, origination of the meal and his (her) migration during May - July 1986; (7) results of reconstruction on the basis of direct thyroid radiometry for 28229 persons in Kaluga oblast and for 2967 persons in Bryansk oblast. The results of Odds Ratio, Relative Risk and Excess Relative Risk evaluations are discussed for the 1:2 matched case-control study and for the 1:4 matched case- control study. These two methods allow for different information on person's residence at the time of Chernobyl accident and bring out different results for risk evaluation. (author)

  15. Primary liver cancer and occupation in men: a case-control study in a high-incidence area in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, S; Placidi, D; Carta, A; Gelatti, U; Ribero, M L; Tagger, A; Boffetta, P; Donato, F

    2001-12-15

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between occupation and risk of liver cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was carried out during 1997-1999 in the Province of Brescia, a highly industrialized area in Northern Italy with a high incidence of this neoplasm. The cases were 144 male patients with incident liver cancer (96% hepatocellular carcinoma). Controls were 283 male patients, matched to cases on age (+/-5 years), period and hospital of admission. Information on lifetime occupational history and alcohol consumption was obtained via interview. Specific occupational exposures to pesticides, solvents and other suspected hepatocarcinogens were evaluated. A blood sample was collected to detect hepatitis B and C infections. Odds ratios (OR) of occupational exposure and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, residence, education, heavy alcohol intake, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibodies positivity were computed. A statistically significant increased OR was observed for employment in repair of motor vehicles (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.3; 9 exposed cases, 10 exposed controls). Increased ORs, although not statistically significant, were found for field-crop farm workers, food and beverage processors, blacksmiths and machine-tool operators, electrical fitters, clerical workers, manufacture of industrial machinery and personal and household services. A slightly increased OR was noted in workers exposed to toluene and xylene (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.7-3.0, 23 cases, 36 controls); the OR was 2.8 (95% CI 1.0-7.6, 11 cases, 12 controls) for 20 or more years of exposure and 2.0 (95% CI 0.9-4.1, 21 cases, 28 controls) for 30 or more years of time since first exposure. The increase in OR seemed to be independent from that of alcohol or viral infections. Our study showed that the role of occupational exposures in liver carcinogenesis is limited. However, prolonged exposure to organic solvents such as toluene and xylene may

  16. -251 T/A polymorphism of the interleukin-8 gene and cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis based on 42 case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Zhou, Rongmiao; Wang, Chunmei; Guo, Xiaoqing; Chen, Zhifeng; Yang, Shan; Li, Yan

    2012-03-01

    The -251T/A (rs4073), a single nucleotide polymorphism, has been identified in the promoter region of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene. It's presence could influence the production of IL-8 protein by regulating the transcriptional activity of the gene. A large number of studies have been performed to evaluate the role of -251T/A polymorphism on various cancers, with inconsistent results being reported. In this paper, we summarized 13,189 cases and 16,828 controls from 42 case-control studies and attempted to assess the susceptibility of -251T/A polymorphism to cancers by a comprehensive meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using the random-effects model. Publication bias, subgroup, and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results showed that the carriers of the -251A allele had about a 12-21% increased risk for the reviewed cancer, in total. The carriers of -251A had an elevated risk to breast cancer, gastric cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer and a reduced risk to prostate cancer, but no evidence was found to indicate that the -251A allele predisposed its carriers to colorectal and lung cancers. When stratified separately by 'racial descent' and 'study design', it was found that the carriers of the -251A allele among the African group, Asian group and hospital-based case-control study group were at a higher risk for cancer, but not in European group and population-based case-control study. These results show that -251A allele is susceptible in the development of low-penetrance cancers.

  17. Environmental and Psycho-social Factors Related to Prostate Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population:a Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei Ling; GUO Jian Ming; XU Dan Feng; THOMPSON Timothy C; CAO Guang Wen; ZHANG Hong Wei; LIN Ji; HOU Jian Guo; XU Lei; CUI Xin Gang; XU Xing Xing; YU Yong Wei; HAN Xue; WANG Guo Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the risk environmental and psycho-social factors associated to prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese population. Methods 250 PCa patients and 500 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Information was collected and logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95%confidence intervals (95% CI) for relationship between lifestyle, eating habits and psycho-social factors with PCa risk. Results Green vegetables and green tea were associated with a decreased risk of PCa (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.28-0.53; OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.87, respectively). Family history of PCa (OR=7.16, 95% CI:2.01-25.49), history of prostate diseases (OR=2.28, 95%CI:1.53-3.41), alcohol consumption (OR=1.97, 95%CI:1.33-2.90), red meat consumption (OR=1.74, 95%CI:1.20-2.52), barbecued (OR=2.29, 95%CI:1.11-4.73) or fried (OR=2.35, 95%CI:1.24-4.43) foods were related with increased PCa risk. Negative psycho-social factors including occupational setbacks (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.00-2.59), marital separation (OR=1.94, 95%CI:1.29-2.91), self-contained suffering (OR=2.37, 95%CI:1.58-3.55), and high sensitivity to the personal comments (OR=1.73, 95%CI:1.18-2.54) were related to PCa. Conclusion Regular consumption of green vegetables and green tea may suggest protective effects on PCa. Alcohol consumption, red meat consumption and barbecued or fried foods were associated with PCa. Negative psycho-social factors may also play a role in the incidence of PCa in Chinese population.

  18. Approach to derive doses for case-control studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among workers internally exposed to uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case-control studies are currently conducted in 3 European countries (Belgium, France and the United Kingdom) to estimate the risk of lung cancer and leukaemia in relation to internal exposure to uranium and plutonium amongst workers in the nuclear industry. The project requires calculating doses absorbed by the lung and the bone marrow for many hundreds of cases and controls internally exposed. In order to establish a common approach to dose reconstruction, a detailed dosimetry protocol and a database of individual exposure were set up and will be presented. The dose reconstruction relies heavily on bioassay data, which are usually urine analysis, extending back over 50 years in some cases. Inevitably, data obtained over such a time span are of variable quality. It is important to review the monitoring practices at the various laboratories and to assess the reliability of these data in order to estimate possible biases as well as random uncertainties. Another key step in the reconstruction process is to decide upon the likely intake regimes consistent with the data. Generally, chronic intakes will be assumed and acute intakes will be added only when their existence is supported by operational data. Biokinetic models are used both to calculate intakes from bioassay data and to convert intakes to doses. The ICRP publication 66 respiratory tract model will be used along with the latest systemic models described by ICRP. These will be supplemented by the Leggett 2005 model for plutonium. These various models will be implemented by the code IMBA-Expert. Since it is essential to obtain central estimates for the doses, a particular problem is encountered with datasets consisting only of values below the limit of detection. For these cases Bayesian statistics will be employed using a non-informative prior probability distribution. (author)

  19. The effects of interaction between familial and reproductive factors on breast cancer risk: a combined analysis of seven case-control studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrieu, N; Smith, T; Duffy, S.; Zaridze, D. G.; Renaud, R.; Rohan, T.; Gerber, M; Luporsi, E.; Lê, M.; Lee, H. P.; Lifanova, Y.; Day, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a combined analysis was performed to study the interaction between familial risk and reproductive life factors. In particular, the interaction between familial risk and breast cell mitotic activity (BCMA), as assessed by duration of ovarian activity, was investigated because of the potential importance of mitotic activity on genetically susceptible cells. The present analysis included 3152 cases and 4404 controls in seven case-control studies from four countries. The interactio...

  20. Comparison of immediate surgical outcomes between posterior pelvic exenteration and standard resection for primary rectal cancer: A matched case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varut Lohsiriwat; Darin Lohsiriwat

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the immediate surgical outcome and recovery of bowel function following posterior pelvic exenteration (PPE) for primary rectal cancer with suspected local invasion to the female internal reproductive organs, in comparison with a case-control series of standard resection for primary rectal cancer.METHODS: We analyzed 10 consecutive female patientsundergoing PPE for the aforementioned indicationbetween December 2003 and May 2006 in a singleinstitution. Data were prospectively collected duringhospitalization, including patient demographics, tumor-and operation-related variables and early surgicaloutcomes. These patients were compared with a groupof female patients, matched for age, co-morbidity andlocation of tumor, who underwent standard resection for primary rectal cancer in the same period (non PPE group).RESULTS: In the PPE group, pathological reports showed direct invasion of the reproductive organs in 4 cases and an involvement of lymph nodes in 7 cases. A sphincter-saving operation was performed in each case.Operative time was longer (274 min vs 157 min, P <0.001) and blood loss was greater (769 mL vs 203 mL,P = 0.008) in the PPE group. Time to first bowelmovement, time to first defecation, time to resumptionof normal diet, and hospital stay were not significantlydifferent between the two groups. Postoperativecomplication rates were also similar.CONCLUSION: PPE for rectal cancer was associatedwith longer operative time and increased blood loss,but did not compromise immediate surgical outcomes and postoperative bowel function compared to standard rectal resection.

  1. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status:a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rank Fritz; Jørgensen Torben; Høyer Annette P; Grandjean Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. Methods The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78). The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort...

  2. Identification of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair xenoderma pigmentosum group D gene and its association with head and neck cancer susceptibility in rural Indian population: a hospital based case-control study from south-western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailas D. Datkhile

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates that polymorphisms in cd199 of XPD gene could play a role in modifying genetic susceptibility of individual to head and neck cancer in Maharashtra patients. Thus, the case-control study suggest that selected DNA repair genes represent genetic determinants in oral carcinogenesis along with other risk factors in the rural Indian population. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1997-2005

  3. CYP17, GSTP1, PON1 and GLO1 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for breast cancer: an Italian case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogens, environmental chemicals with carcinogenic potential, as well as oxidative and carbonyl stresses play a very important role in breast cancer (BC) genesis and progression. Therefore, polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen biosynthesis pathway and in the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens to genotoxic intermediates, such as cytochrome P450C17α (CYP17), endogenous free-radical scavenging systems, such as glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), and anti-glycation defenses, such as glyoxalase I (GLO1), could influence individual susceptibility to BC. In the present case-control study, we investigated the possible association of CYP17 A1A2, GSTP1 ILE105VAL, PON1 Q192R or L55M, and GLO1 A111E polymorphisms with the risk of BC. The above-said five polymorphisms were characterized in 547 patients with BC and in 544 healthy controls by PCR/RFLP methods, using DNA from whole blood. To estimate the relative risks, Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for the known risk factors for BC. CYP17 polymorphism had no major effect in BC proneness in the overall population. However, it modified the risk of BC for certain subgroups of patients. In particular, among premenopausal women with the A1A1 genotype, a protective effect of later age at menarche and parity was observed. As to GSTP1 and PON1 192 polymorphisms, the mutant Val and R alleles, respectively, were associated with a decreased risk of developing BC, while polymorphisms in PON1 55 and GLO1 were associated with an increased risk of this neoplasia. However, these findings, while nominally significant, did not withstand correction for multiple testing. Genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes CYP17, GSTP1, PON1 and GLO1 could be associated with the risk for BC. Although significances did not withstand correction for multiple testing, the results of our exploratory analysis warrant

  4. CYP17, GSTP1, PON1 and GLO1 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for breast cancer: an Italian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crinò Lucio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogens, environmental chemicals with carcinogenic potential, as well as oxidative and carbonyl stresses play a very important role in breast cancer (BC genesis and progression. Therefore, polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen biosynthesis pathway and in the metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens to genotoxic intermediates, such as cytochrome P450C17α (CYP17, endogenous free-radical scavenging systems, such as glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1 and paraoxonase 1 (PON1, and anti-glycation defenses, such as glyoxalase I (GLO1, could influence individual susceptibility to BC. In the present case-control study, we investigated the possible association of CYP17 A1A2, GSTP1 ILE105VAL, PON1 Q192R or L55M, and GLO1 A111E polymorphisms with the risk of BC. Methods The above-said five polymorphisms were characterized in 547 patients with BC and in 544 healthy controls by PCR/RFLP methods, using DNA from whole blood. To estimate the relative risks, Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for the known risk factors for BC. Results CYP17 polymorphism had no major effect in BC proneness in the overall population. However, it modified the risk of BC for certain subgroups of patients. In particular, among premenopausal women with the A1A1 genotype, a protective effect of later age at menarche and parity was observed. As to GSTP1 and PON1 192 polymorphisms, the mutant Val and R alleles, respectively, were associated with a decreased risk of developing BC, while polymorphisms in PON1 55 and GLO1 were associated with an increased risk of this neoplasia. However, these findings, while nominally significant, did not withstand correction for multiple testing. Conclusion Genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes CYP17, GSTP1, PON1 and GLO1 could be associated with the risk for BC. Although significances did not withstand correction for

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk among African American women and white women in North Carolina: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C.; Douglas A Bell; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic studies have not shown a strong relationship between blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk. However, two recent studies showed a stronger association among postmenopausal white women with the inducible M2 polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we evaluated breast cancer risk in relation to PCBs and the CYP1A1 polymorphisms M1 (also known as CYP1A1*2A), M2 (CYP1A1*2C),...

  6. No effect or no information? Comments on a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European rock and slag wool production workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eva S

    2002-01-01

    The author considers the validity of a recent study of lung cancer among European rock and slag wool workers. The study failed to demonstrate an association between lung cancer and exposure to man-made vitreous fibers and also did not manage to demonstrate a relationship between lung cancer...... effect of rock and slag wool fibers, the apparent null results simply being non-informative because of the study's poor ability to detect existing associations....

  7. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest ...

  8. Association of sulfotransferase SULT1A1 with breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of case-control studies with subgroups of ethnic and menopausal statue

    OpenAIRE

    Shao Zhimin; Shen Zhenzhou; Yan Tingting; Zhou Liheng; Jiang Yiwei; Lu Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfotransferase (SULT) plays an important role in the formation of estrogen which is usually conferred as a risk factor for breast cancer. Polymorphism of the SULT1A1 may be closely associated with breast cancer. However, studies on the association between polymorphism and breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis including ethnic subgroup and menopausal statue subgroup to investigate the association of SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism wi...

  9. A case-control study of the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Stephanie E; Gould, Michael N.; Hampton, John M.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Background Overexpression of the HER2 proto-oncogene in human cancer cells has been associated with a poor prognosis, and survival improves with therapy targeting the HER2 gene. Animal studies and protein modeling suggest that the Ile655Val polymorphism located in the transmembrane domain of the HER2 protein might influence breast cancer development by altering the efficiency of homodimerization. Methods To investigate this genetic polymorphism, incident cases of invasive breast cancer (N = 1...

  10. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  11. Is opium a real risk factor for esophageal cancer or just a methodological artifact? Hospital and neighborhood controls in case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shakeri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control selection is a major challenge in epidemiologic case-control studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate using hospital versus neighborhood control groups in studying risk factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the results of two different case-control studies of ESCC conducted in the same region by a single research group. Case definition and enrollment were the same in the two studies, but control selection differed. In the first study, we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from inpatient subjects in hospitals, while for the second we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from each subject's neighborhood of residence. We used the test of heterogeneity to compare the results of the two studies. We found no significant differences in exposure data for tobacco-related variables such as cigarette smoking, chewing Nass (a tobacco product and hookah (water pipe usage, but the frequency of opium usage was significantly different between hospital and neighborhood controls. Consequently, the inference drawn for the association between ESCC and tobacco use did not differ between the studies, but it did for opium use. In the study using neighborhood controls, opium use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.68, while in the study using hospital controls, this was not the case (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.87. Comparing the prevalence of opium consumption in the two control groups and a cohort enrolled from the same geographic area suggested that the neighborhood controls were more representative of the study base population for this exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hospital and neighborhood controls did not lead us to the same conclusion for a major hypothesized risk factor for ESCC in this population. Our results show that control group selection is critical in drawing appropriate conclusions in observational

  12. The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Park, Sungshim Lani

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies reported an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Examining change in BMI over time may clarify these previous observations. We used data from 2,048 cases and 2,173 hospital- and population-based controls from ten European countries (alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe study) to investigate the relationship with BMI and adult change in BMI on UADT cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI at three time intervals and BMI change on UADT cancer development, adjusting for center, age, sex, education, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found an inverse relationship between UADT cancers and BMI at time of interview and 2 years before interview. No association was found with BMI at 30 years of age. Regarding BMI change between age 30 and 2 years before interview, BMI decrease (BMI change <-5%) vs. BMI stability (-5% ≤ BMI change <5%) showed no overall association with UADT cancers (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.49). An increase in BMI (BMI change ≥+5%) was inversely associated with UADT cancers (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89). BMI gain remained inversely associated across all subsites except for esophageal cancer. When stratified by smoking or by drinking, association with BMI gain was detected only in drinkers and smokers. In conclusion, BMI gain is inversely associated with UADT cancers. These findings may be influenced by smoking and\\/or drinking behaviors and\\/or the development of preclinical UADT cancers and should be corroborated in studies of a prospective nature.

  13. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  14. Polymorphisms of glutathione-S-transferase M1, T1, P1 and the risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Račay Peter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferases (GST could predispose to prostate cancer through a heritable deficiency in detoxification pathways for environmental carcinogens. Yet, studies linking GST polymorphism and prostate cancer have so far failed to unambiguously establish this relation in patients. A retrospective study on healthy, unrelated subjects was conducted in order to estimate the population GST genotype frequencies in the Slovak population of men and compare our results with already published data (GSEC project-Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens. A further aim of the study was to evaluate polymorphisms in GST also in patients with prostate cancer in order to compare the evaluated proportions with those found in the control subjects. Methods We determined the GST genotypes in 228 healthy, unrelated subjects who attended regular prostate cancer screening between May 2005 and June 2007 and in 129 histologically verified prostate cancer patients. Analysis for the GST gene polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP. Results We found that the GST frequencies are not significantly different from those estimated in a European multicentre study or from the results published by another group in Slovakia. Our results suggest that Val/Val genotype of GSTP1 gene could modulate the risk of prostate cancer, even if this association did not reach statistical significance. We did not observe significantly different crude rates of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes in the men diagnosed with prostate cancer and those in the control group. Conclusion Understanding the contribution of GST gene polymorphisms and their interactions with other relevant factors may improve screening diagnostic assays for prostate cancer. We therefore discuss issues of study feasibility, study design, and statistical power, which should be taken into account in planning further trials.

  15. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandaly O. S. Pacheco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326 were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394, compared with control subjects (n = 629. Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001. After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001. Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  16. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  17. Association Between XRCC3 Thr241Met Polymorphism and Risk of Breast Cancer: Meta-Analysis of 23 Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Li CHEN; Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that gene and environmental factors, such as BRCA1/2 mutations, ionized radiation, and chemical carcinogens, are related with breast cancer. X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is involved in homologous repair of double DNA breaks. It was reported that Thr241Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC3 is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the finding remains controversial. The current meta-analysis aims to determine wheth...

  18. Higher alcohol intake may modify the association between mammographic density and breast cancer: An analysis of three case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Shannon M; Koga, Karin; Woolcott, Christy G.; Dahl, Timothy; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Yaffe, Martin J.; Vachon, Celine M.; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and mammographic density are established risk factors for breast cancer. This study examined whether the association of mammographic density with breast cancer varies by alcohol intake. Mammographic density was assessed in digitized images for 1,207 cases and 1,663 controls from three populations (Japan, Hawaii, California) using a computer-assisted method. Associations were estimated by logistic regression. When comparing ever to never drinking, mean density was similar a...

  19. Association of sulfotransferase SULT1A1 with breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of case-control studies with subgroups of ethnic and menopausal statue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Zhimin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfotransferase (SULT plays an important role in the formation of estrogen which is usually conferred as a risk factor for breast cancer. Polymorphism of the SULT1A1 may be closely associated with breast cancer. However, studies on the association between polymorphism and breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis including ethnic subgroup and menopausal statue subgroup to investigate the association of SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism with breast cancer. Methods PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science databases were searched for the correlative articles up to January 2010 (10362 breast cancer patients and 14250 controls. The risk (odds ratio, OR was used to estimate the association between SULT1A1 polymorphism and breast cancer risk. All of the data from each study use either fixed-effects or random-effects. Results We found that SULT1A1 Arg213His had no exact effect to increase the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.97-1.17, P = 0.164, but it did increase the risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the dominant model (OR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.04-1.58, P = 0.019. No similar effect was found among premenopausal breast cancer women (OR = 1.06, 95%CI: 0.88-1.27, P = 0.537. There was a significant increase in breast cancer risk among Asian women (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.00-4.14, P = 0.051 but not Caucasian women in recessive model. There was publication bias among postmenopausal women subgroup (P = 0.002, however by using the trim and fill method, if the publication bias was the only source of the funnel plot asymmetry, it needed two more studies to be symmetrical. The value of Log OR did not change too much after the adjustment and the fail-safe number of missing studies that would bring the P-value changed was 17. Conclusions We concluded that the polymorphism of SULT1A1 Arg213His might be one of the high risk factors for breast cancer in Asian women and in postmenopausal women for all

  20. Hsa-miR-196a2 Rs11614913 polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from 15 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a family of endogenous, small and noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by suppressing translation or degrading mRNAs. Recently, many studies investigated the association between hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism and cancer risk, which showed inconclusive results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies that included 9,341 cancer cases and 10,569 case-free controls. We assessed the strength of the association, using odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Overall, individuals with the TC/CC genotypes were associated with higher cancer risk than those with the TT genotype (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.03-1.34, P<0.001 for heterogeneity test. In the stratified analyses, we observed that the CC genotype might modulate breast cancer risk (OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.01-1.23, Pheterogeneity=0.210 and lung cancer risk (OR=1.25, 95%CI=1.06-1.46, Pheterogeneity=0.958, comparing with the TC/TT genotype. Moreover, a significantly increased risk was found among Asian populations in a dominant model (TC/CC versus TT, OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.07-1.43, Pheterogeneity=0.006. CONCLUSIONS: These findings supported that hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism may contribute to the susceptibility of cancers.

  1. Sulfotransferase SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 53 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SULT1A1 Arg213His (rs9282861 polymorphism is reported to be associated with many kinds of cancer risk. However, the findings are conflicting. For better understanding this SNP site and cancer risk, we summarized available data and performed this meta-analysis. METHODS: Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge and CNKI. The association was assessed by odd ratio (OR and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 53 studies including 16733 cancer patients and 23334 controls based on the search criteria were analyzed. Overall, we found SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism can increase cancer risk under heterozygous (OR  1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.18, P = 0.040, dominant (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01-1.19, P = 0.021 and allelic (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16, P = 0.015 models. In subgroup analyses, significant associations were observed in upper aero digestive tract (UADT cancer (heterozygous model: OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11-2.35, P = 0.012; dominant model: OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.13-2.35, P = 0.009; allelic model: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10-2.11, P = 0.012 and Indians (recessive model: OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.22-3.07, P = 0.005 subgroups. Hospital based study also showed marginally significant association. In the breast cancer subgroup, ethnicity and publication year revealed by meta-regression analysis and one study found by sensitivity analysis were the main sources of heterogeneity. The association between SULT1A1 Arg213His and breast cancer risk was not significant. No publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism plays an important role in carcinogenesis, which may be a genetic factor affecting individual susceptibility to UADT cancer. SULT1A1 Arg213His didn't show any association with breast cancer, but the possible risk in Asian population needs further investigation.

  2. Long-term use of drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system and the risk of cancer. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Depont Christensen, Rene; Andersen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials has demonstrated a small excess of cancers in persons that had been allocated to angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs). We undertook this observational study to look at dose-response and dose-duration effects and look for specificity with respect to ...

  3. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - III. Oral contraceptives, menopausal replacement therapy and other female hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Vecchia, C; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Chatenoud, L; Braga, C; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Mabuchi, K; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Negri, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The relations between oral contraceptives (OC), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopause, and other female hormone use and thyroid cancer risk was analyzed using the original data from 13 studies from North America, Asia and Europe. Methods: Based on 2,132 cases and 3,301 controls,

  4. Relationship satisfaction in women : A longitudinal case-control study about the role of breast cancer, personal assertiveness, and partners' relationship-focused coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, Chris; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a breast cancer diagnosis, personal assertiveness (i.e. frequency of assertive behaviour and tension associated with this behaviour), and partners' relationship-focused coping (i.e. active engagement and protective buffering) were sources o

  5. Polymorphisms in the XPC gene affect urinary bladder cancer risk: a case-control study, meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    Compromised activity of the DNA repair enzymes may raise the risk of a number of cancers. We analyzed polymorphisms in the Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C (XPC) gene for their correlation with urinary bladder cancer. Ala499Val and Lys939Gln polymorphisms were genotyped in 234 urinary bladder cancer cases and 258 control samples. A significant association between Ala499Val polymorphism and bladder cancer was observed (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.19-2.66, p = 0.005); however, Lys939Gln was unrelated (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.65-1.45, P = 0.89). Further analysis revealed that Ala499Val was a significant risk factor only in the presence of smoking (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.28-3.87, p < 0.004) or tobacco chewing (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.43-4.04, p = 0.0008). To further appraise the association, we undertook meta-analyses on seven studies (2893 cases and 3056 controls) on Ala499Val polymorphism and eleven studies (5064 cases and 5208 controls) on Lys939Gln polymorphism. Meta-analyses corroborated the above results, showing strong association of Ala499Val (OR = 1.54, CI = 1.21-1.97, p = 0.001) but not that of Lys939Gln (OR = 1.13, CI = 0.95-1.34, p = 0.171) with urinary bladder cancer risk. In conclusion, XPC Ala499Val substitution increases urinary bladder cancer risk, but Lys939Gln appears to be neutral. PMID:27246180

  6. Tea drinking habits and oesophagial cancer in a high-risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2009-05-01

    In a recently published paper in the "British Medical Journal", a joint collaboration of well-known international scientists represented by Islami et al. has tackled this issue.1 In a well-designed, laborious case-control study in Golestan, Iran, they looked at 300 cases of esophageal SCC and 571 age and sex matched neighborhood controls, assessed the temperature of the commonly used drink "tea" among them and compared it between the two groups. After adjusting for several confounders including ethnicity, daily vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, tobacco or opium use, duration of residence in rural areas, education level and car ownership (the latter two as indices of socio-economic status), they found that consuming hot tea is associated with significantly increased chance of developing esophageal SCC. The adjusted odds ratio(OR) for developing esophageal SCC in those who reported drinking "very hot tea" was 8.16 (95% CI: 3.93 to 16.91) as compared to those taking warm or lukewarm tea (Pstudy) from a large on-going cohort study in the same region. The authors conclude that it is probably the "hotness" rather than the "tea" which is responsible for this increased chance of SCC of esophagus. In an accompanying editorial, Whiteman suggests that people drink their tea at least 5 minutes after pouring it in their cups. PMID:19400617

  7. Breast Cancer Risk, Fungicide Exposure and CYP1A1*2A Gene-Environment Interactions in a Province-Wide Case Control Study in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Read Guernsey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI Canada. Specific objectives were: (1 to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2 to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46–1.17. Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.

  8. Temporomandibular disorders. A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, Jose V.; Sanchis, Jose M.; Carbonell, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the risk factors and clinical manifestations of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) (axis I) versus an age and gender matched control group. Study Design: A total of 162 patients explored according to the RDC/TMD (mean age 40.6±18.8 years, range 7-90; 11.1% males and 88.9% females) were compared with 119 controls, measuring differences in TMD risk factors (sleep...

  9. CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis from 19 case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic polymorphism (rs762551A>C in gene encoding cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2 has been shown to influence the inducibility of CYP1A2 expression and thus might be associated with risk of several types of human cancer. However, the results of previous studies on the associations of this polymorphism with risk of cancer are not all consistent. To clarify the potential contribution of CYP1A2 rs762551 to cancer risk, we performed a meta-analysis of the published case–control studies. Methods We used PubMed, Embase, OVID, ScienceDirect, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases to identify the related publications for this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated using random effect model to evaluate the association of rs762551 with cancer risk. A χ2-based Q-test was used to examine the heterogeneity assumption and the funnel plot and Egger’s test were used to examine the potential publication bias. The leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine whether our assumptions or decisions have a major effect on the results of the review. Results Our analysis of 19 eligible case–control studies showed a significant association between rs762551C variant with risk of cancer in the genetic model of CC versus AA (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02-1.64 and the dominant model (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36. In subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, the rs762551CC genotype was associated with increased cancer risk (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.27-1.63 in co-dominate model and OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.02-1.34 in dominant model in Caucasians, but not in Asians and the mixed population. Conclusion These results suggested that CYP1A2 rs762551 polymorphism is likely to be associated with susceptibility to cancer in Caucasians.

  10. Dioxin emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of invasive breast cancer: a population-based case-control study with GIS-derived exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challier Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between environmental PCDD/F exposure and breast cancer in human populations. Dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs are one of the major sources of environmental dioxins and are therefore an exposure source of public concern. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dioxins emitted from a polluting MSWI and invasive breast cancer risk among women residing in the area under direct influence of the facility. Methods We compared 434 incident cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2002, and 2170 controls randomly selected from the 1999 population census. A validated dispersion model was used as a proxy for dioxin exposure, yielding four exposure categories. The latter were linked to individual places of residence, using Geographic Information System technology. Results The age distribution at diagnosis for all cases combined showed a bimodal pattern with incidence peaks near 50 and 70 years old. This prompted us to run models separately for women aged 20–59 years, and women aged 60 years or older. Among women younger than 60 years old, no increased or decreased risk was found for any dioxin exposure category. Conversely, women over 60 years old living in the highest exposed zone were 0.31 time less likely (95% confidence interval, 0.08–0.89 to develop invasive breast cancer. Conclusion Before speculating that this decreased risk reflects a dioxin anti-estrogenic activity with greater effect on late-onset acquired breast cancer, some residual confounding must be envisaged.

  11. Risk allelic load in Th2 and Th3 cytokines genes as biomarker of susceptibility to HPV-16 positive cervical cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    K. Torres-Poveda; A. I. Burguete-García; Bahena-Román, M.; Méndez-Martínez, R.; Zurita-Díaz, M. A.; López-Estrada, G.; Delgado-Romero, K.; Peralta-Zaragoza, O.; Bermúdez-Morales, V. H.; Cantú, D; García-Carrancá, A.; Madrid-Marina, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in the host cellular immune response allow persistent infections with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and development of premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer (CC). Variations of immunosuppressive cytokine levels in cervix are associated with the natural history of CC. To assess the potential role of genetic host immunity and cytokines serum levels in the risk of developing CC, we conducted a case–control study paired by age. Methods Peripheral blood...

  12. Conducting Molecular Epidemiological Research in the Age of HIPAA: A Multi-Institutional Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in African-American and European-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine B. Ambrosone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in African-American (AA women occurs at an earlier age than in European-American (EA women and is more likely to have aggressive features associated with poorer prognosis, such as high-grade and negative estrogen receptor (ER status. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. To address this, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for high-grade ER- disease in both AA and EA women. With the onset of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, creative measures were needed to adapt case ascertainment and contact procedures to this new environment of patient privacy. In this paper, we report on our approach to establishing a multicenter study of breast cancer in New York and New Jersey, provide preliminary distributions of demographic and pathologic characteristics among case and control participants by race, and contrast participation rates by approaches to case ascertainment, with discussion of strengths and weaknesses.

  13. A Molecular Case-Control Study on the Association of Melatonin Hormone and rs#10830963 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in its Receptor MTNR1B Gene with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A Abd El Moneim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main function of the pineal hormone melatonin which is mediated via its two receptors, MTNR1A and MTNR1B, is to mediate dark signals in addition to anti-oxidation, immune system enhancement, protection from radiation, and anti-cancer functions. A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the MTNR1B gene is rs#10830963, which is well known as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study intends to figure out the role of melatonin and its receptor MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism in breast cancer incidence, diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: This study included 43 females with breast cancer and 45 apparently normal healthy females. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR was used for amplification and genotyping of the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism in whole blood. Serum melatonin levels were measured using a ready-for-use radioimmunoassay kit. Results: For the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism, we observed a significantly higher GG genotype frequency among cases (72.1% than controls (13.3%, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 83.78% and specificity of 76.47%. The cases had a frequency of 11.6% for the CC genotype and 16.3% for the CG genotype which was significantly lower compared to controls that had a 44.4% frequency of the CC genotype and 42.2% frequency of the CG genotype. The GG genotype had a significant association with larger tumor volume (P=0.048. Serum melatonin levels were significantly lower among breast cancer patients than controls. Using the ROC curve analysis, serum melatonin showed a significant AUC (72.6%, P39.5 pg/ml. Conclusion: The risk for breast cancer incidence increased as the serum levels of melatonin decreased and in females homozygous for the G allele (GG genotype of the MTNR1B gene rs#10830963 polymorphism. The GG genotype was found to be associated with increased breast tumor volume as a marker of a poor prognosis breast cancer.

  14. Meta-analysis of the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer based on case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliu Peng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is an inducible enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and playing important roles in inflammatory diseases as well as tumor development. Previous studies investigating the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC risk reported conflicting results. We performed a meta-analysis of all available studies to explore this association. METHODS: All studies published up to October 2013 on the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and CRC risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. The association between COX-2 polymorphisms and CRC risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: Ten studies with 6,774 cases and 9,772 controls were included for -1195A>G polymorphism, 13 studies including 6,807 cases and 10,052 controls were available for -765G>C polymorphism, and 8 studies containing 5,121 cases and 7,487 controls were included for 8473T>C polymorphism. With respect to -765G>C polymorphism, we did not find a significant association with CRC risk when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. However, in subgroup analyses by ethnicity and cancer location, with a Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.05/2, statistical significant increased CRC risk was found in the Asian populations (dominant model CC+CG vs. GG: OR = 1.399, 95%CI: 1.113-1.760, P = 0.004 and rectum cancer patients (CC vs. GG: OR = 2.270, 95%CI: 1.295-3.980, P = 0.004; Recessive model CC vs. CG+GG: OR = 2.269, 95%CI: 1.297-3.970, P = 0.004. In subgroup analysis according to source of control, no significant association was detected. With respect to -1195A>G and 8473T>C polymorphisms, no significant association with CRC risk was demonstrated in the overall and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that the COX-2 -765G>C polymorphism may be a risk factor for

  15. Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5 and chemokine receptor (CCR5 genetic variants and prostate cancer risk among men of African Descent: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidd LaCreis R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokine and chemokine receptors play an essential role in tumorigenesis. Although chemokine-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with various cancers, their impact on prostate cancer (PCA among men of African descent is unknown. Consequently, this study evaluated 43 chemokine-associated SNPs in relation to PCA risk. We hypothesized inheritance of variant chemokine-associated alleles may lead to alterations in PCA susceptibility, presumably due to variations in antitumor immune responses. Methods Sequence variants were evaluated in germ-line DNA samples from 814 African-American and Jamaican men (279 PCA cases and 535 controls using Illumina’s Goldengate genotyping system. Results Inheritance of CCL5 rs2107538 (AA, GA+AA and rs3817655 (AA, AG, AG+AA genotypes were linked with a 34-48% reduction in PCA risk. Additionally, the recessive and dominant models for CCR5 rs1799988 and CCR7 rs3136685 were associated with a 1.52-1.73 fold increase in PCA risk. Upon stratification, only CCL5 rs3817655 and CCR7 rs3136685 remained significant for the Jamaican and U.S. subgroups, respectively. Conclusions In summary, CCL5 (rs2107538, rs3817655 and CCR5 (rs1799988 sequence variants significantly modified PCA susceptibility among men of African descent, even after adjusting for age and multiple comparisons. Our findings are only suggestive and require further evaluation and validation in relation to prostate cancer risk and ultimately disease progression, biochemical/disease recurrence and mortality in larger high-risk subgroups. Such efforts will help to identify genetic markers capable of explaining disproportionately high prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and morbidity rates among men of African descent.

  16. A case-control study on association of SULT1A1 polymorphism and smoked meat intake with breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶蘋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of smoked meat intake,SULT1A1 polymorphism as well as their combined effects with breast cancer risk. Methods A total of 400 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases from a cancer hospital in Sichuan province and 400 healthy controls from participants

  17. Vacuolating cytotoxin genotypes are strong markers of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer-associated Helicobacter pylori strains: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ameer A; Hussein, Nawfal R; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y; Burette, Alain; Atherton, John C

    2014-08-01

    The Helicobacter pylori virulence gene, cagA, and active forms of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, are major determinants of pathogenesis. However, previous studies linking these factors to disease risk have often included patients using aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) or acid-suppressing drugs, both of which may confound results. Also, particularly for gastric cancer (GC), controls have often been of quite different ages. Here, we performed a careful study in a "clean" Belgian population with gastric cancer cases age and sex matched to 4 controls and with a parallel duodenal ulcer (DU) group. As in other populations, there was a close association between the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. For GC, associations were found for vacA s1-positive (P = 0.01, odds ratio [OR], 9.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 201.89), i1-positive (P = 0.003; OR, 12.08; 95% CI, 1.50 to 259.64), and cagA-positive status (P ulcer-associated strains are the vacA s1 and i1 genotypes. This fits with experimental data showing that the s and i regions are the key determinants of vacuolating cytotoxin activity.

  18. The cardiotoxicity and long-term efficacy of different doses of epirubicin in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer patients:A case control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Zhenyu You; Xiaohui Su; Bona Liu; Xuefei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to observe the cardiac toxicity caused by diferent doses of epirubicin in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer and to evaluate the long-term eficacy.Methods:The 180 cases of breast cancer patients received epirubicin based adjuvant chemotherapy. The patients were randomly assigned to high-dosage group (90 mg/m2), medium-dosage group (70 mg/m2) and low-dosage group (50 mg/m2), the primary endpoint was cardiac toxicity. The secondary outcomes were the 5-year overal survival (OS) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS).Results: During chemo-therapy, the clinical symptoms such as palpitation, dyspnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea occurred in 6 patients with the high-dosage group, 4 patients with the medium-dosage group and 3 patients with the low-dosage group. The number of patients who had changed in electrocardiogram (ECG) was 7, 5 and 4 in three groups, respectively. The echocardiographic showed each group had only one case with LVEF 0.05). In the three groups, the 5-year DFS rates were 73.3% (44/60) in high-dose group, 53.3% (32/60) in medium-dose group and 41.6% (25/60) in low dose group. The 5-year OS rates were 85.0% (51/60), 68.3% (41/60) and 58.3% (35/60) in three groups, respectively. The diferences were statisticaly significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The high-dose epirubicin in adjuvant chemotherapy with CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and fluorouracil) regimen could improve the 5-year OS rate and 5-year DFS rate on patients of breast cancer. The cardiotoxicity was mild-moderate and wel tolerated.

  19. A fully-automated software pipeline for integrating breast density and parenchymal texture analysis for digital mammograms: parameter optimization in a case-control breast cancer risk assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yan; Keller, Brad M.; Conant, Emily; Gee, James C.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-02-01

    Estimating a woman's risk of breast cancer is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Mammographic density, estimated as the percent of dense (PD) tissue area within the breast, has been shown to be a strong risk factor. Studies also support a relationship between mammographic texture and breast cancer risk. We have developed a fullyautomated software pipeline for computerized analysis of digital mammography parenchymal patterns by quantitatively measuring both breast density and texture properties. Our pipeline combines advanced computer algorithms of pattern recognition, computer vision, and machine learning and offers a standardized tool for breast cancer risk assessment studies. Different from many existing methods performing parenchymal texture analysis within specific breast subregions, our pipeline extracts texture descriptors for points on a spatial regular lattice and from a surrounding window of each lattice point, to characterize the local mammographic appearance throughout the whole breast. To demonstrate the utility of our pipeline, and optimize its parameters, we perform a case-control study by retrospectively analyzing a total of 472 digital mammography studies. Specifically, we investigate the window size, which is a lattice related parameter, and compare the performance of texture features to that of breast PD in classifying case-control status. Our results suggest that different window sizes may be optimal for raw (12.7mm2) versus vendor post-processed images (6.3mm2). We also show that the combination of PD and texture features outperforms PD alone. The improvement is significant (p=0.03) when raw images and window size of 12.7mm2 are used, having an ROC AUC of 0.66. The combination of PD and our texture features computed from post-processed images with a window size of 6.3 mm2 achieves an ROC AUC of 0.75.

  20. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, P<0·0001) and coffee consumption (OR = 1·73, 95%CI = 1·04–2·86, P = 0·033) were relevant risk factors for bladder cancer. Conclusions: Specific PAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  1. Morbidity in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed with non-curative intent. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Friis, S; Juel, K;

    1999-01-01

    To compare the morbidity in patients with newly diagnosed clinically localized prostate cancer managed conservatively with the morbidity in a randomly selected age-matched background population with no history of prostate cancer. Patients younger than 75 y at diagnosis with newly diagnosed...... clinically localized prostate cancer reported to the Danish Cancer Registry in the period 1977-1992. Morbidity in patients and age-matched controls was extracted from The Danish Hospital Discharge Registry. Admissions were stratified by discharge diagnosis. Overall 4744 patients were hospitalized for 251....... When prostate cancer-related admissions were excluded, the relative risk of admission was reduced to 1.35 (1.3-1.4) and 0.86 (0.83-0.89), respectively. The estimated costs associated with deferred therapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer exceeded the estimated cost in age...

  2. The Associations of Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Soluble Receptor with Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study within the Prospective EPIC Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Verena A; Nieters, Alexandra; Kaaks, Rudolf; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Nielsen, Michael R Skjelbo; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Racine, Antoine; Teucher, Birgit; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Drogan, Dagmar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptors (RAGE) have been implicated in cancer development through their proinflammatory capabilities. However, prospective data on their association with cancer of specific sites, including pancreatic cancer, are limited. METHODS: Prediagnostic blood levels of the AGE product Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and the endogenous secreted receptor for AGE (esRAGE) were measured using ELISA in 454 patients with exocrine pancreatic ca...

  3. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk : a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Mckay, James D.; Canzian, Federico; Wilkening, Stefan; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnes; Linseisen, Jakob; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Sala, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hallmans, Goran; Lenner, Per; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on

  4. Prognostic impact of clinical course-specific mRNA expression profiles in the serum of perioperative patients with esophageal cancer in the ICU: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Yoshiaki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that measuring circulating serum mRNAs using quantitative one-step real-time RT-PCR was clinically useful for detecting malignancies and determining prognosis. The aim of our study was to find crucial serum mRNA biomarkers in esophageal cancer that would provide prognostic information for post-esophagectomy patients in the critical care setting. Methods We measured serum mRNA levels of 11 inflammatory-related genes in 27 post-esophagectomy patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. We tracked these levels chronologically, perioperatively and postoperatively, until the two-week mark, investigating their clinical and prognostic significance as compared with clinical parameters. Furthermore, we investigated whether gene expression can accurately predict clinical outcome and prognosis. Results Circulating mRNAs in postoperative esophagectomy patients had gene-specific expression profiles that varied with the clinical phase of their treatment. Multivariate regression analysis showed that upregulation of IL-6, VWF and TGF-β1 mRNA in the intraoperative phase (p = 0.016, 0.0021 and 0.009 and NAMPT and MUC1 mRNA on postoperative day 3 (p ®, Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. significantly correlated with MUC1 and NAMPT mRNA expression (p = 0.048 and 0.045. IL-6 mRNA correlated with hypercytokinemia and recovery from hypercytokinemia (sensitivity 80.9% and was a significant biomarker in predicting the onset of severe inflammatory diseases. Conclusion Chronological tracking of postoperative mRNA levels of inflammatory-related genes in esophageal cancer patients may facilitate early institution of pharamacologic therapy, prediction of treatment response, and prognostication during ICU management in the perioperative period.

  5. Relationship between caga-positive Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer: a case control study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Coelho Meine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a class I carcinogen, the presence of infection is not a factor that alone is able to lead to gastric cancer, and one of the possible explanations for this is the existence of different strains of H. pylori with different degrees of virulence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cagA-positive H. pylori and gastric cancer, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of this bacterial strain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer were matched by sex and age (± 5 years with 58 patients without gastric cancer, submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All patients were evaluated for the status of infection by H. pylori (through urease test, histological analysis and PCR for the genes ureA and 16SrRNA and by cagA-positive strain (through PCR for cagA gene. RESULTS: Evaluating the presence of infection by cagA-positive H. pylori, it was verified that the rate of infection was significantly higher in the group with gastric cancer when compared with the matched controls, occurring in 62.1% and 29.3%, respectively (OR = 3.95; CI 95% 1.543-10.096. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cagA-positive H. pylori strain and risk of gastric cancer.

  6. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized.This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups.A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups.Individuals with dinner-to-bed time 55 years old. PMID:27100427

  7. Comparison of Address-based Sampling and Random-digit Dialing Methods for Recruiting Young Men as Controls in a Case-Control Study of Testicular Cancer Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-phone numbers and address-based sampling (ABS), to recruit primarily white men aged 18–55 years into a study of testicular cancer susceptibility conducted in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area between 2009 and 2012. With few exceptions, eligible and enrolled controls recruited by means of RDD and ABS were similar with regard to characteristics for which data were collected on the screening survey. While we find ABS to be a comparably effective method of recruiting young males compared with landline RDD, we acknowledge the potential impact that selection bias may have had on our results because of poor overall response rates, which ranged from 11.4% for landline RDD to 1.7% for ABS. PMID:24008901

  8. Matched case-control study of quality of life and xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy or standard radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Initial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare quality of life (QOL) and xerostomia between head-and-neck cancer patients who received standard radiotherapy (RT) and patients matched by factors known to affect QOL who received intensity-modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: This was a prospective, longitudinal study of patients with head-and-neck cancer requiring bilateral neck irradiation who received IMRT at the University of Michigan and patients who received standard RT at affiliated clinics. Each patient received a validated head-and-neck cancer-related QOL questionnaire (HNQOL) consisting of four multi-item domains-Eating, Communication, Pain, and Emotion-and a validated patient-reported xerostomia questionnaire (XQ). In both questionnaires, the answers were scored 0-100, with higher scores denoting worse QOL or xerostomia. The questionnaires were given before therapy and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the completion of therapy. Each standard RT patient was matched with several IMRT patients according to tumor site, stage, RT status (postoperative or definitive), and age. A linear mixed-effects model was fit to compare outcomes between the two treatment groups and to model trends over time. To account for matching, the differences in scores between the matched sets of patients were fit as a random intercept. Also, matching was taken into account in the model by using the standard error of the within-paired-groups differences. Results: Between 1997 and 2002, 10 patients who had received standard RT and answered the XQ and HNQOL through at least 1 year were included in the study. Each of these patients was matched with a subgroup of 2-5 patients (median, 3) who had received IMRT, had similar patient and tumor characteristics, and answered the same questionnaires. A total of 30 patients were included in the IMRT group. During the initial months after therapy, the XQ and HNQOL summary scores worsened significantly in both groups compared with the pretherapy scores. Starting

  9. Morbidity in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed with non-curative intent. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Juel, K;

    1999-01-01

    clinically localized prostate cancer reported to the Danish Cancer Registry in the period 1977-1992. Morbidity in patients and age-matched controls was extracted from The Danish Hospital Discharge Registry. Admissions were stratified by discharge diagnosis. Overall 4744 patients were hospitalized for 251......,695 days within the first 10 y following diagnosis compared with 74,563 days in 4774 age-matched controls. The patients were admitted 6.7 (6.4-7.1) times more often than controls in the year following diagnosis, and 2.7 (2.6-2.8) times more often in the following 9 y. Excess morbidity declined over time......To compare the morbidity in patients with newly diagnosed clinically localized prostate cancer managed conservatively with the morbidity in a randomly selected age-matched background population with no history of prostate cancer. Patients younger than 75 y at diagnosis with newly diagnosed...

  10. KRAS rs61764370 is associated with HER2-overexpressed and poorly-differentiated breast cancer in hormone replacement therapy users: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the 3'-untranslated region of the KRAS oncogene (KRAS variant; rs61764370) disrupts a let-7 miRNA binding and was recently reported to act as a genetic marker for increased risk of developing human cancers. We aimed to investigate an association of the KRAS variant with sporadic and familial breast cancer and breast tumor characteristics. Genotyping was accomplished in 530 sporadic postmenopausal breast cancer cases, 165 familial breast cancer cases (including N = 29, who test positive for BRCA1/2 mutations) and 270 postmenopausal control women using the flurogenic 5' nuclease assay. Information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and tumor characteristics in sporadic breast cancer cases was ascertained from a postal questionnaire and pathology reports, respectively. Associations between the KRAS genotype and breast cancer or breast tumor characteristics were assessed using chi-square test and logistic regression models. No evidence of association was observed between the KRAS variant and risk of sporadic and familial breast cancer - either among BRCA carriers or non-BRCA carriers. The KRAS variant was statistically significantly more often associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) - positive tumors and tumors of higher histopathologic grade. However, both associations were detected only in HRT users. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the KRAS variant rs61764370 is implicated in the aetiology of sporadic or of familial breast cancer. In postmenopausal women using HRT, the KRAS variant might lead to HER2 overexpressed and poorly-differentiated breast tumors, both indicators of a worse prognosis

  11. Prostate-specific antigen as a risk factor for skeletal metastasis in native ethnic African Men with prostate cancer : a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Ayman; Makhdomi, Khalid; Stones, William

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest non cutaneous cancer in males. Men of African origin are at significantly higher risk as reflected in higher incidence and mortality rates in this racial group. Metastases incidence increases in parallel with serum levels of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. Staging of disease involves bone scans, which are sensitive in detecting skeletal metastases. Suggestions they may be omitted in some situations in pat...

  12. A Case-Control Study to Estimate the Impact of the Icelandic Population-Based Mammography Screening Program on Breast Cancer Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Icelandic breast cancer screening program, initiated November 1987 in Reykjavik and covering the whole country from December 1989, comprises biennial invitation to mammography for women aged 40-69 years old. Purpose: To estimate the impact of mammography service screening in Iceland on deaths from breast cancer. Material and Methods: Cases were deaths from breast cancer from 1990 onwards in women aged 40 and over at diagnosis, during the period November 1987 to December 31, 2002. Age- and screening-area-matched, population-based controls were women who had also been invited to screening but were alive at the time their case died. Results: Using conditional logistic regression on the data from 226 cases and 902 controls, the odds ratio for the risk of death from breast cancer in those attending at least one screen compared to those never screened was 0.59 (95% CI 0.41-0.84). After adjustment for healthy-volunteer bias and screening-opportunity bias, the odds ratio was 0.65 (95% CI 0.39-1.09). Conclusion: These results indicate a 35-40% reduction in breast cancer deaths by attending the Icelandic breast cancer screening program. These results are consistent with the overall evidence from other observational evaluations of mammography-based programs

  13. Combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the risk of head and neck cancers: a re-analysis of case-control studies using bi-dimensional spline models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Torelli, Nicola; Biancotto, Elisa; Di Maso, Matteo; Gini, Andrea; Franchin, Gianni; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Serraino, Diego; Polesel, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers has been mainly investigated as a cross-product of categorical exposure, thus leading to loss of information. We propose a bi-dimensional logistic spline model to investigate the interacting dose-response relationship of two continuous exposures (i.e., ethanol intake and tobacco smoking) on the risk of head and neck cancers, representing results through three-dimensional graphs. This model was applied to a pool of hospital-based case-control studies on head and neck cancers conducted in Italy and in the Vaud Swiss Canton between 1982 and 2000, including 1569 cases and 3147 controls. Among never drinkers and for all levels of ethanol intake, the risk of head and neck cancers steeply increased with increasing smoking intensity, starting from 1 cigarette/day. The risk associated to ethanol intake increased with incrementing exposure among smokers, and a threshold effect at approximately 50 g/day emerged among never smokers. Compared to abstainers from both tobacco and alcohol consumption, the combined exposure to ethanol and/or cigarettes led to a steep increase of cancer risk up to a 35-fold higher risk (95 % confidence interval 27.30-43.61) among people consuming 84 g/day of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/day. The highest risk was observed at the highest levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Our findings confirmed a combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on head and neck cancers risk, providing evidence that bi-dimensional spline models could be a feasible and flexible method to explore the pattern of risks associated to two interacting continuous-exposure variables.

  14. Combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the risk of head and neck cancers: a re-analysis of case-control studies using bi-dimensional spline models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Torelli, Nicola; Biancotto, Elisa; Di Maso, Matteo; Gini, Andrea; Franchin, Gianni; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Serraino, Diego; Polesel, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers has been mainly investigated as a cross-product of categorical exposure, thus leading to loss of information. We propose a bi-dimensional logistic spline model to investigate the interacting dose-response relationship of two continuous exposures (i.e., ethanol intake and tobacco smoking) on the risk of head and neck cancers, representing results through three-dimensional graphs. This model was applied to a pool of hospital-based case-control studies on head and neck cancers conducted in Italy and in the Vaud Swiss Canton between 1982 and 2000, including 1569 cases and 3147 controls. Among never drinkers and for all levels of ethanol intake, the risk of head and neck cancers steeply increased with increasing smoking intensity, starting from 1 cigarette/day. The risk associated to ethanol intake increased with incrementing exposure among smokers, and a threshold effect at approximately 50 g/day emerged among never smokers. Compared to abstainers from both tobacco and alcohol consumption, the combined exposure to ethanol and/or cigarettes led to a steep increase of cancer risk up to a 35-fold higher risk (95 % confidence interval 27.30-43.61) among people consuming 84 g/day of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/day. The highest risk was observed at the highest levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Our findings confirmed a combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on head and neck cancers risk, providing evidence that bi-dimensional spline models could be a feasible and flexible method to explore the pattern of risks associated to two interacting continuous-exposure variables. PMID:25855002

  15. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfdahl Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL. Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism, their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Methods Consecutive patients (n=101 treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, and Psychological Well Being (PGWB questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. Results The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2. The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. Conclusion In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  16. The Int7G24A variant of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I is a risk factor for colorectal cancer in the male Spanish population: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Int7G24A variant of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I (TGFBR1) has been shown to increase the risk for kidney, ovarian, bladder, lung and breast cancers. Its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been established. The aims of this study were to assess the association of TGFBR1*Int7G24A variant with CRC occurrence, patient age, gender, tumour location and stage. We performed a case-control study with 504 cases of sporadic CRC; and 504 non-cancerous age, gender and ethnically matched controls. Genotyping analysis was performed using allelic discrimination assay by real time PCR. The Int7G24A variant was associated with increased CRC incidence in an additive model of inheritance (P for trend = 0.005). No significant differences were found between Int7G24A genotypes and tumour location or stage. Interestingly, the association of the Int7G24A variant with CRC risk was significant in men (odds ratio 4.10 with 95% confidence intervals 1.41-11.85 for homozygous individuals; P for trend = 0.00023), but not in women. We also observed an increase in susceptibility to CRC for individuals aged less than 70 years. Our data suggest that the Int7G24A variant represents a risk factor for CRC in the male Spanish population

  17. Pancreatic cancer-associated gene polymorphisms in a nation-wide cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers; A case-control study Medical Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Potjer (Thomas P.); N. van der Stoep (Nienke); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); I.C.A.W. Konings (Ingrid C.A.W.); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); P.C. van den Akker (Peter); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.J. Dommering (Charlotte); L. van der Kolk (Lizet); M.C. Maiburg (Merel C.); L. Spruijt (Liesbeth); A. Wagner (Anja); H. Vasen (Hans); F.J. Hes (Frederik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The p16-Leiden founder mutation in the CDKN2A gene is the most common cause of Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome in the Netherlands. Individuals with this mutation are at increased risk for developing melanoma of the skin, as well as pancreatic cancer.

  18. Pancreatic cancer-associated gene polymorphisms in a nation-wide cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers; a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Potjer (Thomas P.); N. van der Stoep (Nienke); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); I.C.A.W. Konings (Ingrid C.A.W.); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); P.C. van den Akker (Peter); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.J. Dommering (Charlotte); L. van der Kolk (Lizet); M.C. Maiburg (Merel C.); L. Spruijt (Liesbeth); A. Wagner (Anja); H. Vasen (Hans); F.J. Hes (Frederik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The p16-Leiden founder mutation in the CDKN2A gene is the most common cause of Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome in the Netherlands. Individuals with this mutation are at increased risk for developing melanoma of the skin, as well as pancreatic cancer.

  19. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Johnson (Nichola); F. Dudbridge (Frank); N. Orr (Nick); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); M. Jones (Michael); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); Folkerd, E.J. (Elizabeth J.); Haynes, B.P. (Ben P.); J.L. Hopper (John); M.C. Southey (Melissa); G.S. Dite (Gillian); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F. Atsma (Femke); K.R. Muir (K.); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A.B. Ekici (Arif); S.P. Renner (S.); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); Cordina, E. (Emilie); F. Menegaux (Florence); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); H. Flyger (Henrik); R.L. Milne (Roger); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); J. Benítez (Javier); L. Bernstein (Leslie); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); C.C. Dur (Christina Clarke); H. Brenner (Hermann); H. Mul̈ler (Heiko); V. Arndt (Volker); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); A. Meindl (Alfons); J. Heil (Joerg); C.R. Bartram (Claus); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); C. Justenhoven (Christina); Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); T. Dörk (Thilo); Bogdanova, N.V. (Natalia V.); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.H. Wu (Anna); D. Van Den Berg (David); C.-C. Tseng (Chiu-Chen); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); D. Smeets (Dominiek); P. Neven (Patrick); H. Wildiers (Hans); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); S. Nickels (Stefan); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); V. Pensotti (Valeria); F.J. Couch (Fergus); Olson, J.E. (Janet E.); X. Wang (X.); Fredericksen, Z. (Zachary); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); G. Severi (Gianluca); Baglietto, L. (Laura); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); Soucy, P. (Penny); S.-H. Teo; C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); S.-Y. Phuah (Sze-Yee); Cornes, B.K. (Belinda K.); V. Kristensen (Vessela); Alnæs, G.G. (Grethe Grenaker); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); W. Zheng (Wei); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); P. Devillee (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); Chanock, S.J. (Stephen J.); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.E. Sherman (Mark); P. Hall (Per); N. Schoof (Nils); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); Liu, J. (Jianjun); A. Cox (Angela); I.W. Brock (Ian); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); S.S. Cross (Simon); W.J. Blot (William); L.B. Signorello (Lisa B.); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); D. Kang (Daehee); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); S.K. Park (Sue K.); J.-Y. Choi (Ji-Yeob); J.M. Hartman (Joost); X. Miao; Lim, W.Y. (Wei Yen); A. Tang (Anthony); U. Hamann (Ute); A. Försti (Asta); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); Jaworska-Bieniek, K. (Katarzyna); Durda, K. (Katarzyna); S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); Gaborieau, V. (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda); Vachon, C. (Celine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); C.-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); Huang, C.-S. (Chiun-Sheng); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); A. González-Neira (Anna); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); C. Luccarini (Craig); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); Bolla, M.K. (Manjeet K.); J. Wang (Jinxia); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); M. Dowsett (Mitch); A. Ashworth (Alan); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); J. Peto (Julian); I.D.S. Silva (Isabel Dos Santos); O. Fletcher (Olivia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 year

  20. Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Nichola

    2014-05-26

    We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years.

  1. Standardized measures of lobular involution and subsequent breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Brinton, Louise A; Palakal, Maya M; Degnim, Amy C; Radisky, Derek; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Stallings Mann, Melody L; Papathomas, Daphne; Gierach, Gretchen L; Hewitt, Stephen M; Duggan, Maire A; Visscher, Daniel; Sherman, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct-lobular unit (TDLU) involution predict higher breast cancer risk; however, standardized measures to quantitate levels of TDLU involution have only recently been developed. We assessed whether three standardized measures of TDLU involution, with high intra/inter pathologist reproducibility in normal breast tissue, predict subsequent breast cancer risk among women in the Mayo benign breast disease (BBD) cohort. We performed a masked evaluation of biopsies from 99 women with BBD who subsequently developed breast cancer (cases) after a median of 16.9 years and 145 age-matched controls. We assessed three metrics inversely related to TDLU involution: TDLU count/mm(2), median TDLU span (microns, which approximates acini content), and median category of acini counts/TDLU (0-10; 11-20; 21-30; 31-50; >50). Associations with subsequent breast cancer risk for quartiles (or categories of acini counts) of each of these measures were assessed with multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). In multivariable models, women in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartiles of TDLU counts and TDLU span measures were significantly associated with subsequent breast cancer diagnoses; TDLU counts quartile4 versus quartile1, OR = 2.44, 95 %CI 0.96-6.19, p-trend = 0.02; and TDLU spans, quartile4 versus quartile1, OR = 2.83, 95 %CI = 1.13-7.06, p-trend = 0.03. Significant associations with categorical measures of acini counts/TDLU were also observed: compared to women with median category of 25 acini counts/TDLU were at significantly higher risk, OR = 3.40, 95 %CI 1.03-11.17, p-trend = 0.032. Women with TDLU spans and TDLU count measures above the median were at further increased risk, OR = 3.75 (95 %CI 1.40-10.00, p-trend = 0.008), compared with women below the median for both of these metrics. Similar results were observed for combinatorial metrics of TDLU

  2. Case Control Study on Risk Factors of Oral Cancer%口腔癌发病影响因素病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣

    2015-01-01

    目的:系统了解影响口腔癌发病的因素,为临床准确提供预防控制口腔癌的参考依据。方法整理分析2013年11月~2014年11月期间我院收治的180例口腔癌患者的临床基本资料,根据患者的性别、年龄、饮酒、吸烟等资料,进行统计学分析,查找诱导口腔癌发病的临床主要因素。结果在180例患者中,吸烟者易患口腔癌的机率是不吸烟者的3.35倍,饮酒者易患口腔癌的机率是不饮酒者的4.32倍,抽烟、饮酒患口腔癌的比例明显高于早期患者,差异具有统计学意义,即P<0.05。晚期患者当中,抽烟、饮酒患者口腔癌的比例明显高于早期患者,即P<0.05。结论增加口腔癌发病的主要因素是吸烟和饮酒,及时戒烟和戒酒,能够有效的降低口腔癌的发病机率。%Objective To understand the system factors in oral cancer, for clinical provide accurate control and prevention of oral cancer reference. Methods To analyze the clinical data of 180 cases of oral cancer patients with basic period from 2013 November to 2014 November in our hospital, according to the patient's gender, age, drinking, smoking and other information, statistical analysis, the main clinical factors find induced oral cancer.Results In 180 patients with lfies, the probability of smokers susceptible to oral cancer is 3.35 times that of non-smokers and drinkers are susceptible to oral cancer probability is 4.32 times of non drinkers, smoking, alcohol consumption had a significantly higher percentage of early oral cancer patients, with statistical signiifcance of difference (P<0.05). Advanced patients, smoking, alcohol consumption had a signiifcantly higher percentage of early oral cancer patients, namely (P<0.05).Conclusion The increase of the main factors in oral cancer is smoking and drinking, promptly quit smoking and drinking, the incidence of oral cancer can effectively reduce.

  3. CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk among Japanese: A nested case-control study within a large-scale population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Akihisa; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Charvat, Hadrien; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-08-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and glutathione S-transferases (GST) M1 and T1 are major enzymes in the carcinogen metabolizing pathway. We examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP1A1 (rs4646421, rs4646422 and rs1048943), GSTM1 and GSTT1 and gastric cancer risk in Japan. This is a nested case-control study (457 cases and 457 matched controls) of our population-based cohort involving 36,745 subjects who answered a baseline questionnaire and supplied blood samples. The odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. We found that CYP1A1 (rs4646422) variant allele was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of gastric cancer compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.17-2.32). GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTM1/T1 both or either null genotypes were associated with increased risk, but not statistically significantly. Combination of the CYP1A1 (rs4646422) variant allele and GSTM1/T1 both or either null genotypes was associated with a statistically significant increased risk compared with the combination of the CYP1A1 homozygous wild-type genotype and the GSTM1/T1 both active genotypes. In addition, compared with CYP1A1 (rs4646422) homozygous wild-type genotypes in those who were never-smokers, CYP1A1 variant alleles in those who smoked ≥30 pack-years were associated with an increased risk; neither gene-gene nor gene-environment interactions were significant. The CYP1A1 (rs4646422) polymorphism might be involved in gastric carcinogenesis among the Japanese population. PMID:27062139

  4. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies Visitantes hospitalares como controles em estudos caso-controle

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  5. Risk of breast cancer following exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Cape Cod, Massachusetts: reanalysis of a case-control study using a modified exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Thomas F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE is an important occupational chemical used in metal degreasing and drycleaning and a prevalent drinking water contaminant. Exposure often occurs with other chemicals but it occurred alone in a pattern that reduced the likelihood of confounding in a unique scenario on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. We previously found a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer among women with the highest exposures using a simple exposure model. We have taken advantage of technical improvements in publically available software to incorporate a more sophisticated determination of water flow and direction to see if previous results were robust to more accurate exposure assessment. Methods The current analysis used PCE exposure estimates generated with the addition of water distribution modeling software (EPANET 2.0 to test model assumptions, compare exposure distributions to prior methods, and re-examine the risk of breast cancer. In addition, we applied data smoothing to examine nonlinear relationships between breast cancer and exposure. We also compared a set of measured PCE concentrations in water samples collected in 1980 to modeled estimates. Results Thirty-nine percent of individuals considered unexposed in prior epidemiological analyses were considered exposed using the current method, but mostly at low exposure levels. As a result, the exposure distribution was shifted downward resulting in a lower value for the 90th percentile, the definition of "high exposure" in prior analyses. The current analyses confirmed a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer for women with high PCE exposure levels defined by either the 90th percentile (adjusted ORs 1.0-1.5 for 0-19 year latency assumptions or smoothing analysis cut point (adjusted ORs 1.3-2.0 for 0-15 year latency assumptions. Current exposure estimates had a higher correlation with PCE concentrations in water samples (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.65, p

  6. Passive smoking exposure from partners as a risk factor for ER+/PR+ double positive breast cancer in never-smoking Chinese urban women: a hospital-based matched case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hua Tong

    Full Text Available The relationship between passive smoking exposure (PSE and breast cancer risk is of major interest.To evaluate the relationship between PSE from partners and breast cancer risk stratified by hormone-receptor (HR status in Chinese urban women population.Hospital-based matched case control study.Chinese urban breast cancer patients without current or previous active smoking history in China Medical University 1st Hospital, Liaoning Province, China between Jan 2009 and Nov 2009.Each breast cancer patient was matched 1∶1 with healthy controls by gender and age (±2 years from the same hospital.The authors used unconditional logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratio for women with PSE from partners and breast cancer risk.312 pairs were included in the study. Women who endured PSE had significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.05-2.03; P = 0.027, comparing with unexposed women. Women who exposed to >5 cigarettes/day also had significant increased risk (adjusted OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.28-3.10; P = 0.002, as were women exposed to passive smoke for 16-25 years (adjusted OR: 1.87 95% CI: 1.22-2.86; P = 0.004, and those exposed to > 4 pack-years (adjusted OR: 1.71 95% CI: 1.17-2.50; P = 0.004. Similar trends were significant for estrogen receptor (ER/progesterone receptor (PR double positive subgroup(adjusted OR: 1.71; 2.20; 1.99; 1.92, respectively, but not for ER+/PR-, ER-/PR+, or ER-/PR- subgroups.limitations of the hospital-based retrospective study, lack of information on entire lifetime PSE and low statistical power.Our findings provide further evidence that PSE from partners contributes to increased risk of breast cancer, especially for ER/PR double positive breast cancer, in Chinese urban women.

  7. On combining family and case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Landi, Maria T

    2008-11-01

    Studies to detect genetic association with disease can be family-based, often using families with multiple affected members, or population based, as in population-based case-control studies. If data on both study types are available from the same population, it is useful to combine them to improve power to detect genetic associations. Two aspects of the data need to be accommodated, the sampling scheme and potential residual correlations among family members. We propose two approaches for combining data from a case-control study and a family study that collected families with multiple cases. In the first approach, we view a family as the sampling unit and specify the joint likelihood for the family members using a two-level mixed effects model to account for random familial effects and for residual genetic correlations among family members. The ascertainment of the families is accommodated by conditioning on the ascertainment event. The individuals in the case-control study are treated as families of size one, and their unconditional likelihood is combined with the conditional likelihood for the families. This approach yields subject specific maximum likelihood estimates of covariate effects. In the second approach, we view an individual as the sampling unit. The sampling scheme is accommodated using two-phase sampling techniques, marginal covariate effects are estimated, and correlations among family members are accounted for in the variance calculations. The models are compared in simulations. Data from a case-control and a family study from north-eastern Italy on melanoma and a low-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, MC1R, are used to illustrate the approaches. PMID:18454494

  8. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W.; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I.; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D.; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W.; Raji, Olaide Y.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low–BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high–BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1×10−9). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ2 test statistics and a

  9. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  10. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna Heikkinen; Janne Pitkäniemi; Tytti Sarkeala; Nea Malila; Markku Koskenvuo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence...

  11. Relationship between cervical cancer and risk factors: a case-control study%宫颈癌相关影响因素病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 范岩峰; 许榕仙; 周裕林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the occurrence of uterine cervix cancer and risk factors.Methods Totally 112 cervical cancer patients and 200 controls were collected from three hospitals in Xiaemen city during 2007 - 2010.Face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among the subjects to get the information about cervical cancer and its related factors.Results The results of single-factor logistic regression showed that the age at first sexual intercourse,the age of first parturition, level of folic acid and the vitamin B12 ,drinking tea,passive smoking,the sanitation of sexual behavior,and the times of parturition were associated with cervical cancer.The results of the multi-factor logistic regression showed that passive smoking and parturition more than twice were risk factors and paying attention to sanitation of sexual behavior,drinking tea, and with the content of folic acid more than 10nmol/L were protective factors of cervical cancer.Conclusion Passive smoking and giving birth to more children could promote the occurrence of cervical cancer and with supplement of folic acid, keeping healthy sexual behavior, and drinking tea may be the effective factors to prevent cervical cancer.%目的 了解宫颈癌的相关影响因素,为预防宫颈癌发病提供科学依据.方法 采用以医院为基础病例对照研究方法对2007年9月-2010年6月在福建省厦门市妇幼保健院、厦门市第一医院和厦门市中医院就诊的112例宫颈癌患者及同期就诊的200例其他疾病女性患者进行宫颈癌相关影响因素问卷调查并检测血中维生素B12及叶酸含量.结果 单因素Logistic回归分析结果表明,首次性生活年龄(OR=0.659)、首次生育年龄[OR=0.715)、叶酸含量(OR=0.386)、维生素B12含量(OR=0.661)、经常饮茶(OR=0.596)、被动吸烟(OR=1.738)、性行为时注意卫生(OR=0.483)、分娩次数(OR=1.904)是宫颈癌发病的相关影响因素;多因素Logistic回归分

  12. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  13. Toxocariasis in Waste Pickers: A Case Control Seroprevalence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Aims Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Methods Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demog...

  14. Mind wandering and driving: a responsibility case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    GALERA, Cédric; Orriols, Ludivine; M'BAILARA, Katia; LABOREY, Magali; Contrand, Benjamin; RIBEREAU-GAYON, Régis; Masson, Françoise; Bakiri, Sarah; GABAUDE, Catherine; Fort, Alexandra; MAURY, Bertrand; Lemercier, Céline; Cours, Maurice; BOUVARD, Manuel-Pierre; LAGARDE, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between mind wandering (i.e. thinking unrelated to the task at hand) and the risk of being responsible for the crash. Design Responsibility case-control study. Setting Adult emergency department of the Bordeaux University hospital (France) from April 2010 to August 2011. Participants 955 injured drivers presenting as a result of motor vehicle crash. Main outcome measures The main outcome variable was responsibility for the crash. Exposures were mind wanderi...

  15. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ruiz; Maria Teresa Martínez-Ros; Alberto Cárceles-Alvarez; Perales, Joseph E.; Diana Carolina Jaimes-Vega; Alicia Cánovas-Conesa; Virtudes Gomaríz-Peñalver; Soldin, Offie P.; Miguel Felipe Sánchez-Sauco; Juan Antonio Ortega-García

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident...

  16. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; XIAO, SHENG-XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  17. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) variant is associated with familial breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutzler Rita K; Meindl Alfons; Hemminki Kari; Shanmugam Kalai S; Burwinkel Barbara; Sutter Christian; Wappenschmidt Barbara; Kiechle Marion; Bartram Claus R; Frank Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a critical component of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Aberrant TCF7L2 expression modifies Wnt signaling and mediates oncogenic effects through the upregulation of c-MYC and cyclin D. Genetic alterations in TCF7L2 may therefore affect cancer risk. Recently, TCF7L2 variants, including the microsatellite marker DG10S478 and the nearly perfectly linked SNP rs12233372, were identified to associate with type 2 diabetes. Methods We inves...

  18. Does occupational exposure to solvents and pesticides in association with glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 polymorphisms increase the risk of bladder cancer? The Belgrade case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija G Matic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of the glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and potential effect modification by occupational exposure to different chemicals in Serbian bladder cancer male patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in men comprised 143 histologically confirmed cases and 114 age-matched male controls. Deletion polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 was identified by polymerase chain reaction method. Single nucleotide polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase A1 and P1 was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As a measure of effect size, odds ratio (OR with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI was calculated. RESULTS: The glutathione S-transferase A1, T1 and P1 genotypes did not contribute independently toward the risk of bladder cancer, while the glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype was overrepresented among cases (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1-4.2, p = 0.032. The most pronounced effect regarding occupational exposure to solvents and glutathione S-transferase genotype on bladder cancer risk was observed for the low activity glutathione S-transferase A1 genotype (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.4-34.7, p = 0.001. The glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype also enhanced the risk of bladder cancer among subjects exposed to solvents (OR = 6,5, 95% CI = 2.1-19.7, p = 0.001. The risk of bladder cancer development was 5.3-fold elevated among glutathione S-transferase T1-active patients exposed to solvents in comparison with glutathione S-transferase T1-active unexposed patients (95% CI = 1.9-15.1, p = 0.002. Moreover, men with glutathione S-transferase T1-active genotype exposed to pesticides exhibited 4.5 times higher risk in comparison with unexposed glutathione S-transferase T1-active subjects (95% CI = 0.9-22.5, p = 0.067. CONCLUSION: Null or low-activity genotypes of the

  19. Association of XPC Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Southern Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhu, Jinhong; Jiang, Dan-Hua; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a key component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Dysfunctional XPC protein may impair NER-mediated DNA repair capacity and further lead to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the XPC gene, Lys939Gln (rs2228001 A > C) and Ala499Val (rs2228000 C > T), have been investigated in various types of cancer. We genotyped these two polymorphisms in 1141 cases with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 1173 healthy controls to explore their causative association with CRC susceptibility. Overall, no association was observed between these two variants and the risk of CRC. Our meta-analysis also confirmed a lack of overall association. Stratified analyses were performed by age, gender, smoking status, pack-year, drinking status, tumor sites, and Duke's stages. We found that XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk in subjects at 57 years of age or younger (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.004-1.86, p = 0.047) and non-drinkers (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.10-2.12, p = 0.011). Our results indicated that XPC Lys939Gln may be a low-penetrance CRC susceptibility polymorphism. Our findings warrant further validation. PMID:27669310

  20. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 variant is associated with familial breast cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmutzler Rita K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 is a critical component of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Aberrant TCF7L2 expression modifies Wnt signaling and mediates oncogenic effects through the upregulation of c-MYC and cyclin D. Genetic alterations in TCF7L2 may therefore affect cancer risk. Recently, TCF7L2 variants, including the microsatellite marker DG10S478 and the nearly perfectly linked SNP rs12233372, were identified to associate with type 2 diabetes. Methods We investigated the effect of the TCF7L2 rs12255372 variant on familial breast cancer (BC risk by means of TaqMan allelic discrimination, analyzing BRCA1/2 mutation-negative index patients of 592 German BC families and 735 control individuals. Results The T allele of rs12255372 showed an association with borderline significance (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.01-1.42, P = 0.04, and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend revealed an allele dose-dependent association of rs12255372 with BC risk (Ptrend = 0.04. Conclusion Our results suggest a possible influence of TCF7L2 rs12255372 on the risk of familial BC.

  1. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest the intersection of cases with significant clustering over their life course, Qi, with cases who are constituents of significant local clusters at given times, Qit, yielded the best performance, which improved with increasing cluster size. Upon comparison, a larger proportion of true positives were detected with Kulldorf’s spatial scan method if the time of clustering was provided. We recommend using Q-statistics to identify when and where clustering may have occurred, followed by the scan method to localize the candidate clusters. Future work should investigate the generalizability of these findings. PMID:23149326

  2. Examination of polymorphic glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, tobacco smoking and prostate cancer risk among Men of African Descent: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes may influence response to oxidative stress and modify prostate cancer (PCA) susceptibility. These enzymes generally detoxify endogenous and exogenous agents, but also participate in the activation and inactivation of oxidative metabolites that may contribute to PCA development. Genetic variations within selected GST genes may influence PCA risk following exposure to carcinogen compounds found in cigarette smoke and decreased the ability to detoxify them. Thus, we evaluated the effects of polymorphic GSTs (M1, T1, and P1) alone and combined with cigarette smoking on PCA susceptibility. In order to evaluate the effects of GST polymorphisms in relation to PCA risk, we used TaqMan allelic discrimination assays along with a multi-faceted statistical strategy involving conventional and advanced statistical methodologies (e.g., Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction and Interaction Graphs). Genetic profiles collected from 873 men of African-descent (208 cases and 665 controls) were utilized to systematically evaluate the single and joint modifying effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions, GSTP1 105 Val and cigarette smoking on PCA risk. We observed a moderately significant association between risk among men possessing at least one variant GSTP1 105 Val allele (OR = 1.56; 95%CI = 0.95-2.58; p = 0.049), which was confirmed by MDR permutation testing (p = 0.001). We did not observe any significant single gene effects among GSTM1 (OR = 1.08; 95%CI = 0.65-1.82; p = 0.718) and GSTT1 (OR = 1.15; 95%CI = 0.66-2.02; p = 0.622) on PCA risk among all subjects. Although the GSTM1-GSTP1 pairwise combination was selected as the best two factor LR and MDR models (p = 0.01), assessment of the hierarchical entropy graph suggested that the observed synergistic effect was primarily driven by the GSTP1 Val marker. Notably, the GSTM1-GSTP1 axis did not provide additional information gain when compared to either loci alone based on a

  3. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Solange

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have determined that dietary intake of B vitamins may be associated with breast cancer risk as a result of interactions between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and methionine synthase (MTR in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. However, the association between B vitamin intake and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women in particular has not yet been investigated. Methods A case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, with 458 age-matched pairs of Brazilian women. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 were derived from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR A1298C and C677T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms. A logistical regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor MTHFR polymorphisms were independently associated with breast cancer risk. Analysis stratified by menopausal status showed a significant association between placement in the highest tertile of folate intake and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.23–3.83; Ptrend = 0.010. The MTR 2756GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than the 2756AA genotype (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92; Ptrend = 0.801, and statistically significant interactions with regard to risk were observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and folate (P = 0.024 or vitamin B6 (P = 0.043, and between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folate (P = 0.043 or vitamin B12 (P = 0.022. Conclusion MTHFR polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no overall association with breast cancer risk. However, increased risk was observed in total women with the MTR 2756GG genotype and in premenopausal women with high folate intake. These findings, as well as significant interactions between MTHFR

  4. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, A.; Thimmasetty, K. T.; Sreeramareddy, N. M.; Venugopal, T. C.; Rajanna,; Vinutha, A. T.; Srinivas,; Bhargava, M K

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence ...

  5. A Case control study to evaluate oxidative stress in plasma samples of oral malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Chandan Srivastava; Ravi David Austin; Deepti Shrivastava; S Sethupathy; S Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Imbalances between the oxidant -antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the venous blood samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients of different Clinicopathologic stages in comparison with the healthy controls. Setting and Design: A Case control study was designed in a hospital (Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, A...

  6. [Results of a case-control study of the current effect of various factors on risk of cervix cancer. 1. Factors in reproduction, sex behavior and infectious genital diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, U; Wuttke, P

    1994-01-01

    We performed a case control study to determine factors which influence the development of cervical carcinoma. Factors like reproduction, sexual behaviour and genital infections were considered. 309 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical carcinoma were interviewed as a study group. 490 patients with no cervical changes served as control group. The two groups of patients had a different age distribution with an early age summit in the study group. No differences were observed in relation to residence areas and attendance of screening for cervical carcinoma. 83.5% of the women in the study group (n = 258) and 81.0% (n = 397) of the control group attended the screening for cervical carcinoma. According to our observation, the following factors increased the risk of CIN or invasive cervical carcinoma: early menarche ( 14 years), multiparity (0 vs 1-3 vs > 4), first pregnancy before the age of 20, divorced women, early sexual contact ( 21 years), multiple sexual partners, vaginal discharge and venereal diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis). Factors like reproductive characteristics and genital infections can be interpreted as expressions of sexual behaviour. Despite the improving social status, increasing health consciousness and extensive mass-screening for cervical cancer, the above mentioned risk factors still play an important role. Risk group should be followed and examined strictly so as to reduce the rate of invasive cervical carcinoma in screened patients. PMID:8048284

  7. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    health professionals, and as the gold standard for educational supervision.2,4-6 Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine: if strugglers in specialist training (cases) tended to struggle already in medical school or not compared to controls (non-strugglers), and which performance indicators during...... not identified as cases in the case extraction period. We aimed at a case-control ratio of 1:4 and intend to match on graduation year. Ten different performance measures relating to medical school admission, first year performance and overall program performances will be examined, such as: pre-university exam...

  8. Genetic Polymorphisms of Infectious Diseases in Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, genetic epidemiological analyses in infectious diseases have increased drastically since the publication of human genome and all the subsequent projects analyzing human diversity at molecular level. The great majority of studies use classical epidemiological designs applied to genetic data, and more than 80% of published studies use population-based case-control designs with widely spread genetic markers in human genome, like short tandem repeats (STR or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, in genes chosen by their physiological association with the disease (candidate genes. Even though genetic data is less prone to several bias issues inherent to case-control studies, some care has to be taken when designing, performing, analyzing and interpreting results from such studies. Here we discuss some basic concepts of genetics and epidemiology as a departure to evaluate and review every step that should be followed to design, conduct, analyze, interpret and present data from those studies, using particularities of infectious diseases, especially leprosy and tuberculosis as models.

  9. 体重指数与乳腺癌发病风险的病例对照研究%BMI and breast cancer:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟健华; 石晶; 曲秀娟; 滕月娥; 于萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer.Methods:A case-control study (1 ∶ 1 matched) was conducted between June 2008 and August 2009 in the First Hospital of China Medical University.Three hundred and thirty breast cancer patients and 330 healthy people from the Health Examination Center were matched with age(-5 years old),sex and region.Information was collected on their BMI index at 21 years old,5 years ago and now.Conditional logistic regression was applied to analyze the risk factors of breast cancer.Results:The adjusted ORs and 95% CI of BMI at 5 years ago,menopause and passive smoking were 1.465 (1.016-2.112),2.347 (1.459-3.777) and 1.384 (1.009-1.897),respectively.Conclusion:Overweight at 5 years ago was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Chinese women,menopause and passive smoking were also the risk factors of breast cancer.%目的:探讨体重指数(BMI)与乳腺癌发病风险的关系.方法:采用1∶1匹配病例对照研究,收集2008年6月至2009年8月由中国医科大学附属第一医院确诊的女性乳腺癌患者330例及同期就诊体检中心的健康人群330例,调查患者21岁时、5年前及目前的BMI指数.采用多因素条件Logistic回归分析乳腺癌发病风险的影响因素.结果:5年前BMI指数、绝经、被动吸烟的OR值及95%可信区间分别是1.465(1.016-2.112)、2.347(1.459-3.777)和1.384(1.009-1.897).结论:5年前超重可明显增加乳腺癌发病的危险,绝经和暴露被动吸烟是乳腺癌发病的危险因素.

  10. Radiation dose and relapse are predictors for development of second malignant solid tumors after cancer in childhood and adolescence: A population-based case-control study in the five Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to assess the risk with radiation therapy and chemotherapy of the first cancer in childhood and adolescence for the development of a second malignant solid tumor (SMST). Also, the role of relapse of the primary tumor was studied. It is a nested case-control study within a Nordic cohort of patients less than 20 years of age at first diagnosis 1960-1987. SMSTs were diagnosed in 1960-1991. There were 196 cases and 567 controls. The risk was increased only for radiotherapy given more than five years before the development of the SMST. A significantly increased relative risk of 1.8 was found already at doses below 1 Gy. The risk increased rapidly up to a maximum of 18.3 for doses above 30 Gy. Chemotherapy alone did not increase the risk to develop an SMST. However, in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy showed a significant potentiating effect. Relapse was found to be an independent risk factor for development of an SMST, with a higher relative risk for females than for males

  11. A case-control study on the combined effects of p53 and p73 polymorphisms on head and neck cancer risk in an Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the combined effects of selected p53 and p73 polymorphisms and their interaction with lifestyle habits on squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) risk and progression in an Italian population. Two hundred and eighty-three cases and 295 hospital controls were genotyped for p53 polymorphisms on exon 4 (Arg72Pro), intron 3 and 6, and p73 G4C14-to-A4T14. Their association with SCCHN was estimated using a logistic regression analysis, while a multinomial logistic regression approach was applied to calculate the effect of the selected polymorphisms on SCCHN different sites (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx). We performed an haplotype analysis of the p53 polymorphisms, and a gene-gene interaction analysis for the combined effects of p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 and p53 polymorphisms. We found a significant increased risk of SCCHN among individuals with combined p73 exon 2 G4A and p53 intron 3 variant alleles (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.08–4.56), and a protective effect for those carrying the p53 exon 4-p53 intron 6 diplotype combination (OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47–0.92). From the gene-environment interaction analysis we found that individuals aged < 45 years carrying p73 exon 2 G4A variant allele have a 12.85-increased risk of SCCHN (95% CI: 2.10–78.74) compared with persons of the same age with the homozygous wild type genotype. Improved survival rate was observed among p53 intron 6 variant allele carriers (Hazard Ratio = 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23–1.16). Our study provides for the first time evidence that individuals carrying p53 exon 4 and p53 intron 6 variant alleles are significantly protected against SCCHN, and also shows that an additional risk is conferred by the combination of p73 exon 2 G4C14-to-A4T14 and p53 intron 3 variant allele. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings

  12. Immunosuppressive Medications and Squamous Cell Skin Carcinoma: Nested Case-Control Study Within the Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, A E; Johnson, L G; Berg, D; Resler, A J; Leca, N; Madeleine, M M

    2016-02-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) have a substantially elevated risk of squamous cell skin carcinoma (SCSC), largely attributed to immunosuppressive medications used to prevent graft rejection, although data to support the role of newer drugs in SCSC risk are sparse. We investigated the association between immunosuppressive medications and SCSC risk among cardiac and renal transplant recipients in the SCOT cohort study. Incident cases were ascertained through medical record review after self-report of skin biopsy (n = 170). Controls without SCSC (n = 324) were matched to cases on sex, age, race, transplant year, hospital, donor type, organ transplanted, and time between transplantation and interview. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between specific medications and SCSC. Users of the antimetabolite azathioprine were more than twice as likely to develop SCSC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-5.76). In contrast, the newer antimetabolite preparations (i.e., mycophenolic acid [MPA]) were associated with lower SCSC risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.29-0.69). This inverse association between MPA and SCSC persisted among OTRs with no history of azathioprine use, even after adjustment for simultaneous use of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.32-0.84). Our data suggest that the increased risk of SCSC historically associated with azathioprine is not seen in OTRs prescribed newer regimens, including MPA and tacrolimus. PMID:26824445