Sample records for cancer care pathways

  1. [Care pathways of cancer patients: Modeling and risks analysis induced by oral anticancer drugs]. (United States)

    Renet, Sophie; Maritaz, Christophe; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Burnel, Sylvie; Paubel, Pascal


    The care pathway of cancer patients is complex and therefore difficult to define. The oral anticancers (AKPO) have shown their benefits to patients and health professionals, however, the risks induced on the care pathway remain unknown. The objective of the study is to define, quantify the risks from AKPO and their effects on the care pathway (breakdown [Ds], rupture [Rt]). From the proposed care pathway model, FMEA method is used to analyze risks. For the 3 identified processes (1 monotherapy, 2 bitherapies: 2 AKPO or 1 AKPO/1 AKIV), analysis revealed an average of 91 risks, 173 Ds, 147 Rt, increased for 1 AKPO/1 AKIV therapy. The administration and delivery are the most risky steps. The lack of training and information of patients and healthcare professionals generates 80% of Ds and Rt. This model confirms the complexity, variability of the care pathway. The development of actions to improve town-hospital coordination and exchange of information is required to optimize and secure the route, confirming the objectives of "Plan Cancer 3". Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The patient-breast cancer care pathway: how could it be optimized? (United States)

    Baffert, Sandrine; Hoang, Huong Ly; Brédart, Anne; Asselain, Bernard; Alran, Séverine; Berseneff, Hélène; Huchon, Cyrille; Trichot, Caroline; Combes, Aline; Alves, Karine; Koskas, Martin; Nguyen, Thuy; Roulot, Aurélie; Rouzier, Roman; Héquet, Delphine


    A care pathway is defined as patient-focused global care that addresses temporal (effective and coordinated management throughout the illness) and spatial issues (treatment is provided near the health territory in or around the patient's home). Heterogeneity of the care pathways in breast cancer (BC) is presumed but not well evaluated. The OPTISOINS01 study aims to assess every aspect of the care pathway for early BC patients using a temporal and spatial scope. An observational, prospective, multicenter study in a regional health territory (Ile-de-France, France) in different types of structures: university or local hospitals and comprehensive cancer centers. We will include and follow during 1 year 1,000 patients. The study consists of 3 work-packages: - Cost of pathway The aim of this WP is to calculate the overall costs of the early BC pathway at 1 year from different perspectives (society, health insurance and patient) using a cost-of-illness analysis. Using a bottom-up method, we will assess direct costs, including medical direct costs and nonmedical direct costs (transportation, home modifications, home care services, and social services), and indirect costs (loss of production). - Patient satisfaction and work reintegration Three questionnaires will assess the patients' satisfaction and possible return to work: the occupational questionnaire for employed women; the questionnaire on the need for supportive care, SCNS-SF34 ('breast cancer' module, SCNS-BR8); and the OUTPASSAT-35 questionnaire. - Quality, coordination and access to innovation Quality will be evaluated based on visits and treatment within a set period, whether the setting offers a multidisciplinary consultative framework, the management by nurse coordinators, the use of a personalized care plan, the provision of information via documents about treatments and the provision of supportive care. The coordination between structures and caregivers will be evaluated at several levels. Day surgery, home

  3. French Medico-Administrative Data to Identify the Care Pathways of Women With Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Lefeuvre, Delphine; Le Bihan-Benjamin, Christine; Pauporté, Iris; Medioni, Jacques; Bousquet, Philippe-Jean


    Study of the care pathways is an important topic for care planning, as well as to observe guidelines application. This study aimed to describe care pathways and the period of time between treatments of women with breast cancer (BC), at a population level. Women with in situ, local and regional BC who were hospitalized and newly treated in 2012 were included and followed for 1 year. Care pathways were described, focusing on surgery (partial mastectomy [PM], total mastectomy [TM]), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The periods of time between treatments were measured and compared with the guidelines. The study involved 52,128 women. The most common care pathways among the 2845 women with in situ BC were PM-radiotherapy (46.7%) and TM (28.5%). Among the 41,470 women with local BC, they were: PM-radiotherapy (44.8%) or PM-chemotherapy-radiotherapy (16.0%). The 7813 women with regional BC had similar care pathways, although chemotherapy was given more frequently (73%). The periods of time between surgery and chemotherapy were in accordance with the guidelines for 98% of the women; those between surgery and radiotherapy were affected by adjuvant chemotherapy. Finally, the time between chemotherapy and radiotherapy was longer than recommended for 40% of the women. The French medicoadministrative databases allow the study, at a national population level, of the care pathways and periods of time between treatments of women with BC according to the stage of the disease. They were close to the guidelines, although an improvement is highly necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Case management used to optimize cancer care pathways: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søndergaard Jens


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of inadequate cancer patient care have given rise to various interventions to support cancer care pathways which, overall, seem poorly studied. Case management (CM is one method that may support a cost-effective, high-quality patient-centred treatment and care. The purpose of this article was to summarise intervention characteristics, outcomes of interest, results, and validity components of the published randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining CM as a method for optimizing cancer care pathways. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched for RCTs published all years up to August 2008. Identified papers were included if they passed the following standards. Inclusion criteria: 1 The intervention should meet the criteria for CM which includes multidisciplinary collaboration, care co-ordination, and it should include in-person meetings between patient and the case manager aimed at supporting, informing and educating the patient. 2 The intervention should focus on cancer patient care. 3 The intervention should aim to improve subjective or objective quality outcomes, and effects should be reported in the paper. Exclusion criteria: Studies centred on cancer screening or palliative cancer care. Data extraction was conducted in order to obtain a descriptive overview of intervention characteristics, outcomes of interest and findings. Elements of CONSORT guidelines and checklists were used to assess aspects of study validity. Results The searches identified 654 unique papers, of which 25 were retrieved for scrutiny. Seven papers were finally included. Intervention characteristics, outcomes studied, findings and methodological aspects were all very diverse. Conclusion Due to the scarcity of papers included (seven, significant heterogeneity in target group, intervention setting, outcomes measured and methodologies applied, no conclusions

  5. Why is the Liverpool care pathway used for some dying cancer patients and not others? Healthcare professionals’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freemantle Alison


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting that the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient is a structured and proficient means of supporting care delivery in the last hours or days of life, discrepancies in uptake are widespread. This exploratory study sought to understand why patients dying of cancer in oncology wards of one hospital trust were, or were not, supported by the LCP. A purposive qualitative case study design was used; each case represented a patient who had died and their most involved nurse and doctor. In-depth interviews explored both recollections of the ‘case’ and wider experiences of using the Pathway in end-of-life care. Eleven healthcare professionals were interviewed about their involvement in the end-of-life care of six patients. For four of these patients care was supported by the LCP. Findings Although doctors and nurses reported they preferred to use the Pathway to ensure comfortable death, an important factor influencing their decisions was time of death. Access to timely senior review was regarded as an essential preliminary to placing patients on the Pathway but delayed access ‘out of hours’ was commonly experienced and tensions arose from balancing conflicting priorities. Consequently, the needs of dying patients sometimes failed to compete with those receiving curative treatment. Conclusions This study suggests that greater attention should be focused on ‘out of hours’ care in hospitals to ensure regular senior review of all patients at risk of dying and to support front line staff to communicate effectively and make contingency plans focused on patients’ best interests.

  6. The effectiveness of the Liverpool care pathway in improving end of life care for dying cancer patients in hospital. A cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Fabio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cancer patients still die in hospital, mainly in medical wards. Many studies in different countries have shown the poor quality of end-of-life care delivery in hospitals. The Program "Liverpool Care Pathway for the dying patient" (LCP, developed in the UK to transfer the hospice model of care into hospitals and other care settings, is a complex intervention to improve the quality of end-of-life care. The results from qualitative and quantitative studies suggest that the LCP Program can improve significantly the quality of end-of-life care delivery in hospitals, but no randomised trial has been conducted till now. Methods and design This is a randomized cluster trial, stratified by regions and matched for assessment period. Pairs of eligible medical wards from different hospitals will be randomized to receive the LCP-I Program or no intervention until the end of the trial. The LCP-I Program will be implemented by a Palliative Care Unit. The assessment of the end-points will be performed for all cancer deaths occurred in the six months after the end of the LCP-I implementation in the experimental wards and, in the same period of time, in the matched control wards. The primary end-point is the overall quality of end-of-life care provided on the ward to dying cancer patients and their families, assessed using the Global Scale of the Italian version of the Toolkit "After-death Bereaved Family Member Interview". Discussion This study can be interpreted as a Phase III trial according to the Medical Research Council Framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a fully defined intervention is assessed by comparing the distribution of the endpoints in the experimental and in the control arm. Research ID RFPS-2006-6-341619 Trial registration Identifier: NCT01081899

  7. Managing Cancer Care - Finding Health Care Services (United States)

    ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs ...

  8. The Liverpool Care Pathway for cancer patients dying in hospital medical wards: a before-after cluster phase II trial of outcomes reported by family members. (United States)

    Costantini, Massimo; Pellegrini, Fabio; Di Leo, Silvia; Beccaro, Monica; Rossi, Carla; Flego, Guia; Romoli, Vittoria; Giannotti, Michela; Morone, Paola; Ivaldi, Giovanni P; Cavallo, Laura; Fusco, Flavio; Higginson, Irene J


    Hospital is the most common place of cancer death but concerns regarding the quality of end-of-life care remain. Preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the Liverpool Care Pathway on the quality of end-of-life care provided to adult cancer patients during their last week of life in hospital. Uncontrolled before-after intervention cluster trial. The trial was performed within four hospital wards participating in the pilot implementation of the Italian version of the Liverpool Care Pathway programme. All cancer patients who died in the hospital wards 2-4 months before and after the implementation of the Italian version of Liverpool Care Pathway were identified. A total of 2 months after the patient's death, bereaved family members were interviewed using the Toolkit After-Death Family Interview (seven 0-100 scales assessing the quality of end-of-life care) and the Italian version of the Views of Informal Carers - Evaluation of Services (VOICES) (three items assessing pain, breathlessness and nausea-vomiting). An interview was obtained for 79 family members, 46 (73.0%) before and 33 (68.8%) after implementation of the Italian version of Liverpool Care Pathway. Following Italian version of Liverpool Care Pathway implementation, there was a significant improvement in the mean scores of four Toolkit scales: respect, kindness and dignity (+16.8; 95% confidence interval = 3.6-30.0; p = 0.015); family emotional support (+20.9; 95% confidence interval = 9.6-32.3; p < 0.001); family self-efficacy (+14.3; 95% confidence interval = 0.3-28.2; p = 0.049) and coordination of care (+14.3; 95% confidence interval = 4.2-24.3; p = 0.007). No significant improvement in symptom' control was observed. These results provide the first robust data collected from family members of a preliminary clinically significant improvement, in some aspects, of quality of care after the implementation of the Italian version of Liverpool Care Pathway programme. The poor effect for symptom control

  9. Better organized care via care pathways: A multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Seys

    Full Text Available An increased need for efficiency and effectiveness in today's healthcare system urges professionals to improve the organization of care. Care pathways are an important tool to achieve this. The overall aim of this study was to analyze if care pathways lead to better organization of care processes. For this, the Care Process Self-Evaluation tool (CPSET was used to evaluate how healthcare professionals perceive the organization of care processes. Based on information from 2692 health care professionals gathered between November 2007 and October 2011 we audited 261 care processes in 108 organizations. Multilevel analysis was used to compare care processes without and with care pathways and analyze if care pathways led to better organization of care processes. A significant difference between care processes with and without care pathways was found. A care pathway in use led to significant better scores on the overall CPSET scale (p<0.001 and its subscales, "coordination of care" (p<0.001 and "follow-up of care" (p<0.001. Physicians had the highest score on the overall CPSET scale and the five subscales. Care processes organized by care pathways had a 2.6 times higher probability that the care process was well-organized. In around 75% of the cases a care pathway led to better organized care processes. Care processes supported by care pathways were better organized, but not all care pathways were well-organized. Managers can use care pathways to make healthcare professionals more aware of their role in the organization of the care process.

  10. CancerCare (United States)

    ... physically and financially. Cancer Care ® can help. For Patients & Survivors For Caregivers & Loved Ones For Health Care Professionals We provide Counseling Support Groups Connect Education Workshops Publications Financial and Co‑Pay Assistance Community ...

  11. A brain cancer pathway in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Emilie Lund; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh


    Danish healthcare seeks to improve cancer survival through improved diagnostics, rapid treatment and increased focus on cancer prevention and early help-seeking. In neuro-oncology, this has resulted in the Integrated Brain Cancer Pathway (IBCP). The paper explores how the pathway works in the ini...... in the initial phase in a clinical setting with emphasis on pathway criteria....

  12. Psychosocial cancer care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper briefly reviews some of the current interests in the international field of psychosocial oncology, focusing on adults with cancer. The articles cited describe cancer in general – not specific cancers. It is not possible to give a comprehensive literature review on such a wide and dynamic field of care, but what follows.

  13. End-of-life care: pathways and evidence. (United States)

    Costantini, Massimo; Alquati, Sara; Di Leo, Silvia


    Studies in different countries and settings of care have reported the quality of care for the dying patients as suboptimal. Care pathways have been developed with the aim of ensuring that dying patients and their family members received by health professionals the most appropriate care. This review presents and discusses the evidence supporting the effectiveness of the end-of-life care pathways. Two Cochrane systematic reviews updated at June 2013 did not identify studies that met minimal criteria for inclusion. One randomized cluster trial aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the Liverpool Care Pathway in hospitalized cancer patients was subsequently published. The trial did not find a significant difference in the overall quality of care, the primary end-point, but two out of nine secondary outcomes - respect, dignity, and kindness, and control of breathlessness showed significant improvements. Afterwards, we did not find any other potentially eligible published study. The overall amount of evidence supporting the dissemination of end-of-life care pathways is rather poor. One negative randomized trial suggests the pathways have the potential to reduce the gap between hospital and hospices. Further research is needed to understand the potential benefit of end-of-life care pathways.

  14. Role of care pathways in interprofessional teamwork. (United States)

    Scaria, Minimol Kulakkottu


    Cohesive interprofessional teamwork is essential to successful healthcare services. Interprofessional teamwork is the means by which different healthcare professionals - with diverse knowledge, skills and talents - collaborate to achieve a common goal. Several interventions are available to improve teamwork in the healthcare setting. This article explores the role of care pathways in improving interprofessional teamwork. Care pathways enhance teamwork by promoting coordination, collaboration, communication and decision making to achieve optimal healthcare outcomes. They result in improved staff knowledge, communication, documentation and interprofessional relations. Care pathways also contribute to patient-centred care and increase patient satisfaction.

  15. Benchmarking comprehensive cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anke


    The number of cancer patients and survivors is steadily increasing and despite or perhaps because of rapid improvements in diagnostics and therapeutics, important inequalities in cancer survival exist within and between different countries in Europe. Improving the quality of care is part of the

  16. Communication in Cancer Care (PDQ) (United States)

    ... Finished Treatment Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Communication in Cancer Care (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go ... fewer procedures and better quality of life. Good communication between patients, family caregivers, and the health care ...

  17. Care pathways for dementia: current perspectives. (United States)

    Samsi, Kritika; Manthorpe, Jill


    Uncertainty appears to typify the experience of living with dementia. With an uncertain illness trajectory and unpredictable levels of deterioration and stability in symptoms, people with a diagnosis of dementia may live with uncertainty and anxiety and find it hard to make plans or decisions for their future. People with memory problems and caregivers seeking a diagnosis of dementia may also potentially find themselves navigating a labyrinth-like maze of services, practitioners, assessments, and memory tests, with limited understanding of test scores and little information about what support is available. In this context of uncertainty, the apparent clarity and certainty of a "dementia care pathway" may be attractive. However, the term "dementia care pathway" has multiple and overlapping meanings, which can potentially give rise to further confusion if these are ill-defined or a false consensus is presumed. This review distinguishes four meanings: 1) a mechanism for the management and containment of uncertainty and confusion, useful for the professional as well as the person with dementia; 2) a manual for sequencing care activities; 3) a guide to consumers, indicating eligibility for care activities, or a guide to self-management for dementia dyads, indicating the appropriateness of care activities; and 4) a manual for "walking with" the person. Examples of these approaches are presented from UK dementia services with illustrations of existing care pathways and associated time points, specifically focusing on: 1) early symptom identification and first service encounters, 2) assessment process, 3) diagnostic disclosure, 4) postdiagnostic support, and 5) appropriate interventions. We review the evidence around these themes, as well as discuss service pathways and referral routes used by some services in England and internationally. We conclude that the attraction of the term "care pathway" is seductive, but caution is needed in taking shared understandings for

  18. Modeling cancer progression via pathway dependencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena J Edelman


    Full Text Available Cancer is a heterogeneous disease often requiring a complexity of alterations to drive a normal cell to a malignancy and ultimately to a metastatic state. Certain genetic perturbations have been implicated for initiation and progression. However, to a great extent, underlying mechanisms often remain elusive. These genetic perturbations are most likely reflected by the altered expression of sets of genes or pathways, rather than individual genes, thus creating a need for models of deregulation of pathways to help provide an understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. We introduce an integrative hierarchical analysis of tumor progression that discovers which a priori defined pathways are relevant either throughout or in particular steps of progression. Pathway interaction networks are inferred for these relevant pathways over the steps in progression. This is followed by the refinement of the relevant pathways to those genes most differentially expressed in particular disease stages. The final analysis infers a gene interaction network for these refined pathways. We apply this approach to model progression in prostate cancer and melanoma, resulting in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Our analysis supports previous findings for the deregulation of several pathways involved in cell cycle control and proliferation in both cancer types. A novel finding of our analysis is a connection between ErbB4 and primary prostate cancer.

  19. Pathway-based classification of cancer subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Shinuk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers based on gene expression profiles have been used in experimental and clinical settings to distinguish cancerous tumors in stage, grade, survival time, metastasis, and drug sensitivity. However, most significant gene markers are unstable (not reproducible among data sets. We introduce a standardized method for representing cancer markers as 2-level hierarchical feature vectors, with a basic gene level as well as a second level of (more stable pathway markers, for the purpose of discriminating cancer subtypes. This extends standard gene expression arrays with new pathway-level activation features obtained directly from off-the-shelf gene set enrichment algorithms such as GSEA. Such so-called pathway-based expression arrays are significantly more reproducible across datasets. Such reproducibility will be important for clinical usefulness of genomic markers, and augment currently accepted cancer classification protocols. Results The present method produced more stable (reproducible pathway-based markers for discriminating breast cancer metastasis and ovarian cancer survival time. Between two datasets for breast cancer metastasis, the intersection of standard significant gene biomarkers totaled 7.47% of selected genes, compared to 17.65% using pathway-based markers; the corresponding percentages for ovarian cancer datasets were 20.65% and 33.33% respectively. Three pathways, consisting of Type_1_diabetes mellitus, Cytokine-cytokine_receptor_interaction and Hedgehog_signaling (all previously implicated in cancer, are enriched in both the ovarian long survival and breast non-metastasis groups. In addition, integrating pathway and gene information, we identified five (ID4, ANXA4, CXCL9, MYLK, FBXL7 and six (SQLE, E2F1, PTTG1, TSTA3, BUB1B, MAD2L1 known cancer genes significant for ovarian and breast cancer respectively. Conclusions Standardizing the analysis of genomic data in the process of cancer staging

  20. DMPD: Pathways connecting inflammation and cancer. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18325755 Pathways connecting inflammation and cancer. Allavena P, Garlanda C, Borre...) (.csml) Show Pathways connecting inflammation and cancer. PubmedID 18325755 Title Pathways connecting inflammation

  1. Remodeling of Calcium Entry Pathways in Cancer. (United States)

    Villalobos, Carlos; Sobradillo, Diego; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Núñez, Lucía


    Ca(2+) entry pathways play important roles in control of many cellular functions, including long-term proliferation, migration and cell death. In recent years, it is becoming increasingly clear that, in some types of tumors, remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways could contribute to cancer hallmarks such as excessive proliferation, cell migration and invasion as well as resistance to cell death or survival. In this chapter we briefly review findings related to remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways in cancer with emphasis on the mechanisms that contribute to increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and store-operated currents (SOCs) in colorectal cancer cells. Finally, since SOCE appears critically involved in colon tumorogenesis, the inhibition of SOCE by aspirin and other NSAIDs and its possible contribution to colon cancer chemoprevention is reviewed.

  2. Your cancer survivorship care plan (United States)

    ... use to create one: American Society of Clinical Oncology -- ... your doctor visits. References American Society of Clinical Oncology. Survivorship. Updated July 2016. . ...

  3. Palliative Care in Cancer (United States)

    ... NCI support palliative care research? What is palliative care? Palliative care is care given to improve the quality ... the direction of a physician. Who gives palliative care ? Palliative care is usually provided by palliative care specialists, ...

  4. NOTCH pathway inactivation promotes bladder cancer progression (United States)

    Maraver, Antonio; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Cash, Timothy P.; Mendez-Pertuz, Marinela; Dueñas, Marta; Maietta, Paolo; Martinelli, Paola; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Cañamero, Marta; Roncador, Giovanna; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Grivas, Dimitrios; de la Pompa, Jose Luis; Valencia, Alfonso; Paramio, Jesús M.; Real, Francisco X.; Serrano, Manuel


    NOTCH signaling suppresses tumor growth and proliferation in several types of stratified epithelia. Here, we show that missense mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 found in human bladder cancers result in loss of function. In murine models, genetic ablation of the NOTCH pathway accelerated bladder tumorigenesis and promoted the formation of squamous cell carcinomas, with areas of mesenchymal features. Using bladder cancer cells, we determined that the NOTCH pathway stabilizes the epithelial phenotype through its effector HES1 and, consequently, loss of NOTCH activity favors the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Evaluation of human bladder cancer samples revealed that tumors with low levels of HES1 present mesenchymal features and are more aggressive. Together, our results indicate that NOTCH serves as a tumor suppressor in the bladder and that loss of this pathway promotes mesenchymal and invasive features. PMID:25574842

  5. Care pathways for dementia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsi K


    Full Text Available Kritika Samsi, Jill ManthorpeSocial Care Workforce Research Unit, King’s College London, London, UKAbstract: Uncertainty appears to typify the experience of living with dementia. With an uncertain illness trajectory and unpredictable levels of deterioration and stability in symptoms, people with a diagnosis of dementia may live with uncertainty and anxiety and find it hard to make plans or decisions for their future. People with memory problems and caregivers seeking a diagnosis of dementia may also potentially find themselves navigating a labyrinth-like maze of services, practitioners, assessments, and memory tests, with limited understanding of test scores and little information about what support is available. In this context of uncertainty, the apparent clarity and certainty of a “dementia care pathway” may be attractive. However, the term “dementia care pathway” has multiple and overlapping meanings, which can potentially give rise to further confusion if these are ill-defined or a false consensus is presumed. This review distinguishes four meanings: 1 a mechanism for the management and containment of uncertainty and confusion, useful for the professional as well as the person with dementia; 2 a manual for sequencing care activities; 3 a guide to consumers, indicating eligibility for care activities, or a guide to self-management for dementia dyads, indicating the appropriateness of care activities; and 4 a manual for “walking with” the person. Examples of these approaches are presented from UK dementia services with illustrations of existing care pathways and associated time points, specifically focusing on: 1 early symptom identification and first service encounters, 2 assessment process, 3 diagnostic disclosure, 4 postdiagnostic support, and 5 appropriate interventions. We review the evidence around these themes, as well as discuss service pathways and referral routes used by some services in England and internationally. We

  6. Pathway-based classification of cancer subtypes


    Kim, Shinuk; Kon, Mark; DeLisi, Charles


    Abstract Background Molecular markers based on gene expression profiles have been used in experimental and clinical settings to distinguish cancerous tumors in stage, grade, survival time, metastasis, and drug sensitivity. However, most significant gene markers are unstable (not reproducible) among data sets. We introduce a standardized method for representing cancer markers as 2-level hierarchical feature vectors, with a basic gene level as well as a second level of (more stable) pathway mar...

  7. Scenarios cancer in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, L.F.J. van der; Schellevis, F.G.


    Introduction: Previous studies predicted an increase in both the incidence and prevalence of cancer in the Netherlands. Other studies showed that cancer patients use primary care more frequently than non-cancer patients. Finally, during the “chronic phase” of the disease, task substitution from

  8. Altered Leukocyte Sphingolipid Pathway in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa P. Maia


    Full Text Available Sphingolipid metabolism pathway is essential in membrane homeostasis, and its dysfunction has been associated with favorable tumor microenvironment, disease progression, and chemotherapy resistance. Its major components have key functions on survival and proliferation, with opposing effects. We have profiled the components of the sphingolipid pathway on leukocytes of breast cancer (BC patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment and without, including the five sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P receptors, the major functional genes, and cytokines, in order to better understand the S1P signaling in the immune cells of these patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the sphingolipid pathway in whole blood of BC patients. Skewed gene profiles favoring high SPHK1 expression toward S1P production during BC development was observed, which was reversed by chemotherapy treatment, and reached similar levels to those found in healthy donors. Such levels were also correlated with high levels of TNF-α. Our data revealed an important role of the sphingolipid pathway in immune cells in BC with skewed signaling of S1P receptors, which favored cancer development even under chemotherapy, and may probably be a trigger of cancer resistance. Thus, these molecules must be considered as a target pathway for combined BC therapeutics.

  9. Robotics in Endometrial Cancer Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ng


    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in women in most of the developed world. The majority of these women with endometrial cancer will be unaffected by their disease. The challenge therefore is for surgical treatment not to be worse than the disease. Robotics has changed the way that we care for women living with endometrial cancer by making low-impact surgical treatment available to more women than was previously possible.

  10. Cancer adolescent pathway in France between 1988 and 1997. (United States)

    Desandes, Emmanuel; Lacour, Brigitte; Sommelet, Danièle; White-Koning, Mélanie; Velten, Michel; Tretarre, Brigitte; Marr, Angelina; Maarouf, Nabil; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Delafosse, Patricia; Danzon, Arlette; Cotte, Christine; Brugieres, Laurence


    We report an adolescent cancer pathway from referral, through diagnosis and treatment, to follow-up in France. All cases of cancer among 15-19 years, diagnosed from 1988 to 1997, recorded by nine French population-based cancer registries (10% of French population) were included. The management of adolescent cancer by paediatricians was rare. An adolescents' pathway through cancer care can be summarized as first visit to general practitioner, referral to adult oncologist for haematological malignancy and medical or surgical specialists for solid tumours, treatment in adult unit, and follow-up by adult oncologist, adult medical or surgical specialist, or general practitioner. Only 9% of the 15-19 years are entered into a clinical trial (respectively 6% and 3% into adult and paediatric clinical trial). The inclusion rate changes according to the diagnosis, higher for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (39%), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) (27%), and acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia (20%). Only 4% of adolescent cancers were managed on shared adult/paediatric departments, especially for soft-tissue sarcomas (14.9%), malignant bone tumours (13.4), central nervous system tumours (6.2%), and NHL (4.4%). Whatever the reasons for lack of participation in clinical trials, an ideal model requiring communication and cooperation between all adult and paediatric specialists involved in adolescent cancer treatment should reduce the large gap in access to cooperative groups.

  11. Retinoid Pathway and Cancer Therapeutics (United States)

    Bushue, Nathan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne


    The retinoids are a class of compounds that are structurally related to vitamin A. Retinoic acid, which is the active metabolite of retinol, regulates a wide range of biological processes including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Retinoids exert their effects through a variety of binding proteins including cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP), retinol-binding proteins (RBP), cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP), and nuclear receptors i.e. retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid × receptor (RXR). Because of the pleiotropic effects of retinoids, understanding the function of these binding proteins and nuclear receptors assists us in developing compounds that have specific effects. This review summarizes our current understanding of how retinoids are processed and act with the emphasis on the application of retinoids in cancer treatment and prevention. PMID:20654663

  12. Integrated care through disease-oriented clinical care pathways: experience from Japan's regional health planning initiatives. (United States)

    Okamoto, Etsuji; Miyamoto, Masaki; Hara, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Jun; Muto, Masaki; Hirai, Aizan; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Mizuno, Masaaki; Nagata, Hiroshi; Yamakata, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hiroshi


    In April 2008, Japan launched a radical reform in regional health planning that emphasized the development of disease-oriented clinical care pathways. These 'inter-provider critical paths' have sought to ensure effective integration of various providers ranging among primary care practitioners, acute care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, long-term care facilities and home care. All 47 prefectures in Japan developed their Regional Health Plans pursuant to the guideline requiring that these should include at least four diseases: diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and cancer. To illustrate the care pathways developed, this paper describes the guideline referring to strokes and provides examples of the new Regional Health Plans as well as examples of disease-oriented inter-provider clinical paths. In particular, the paper examines the development of information sharing through electronic health records (EHR) to enhance effective integration among providers is discussed. Japan's reform in 2008 is unique in that the concept of 'disease-oriented regional inter-provider critical paths' was adopted as a national policy and all 47 prefectures developed their Regional Health Plans simultaneously. How much the new regional health planning policy has improved the quality and outcome of care remains to be seen and will be evaluated in 2013 after the five-year planned period of implementation has concluded. Whilst electronic health records appear to be a useful tool in supporting care integration they do not guarantee success in the application of an inter-provider critical path.

  13. Your cancer care team (United States)

    ... cancer (cancer passed down through your genes). A genetic counselor can help you or your family members decide if you want to get tested for these types of cancer. A counselor can also help you make decisions based on test results. Nurse practitioners. A nurse with a graduate degree in ...

  14. [Methodological aspects of integrated care pathways]. (United States)

    Gomis, R; Mata Cases, M; Mauricio Puente, D; Artola Menéndez, S; Ena Muñoz, J; Mediavilla Bravo, J J; Miranda Fernández-Santos, C; Orozco Beltrán, D; Rodríguez Mañas, L; Sánchez Villalba, C; Martínez, J A

    An Integrated Healthcare Pathway (PAI) is a tool which has as its aim to increase the effectiveness of clinical performance through greater coordination and to ensure continuity of care. PAI places the patient as the central focus of the organisation of health services. It is defined as the set of activities carried out by the health care providers in order to increase the level of health and satisfaction of the population receiving services. The development of a PAI requires the analysis of the flow of activities, the inter-relationships between professionals and care teams, and patient expectations. The methodology for the development of a PAI is presented and discussed in this article, as well as the success factors for its definition and its effective implementation. It also explains, as an example, the recent PAI for Hypoglycaemia in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus developed by a multidisciplinary team and supported by several scientific societies. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrating Acupuncture into Cancer Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Ju Chien


    Full Text Available Oncology acupuncture has become a new and promising field of research because more and more cancer patients have sought non-pharmacological alternatives for symptom management. While different mechanisms have been proposed to explain its efficacy, including theories of the neural system, endocrine cytokine or immunological regulation, its eventual role has become that of alleviating the side effects induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this paper, we have reviewed the related articles focusing on acupuncture mechanisms and applications in cancer care to provide a quick sketch of acupuncture in cancer care. A detailed search was performed to identify the randomized controlled trials (RCTs and systematic reviews on acupuncture in oncology, using PUBMED and Cochrane. The search terms included: Acupuncture, acupressure, and cancer. Additional terms were used to target specific symptoms (i.e., breast cancer, hot flash, xerostomia, nausea, vomiting, cancer pain, insomnia, fatigue. Two authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 25 articles underwent full-text review. Recent trials made efforts in studying (a hot flashes in breast cancer, (b xerostomia induced by radiotherapy in head and neck cancer, (c nausea and vomiting post-chemotherapy, (d cancer pain, and (e fatigue and insomnia in cancer patients. Controversial results for acupuncture application in cancer care appeared in different categories, but a trend emerged that acupuncture can palliate cancer-related symptoms. The research to date certainly offers us a valid complementary therapy in treating cancer-related symptoms. Meanwhile, practical strategies with safe measures for enhancing the efficacy are needed in further interventions, as well as continuing research with a validated methodology.

  16. Targeting the Met pathway in lung cancer. (United States)

    Belalcazar, Astrid; Azaña, Daisy; Perez, Cesar A; Raez, Luis E; Santos, Edgardo S


    Dysregulation of Met signaling has been implicated in the initiation, progression and metastasis of human cancers, and therefore represents an attractive target for anticancer drug development. Met is overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancer and its lack of staining in normal lung tissue makes it an attractive target. To date, erlotinib and gefitinib have established themselves as first-line therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor an EGF receptor gene mutation, and hence, it is crucial that we identify mechanisms of resistance that could be targeted by novel agents, while keeping an acceptable toxicity profile at the same time; something very important when we develop these new drugs. Inhibitors of the Met pathway represent a therapeutic alternative in this setting. In this review, we discuss the early clinical studies reported using two Met inhibitors, a monoclonal antibody (MetMAb) and a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (MGCD265).

  17. Sexual minority cancer survivors' satisfaction with care. (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S


    Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald χ(2) = 9.25, pSexual minorities experience poorer satisfaction with care compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care is especially relevant to cancer survivorship in light of the cancer-related health disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors.

  18. Care professional's experiences about using Liverpool Care Pathway in end-of-life care in residential care homes. (United States)

    Andersson, Sofia; Lindqvist, Olav; Fürst, Carl-Johan; Brännström, Margareta


    Residential care homes (RCHs) play an important role in end-of-life care, being the most common place of death for elderly people in several European countries. Care pathways such as the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP) are used to improve and ensure quality care at the end of life. There is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the use of care pathways. A descriptive qualitative study. The aim was to describe care professionals' experiences of using the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient in the care of dying residents in residential care homes. Five focus group interviews and two individual interviews with enrolled nurses (n = 10), Registered Nurses (n = 9) and general practitioners (n = 5) were carried out and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Care professionals expressed that they became confident through a shared approach to care, were supported to tailor the care according to the residents' individual needs, were supported to involve family members in decision-making and care and became more aware of the care environment. The results of this study indicate that the LCP might be a useful tool for care professionals in improving end-of-life care in RCHs through increased attention to the goals of care, the individual needs of residents and family involvement. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Palliative care content on cancer center websites. (United States)

    Vater, Laura B; Rebesco, Gina; Schenker, Yael; Torke, Alexia M; Gramelspacher, Gregory


    Professional guidelines recommend that palliative care begin early in advanced cancer management, yet integration of palliative and cancer care remains suboptimal. Cancer centers may miss opportunities to provide palliative care information online. In this study, we described the palliative care content on cancer center websites. We conducted a systematic content analysis of 62 National Cancer Institute- (NCI) designated cancer center websites. We assessed the content of center homepages and analyzed search results using the terms palliative care, supportive care, and hospice. For palliative and supportive care webpages, we assessed services offered and language used to describe care. Two researchers analyzed all websites using a standardized coding manual. Kappa values ranged from 0.78 to 1. NCI-designated cancer center homepages presented information about cancer-directed therapy (61%) more frequently than palliative care (5%). Ten percent of cancer centers had no webpage with palliative care information for patients. Among centers with information for patients, the majority (96%) defined palliative or supportive care, but 30% did not discuss delivery of palliative care alongside curative treatment, and 14% did not mention provision of care early in the disease process. Cancer center homepages rarely mention palliative care services. While the majority of centers have webpages with palliative care content, they sometimes omit information about early use of care. Improving accessibility of palliative care information and increasing emphasis on early provision of services may improve integration of palliative and cancer care.

  20. Facilitators and barriers to implementing clinical care pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrone Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promotion of care pathways in the recent Governmental health policy reports of Lord Darzi is likely to increase efforts to promote the use of care pathways in the NHS. Evidence on the process of pathway implementation, however, is sparse and variations in how organisations go about the implementation process are likely to be large. This paper summarises what is known about factors which help or hinder clinicians in adopting and putting care pathways into practice, and which consequently promote or hinder the implementation of scientific evidence in clinical practice. Discussion Care pathways can provide patients with clear expectations of their care, provide a means of measuring patient's progress, promote teamwork on a multi-disciplinary team, facilitate the use of guidelines, and may act as a basis for a payment system. In order to achieve adequate implementation, however, facilitators and barriers must be considered, planned for, and incorporated directly into the pathway with full engagement among clinical and management staff. Barriers and/or facilitators may be present at each stage of development, implementation and evaluation; and, barriers at any stage can impede successful implementation. Important considerations to be made are ensuring the inclusion of all types of staff, plans for evaluating and incorporating continuous improvements, allowing for organisational adaptations and promoting the use of multifaceted interventions. Summary Although there is a dearth of information regarding the successful implementation of care pathways, evidence is available which may be applied when implementing a care pathway. Multifaceted interventions which incorporate all staff and facilitate organisational adaptations must be seriously considered and incorporated alongside care pathways in a continuous manner. In order to better understand the mechanism upon which care pathways are effective, however, more research

  1. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buh, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Sarabia, A. M. Cepeda; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; De Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garces, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzman, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Keenoy, E. de Manuel; Masjedi, M. R.; Meten, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Mamas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Pontal, F. Radier; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  2. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buhl, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Cepeda Sarabia, A. M.; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; de Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Fink Wagner, A.; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garcés, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzmán, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Lodrup Carlsen, K. C.; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; de Manuel Keenoy, E.; Masjedi, M. R.; Melen, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Momas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Radier Pontal, F.; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schünemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.


    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will

  3. Integrated Care Pathways and Care Bundles for Dementia in Acute Care: Concept Versus Evidence. (United States)

    Sullivan, Dawn O; Mannix, Mary; Timmons, Suzanne


    Caring for people with dementia in acute settings is challenging and confounded by multiple comorbidities and difficulties transitioning between community and acute care. Recently, there has been an increase in the development and use of integrated care pathways (ICPs) and care bundles for defined illnesses and medical procedures, and these are now being promoted for use in dementia care in acute settings. We present a review of the literature on ICPs and/or care bundles for dementia care in the acute sector. This includes a literature overview including "gray literature" such as relevant websites, reports, and government publications. Taken together, there is clearly a growing interest in and clinical use of ICPs and care bundles for dementia. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of ICPs for dementia care in acute settings and limited evidence for care bundles for dementia in this setting.

  4. Alcohol consumption and distinct molecular pathways to colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, B.W.C.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Vogel, S. de; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.


    High alcohol consumption is related to colorectal cancer (CRC). Our objective was to study associations between alcohol consumption and risk of CRC according to characteristics of aetiological pathways: the chromosomal instability (CIN) and the microsatellite instability (MIN) pathway. We classified

  5. Designing a Care Pathway Model – A Case Study of the Outpatient Total Hip Arthroplasty Care Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin I. Oosterholt


    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the clinical attributes of total hip arthroplasty (THA care pathways have been thoroughly researched, a detailed understanding of the equally important organisational attributes is still lacking. The aim of this article is to contribute with a model of the outpatient THA care pathway that depicts how the care team should be organised to enable patient discharge on the day of surgery. Theory: The outpatient THA care pathway enables patients to be discharged on the day of surgery, short- ening the length of stay and intensifying the provision and organisation of care. We utilise visual care modelling to construct a visual design of the organisation of the care pathway. Methods: An embedded case study was conducted of the outpatient THA care pathway at a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. The data were collected using a visual care modelling toolkit in 16 semi- structured interviews. Problems and inefficiencies in the care pathway were identified and addressed in the iterative design process. Results: The results are two visual models of the most critical phases of the outpatient THA care pathway: diagnosis & preparation (1 and mobilisation & discharge (4. The results show the care team composition, critical value exchanges, and sequence that enable patient discharge on the day of surgery. Conclusion: The design addressed existing problems and is an optimisation of the case hospital’s pathway. The network of actors consists of the patient (1, radiologist (1, anaesthetist (1, nurse specialist (1, pharmacist (1, orthopaedic surgeon (1,4, physiotherapist (1,4, nurse (4, doctor (4 and patient applica- tion (1,4. The critical value exchanges include patient preparation (mental and practical, patient education, aligned care team, efficient sequence of value exchanges, early patient mobilisation, flexible availability of the physiotherapist, functional discharge criteria, joint decision making and availability of the care team.

  6. Novel personalized pathway-based metabolomics models reveal key metabolic pathways for breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sijia; Chong, Nicole; Lewis, Nathan


    metabolomics data for disease diagnosis. Applying this method to blood-based breast cancer metabolomics data, we have discovered crucial metabolic pathway signatures for breast cancer diagnosis, especially early diagnosis. Further, this modeling approach may be generalized to other omics data types for disease.......993. Moreover, important metabolic pathways, such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate pathway, are revealed as critical biological pathways for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Conclusions: We have successfully developed a new type of pathway-based model to study......Background: More accurate diagnostic methods are pressingly needed to diagnose breast cancer, the most common malignant cancer in women worldwide. Blood-based metabolomics is a promising diagnostic method for breast cancer. However, many metabolic biomarkers are difficult to replicate among studies...

  7. Spirituality in childhood cancer care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NN


    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers

  8. Cannabis in cancer care. (United States)

    Abrams, D I; Guzman, M


    Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main bioactive cannabinoid in the plant, has been available as a prescription medication approved for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and anorexia associated with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Cannabinoids may be of benefit in the treatment of cancer-related pain, possibly synergistic with opioid analgesics. Cannabinoids have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of HIV-related peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that they may be worthy of study in patients with other neuropathic symptoms. Cannabinoids have a favorable drug safety profile, but their medical use is predominantly limited by their psychoactive effects and their limited bioavailability. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  9. LGBT Populations' Barriers to Cancer Care. (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike


    To describe lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals' barriers to accessing and receiving quality cancer care. Published data on cancer care and studies of LGBT individuals. There is a clustering of barriers among LGBT individuals, which suggests multiple inequities exist in LGBT individuals' cancer care, although data on disparities along the cancer control continuum are not consistently available. Nurses can make a difference in LGBT individuals' cancer care by obtaining training on LGBT health and their cancer-related needs and by providing a welcoming and respectful relationship with LGBT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Work-up times in an integrated brain cancer pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Laursen, Emilie; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh


    The integrated brain cancer pathway (IBCP) aims to ensure fast-track diagnostics and treatment for brain cancers in Denmark. This paper focuses on the referral pattern and the time frame of key pathway elements during the first two years following implementation of the IBCP in a regional neurology...

  11. The prosthodontic pathway of the oral cancer patient. (United States)

    Siddall, Krista Z; Rogers, Simon N; Butterworth, Chris J


    Oral cancer patients undergo life-altering curative treatment that consists of surgery or a combination of surgery and radiotherapy. This can severely alter the functional anatomy of the oral cavity and create a challenging environment for successful oral rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary team approach is required to rehabilitate these patients successfully. It is essential to have assessment by an oral rehabilitation specialist before treatment, especially where primary rehabilitation interventions are being considered. Following cancer treatment, patients may suffer from a range of difficulties, from dento-facial appearance, to chewing, speech and swallowing. This dysfunction often leads to psychosocial problems, such as reduced self esteem, social contact and quality of life. Conventional prosthodontics has a role to play in the management of these patients but osseointegrated implants (OII), can be required to overcome the anatomical and physiological barriers. OII can be used in an environment where there is poor soft tissue function or little bone support, and where there is a dry mouth. This paper introduces readers to the prosthodontic pathway taken by some oral cancer patients. It provides an overview of current oral rehabilitation techniques that supplement the supportive dental care provided by general dental practitioners and their team after cancer treatment.

  12. Rosamines targeting the cancer oxidative phosphorylation pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Hui Lim

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of energy metabolism is pivotal to cancer, so mitochondria are potential targets for anticancer therapy. A prior study has demonstrated the anti-proliferative activity of a new class of mitochondria-targeting rosamines. This present study describes in vitro cytotoxicity of second-generation rosamine analogs, their mode of action, and their in vivo efficacies in a tumor allografted mouse model. Here, we showed that these compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity (average IC50<0.5 µM, inhibited Complex II and ATP synthase activities of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway and induced loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. A NCI-60 cell lines screen further indicated that rosamine analogs 4 and 5 exhibited potent antiproliferative effects with Log10GI50 = -7 (GI50 = 0.1 µM and were more effective against a colorectal cancer sub-panel than other cell lines. Preliminary in vivo studies on 4T1 murine breast cancer-bearing female BALB/c mice indicated that treatment with analog 5 in a single dosing of 5 mg/kg or a schedule dosing of 3 mg/kg once every 2 days for 6 times (q2d×6 exhibited only minimal induction of tumor growth delay. Our results suggest that rosamine analogs may be further developed as mitochondrial targeting agents. Without a doubt proper strategies need to be devised to enhance tumor uptake of rosamines, i.e. by integration to carrier molecules for better therapeutic outcome.

  13. Promoting Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Care Strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It is recommended that guidelines and policies about breast cancer early detection, care strategies, and ongoing management pathways be produced, disseminated, .... control strategies globally, three goals must be addressed: a) the development ... symptomatic disease through self-breast examination and clinical-breast ...

  14. Increased health care use in cancer survivors.


    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. We aimed to determine how often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients contact their Primary Care Physician (PCP) 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods: Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care (LINH), we determined the volume and diagnoses made...

  15. Increases health care use in cancer survivors.


    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience longlasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. Research question: How often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients contact their Primary Care Physician (PCP) 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods: Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care (LINH), we determined the volume and diagnoses made dur...

  16. Targeting Signaling Pathways in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haybaeck


    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma (OC is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Response to platinum-based chemotherapy is poor in some patients and, thus, current research is focusing on new therapy options. The various histological types of OC are characterized by distinctive molecular genetic alterations that are relevant for ovarian tumorigenesis. The understanding of these molecular pathways is essential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Purpose: We want to give an overview on the molecular genetic changes of the histopathological types of OC and their role as putative therapeutic targets. In Depth Review of Existing Data: In 2012, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor, bevacizumab, was approved for OC treatment. Bevacizumab has shown promising results as single agent and in combination with conventional chemotherapy, but its target is not distinctive when analyzed before treatment. At present, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors and components of the EGFR pathway are in the focus of clinical research. Interestingly, some phytochemical substances show good synergistic effects when used in combination with chemotherapy. Conclusion: Ongoing studies of targeted agents in conjunction with chemotherapy will show whether there are alternative options to bevacizumab available for OC patients. Novel targets which can be assessed before therapy to predict efficacy are needed. The assessment of therapeutic targets is continuously improved by molecular pathological analyses on tumor tissue. A careful selection of patients for personalized treatment will help to reduce putative side effects and toxicity.

  17. Targeting the Mevalonate Pathway to Reduce Mortality from Ovarian Cancer (United States)


    was the impact on technology transfer? Nothing to Report at this time. D. What was the impact on society beyond science and technology ...mortality, cholesterol-lowering drugs, disease progression , epithelial ovarian cancer, lovastatin, Mevalonate Pathway, prescription drugs, statins...mortality Carboplatin/paclitaxel Cholesterol-lowering drugs Disease progression Drug exposure Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Finnish Cancer Registry

  18. End-of-Life Care for People Who Have Cancer (United States)

    ... Care (PDQ®) Coping with Advanced Cancer Coping with Cancer Grief, Bereavement, and Coping With Loss (PDQ®) Hospice Care Last Days of Life (PDQ®) Palliative Care in Cancer When Someone You Love Has Advanced Cancer: Support ...

  19. Regional Multiteam Systems in Cancer Care Delivery. (United States)

    Noyes, Katia; Monson, John R T; Rizvi, Irfan; Savastano, Ann; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick


    Teamwork is essential for addressing many of the challenges that arise in the coordination and delivery of cancer care, especially for the problems that are presented by patients who cross geographic boundaries and enter and exit multiple health care systems at various times during their cancer care journeys. The problem of coordinating the care of patients with cancer is further complicated by the growing number of treatment options and modalities, incompatibilities among the vast variety of technology platforms that have recently been adopted by the health care industry, and competing and misaligned incentives for providers and systems. Here we examine the issue of regional care coordination in cancer through the prism of a real patient journey. This article will synthesize and elaborate on existing knowledge about coordination approaches for complex systems, in particular, in general and cancer care multidisciplinary teams; define elements of coordination derived from organizational psychology and human factors research that are applicable to team-based cancer care delivery; and suggest approaches for improving multidisciplinary team coordination in regional cancer care delivery and avenues for future research. The phenomenon of the mobile, multisystem patient represents a growing challenge in cancer care. Paradoxically, development of high-quality, high-volume centers of excellence and the ease of virtual communication and data sharing by using electronic medical records have introduced significant barriers to effective team-based cancer care. These challenges urgently require solutions.

  20. ARIA 2016 Executive Summary Integrated care pathways for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARIA 2016 Executive Summary Integrated care pathways for predictive medicine across the life cycle. ... It is associated with an inter-operable tablet for physicians and other health care professionals. The scaling up strategy uses the recommendations of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

  1. Life after the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP): a qualitative study of critical care practitioners delivering end-of-life care. (United States)

    Ramasamy Venkatasalu, Munikumar; Whiting, Dean; Cairnduff, Karen


    To explore the experiences, challenges and practices of critical care practitioners since the discontinuation of the Liverpool Care Pathway in critical care settings. The Liverpool Care Pathway was widely used with an aim to improve communication and care for dying individuals and their relatives. However, widespread media criticism prompted a review, which resulted in the discontinuation of the Liverpool Care Pathway across all UK clinical settings. A qualitative study. The study was carried out in two large acute hospitals in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 critical care practitioners, 6 months after discontinuation of the Liverpool Care Pathway. Transcribed verbatim data were analysed using framework analysis. Three key themes emerged: 'lessons learned', 'uncertainties and ambivalences' and 'the future'. Critical care practitioners reported that life after the Liverpool Care Pathway in critical care settings often involved various clinical ambivalences, uncertainties and inconsistencies in the delivery of end-of-life care, especially for less experienced practitioners. Critical care practitioners had 'become accustomed' to the components of the Liverpool Care Pathway, which still guide them in principle to ensure quality end-of-life care. The Liverpool Care Pathway's structured format was perceived to be a useful clinical tool, but was also criticized as a 'tick-box exercise' and for lacking in family involvement. This study posits two key conclusions. Despite experienced critical care practitioners being able to deliver quality end-of-life care without using the Liverpool Care Pathway, junior nursing and medical staff need clear guidelines and support from experienced mentors in practice. Evidence-based guidelines related to family involvement in end-of-life care planning in critical care settings are also needed to avoid future controversies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. cGAS/STING Pathway in Cancer: Jekyll and Hyde Story of Cancer Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojit Bose


    Full Text Available The last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the field of cancer immunity. Mechanistic insights of cancer immunoediting have not only enhanced our understanding but also paved the way to target and/or harness the innate immune system to combat cancer, called cancer immunotherapy. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS/Stimulator of interferon genes(STING pathway has recently emerged as nodal player in cancer immunity and is currently being explored as potential therapeutic target. Although therapeutic activation of this pathway has shown promising anti-tumor effects in vivo, evidence also indicates the role of this pathway in inflammation mediated carcinogenesis. This review highlights our current understanding of cGAS/STING pathway in cancer, its therapeutic targeting and potential alternate approaches to target this pathway. Optimal therapeutic targeting and artificial tunability of this pathway still demand in depth understanding of cGAS/STING pathway regulation and homeostasis.

  3. Increased health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. We aimed to determine how often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients

  4. Increases health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience longlasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. Research question: How often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients

  5. Severe Obesity in Cancer Care. (United States)

    Streu, Erin


    Increasing weight and body fat composition has an impact on cancer detection and staging. Obese women are less likely to engage in breast and cervical screening practices. Excessive adipose tissue makes physical assessment more difficult, and patients with a BMI greater than 35 kg/m2 may have deeper and wider pelvic structures, which make internal examinations problematic. A retrospective review of 324 primary surgical patients found that patients with a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 are seven times less likely to undergo complete surgical staging for endometrial cancer compared with individuals with a BMI less than 40 kg/m2. In addition, healthcare provider bias against the need for screening, feelings of discomfort and embarrassment, as well as patient's fears of guilt, humiliation, and shame pose significant barriers to addressing the issue of obesity in clinical care with patients and family members. 

  6. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.


    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    degeneration of health, disability, frailty, and incapacity for self- care (Levinson, 2008). Therefore, old age ... The study was guided by Goffman's 1961 total institution theory, which explains the elderly's social world and ... In defining the concept of “total institution”, Ritzer (2007) gives the theory's main argument, which is that.

  8. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell


    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  9. Music therapy in supportive cancer care


    Stanczyk, Malgorzata Monika


    The purpose of this paper is to show some aspects of music therapy application in cancer care and to present the integration of music therapy program into a continuous supportive cancer care for inpatients. A cancer diagnosis is one of the most feared and serious life events that causes stress in individuals and families. Cancer disrupts social, physical and emotional well-being and results in a range of emotions, including anger, fear, sadness, guilt, embarrassment and shame. Music therapy i...

  10. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi


    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  11. Advances of Liver X Receptor Signaling Pathways in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun LIU


    Full Text Available Liver X receptors (LXRs, a kind of ligand-activated transcription factors, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily (NRS, and function as central transcriptional regulators for lipid homeostasis, for which agonists have been developed as potential drugs for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes. In sex hormone-dependent cancers, dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been manifested. Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer in males in Europe and a leading cause of cancer deaths, with similar proportion in other developed countries. A lot of studies have confirmed that both LXR and its agonists may play some roles in the progression of prostate cancer, and LXR signaling pathways may have a close association with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Hence, to investigate the signaling pathways mediated by LXR and its agonists and their effects in prostate cancer is favorable to optimization of new treatment methods.

  12. Gender differences in pathways to care for early psychosis. (United States)

    Ferrari, Manuela; Flora, Nina; Anderson, Kelly K; Haughton, Asante; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; McKenzie, Kwame


    Gender is a critical demographic determinant in first-episode psychosis research. We used data from the ACE Pathways to Care Project, which examined pathways to care in African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin participants, to investigate the role of gender in pathways to early intervention programmes. A qualitative approach was used to examine gender differences in the routes to care. We conducted four focus groups and four individual in-depth interviews with 25 service users of early intervention services from African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin populations. Gender stereotypes negatively influence the first service contact for women, and the early phase of the help seeking process for men. Women reported trying to seek care. However, family members and service providers often questioned their calls for help. Men described having difficulties in talking about their symptoms, as the act of seeking help was perceived as a sign of weakness by peers. The findings of this study suggest that gender stereotypes shape the journey to specialized care in different ways for men and women. Awareness of the impact that gender stereotypes have when a young person is seeking care for psychosis could help to promote a shift in attitudes among health-care providers and the provision of more compassionate and patient-centred care during this critical time. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Pathway-based discovery of genetic interactions in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second largest cause of cancer death among U.S. women and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified several genetic variants associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, but these still explain less than half of the estimated genetic contribution to the disease. Combinations of variants (i.e. genetic interactions may play an important role in breast cancer susceptibility. However, due to a lack of statistical power, the current tests for genetic interactions from GWAS data mainly leverage prior knowledge to focus on small sets of genes or SNPs that are known to have an association with breast cancer. Thus, many genetic interactions, particularly among novel variants, remain understudied. Reverse-genetic interaction screens in model organisms have shown that genetic interactions frequently cluster into highly structured motifs, where members of the same pathway share similar patterns of genetic interactions. Based on this key observation, we recently developed a method called BridGE to search for such structured motifs in genetic networks derived from GWAS studies and identify pathway-level genetic interactions in human populations. We applied BridGE to six independent breast cancer cohorts and identified significant pathway-level interactions in five cohorts. Joint analysis across all five cohorts revealed a high confidence consensus set of genetic interactions with support in multiple cohorts. The discovered interactions implicated the glutathione conjugation, vitamin D receptor, purine metabolism, mitotic prometaphase, and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways as major modifiers of breast cancer risk. Notably, while many of the pathways identified by BridGE show clear relevance to breast cancer, variants in these pathways had not been previously discovered by traditional single variant association tests, or single pathway enrichment analysis that does

  14. Simultaneous identification of multiple driver pathways in cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D M Leiserson

    Full Text Available Distinguishing the somatic mutations responsible for cancer (driver mutations from random, passenger mutations is a key challenge in cancer genomics. Driver mutations generally target cellular signaling and regulatory pathways consisting of multiple genes. This heterogeneity complicates the identification of driver mutations by their recurrence across samples, as different combinations of mutations in driver pathways are observed in different samples. We introduce the Multi-Dendrix algorithm for the simultaneous identification of multiple driver pathways de novo in somatic mutation data from a cohort of cancer samples. The algorithm relies on two combinatorial properties of mutations in a driver pathway: high coverage and mutual exclusivity. We derive an integer linear program that finds set of mutations exhibiting these properties. We apply Multi-Dendrix to somatic mutations from glioblastoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer samples. Multi-Dendrix identifies sets of mutations in genes that overlap with known pathways - including Rb, p53, PI(3K, and cell cycle pathways - and also novel sets of mutually exclusive mutations, including mutations in several transcription factors or other genes involved in transcriptional regulation. These sets are discovered directly from mutation data with no prior knowledge of pathways or gene interactions. We show that Multi-Dendrix outperforms other algorithms for identifying combinations of mutations and is also orders of magnitude faster on genome-scale data. Software available at:

  15. Associations between successful palliative cancer pathways and community nurse involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most terminally ill cancer patients and their relatives wish that the patient dies at home. Community nurses (CNs) are often frontline workers in the patients' homes and CN involvement may be important in attaining successful palliative pathways at home.The aim of the present...... were used to obtain data on CNs' efforts, GP-questionnaires were used to obtain data on pathway characteristics and relatives answered questionnaires to evaluate the palliative pathway at home. Questionnaires addressed the palliative pathway of a total of 599 deceased cancer patients. Associations...... between bereaved relatives' evaluation of palliative pathways at home and place of death and CN involvement were analysed. RESULTS: 'A successful palliative pathway at home' was positively associated with home-death and death at a nursing home compared with death at an institution. No significant...

  16. Integration of genomics in cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Erika Maria Monteiro; Edwards, Quannetta T; Floria-Santos, Milena


    PURPOSE: The article aims to introduce nurses to how genetics-genomics is currently integrated into cancer care from prevention to treatment and influencing oncology nursing practice. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: An overview of genetics-genomics is described as it relates to cancer etiology, hereditary...... cancer syndromes, epigenetics factors, and management of care considerations. METHODS: Peer-reviewed literature and expert professional guidelines were reviewed to address concepts of genetics-genomics in cancer care. FINDINGS: Cancer is now known to be heterogeneous at the molecular level, with genetic...... and genomic factors underlying the etiology of all cancers. Understanding how these factors contribute to the development and treatment of both sporadic and hereditary cancers is important in cancer risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management and surveillance. CONCLUSIONS...

  17. Activation of the hedgehog pathway in advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hedgehog pathway plays a critical role in the development of prostate. However, the role of the hedgehog pathway in prostate cancer is not clear. Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cause of cancer death in American men. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer has significant clinical implications. Results Here we report that activation of the hedgehog pathway occurs frequently in advanced human prostate cancer. We find that high levels of hedgehog target genes, PTCH1 and hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP, are detected in over 70% of prostate tumors with Gleason scores 8–10, but in only 22% of tumors with Gleason scores 3–6. Furthermore, four available metastatic tumors all have high expression of PTCH1 and HIP. To identify the mechanism of the hedgehog signaling activation, we examine expression of Su(Fu protein, a negative regulator of the hedgehog pathway. We find that Su(Fu protein is undetectable in 11 of 27 PTCH1 positive tumors, two of them contain somatic loss-of-function mutations of Su(Fu. Furthermore, expression of sonic hedgehog protein is detected in majority of PTCH1 positive tumors (24 out of 27. High levels of hedgehog target genes are also detected in four prostate cancer cell lines (TSU, DU145, LN-Cap and PC3. We demonstrate that inhibition of hedgehog signaling by smoothened antagonist, cyclopamine, suppresses hedgehog signaling, down-regulates cell invasiveness and induces apoptosis. In addition, cancer cells expressing Gli1 under the CMV promoter are resistant to cyclopamine-mediated apoptosis. All these data suggest a significant role of the hedgehog pathway for cellular functions of prostate cancer cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that activation of the hedgehog pathway, through loss of Su(Fu or overexpression of sonic hedgehog, may involve tumor progression and metastases of prostate cancer. Thus, targeted inhibition of hedgehog signaling may have

  18. Clinical Pathways and the Patient Perspective in the Pursuit of Value-Based Oncology Care. (United States)

    Ersek, Jennifer L; Nadler, Eric; Freeman-Daily, Janet; Mazharuddin, Samir; Kim, Edward S


    The art of practicing oncology has evolved substantially in the past 5 years. As more and more diagnostic tests, biomarker-directed therapies, and immunotherapies make their way to the oncology marketplace, oncologists will find it increasingly difficult to keep up with the many therapeutic options. Additionally, the cost of cancer care seems to be increasing. Clinical pathways are a systematic way to organize and display detailed, evidence-based treatment options and assist the practitioner with best practice. When selecting which treatment regimens to include on a clinical pathway, considerations must include the efficacy and safety, as well as costs, of the therapy. Pathway treatment regimens must be continually assessed and modified to ensure that the most up-to-date, high-quality options are incorporated. Value-based models, such as the ASCO Value Framework, can assist providers in presenting economic evaluations of clinical pathway treatment options to patients, thus allowing the patient to decide the overall value of each treatment regimen. Although oncologists and pathway developers can decide which treatment regimens to include on a clinical pathway based on the efficacy of the treatment, assessment of the value of that treatment regimen ultimately lies with the patient. Patient definitions of value will be an important component to enhancing current value-based oncology care models and incorporating new, high-quality, value-based therapeutics into oncology clinical pathways.

  19. Pathways to mental health care in KwaZulu - Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Mkize


    Full Text Available The understanding of popular beliefs about mental health care and the pathways clients take prior to admission to a mental health institution is vital in planning to reduce delays in seeking treatment. The objectives of this exploratory survey were to determine pathways of care the clients with mental illness take, which ultimately lead to the mental health institution, the effects of socio-cultural and economic factor on the pathways to mental health care and the satisfaction with different service providers consulted. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews. The results indicate that African clients interpret mental illness as bewitchment. Delays in seeking appropriate mental health care are experienced because traditional and faith healers are the first port of call. The short pathways are used when the first signs of psychotic features are severe, including like aggressive or violent behaviour. Financial constraints seem to be the problem for most of the clients in accessing mental health care. Furthermore, defaulting treatment was also observed due to the fact that mental illnesses are stigmatised in African communities.

  20. Overcoming resistance to implementation of integrated care pathways in orthopaedics. (United States)

    Manning, Blaine T; Callahan, Charles D; Robinson, Brooke S; Adair, Daniel; Saleh, Khaled J


    The future of orthopaedic surgery will be shaped by unprecedented demographic and economic challenges, necessitating movement to so-called "second curve" innovations in the delivery of care. Implementation of integrated care pathways (ICPs) may be one solution to imminent cost and access pressures facing orthopaedic patients in this era of health-care accountability and reform. ICPs can lower costs and the duration of hospital stay while facilitating better outcomes through enhanced interspecialty communication. As with any innovation at the crossroads of paradigm change, implementation of integrated care pathways for orthopaedics may elicit surgeons' concern on a variety of grounds and on levels ranging from casual questioning to vehement opposition. No single method is always effective in promoting cooperation and adoption, so a combination of strategies offers the best chance of success. With a special focus on total joint replacement, we consider general patterns of resistance to change, styles of conflict, and specific issues that may underlie orthopaedic surgeon resistance to implementation of integrated care pathways. Methods to facilitate and sustain orthopaedic surgeon engagement in implementation of such pathways are discussed.

  1. Primary care perspectives on prostate cancer screening. (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T


    Although the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening is controversial, screening rates have risen dramatically among primary care providers in the United States. The authors' findings suggest more collaboration among primary care and specialty organizations, especially with respect to decision aid endorsement, is needed to achieve more discriminatory and patient-centered prostate cancer screening.

  2. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I


    and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking....... AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers)....

  3. Optimizing Cancer Care Delivery through Implementation Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B Neuman


    Full Text Available The 2013 Institute of Medicine report investigating cancer care concluded that the cancer care delivery system is in crisis due to an increased demand for care, increasing complexity of treatment, decreasing work force and rising costs. Engaging patients and incorporating evidence-based care into routine clinical practice are essential components of a high quality cancer delivery system. However, a gap currently exists between the identification of beneficial research findings and application in clinical practice. Implementation research strives to address this gap. In this review, we discuss key components of high quality implementation research. We then apply these concepts to a current cancer care delivery challenge in women’s health, specifically the implementation of a surgery decision aid for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.

  4. Supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani


    Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.

  5. [Spiritual care model for terminal cancer patients]. (United States)

    Cheng, Ju-Fen; Lin, Ya-Ching; Huang, Pai-Ho; Wei, Chih-Hsin; Sun, Jia-Ling


    Providing spiritual care to patients with advanced cancer may improve the quality of life of these patients and help them experience a good death. Cancer patients are eager for additional spiritual care and for a sense of peace at the end of their life. However, spirituality is an abstract concept. The literature on spiritual care focuses primarily on elaborations of spirituality theory. Thus, first-line medical care professionals lack clear guidelines for managing the spiritual needs of terminal cancer patients. The purposes of this article were to: 1) introduce a spiritual care model based on the concept of repair and recovery of relationships that addresses the relationship between the self and God, others, id, and objects and 2) set out a four-step strategy for this model that consists of understanding, empathizing, guiding, and growing. This article provides operational guidelines for the spiritual care of terminal cancer patients.

  6. Triple negative breast cancer: the role of metabolic pathways. (United States)

    Dean, S J R; Rhodes, A


    The incidence of breast cancer in Malaysia and other Asian countries is on the increase, reflecting lifestyle changes some of which are known risk factors for the development of breast cancer. Most breast cancers are amenable to adjuvant therapies that target hormone receptors or HER2 receptors on the surface of the cancer cells and bring about significant improvement in survival. However, approximately 17% of Malaysian women with breast cancer, present with tumours that are devoid of these receptors and are consequently termed 'triple negative' breast cancers. These triple negative breast cancers typically occur in women of a younger age than receptor positive cancers, are predominantly of high grade tumours and the prognosis is usually poor. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the biological pathways that drive these tumours, in order that effective strategies are developed to treat these aggressive tumours. With the increasing affluence of developing countries, obesity and Type II Diabetes are also on the rise. These diseases are associated with an increased risk of developing a range of cancers including those of the breast. In particular, the metabolic syndrome has been shown to be associated with triple negative breast cancer. This article reviews some of the metabolic pathways and biomarkers which have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in triple negative breast cancer and highlights some of the ongoing work in this area.

  7. Social capital, pathway to care and duration of untreated psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social capital, pathway to care and duration of untreated psychosis: Findings from a low- and middle-income country context. ... to formal health services. This is especially likely in contexts where mental health services are scarce and inaccessible, which has important implications for mental health education campaigns.

  8. Cancer Survivorship for Primary Care Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Westfall, Matthew Y; Overholser, Linda; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M


    Long-term cancer survivorship care is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of research. Increasing cancer survivorship rates have created a huge population of long-term cancer survivors whose cancer-specific needs challenge healthcare infrastructure and highlight a significant deficit of knowledge and guidelines in transitional care from treatment to normalcy/prolonged survivorship. As the paradigm of cancer care has changed from a fixation on the curative to the maintenance on long-term overall quality of life, so to, has the delineation of responsibility between oncologists and primary care physicians (PCPs). As more patients enjoy long-term survival, PCPs play a more comprehensive role in cancer care following acute treatment. To this end, this annotated bibliography was written to provide PCPs and other readers with an up-to-date and robust base of knowledge on long-term cancer survivorship, including definitions and epidemiological information as well as specific considerations and recommendations on physical, psychosocial, sexual, and comorbidity needs of survivors. Additionally, significant information is included on survivorship care, specifically Survivorship Care Plans (SPCs) and their evolution, utilization by oncologists and PCPs, and current gaps, as well as an introduction to patient navigation programs. Given rapid advancements in cancer research, this bibliography is meant to serve as current baseline reference outlining the state of the science.

  9. Pathway to better patient care and nurse workforce outcomes in home care. (United States)

    Jarrín, Olga F; Kang, Youjeong; Aiken, Linda H


    Unlike the Magnet Recognition Program, the newer Pathway to Excellence Program designed to improve work environments in a broader range of organizations has not yet been the focus of substantial research. The purpose of the study was to examine the association of Pathway to Excellence Program Standards with better patient care quality and workforce outcomes in home care. Cross-sectional survey of registered nurses yielded informants from 871 home care agencies in the United States. Variables representing each of the 12 Pathway Standards were entered into logistic regression models to determine associations with better patient care and nurse workforce outcomes. All Pathway Standards are strongly and significantly associated with better patient care and better workforce outcomes. Home care agencies with better-rated professional work environments consistently had better patient care and nurse workforce outcomes. This study validates the Pathway to Excellence Standards as important to patient care quality and nursing workforce outcomes in home care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing national provision of care: variability in bariatric clinical care pathways. (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Majid, Saniea F; Powers, Kinga; DeMaria, Eric; Morton, John; Jones, Daniel B


    The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (QIPS) Committee hypothesized that collecting and sharing clinical pathways could provide a valuable resource to new and existing bariatric programs. To shed light on the variability in practice patterns across the country by analyzing pathways. United States Centers of Excellence METHODS: From June 2014 to April 2015, clinical pathways pertaining to preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management of bariatric patients were solicited from the ASMBS executive council (EC), QIPS committee members, and state chapter presidents. Pathways were de-identified and then analyzed based on predetermined metrics pertaining to preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care. Concordance and discordance were then analyzed. In total, 31 pathways were collected; response rate was 80% from the EC, 77% from the QIPS committee, and 21% from state chapter presidents. The number of pathways sent in ranged from 1 to 10 with a median of 3 pathways per individual or institution. The majority of pathways centered on perioperative care (80%). Binary assessment (presence or absence) of variables found a high concordance (defined by greater than 65% of pathways accounting for that parameter) in only 6 variables: nutritional evaluation, psychological evaluation, intraoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis, utilization of antiemetics in the postoperative period, a dedicated pain pathway, and postoperative laboratory evaluation. There is considerable national variation in clinical pathways among practicing bariatric surgeons. Most pathways center on Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accredited Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) accreditation parameters, patient satisfaction, or Surgical Care Improvement Protocol (SCIP) measures. These pathways provide a path toward standardization of improved care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Pathway and network analysis of cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Reimand, Jueri; Haider, Syed


    Genomic information on tumors from 50 cancer types cataloged by the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) shows that only a few well-studied driver genes are frequently mutated, in contrast to many infrequently mutated genes that may also contribute to tumor biology. Hence there has been ...

  12. The protein C pathway in cancer metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, C. Arnold; Arruda, Valder R.


    Cancer is frequently associated with activation of blood coagulation, which in turn has been suggested to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Indeed, low molecular weight heparin treatment significantly prolongs the survival of a wide variety of patients with cancer. Based on this notion that

  13. Role of Kindness in Cancer Care. (United States)

    Berry, Leonard L; Danaher, Tracey S; Chapman, Robert A; Awdish, Rana L A


    The wonders of high-tech cancer care are best complemented by the humanity of high-touch care. Simple kindnesses can help to diffuse negative emotions that are associated with cancer diagnosis and treatment-and may even help to improve patients' outcomes. On the basis of our experience in cancer care and research, we propose six types of kindness in cancer care: deep listening , whereby clinicians take the time to truly understand the needs and concerns of patients and their families; empathy for the patient with cancer, expressed by both individual clinicians and the care culture, that seeks to prevent avoidable suffering; generous acts of discretionary effort that go beyond what patients and families expect from a care team; timely care that is delivered by using a variety of tools and systems that reduce stress and anxiety; gentle honesty, whereby the truth is conveyed directly in well-chosen, guiding words; and support for family caregivers, whose physical and mental well-being are vital components of the care their loved ones receive. These mutually reinforcing manifestations of kindness-exhibited by self-aware clinicians who understand that how care is delivered matters-constitute a powerful and practical way to temper the emotional turmoil of cancer for patients, their families, and clinicians themselves.

  14. Mitochondrial ROS generation for regulation of autophagic pathways in cancer. (United States)

    Li, Zi-yue; Yang, Yu; Ming, Miao; Liu, Bo


    Mitochondria, the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are required for cell survival; yet also orchestrate programmed cell death (PCD), referring to apoptosis and autophagy. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation process implicated in a wide range of pathological processes, most notably cancer. Accumulating evidence has recently revealed that mitochondria may generate massive ROS that play the essential role for autophagy regulation, and thus sealing the fate of cancer cell. In this review, we summarize mitochondrial function and ROS generation, and also highlight ROS-modulated core autophagic pathways involved in ATG4-ATG8/LC3, Beclin-1, p53, PTEN, PI3K-Akt-mTOR and MAPK signaling in cancer. Therefore, a better understanding of the intricate relationships between mitochondrial ROS and autophagy may ultimately allow cancer biologists to harness mitochondrial ROS-mediated autophagic pathways for cancer drug discovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Issues in adult blood cancer survivorship care. (United States)

    Bugos, Kelly G


    To describe the current literature and future directions of survivorship care for the adult blood cancer population including unique features, identification of needs, practice guidelines, care models and the implications for nursing. Peer reviewed literature, government and national advocacy organization reports, professional organization guidelines. Adult blood cancer survivors are a heterogeneous population that often receives complicated treatments to live a longer life. Survivorship needs among this population are often unmet throughout the cancer care continuum. The limited research literature and guidelines point to survivorship care strategies from the day of diagnosis to enhance long-term outcomes and improve quality of life. Nurses are experts in symptom management and central to preventing, detecting, measuring, educating, and treating the effects of cancer and its treatment. Moreover, nurses are key to implementing strategies to support blood cancer survivors, families, and caregivers from the day of diagnosis to the last day of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Global health from a cancer care perspective. (United States)

    Pesec, Madeline; Sherertz, Tracy


    Cancer is now recognized as one of the four leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and incidence is expected to rise significantly in the next two decades. Unfortunately, low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) suffer disproportionately from the world's cancer cases. The growing burden of cancer and maldistribution of cancer care resources in LMIC warrant a massive re-evaluation of the structural inequalities that produce global oncological disparities and a worldwide commitment to improve both prevention and treatment strategies. Efforts to improve cancer care capacity should focus on horizontal strengthening of healthcare systems that provide safe, affordable, effective and sustainable care. In response to current deficiencies, many international organizations have started to partner with LMIC to create solutions. Telemedicine and international collaboration are also promising ways to effect change and improve global oncological care.

  17. Clinical Implications of Hedgehog Pathway Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Suzman


    Full Text Available Activity in the Hedgehog pathway, which regulates GLI-mediated transcription, is important in organogenesis and stem cell regulation in self-renewing organs, but is pathologically elevated in many human malignancies. Mutations leading to constitutive activation of the pathway have been implicated in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma, and inhibition of the pathway has demonstrated clinical responses leading to the approval of the Smoothened inhibitor, vismodegib, for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Aberrant Hedgehog pathway signaling has also been noted in prostate cancer with evidence suggesting that it may render prostate epithelial cells tumorigenic, drive the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and contribute towards the development of castration-resistance through autocrine and paracrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment and cross-talk with the androgen pathway. In addition, there are emerging clinical data suggesting that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway may be effective in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer. Here we will review these data and highlight areas of active clinical research as they relate to Hedgehog pathway inhibition in prostate cancer.

  18. Building Data-Driven Pathways From Routinely Collected Hospital Data: A Case Study on Prostate Cancer. (United States)

    Bettencourt-Silva, Joao H; Clark, Jeremy; Cooper, Colin S; Mills, Robert; Rayward-Smith, Victor J; de la Iglesia, Beatriz


    Routinely collected data in hospitals is complex, typically heterogeneous, and scattered across multiple Hospital Information Systems (HIS). This big data, created as a byproduct of health care activities, has the potential to provide a better understanding of diseases, unearth hidden patterns, and improve services and cost. The extent and uses of such data rely on its quality, which is not consistently checked, nor fully understood. Nevertheless, using routine data for the construction of data-driven clinical pathways, describing processes and trends, is a key topic receiving increasing attention in the literature. Traditional algorithms do not cope well with unstructured processes or data, and do not produce clinically meaningful visualizations. Supporting systems that provide additional information, context, and quality assurance inspection are needed. The objective of the study is to explore how routine hospital data can be used to develop data-driven pathways that describe the journeys that patients take through care, and their potential uses in biomedical research; it proposes a framework for the construction, quality assessment, and visualization of patient pathways for clinical studies and decision support using a case study on prostate cancer. Data pertaining to prostate cancer patients were extracted from a large UK hospital from eight different HIS, validated, and complemented with information from the local cancer registry. Data-driven pathways were built for each of the 1904 patients and an expert knowledge base, containing rules on the prostate cancer biomarker, was used to assess the completeness and utility of the pathways for a specific clinical study. Software components were built to provide meaningful visualizations for the constructed pathways. The proposed framework and pathway formalism enable the summarization, visualization, and querying of complex patient-centric clinical information, as well as the computation of quality indicators and

  19. PRIMARY PALLIATIVE CARE? - Treating terminally ill cancer patients in the primary care sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Olesen, Frede

    that is vital to further improve palliative care in the primary sector.AIM. The aim of the study was to analyse the quality of palliative home care with focus on the GP's role based on evaluations by relatives of recently deceased cancer patients and professionals from both the primary and secondary health care......) The primary sector needs easy access to specialist advise, supervision and empowerment. 4) Better and easier communication pathways are important, both within the primary sector and across the sectors to improve accessibility.CONCLUSION. Our study shows a need for improvements in palliative home care...... and provides important knowledge about how these improvements are achieved.The GPs want closer supervision and improved shared care. They want to be key persons in palliative home care, but to fill this role it is vital that they take or are given the responsibility in a very transparent way, i.e.: A way...

  20. Role of the Wnt pathway in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSastre-Perona


    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is involved in the development of several epithelial tumors. Wnt signaling includes two major pathways (i the canonical or Wnt/βcatenin pathway and (ii the non-canonicals pathways, which do not involve βcatenin stabilization. Among these pathways, the Wnt/βcatenin pathway has received most attention during the past years for its critical role in cancer. A number of publications emphasize its role in thyroid cancer. Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in development and epithelial renewal, and components such as βcatenin and Axin are often mutated in thyroid cancer. Although it is accepted that alteration of Wnt signaling is a late event in thyroid cell transformation that affects anaplastic thyroid tumors, recent data also suggest its alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma with RET/PTC mutations. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the main relevant data of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in thyroid cancer.

  1. [Neuro-ophthalmological conditions: Study of the clinical care pathway]. (United States)

    Layat, I; Challe, G; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B; Touitou, V


    Neuro-ophthalmologic conditions require specialized multidisciplinary management, both medical and surgical, for patients affected by visual loss due to nervous system disease. The primary goal of this study is to define the specificity of neuro-ophthalmology within the realm of visual health. The secondary goal is to review clinical care pathways by studying the organization of management, in terms of accessibility to care and personalization of the care pathway. A field study was carried out from February to June 2015, within the ophthalmology service of the Pitié-Salpêtrière University Medical Center in Paris. A 30-minute interview with the patient before or after his or her neuro-ophthalmology consultation was performed, so as to describe the clinical care pathway. The medical records of interviewed patients were also analyzed. Seventeen care pathways (10 women and 7 men) were reviewed. The mean age at appearance of visual involvement was 44.5 years (±8.4 years). If we exclude 3 patients over 66 years and retired, 35.71% were active, 35.71% were disabled, and 28.57% were on sick leave. Ten patients (58.82%) met the criteria for admission to long-term care. The first step had been carried out by local private practitioners. The first physician seen was the general medicine physician (59%), then the private ophthalmologist on an emergency basis (17%). On average, patients went through 8 steps during their care pathway (from 6 to 10 steps) and 14 medical departments were involved. The study showed collaboration with the other services of the University Hospital Department of Vision and Disabilities (notably with the Fondation Rothschild, the Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital and the Fondation Sainte-Marie). In addition to rehabilitation services, health care professionals participating in the outpatient care of the patients included an orthoptist (11.7%), a psychologist (11.7%), and an optician specializing in low vision for visual aids

  2. Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Palliative Care for the Lung Cancer Patient. (United States)

    Tiep, Brian; Sun, Virginia; Koczywas, Marianna; Kim, Jae; Raz, Dan; Hurria, Arti; Hayter, Jennifer


    Pulmonary rehabilitation, as a quality of life intervention, has a role to play in palliative care for lung cancer patients. Combining the art and skills of clinical care, physiological, and behavioral tools, pulmonary rehabilitation can serve to rebuild the functional capacity of patients limited by breathlessness and deconditioning. Exercise programs are the primary tool used to restore and rebuild the patient's endurance by challenging the entire pathway of oxygen transport and improving gas exchange. Other tools of pulmonary rehabilitation include breathing retraining, self-management skills, airway clearance techniques, bronchodilitation, smoking cessation and oxygen therapy. Pulmonary rehabilitation is now becoming a part of supportive care for patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The ability to be more active without suffering the consequences of dyspnea on exertion boosts the patient's self-efficacy and allows for an improved quality of life, so that lung cancer patients can participate in their family lives during this therapeutic challenge.

  3. Shared care involving cancer specialists and primary care providers - What do cancer survivors want? (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Fallon-Ferguson, Julia; Koczwara, Bogda


    Cancer survivors are living longer, prompting greater focus on managing cancer as a chronic condition. Shared care between primary care providers (PCPs) and cancer specialists, involving explicit partnership in how care is communicated, could ensure effective transitions between services. However, little is known about cancer patients' and survivors' preferences regarding shared care. To explore Australian cancer survivors' views on shared care: what cancer survivors need from shared care; enablers and barriers to advancing shared care; and what successful shared care looks like. Community forum held in Adelaide, Australia, in 2015 with 21 participants: 11 cancer survivors, 2 family caregivers, and 8 clinicians and researchers (members of PC4-Primary Care Collaborative Cancer Clinical Trials Group). Qualitative data from group discussion of the objectives. Participants stressed that successful shared care required patients being at the centre, ensuring accurate communication, ownership, and access to their medical records. PCPs were perceived to lack skills and confidence to lead complex cancer care. Patients expressed burden in being responsible for navigating information sharing and communication processes between health professionals and services. Effective shared care should include: shared electronic health records, key individuals as care coordinators; case conferences; shared decision making; preparing patients for self-management; building general practitioners' skills; and measuring outcomes. There was clear support for shared care but a lack of good examples to help guide it for this population. Recognizing cancer as a chronic condition requires a shift in how care is provided to these patients. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cancer Phenotype Diagnosis and Drug Efficacy within Japanese Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihide Nishimura


    Full Text Available An overview on targeted personalized medicine is given describing the developments in Japan of lung cancer patients. These new targeted therapies with novel personalized medicine drugs require new implementations, in order to follow and monitor drug efficacy and outcome. Examples from IRESSA (Gefitinib and TARCEVA (Erlotinib treatments used in medication of lung cancer patients are presented. Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in the world. The importance of both the quantification of disease progression, where diagnostic-related biomarkers are being implemented, in addition to the actual measurement of disease-specific mechanisms relating to pathway signalling activation of disease-progressive protein targets is summarised. An outline is also presented, describing changes and adaptations in Japan, meeting the rising costs and challenges. Today, urgent implementation of programs to address these needs has led to a rebuilding of the entire approach of medical evaluation and clinical care.

  5. Home Care Nursing Improves Cancer Symptom Management (United States)

    Home care nursing (HCN) improves the management of symptoms in breast and colorectal cancer patients who take the oral chemotherapy drug capecitabine, according to a study published online November 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Spiritual Care Communication in Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Ellington, Lee; Billitteri, Jacob; Reblin, Maija; Clayton, Margaret F


    To provide a definition of spirituality, define the scope and nature of spiritual care communication, describe how to initiate communication about, and elicit, a spiritual history, and introduce the AMEN protocol to support patient/family hopes for a miracle. Literature review. Spiritual communication is important throughout cancer care. Nurses can assess and integrate patient and family caregivers' spiritual needs in clinical care by practicing self-awareness and engaging in spiritual care communication strategies. Spirituality is recognized as an essential component of quality care. Spiritual conversations can increase patients' satisfaction with care and improve well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular pathways: myeloid complicity in cancer. (United States)

    Stromnes, Ingunn M; Greenberg, Philip D; Hingorani, Sunil R


    Cancer-induced inflammation results in accumulation of myeloid cells. These myeloid cells include progenitors and progeny of monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It has become increasingly evident that tumor-dependent factors can condition myeloid cells toward an immunosuppressive and protumorigenic phenotype. Thus, myeloid cells are not simply bystanders in malignancy or barometers of disease burden. Reflecting their dynamic and plastic nature, myeloid cells manifest a continuum of cellular differentiation and are intimately involved at all stages of neoplastic progression. They can promote tumorigenesis through both immune-dependent and -independent mechanisms and can dictate response to therapies. A greater understanding of the inherent plasticity and relationships among myeloid subsets is needed to inform therapeutic targeting. New clinical trials are being designed to modulate the activities of myeloid cells in cancer, which may be essential to maximize the efficacy of both conventional cytotoxic and immune-based therapies for solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5157-70. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Modulation of signal transduction pathways by natural compounds in cancer. (United States)

    Ranjan, Alok; Fofaria, Neel M; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Srivastava, Sanjay K


    Cancer is generally regarded as the result of abnormal growth of cells. According to World Health Organization, cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Mother nature provides a large source of bioactive compounds with excellent therapeutic efficacy. Numerous phytochemicals from nature have been investigated for anticancer properties. In this review article, we discuss several natural compounds, which have shown anti-cancer activity. Natural compounds induce cell cycle arrest, activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), and down-regulate activated signaling pathways, resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation, progression and metastasis of cancer. Several preclinical studies have suggested that natural compounds can also increase the sensitivity of resistant cancers to available chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, combining FDA approved anti-cancer drugs with natural compounds results in improved efficacy. On the basis of these exciting outcomes of natural compounds against several cancer types, several agents have already advanced to clinical trials. In conclusion, preclinical results and clinical outcomes against cancer suggest promising anticancer efficacy of agents from natural sources. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Referral Criteria for Outpatient Palliative Cancer Care: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Meng, Yee-Choon; Bruera, Sebastian; Geng, Yimin; Hutchins, Ron; Mori, Masanori; Strasser, Florian; Bruera, Eduardo


    better understanding of the referral criteria would help (a) referring clinicians to identify appropriate patients for palliative care interventions, (b) administrators to assess their programs with set benchmarks for quality improvement, (c) researchers to standardize inclusion criteria, and (d) policymakers to develop clinical care pathways and allocate appropriate resources. This systematic review identified 20 criteria including 6 recurrent themes for outpatient palliative cancer care referral. It represents the first step toward developing standardized referral criteria. PMID:27185614

  10. Exploring aspects of physiotherapy care valued by breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Pidlyskyj, K; Roddam, H; Rawlinson, G; Selfe, J


    To explore the reported value of physiotherapy care received by patients who had accessed a Specialist Breast Care Physiotherapy Service. Exploratory qualitative study using in-depth interviews to explore aspects of physiotherapy care valued by breast cancer patients. Thematic network analysis was used to interpret the data and bring together the different experiences of the participants and identify common themes. Physiotherapy Department at a NHS Foundation Trust Teaching Hospital. Nineteen participants were recruited and three were selected to take part in the in-depth interviews. All participants had received physiotherapy care from a Specialist Breast Care Physiotherapy Service and had been discharged within the last six months. Participants valued a patient-centred holistic approach to care and access to a Specialist Service with an experienced clinician. In particular the importance of the therapeutic alliance and the value of psychological, emotional and educational support emerged, with the participants feeling empowered in their recovery. Participants reported an overall positive experience of their physiotherapy care. This study supports the need for service providers to evaluate their current physiotherapy provision and subsequently develop Specialised Services to meet the physiotherapy needs of breast cancer patients throughout all stages of their treatment pathway from the delivery of pre-operative care through to post-treatment follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D metabolic pathway genes and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Arem

    Full Text Available Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713 and controls (n = 878. The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830. Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of p<0.05. SNPs near the VDR (rs2239186, LRP2 (rs4668123, CYP24A1 (rs2762932, GC (rs2282679, and CUBN (rs1810205 genes were the top SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer (p-values 0.008-0.037, but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

  12. Integrated care through disease-oriented clinical care pathways: experience from Japan’s regional health planning initiatives (United States)

    Okamoto, Etsuji; Miyamoto, Masaki; Hara, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Jun; Muto, Masaki; Hirai, Aizan; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Mizuno, Masaaki; Nagata, Hiroshi; Yamakata, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hiroshi


    Introduction In April 2008, Japan launched a radical reform in regional health planning that emphasized the development of disease-oriented clinical care pathways. These ‘inter-provider critical paths’ have sought to ensure effective integration of various providers ranging among primary care practitioners, acute care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, long-term care facilities and home care. Description of policy practice All 47 prefectures in Japan developed their Regional Health Plans pursuant to the guideline requiring that these should include at least four diseases: diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and cancer. To illustrate the care pathways developed, this paper describes the guideline referring to strokes and provides examples of the new Regional Health Plans as well as examples of disease-oriented inter-provider clinical paths. In particular, the paper examines the development of information sharing through electronic health records (EHR) to enhance effective integration among providers is discussed. Discussion and conclusion Japan’s reform in 2008 is unique in that the concept of ‘disease-oriented regional inter-provider critical paths’ was adopted as a national policy and all 47 prefectures developed their Regional Health Plans simultaneously. How much the new regional health planning policy has improved the quality and outcome of care remains to be seen and will be evaluated in 2013 after the five-year planned period of implementation has concluded. Whilst electronic health records appear to be a useful tool in supporting care integration they do not guarantee success in the application of an inter-provider critical path. PMID:22128281

  13. Signaling Pathways in Cancer: a Matter of Dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.C. Gaspar (Claudia)


    textabstractThe main issue addressed in this thesis is how different levels of signaling activity of the Wnt and TGF-β/BMP pathways can affect transcriptional responses in particular relevant for self-renewal and differentiation both in homeostasis and in cancer. Chapter 1 presents an overview

  14. Surgical training: design of a virtual care pathway approach. (United States)

    Beyer-Berjot, Laura; Patel, Vishal; Acharya, Amish; Taylor, Dave; Bonrath, Esther; Grantcharov, Teodor; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh


    Both intra- and perioperative care are essential for patients' safety. Training for intraoperative technical skills on simulators and for perioperative care in virtual patients have independently demonstrated educational value, but no training combining these 2 approaches has been designed yet. The aim of this study was to design a pathway approach for training in general surgery. A common disease requiring essential skills was chosen, namely, acute appendicitis. Preoperative care training was created using virtual patients presenting with acute right iliac fossa (RIF) pain. A competency-based curriculum for laparoscopic appendectomy (LAPP) was designed on a virtual reality simulator: Novices (100 LAPP) were enrolled to perform 2 virtual LAPP for assessment of validity evidence; novices performed 8 further LAPP for analysis of a learning curve. Finally, postoperative virtual patients were reviewed after LAPP. Four preoperative patient scenarios were designed with different presentations of RIF; not all required operative management. Comments were provided through case progression to allow autonomous practice. Ten novices and 10 experienced surgeons were enrolled for intraoperative training. Time taken (median values) of novices versus experienced surgeons (285 vs 259 seconds; P = .026) and performance score (67% vs 99%; P virtual patients were created with an uneventful or complicated outcome. A virtual care pathway approach has been designed for acute appendicitis, enabling trainees to follow simulated patients from admission to discharge. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Common pathways in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Vancheri


    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is marked by a very disappointing survival rate and still represents a clinical dilemma. According to the current pathogenic hypothesis, chronic damage of the alveolar epithelium is followed by abnormal tissue repair and impairment of the alveolar structure. This process is driven by pathogenic events very similar to cancer, including epigenetic and genetic changes, altered response to regulatory signals, abnormal expression of microRNAs and activation of specific signalling pathways. IPF also resembles cancer with regard to its poor response to medical treatment and prognosis, which is very often worse than many cancers. We have hypothesised that IPF might be assimilated to a neoproliferative disorder of the lung. Viewing IPF as a cancer-like disease may satisfy the need for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF by exploiting the large amount of knowledge that cancer biology evokes. The recognition of common pathogenic pathways between the two diseases may stimulate new clinical trials with cancer drugs, different drug combinations and different lines of drugs, as already experimented in oncology. Moreover, the concept of IPF as a cancer-like disorder may improve the attention given to this dreadful disease on a public, political and healthcare level.

  16. Process of Care Failures in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weingart, Saul N; Saadeh, Mark G; Simchowitz, Brett; Gandhi, Tejal K; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Studdert, David M; Puopolo, Ann Louise; Shulman, Lawrence N


    Process of care failures may contribute to diagnostic errors in breast cancer care.To identify patient- and provider-related process of care failures in breast cancer screening and follow-up in a non-claims-based...

  17. MicroRNA-gene signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Drakaki


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths and is characterized by early metastasis and pronounced resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Despite extensive esearch efforts, there is not any substantial progress regarding the identification of novel drugs against pancreatic cancer. Although the introduction of the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine improved clinical response, the prognosis of these patients remained extremely poor with a 5-year survival rate of 3-5%. Thus, the identification of the novel molecular pathways involved in pancreatic oncogenesis and the development of new and potent therapeutic options are highly desirable. Here, we describe how microRNAs control signaling pathways that are frequently deregulated during pancreatic oncogenesis. In addition, we provide evidence that microRNAs could be potentially used as novel pancreatic cancer therapeutics through reversal of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance or regulation of essential molecular pathways. Further studies should integrate the deregulated genes and microRNAs into molecular networks in order to identify the central regulators of pancreatic oncogenesis. Targeting these central regulators could lead to the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches for pancreatic cancer patients.

  18. Analyzing the regulation of metabolic pathways in human breast cancer (United States)


    Background Tumor therapy mainly attacks the metabolism to interfere the tumor's anabolism and signaling of proliferative second messengers. However, the metabolic demands of different cancers are very heterogeneous and depend on their origin of tissue, age, gender and other clinical parameters. We investigated tumor specific regulation in the metabolism of breast cancer. Methods For this, we mapped gene expression data from microarrays onto the corresponding enzymes and their metabolic reaction network. We used Haar Wavelet transforms on optimally arranged grid representations of metabolic pathways as a pattern recognition method to detect orchestrated regulation of neighboring enzymes in the network. Significant combined expression patterns were used to select metabolic pathways showing shifted regulation of the aggressive tumors. Results Besides up-regulation for energy production and nucleotide anabolism, we found an interesting cellular switch in the interplay of biosynthesis of steroids and bile acids. The biosynthesis of steroids was up-regulated for estrogen synthesis which is needed for proliferative signaling in breast cancer. In turn, the decomposition of steroid precursors was blocked by down-regulation of the bile acid pathway. Conclusion We applied an intelligent pattern recognition method for analyzing the regulation of metabolism and elucidated substantial regulation of human breast cancer at the interplay of cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid metabolism pointing to specific breast cancer treatment. PMID:20831783

  19. Analyzing the regulation of metabolic pathways in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schramm Gunnar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor therapy mainly attacks the metabolism to interfere the tumor's anabolism and signaling of proliferative second messengers. However, the metabolic demands of different cancers are very heterogeneous and depend on their origin of tissue, age, gender and other clinical parameters. We investigated tumor specific regulation in the metabolism of breast cancer. Methods For this, we mapped gene expression data from microarrays onto the corresponding enzymes and their metabolic reaction network. We used Haar Wavelet transforms on optimally arranged grid representations of metabolic pathways as a pattern recognition method to detect orchestrated regulation of neighboring enzymes in the network. Significant combined expression patterns were used to select metabolic pathways showing shifted regulation of the aggressive tumors. Results Besides up-regulation for energy production and nucleotide anabolism, we found an interesting cellular switch in the interplay of biosynthesis of steroids and bile acids. The biosynthesis of steroids was up-regulated for estrogen synthesis which is needed for proliferative signaling in breast cancer. In turn, the decomposition of steroid precursors was blocked by down-regulation of the bile acid pathway. Conclusion We applied an intelligent pattern recognition method for analyzing the regulation of metabolism and elucidated substantial regulation of human breast cancer at the interplay of cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid metabolism pointing to specific breast cancer treatment.

  20. Vitamin D metabolic pathway genes and pancreatic cancer risk. (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Yu, Kai; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Moy, Kristin; Freedman, Neal D; Mayne, Susan T; Albanes, Demetrius; Arslan, Alan A; Austin, Melissa; Bamlet, William R; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige; Canzian, Federico; Cotterchio, Michelle; Duell, Eric J; Gallinger, Steve; Giles, Graham G; Goggins, Michael; Goodman, Phyllis J; Hartge, Patricia; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Robert; Jacobs, Eric J; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison; Klein, Eric; Kolonel, Laurence N; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Porta, Miquel; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Maeder, Dennis; Brotzman, Michelle; Risch, Harvey; Sampson, Joshua N; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z


    Evidence on the association between vitamin D status and pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. This inconsistency may be partially attributable to variation in vitamin D regulating genes. We selected 11 vitamin D-related genes (GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, RXRA, CRP2, CASR and CUBN) totaling 213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and examined associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study included 3,583 pancreatic cancer cases and 7,053 controls from the genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer PanScans-I-III. We used the Adaptive Joint Test and the Adaptive Rank Truncated Product statistic for pathway and gene analyses, and unconditional logistic regression for SNP analyses, adjusting for age, sex, study and population stratification. We examined effect modification by circulating vitamin D concentration (≤50, >50 nmol/L) for the most significant SNPs using a subset of cohort cases (n = 713) and controls (n = 878). The vitamin D metabolic pathway was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (p = 0.830). Of the individual genes, none were associated with pancreatic cancer risk at a significance level of pcancer (p-values 0.008-0.037), but none were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Associations between these SNPs and pancreatic cancer were not modified by circulating concentrations of vitamin D. These findings do not support an association between vitamin D-related genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Future research should explore other pathways through which vitamin D status might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

  1. Spiritual Care for Cancer Patients in Iran. (United States)

    Memaryan, Nadereh; Jolfaei, Atefeh Ghanbari; Ghaempanah, Zeinab; Shirvani, Armin; Vand, Hoda Doos Ali; Ghahari, Shahrbanoo; Bolhari, Jafar


    Studies have shown that a return to spirituality is a major coping response in cancer patients so that therapists can adopt a holistic approach by addressing spirituality in their patient care. The present study was conducted to develop a guideline in the spiritual field for healthcare providers who serve cancer patients in Iran. Relevant statements were extracted from scientific documents that through study questions were reviewed and modified by a consensus panel. The statements were arranged in six areas, including spiritual needs assessment, spiritual care candidates, the main components of spiritual care, spiritual care providers, the settings of spiritual care and the resources and facilities for spiritual care. In addition to the development and preparation of these guidelines, health policy-makers should also seek to motivate and train health service providers to offer these services and facilitate their provision and help with widespread implementation.

  2. Care in the perception of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Henriques


    Full Text Available Introduction: Being a cancer patient is a unique and singular. The cancer disease associated with pain and suffering is a challenging process for the sufferer, for whom have around or for those caring for the sick. Pain, considered the 5 th vital sign, is often identified as the main complaint of our patients suffering from cancer. We dare to say that to explore the essence of the care provided by nurses and primary health care to cancer patients with prolonged pain at the time found in his home and family, we would be helping to build a know -how by itself, with positive externalities for patients, families, professionals and nursing itself. Methods: Ask "What does Care for Nurses and primary health care for cancer patients with prolonged pain in time for your family?" we may lead the cornerstone of our problems, by studying quantitative nature using a questionnaire and a significance level of care. Results: the average age is 59.27 years, mostly women, 51% are married and in 29.8% of studies has only completed the first cycle of education. The majority of cancer patients who participated in this study share a room with a relative. In regard to aspects of their pain, cancer patients referred to 47.1% of cases, that their pain started weeks ago and 38.5% even refers to the pain persists for months. The pain felt by these patients is not the severe type, in 68.3% of cases, and has an average intensity of 5, although we have 25% of these patients with pain greater than a 6.75. The Meaning of Caring scale applied to the group of nurses who provide care at primary health reveals an alpha of 0.8857 and 0.9025 standardized alpha. The Meaning of Caring scale applied to the group of cancer patients with prolonged pain at the time they are at home shows an alpha of 0.6672and 0.7374 standardized alpha. The Meaning of Caring scale applied to the group of cancer family patients with prolonged pain shows an alpha of 0.6712 and an alpha standardized 0

  3. Music therapy in supportive cancer care. (United States)

    Stanczyk, Malgorzata Monika


    The purpose of this paper is to show some aspects of music therapy application in cancer care and to present the integration of music therapy program into a continuous supportive cancer care for inpatients. A cancer diagnosis is one of the most feared and serious life events that causes stress in individuals and families. Cancer disrupts social, physical and emotional well-being and results in a range of emotions, including anger, fear, sadness, guilt, embarrassment and shame. Music therapy is a part of a complementary medicine program in supportive cancer care which accompanies medical treatment. There are many benefits of music therapy for cancer patients-interactive music therapy techniques (instrumental improvisation, singing) as well as receptive music therapy techniques (listening to recorded or live music, music and imaginary) can be used to improve mood, decrease stress, pain, anxiety level and enhance relaxation. Music therapy is an effective form of supporting cancer care for patients during the treatment process. It may be also basic for planning effective programs of rehabilitation to promote wellness, improve physical and emotional well-being and the quality of life.

  4. COPD care delivery pathways in five European Union countries: mapping and health care professionals’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayyali R


    Full Text Available Reem Kayyali,1 Bassel Odeh,1 Inéz Frerichs,2 Nikki Davies,3 Eleni Perantoni,4 Shona D’arcy,5 Anouk W Vaes,6 John Chang,3 Martijn A Spruit,6 Brenda Deering,7 Nada Philip,1 Roshan Siva,3 Evangelos Kaimakamis,8 Ioanna Chouvarda,8 Barbara Pierscionek,1 Norbert Weiler,2 Emiel FM Wouters,6 Andreas Raptopoulos,9 Shereen Nabhani-Gebara1 1Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Kingston-Upon-Thames, UK; 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany; 3Chest Clinic and Research and Development, Croydon University Hospital, Croydon, UK; 4Pulmonary Clinic, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 6Research and Education, CIRO – Centre of Expertise for Chronic Organ Failure, Horn, the Netherlands; 7COPD Outreach, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 8Medical School, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, 9Research and Development, Exodus Information Technology SA, Athens, Greece Background: COPD is among the leading causes of chronic morbidity and mortality in the European Union with an estimated annual economic burden of €25.1 billion. Various care pathways for COPD exist across Europe leading to different responses to similar problems. Determining these differences and the similarities may improve health and the functioning of health services.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare COPD patients’ care pathway in five European Union countries including England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Greece, and Germany and to explore health care professionals’ (HCPs perceptions about the current pathways.Methods: HCPs were interviewed in two stages using a qualitative, semistructured email interview and a face-to-face semistructured interview.Results: Lack of communication among different health care providers managing COPD and comorbidities was a common feature of the

  5. Modularity in Cancer Care Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana


    and treatment service. Customization is obtained by combining different components in the diagnosis phase (examinations) and different treatment options in the treating phase. Findings show that the process of delivery cure for cancer is highly modularized and customization is driven by cancer specificity (type...

  6. Cancer Survivorship Care: Person Centered Care in a Multidisciplinary Shared Care Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Loonen


    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood and adult-onset cancer are at lifelong risk for the development of late effects of treatment that can lead to serious morbidity and premature mortality. Regular long-term follow-up aiming for prevention, early detection and intervention of late effects can preserve or improve health. The heterogeneous and often serious character of late effects emphasizes the need for specialized cancer survivorship care clinics. Multidisciplinary cancer survivorship care requires a coordinated and well integrated health care environment for risk based screening and intervention. In addition survivors engagement and adherence to the recommendations are also important elements. We developed an innovative model for integrated care for cancer survivors, the “Personalized Cancer Survivorship Care Model”, that is being used in our clinic. This model comprises 1. Personalized follow-up care according to the principles of Person Centered Care, aiming to empower survivors and to support self management, and 2. Organization according to a multidisciplinary and risk based approach. The concept of person centered care is based on three components: initiating, integrating and safeguarding the partnership with the patient. This model has been developed as a universal model of care that will work for all cancer survivors in different health care systems. It could be used for studies to improve self efficacy and the cost-effectiveness of cancer survivorship care.

  7. Shared care and implementation of a pediatric clinical pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfrits, Mette Sørensen; Thomsen, RW; Rubak, Jens Mørck

    specialist out-patient clinic at the pediatrics department at Viborg hospital or at one of 100 GPs in the Viborg area. At baseline the involved health care professionals participated in an introduction to the clinical pathway and treatment guide. Furthermore the clinical pathway and treatment guide...... with uncontrolled asthma should be followed at the pediatrics department. Study 2) An increased overall proportion of children with well-controlled asthma. Study 3) Favorable changes in the use of asthma medication. Study 4) Self-reported higher quality of life among children with asthma Material and methods...... Midten. We sincerely thank Lars G. Hansen (Head of Department of Pediatrics, Viborg Hospital) for his help and participation....

  8. Death Pathways Triggered by Activated Ras in Cancer Cells (United States)

    Overmeyer, Jean H.; Maltese, William A.


    Ras GTPases are best known for their ability to serve as molecular switches regulating cell growth, differentiation and survival. Gene mutations that result in expression of constitutively active forms of Ras proteins have been clearly linked to oncogenesis in animal models and humans. However, over the past two decades, evidence has gradually accumulated to support a paradoxical role for Ras proteins in the initiation of cell death pathways. The balance between the opposing functions of Ras in cell proliferation/survival versus cell death can be critical for determining the overall fate of the cancer cell. In this review we will survey the body of literature that points to the ability of activated Ras proteins to tip the scales toward cell death under conditions where cancer cells encounter adverse environmental conditions or are subjected to apoptotic stimuli. In some cases the consequences of Ras activation are mediated through interactions with known effectors and well defined apoptotic death pathways. However, in other cases it appears that Ras operates by triggering novel non-apoptotic death mechanisms that are just beginning to be characterized. Understanding the details of these pathways, and the various factors that go into changing the nature of Ras signaling from pro-survival to pro-death, could potentially set the stage for the development of novel therapeutic approaches aimed at manipulating the pro-death Ras effector pathways in cancers. PMID:21196257

  9. Bereavement support standards and bereavement care pathway for quality palliative care. (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Hall, Chris; Boughey, Alison; Roulston, Audrey


    Provision of bereavement support is an essential component of palliative care service delivery. While bereavement support is integral to palliative care, it is typically insufficiently resourced, under-researched, and not systematically applied. Our aim was to develop bereavement standards to assist palliative care services to provide targeted support to family caregivers. We employed a multiple-methods design for our study, which included: (1) a literature review, (2) a survey of palliative care service providers in Australia, (3) interviews with national (Australian) and international experts, (4) key stakeholder workshops, and (5) a modified Delphi-type survey. A total of 10 standards were developed along with a pragmatic care pathway to assist palliative care services with implementation of the standards. The bereavement standards and care pathway constitute a key initiative in the evolution of bereavement support provided by palliative care services. Future endeavors should refine and examine the impact of these standards. Additional research is required to enhance systematic approaches to quality bereavement care.

  10. The molecular mechanism and regulatory pathways of cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang


    Full Text Available Malignant cancer is among the top of the life-threatening conditions, challenging humanity for a long time. Traditional methods of cancer therapy include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, which aim to remove/destroy cancer cells. Although theoretically very promising, none of these methods can effectively eradicate cancer, the reason for which can be attributed to our incomplete understanding of the mechanism of cancer metastasis and recurrence. In recent years, researchers have proposed the theory of cancer stem cell (CSC. CSC is a small population of tumor cells that have unlimited self-renewal ability, exhibit a strong resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and have been proved to be the core reason of cancer metastasis and recurrence. CSC theory provides a deep insight into malignant tumorigenesis that brings new hope for tumor therapy. In this paper, we intend to discuss the development of CSC theory and summarize the regulatory pathways involved in CSC origin and self-renewal, which might be of assistance in the future development of malignant cancer therapy.

  11. Gedunin inhibits pancreatic cancer by altering sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. (United States)

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Nandy, Sushmita Bose; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Camacho, Fernando; Medel, Joshua; Alabi, Damilola; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar


    The lack of efficient treatment options for pancreatic cancer highlights the critical need for the development of novel and effective chemotherapeutic agents. The medicinal properties found in plants have been used to treat many different illnesses including cancers. This study focuses on the anticancer effects of gedunin, a natural compound isolated from Azadirachta indica. Anti-proliferative effect of gedunin on pancreatic cancer cells was assessed using MTS assay. We used matrigel invasion assay, scratch assay, and soft agar colony formation assay to measure the anti-metastatic potential of gedunin. Immunoblotting was performed to analyze the effect of gedunin on the expression of key proteins involved in pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. Gedunin induced apoptosis was measured using flow cytometric analysis. To further validate, xenograft studies with HPAC cells were performed. Gedunin treatment is highly effective in inducing death of pancreatic cancer cells via intrinsic and extrinsic mediated apoptosis. Our data further indicates that gedunin inhibited metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by decreasing their EMT, invasive, migratory and colony formation capabilities. Gedunin treatment also inhibited sonic hedgehog signaling pathways. Further, experiments with recombinant sonic hedgehog protein and Gli inhibitor (Gant-61) demonstrated that gedunin induces its anti-metastatic effect through inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling. The anti-cancer effect of gedunin was further validated using xenograft mouse model. Overall, our data suggests that gedunin could serve as a potent anticancer agent against pancreatic cancers.

  12. Danish cancer patients’ perspective on health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Mette; Sperling, Cecilie; Jensen, Henry


    and better involvement of patient and relatives. The study indicates that women, younger and higher educated patients tend to be less satisfied with the health care they received. This study shows that even though the majority of patients are satisfied with the quality of health care, there is room......Patient’s experiences and patient surveys are increasingly being used for the evaluation of the quality of health care. Patient information is valuable input when we aim to improve healthcare services. The aim of this study was to assess Danish cancer patients’ experiences and assessment...... of the health care they have received, in regard to access to diagnostics, coordination and continuity of care, information and communication and involvement of patients and relatives. Questions and the opportunity to comment in free text were distributed to 6,720 newly diagnosed cancer patients in the summer...

  13. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Aftab, Blake T. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M.; Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Rudin, Charles M. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hales, Russell K., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)


    Purpose: Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of Kras{sup G12D}-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results: In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radiosensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

  14. Practical multimodal care for cancer cachexia. (United States)

    Maddocks, Matthew; Hopkinson, Jane; Conibear, John; Reeves, Annie; Shaw, Clare; Fearon, Ken C H


    Cancer cachexia is common and reduces function, treatment tolerability and quality of life. Given its multifaceted pathophysiology a multimodal approach to cachexia management is advocated for, but can be difficult to realise in practice. We use a case-based approach to highlight practical approaches to the multimodal management of cachexia for patients across the cancer trajectory. Four cases with lung cancer spanning surgical resection, radical chemoradiotherapy, palliative chemotherapy and no anticancer treatment are presented. We propose multimodal care approaches that incorporate nutritional support, exercise, and anti-inflammatory agents, on a background of personalized oncology care and family-centred education. Collectively, the cases reveal that multimodal care is part of everyone's remit, often focuses on supported self-management, and demands buy-in from the patient and their family. Once operationalized, multimodal care approaches can be tested pragmatically, including alongside emerging pharmacological cachexia treatments. We demonstrate that multimodal care for cancer cachexia can be achieved using simple treatments and without a dedicated team of specialists. The sharing of advice between health professionals can help build collective confidence and expertise, moving towards a position in which every team member feels they can contribute towards multimodal care.

  15. Bromodomain and hedgehog pathway targets in small cell lung cancer. (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Reinhart, Russell A; Monks, Anne; Evans, David; Morris, Joel; Polley, Eric; Teicher, Beverly A


    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an extremely aggressive cancer that frequently recurs. Twenty-three human SCLC lines were selected representing varied Myc status. Gene expression of lung cancer, stem-like, hedgehog pathway, and notch pathway genes were determined by RT(2)-PCR array and Exon 1.0 ST array. Etoposide and topotecan concentration response was examined. The IC50's for etoposide and topotecan ranged over nearly 3 logs upon 96 hrs exposure to the drugs. Myc status, TOP2A, TOP2B and TOP1 mRNA expression or topoisomerase 1 and topoisomerase 2 protein did not account for the range in the sensitivity to the drugs. γ-secretase inhibitors, RO429097 and PF-03084014, had little activity in the SCLC lines over ranges covering the clinical Cmax concentrations. MYC amplified lines tended to be more sensitive to the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. The Smo antagonists, erismodegib and vismodegib and the Gli antagonists, HPI1 and SEN-450 had a trend toward greater sensitivity of the MYC amplified line. Recurrent SCLC is among the most recalcitrant cancers and drug development efforts in this cancer are a high priority. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Patients' experiences with care for lung cancer and colorectal cancer: findings from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium. (United States)

    Ayanian, John Z; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Arora, Neeraj K; Kahn, Katherine L; Malin, Jennifer L; Ganz, Patricia A; van Ryn, Michelle; Hornbrook, Mark C; Kiefe, Catarina I; He, Yulei; Urmie, Julie M; Weeks, Jane C; Harrington, David P


    To assess patients' experiences with cancer care, ratings of their quality of care, and correlates of these assessments. For 4,093 patients with lung cancer and 3,685 patients with colorectal cancer in multiple US regions and health care delivery systems, we conducted telephone surveys of patients or their surrogates in English, Spanish, or Chinese at 4 to 7 months after diagnosis. The surveys assessed ratings of the overall quality of cancer care and experiences with three domains of interpersonal care (physician communication, nursing care, and coordination and responsiveness of care). English-speaking Asian/Pacific Islander patients and Chinese-speaking patients and those in worse health reported significantly worse adjusted experiences with all three domains of interpersonal care, whereas white, black, and Hispanic patients reported generally similar experiences with interpersonal care. The overall quality of cancer care was rated as excellent by 44.4% of patients with lung cancer and 53.0% of patients with colorectal cancer, and these ratings were most strongly correlated with positive experiences with coordination and responsiveness of care (Spearman rank coefficients of 0.49 and 0.42 for lung and colorectal cancer, respectively). After multivariate adjustment, excellent ratings were less common for each cancer among black patients, English-speaking Asian/Pacific Islander patients, Chinese-speaking patients, and patients reporting worse health status (all P ≤ .05). Patients' reports and ratings of care differed significantly by race, language, and health status. Efforts to improve patients' experiences with cancer care should focus on problems affecting Asian and Pacific Islander patients and those in worse health.

  17. Patients' Experiences With Care for Lung Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: Findings From the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium (United States)

    Ayanian, John Z.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Arora, Neeraj K.; Kahn, Katherine L.; Malin, Jennifer L.; Ganz, Patricia A.; van Ryn, Michelle; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; He, Yulei; Urmie, Julie M.; Weeks, Jane C.; Harrington, David P.


    Purpose To assess patients' experiences with cancer care, ratings of their quality of care, and correlates of these assessments. Patients and Methods For 4,093 patients with lung cancer and 3,685 patients with colorectal cancer in multiple US regions and health care delivery systems, we conducted telephone surveys of patients or their surrogates in English, Spanish, or Chinese at 4 to 7 months after diagnosis. The surveys assessed ratings of the overall quality of cancer care and experiences with three domains of interpersonal care (physician communication, nursing care, and coordination and responsiveness of care). Results English-speaking Asian/Pacific Islander patients and Chinese-speaking patients and those in worse health reported significantly worse adjusted experiences with all three domains of interpersonal care, whereas white, black, and Hispanic patients reported generally similar experiences with interpersonal care. The overall quality of cancer care was rated as excellent by 44.4% of patients with lung cancer and 53.0% of patients with colorectal cancer, and these ratings were most strongly correlated with positive experiences with coordination and responsiveness of care (Spearman rank coefficients of 0.49 and 0.42 for lung and colorectal cancer, respectively). After multivariate adjustment, excellent ratings were less common for each cancer among black patients, English-speaking Asian/Pacific Islander patients, Chinese-speaking patients, and patients reporting worse health status (all P ≤ .05). Conclusion Patients' reports and ratings of care differed significantly by race, language, and health status. Efforts to improve patients' experiences with cancer care should focus on problems affecting Asian and Pacific Islander patients and those in worse health. PMID:20713876

  18. Text mining in cancer gene and pathway prioritization. (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Riedlinger, Gregory; Szolovits, Peter


    Prioritization of cancer implicated genes has received growing attention as an effective way to reduce wet lab cost by computational analysis that ranks candidate genes according to the likelihood that experimental verifications will succeed. A multitude of gene prioritization tools have been developed, each integrating different data sources covering gene sequences, differential expressions, function annotations, gene regulations, protein domains, protein interactions, and pathways. This review places existing gene prioritization tools against the backdrop of an integrative Omic hierarchy view toward cancer and focuses on the analysis of their text mining components. We explain the relatively slow progress of text mining in gene prioritization, identify several challenges to current text mining methods, and highlight a few directions where more effective text mining algorithms may improve the overall prioritization task and where prioritizing the pathways may be more desirable than prioritizing only genes.

  19. Metabolic pathways promoting cancer cell survival and growth. (United States)

    Boroughs, Lindsey K; DeBerardinis, Ralph J


    Activation of oncogenes and loss of tumour suppressors promote metabolic reprogramming in cancer, resulting in enhanced nutrient uptake to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. However, nutrient limitations within solid tumours may require that malignant cells exhibit metabolic flexibility to sustain growth and survival. Here, we highlight these adaptive mechanisms and also discuss emerging approaches to probe tumour metabolism in vivo and their potential to expand the metabolic repertoire of malignant cells even further.

  20. The mTOR Signalling Pathway in Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Soares


    Full Text Available The conserved serine/threonine kinase mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin, a downstream effector of the PI3K/AKT pathway, forms two distinct multiprotein complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 is sensitive to rapamycin, activates S6K1 and 4EBP1, which are involved in mRNA translation. It is activated by diverse stimuli, such as growth factors, nutrients, energy and stress signals, and essential signalling pathways, such as PI3K, MAPK and AMPK, in order to control cell growth, proliferation and survival. mTORC2 is considered resistant to rapamycin and is generally insensitive to nutrients and energy signals. It activates PKC-α and AKT and regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Deregulation of multiple elements of the mTOR pathway (PI3K amplification/mutation, PTEN loss of function, AKT overexpression, and S6K1, 4EBP1 and eIF4E overexpression has been reported in many types of cancers, particularly in melanoma, where alterations in major components of the mTOR pathway were reported to have significant effects on tumour progression. Therefore, mTOR is an appealing therapeutic target and mTOR inhibitors, including the rapamycin analogues deforolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, are submitted to clinical trials for treating multiple cancers, alone or in combination with inhibitors of other pathways. Importantly, temsirolimus and everolimus were recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma, PNET and giant cell astrocytoma. Small molecules that inhibit mTOR kinase activity and dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitors are also being developed. In this review, we aim to survey relevant research, the molecular mechanisms of signalling, including upstream activation and downstream effectors, and the role of mTOR in cancer, mainly in melanoma.

  1. Spiritual care for children with cancer. (United States)

    Hart, D; Schneider, D


    To review literature pertinent to spirituality of children with cancer and to identify practical strategies for providing care for this dimension in children. Nursing research and literature about pediatric nursing care and spirituality; theoretical formulations of Piaget, Fowler, and Erikson. Children diagnosed with cancer have unique spiritual needs that place them at risk for developing spiritual distress. With the diagnosis may come experiences of loss of normalcy, physical stamina, relationships, body image, and future goals. Spiritual care includes interventions that assist children to find meaning and purpose in life, to continue relationships, and to transcend beyond the self. Spiritual care includes caregiver and child assessment and interventions appropriate to the developmental stages of infancy through adolescents. Tables outlining how this can be done by oncology nurses are included.

  2. Towards integration of palliative care in patients with chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic literature review of European guidelines and pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siouta, N.; Beek, K.; Preston, N.; Hasselaar, J.G.; Hughes, S.; Payne, S.; Garralda, E.; Centeno, C.; Eerden, M. van der; Groot, M.; Hodiamont, F.; Radbruch, L.; Busa, C.; Csikos, A.; Menten, J.


    BACKGROUND: Despite the positive impact of Palliative Care (PC) on the quality of life for patients and their relatives, the implementation of PC in non-cancer health-care delivery in the EU seems scarcely addressed. The aim of this study is to assess guidelines/pathways for integrated PC in

  3. Examining racial disparities in colorectal cancer care. (United States)

    Berry, Jamillah; Bumpers, Kevin; Ogunlade, Vickie; Glover, Roni; Davis, Sharon; Counts-Spriggs, Margaret; Kauh, John; Flowers, Christopher


    African Americans are disproportionately burdened with colorectal cancer. Although incidence and mortality rates have declined in the past two decades, the disparity in health outcomes has progressively increased. This comprehensive review examines the existing literature regarding racial disparities in colorectal cancer screening, stage at diagnosis, and treatment to determine if differences exist in the quality of care delivered to African Americans. A comprehensive review of relevant literature was performed. Two databases (EBSCOHOST Academic Search Premier and Scopus) were searched from 2000 to 2007. Articles that assessed racial disparities in colorectal cancer screening, stage of disease at diagnosis, and treatment were selected. The majority of studies identified examined colorectal cancer screening outcomes. Although racial disparities in screening have diminished in recent years, African American men and women continue to have higher colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates and are diagnosed at more advanced stages. Several studies regarding stage of disease at diagnosis identified socioeconomic status (SES) and health insurance status as major determinants of disparity. However, some studies found significant racial disparities even after controlling for these factors. Racial disparities in treatment were also found at various diagnostic stages. Many factors affecting disparities between African Americans and Whites in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality remain unexplained. Although the importance of tumor biology, genetics, and lifestyle risk factors have been established, prime sociodemographic factors need further examination to understand variances in the care of African Americans diagnosed with colorectal cancer.

  4. Palliative care for the cancer patient. (United States)

    Reville, Barbara; Axelrod, David; Maury, Rebecca


    Palliation of symptoms to optimize QOL is the foundation of cancer care regardless of stage of disease or level of anticancer treatment. Patients commonly experience pain, constipation, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, fatigue, and delirium. Many valid clinical tools are available to the primary care clinician to screen for symptoms, assess severity, measure treatment response, and elicit the patient's subjective symptom experience. Although there is limited evidence regarding the relative efficacy of symptom interventions from randomized controlled trials, clinical practice guidelines are available.

  5. [Cancer and elderly people, what palliative care? (United States)

    Benyahia, Stéphanie; N'Fissi, Karima; Sahut-D'Izarn, Marine; Cudennec, Tristan

    Epidemiological data relating to cancer and the ageing of the population highlight the need for oncology, geriatrics and palliative care to work more closely together. Geriatric and palliative care assessments in oncology are complex procedures and result in the modification of the oncological therapeutic choices. They have a significant impact on the methods of treatment of the patients concerned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Spirituality in Cancer Care (PDQ) (United States)

    ... Advanced Cancer for information on end-of-life issues.) Spirituality and religion may have different meanings. The terms spirituality and ... to the wishes of the patient. Spirituality and religion are very personal issues. Patients should expect doctors and caregivers to respect ...

  7. Can general practitioners create a successful palliative pathway for cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter

      Background: Most terminal cancer patients and their relatives wish that the patient should be allowed to die at home. Palliative home care often involves general practitioners (GPs) and community nurses who become frontline workers in the patients' homes. GP home visits have been shown...... to 599 GPs of deceased cancer patients to obtain data on the GPs' involvement. Register data were collected on diagnosis, place of death and number of GP home visits. Questionnaires were sent to the closest relatives asking them to evaluate the palliative pathway. 153 cases were included and associations...... significant importance. Conclusion: Our study indicates that home death is positively associated with a higher likelihood of a positive evaluation of the palliative course among the bereaved relatives. There is a need for studies examining in more detail which primary care efforts are associated with a "good...

  8. My care pathways - creating open innovation in healthcare. (United States)

    Lundberg, Nina; Koch, Sabine; Hägglund, Maria; Bolin, Peter; Davoody, Nadia; Eltes, Johan; Jarlman, Olof; Perlich, Anja; Vimarlund, Vivian; Winsnes, Casper


    In this paper we describe initial results from the Swedish innovation project "My Care Pathways" which envisions enabling citizens to track their own health by providing them with online access to their historical, current and prospective future events. We describe an information infrastructure and its base services as well as the use of this solution as an open source platform for open innovation in healthcare. This will facilitate the development of end-user e-services for citizens. We have technically enabled the information infrastructure in close collaboration with decision makers in three Swedish health care regions, and system vendors as well as with National eHealth projects. Close collaboration between heterogeneous actors made implementation in real practice possible. However, a number of challenges, mainly related to legal and business issues, persist when implementing our results. Future work should therefore target the development of business models for sustainable provision of end-user e-services in a public health care system such as the Swedish one. Also, a legal analysis of the development of third party provider (nonhealthcare based) personal health data e-services should be done.

  9. Targeting cancer stem cells and signaling pathways by phytochemicals: Novel approach for breast cancer therapy. (United States)

    Dandawate, Prasad R; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Jensen, Roy A; Anant, Shrikant


    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Despite the development of newer diagnostic methods, selective as well as targeted chemotherapies and their combinations, surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, breast cancer recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance are still the major problems for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggest the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a population of cells with the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and be capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth. In addition, CSCs are believed to be responsible for cancer recurrence, anticancer drug resistance, and metastasis. Hence, compounds targeting breast CSCs may be better therapeutic agents for treating breast cancer and control recurrence and metastasis. Naturally occurring compounds, mainly phytochemicals have gained immense attention in recent times because of their wide safety profile, ability to target heterogeneous populations of cancer cells as well as CSCs, and their key signaling pathways. Therefore, in the present review article, we summarize our current understanding of breast CSCs and their signaling pathways, and the phytochemicals that affect these cells including curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin), sulforaphane, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, 3, 3'-di-indolylmethane, vitamin E, retinoic acid, quercetin, parthenolide, triptolide, 6-shogaol, pterostilbene, isoliquiritigenin, celastrol, and koenimbin. These phytochemicals may serve as novel therapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment and future leads for drug development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Notch pathway is important in maintaining the cancer stem cell population in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan V Abel

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs represent a small subpopulation of pancreatic cancer cells that have the capacity to initiate and propagate tumor formation. However, the mechanisms by which pancreatic CSCs are maintained are not well understood or characterized.Expression of Notch receptors, ligands, and Notch signaling target genes was quantitated in the CSC and non-CSC populations from 8 primary human pancreatic xenografts. A gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI that inhibits the Notch pathway and a shRNA targeting the Notch target gene Hes1 were used to assess the role of the Notch pathway in CSC population maintenance and pancreatic tumor growth.Notch pathway components were found to be upregulated in pancreatic CSCs. Inhibition of the Notch pathway using either a gamma secretase inhibitor or Hes1 shRNA in pancreatic cancer cells reduced the percentage of CSCs and tumorsphere formation. Conversely, activation of the Notch pathway with an exogenous Notch peptide ligand increased the percentage of CSCs as well as tumorsphere formation. In vivo treatment of orthotopic pancreatic tumors in NOD/SCID mice with GSI blocked tumor growth and reduced the CSC population.The Notch signaling pathway is important in maintaining the pancreatic CSC population and is a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

  11. Specialized palliative care in advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmenlund, Kristina; Sjogren, Per; Nordly, Mie


    was to review the existing literature about SPC and its effect on QoL, on physical and psychological symptoms, and on survival in adult patients with advanced cancer. Method: We utilized a search strategy based on the PICO (problem/population, intervention, comparison, and outcome) framework and employed......Objective: Due to the multiple physical, psychological, existential, and social symptoms involved, patients with advanced cancer often have a reduced quality of life (QoL), which requires specialized palliative care (SPC) interventions. The primary objective of the present systematic review...... terminology related to cancer, QoL, symptoms, mood, and palliative care. The search was performed in Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Selected studies were analyzed and categorized according to methods, results, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendation...

  12. Pathway analysis of kidney cancer using proteomics and metabolic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and is responsible for 11,000 deaths per year in the US. Approximately one-third of patients present with disease which is already metastatic and for which there is currently no adequate treatment, and no biofluid screening tests exist for RCC. In this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive proteomic analysis and subsequently a pathway and network approach to identify biological processes involved in clear cell RCC (ccRCC. We have used these data to investigate urinary markers of RCC which could be applied to high-risk patients, or to those being followed for recurrence, for early diagnosis and treatment, thereby substantially reducing mortality of this disease. Results Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, we identified 31 proteins which were differentially expressed with a high degree of significance in ccRCC as compared to adjacent non-malignant tissue, and we confirmed some of these by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and comparison to published transcriptomic data. When evaluated by several pathway and biological process analysis programs, these proteins are demonstrated to be involved with a high degree of confidence (p values Conclusion Extensive pathway and network analysis allowed for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of clear cell RCC samples. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to novel assays identifying their proteomic and/or metabolomic signatures in biofluids of patient at high risk for this disease; we provide pilot data for such a urinary bioassay. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the knowledge of networks, processes, and pathways altered in kidney cancer may be used to influence the choice of optimal therapy.

  13. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà


    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  14. User Interface Requirements for Web-Based Integrated Care Pathways: Evidence from the Evaluation of an Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool. (United States)

    Balatsoukas, Panos; Williams, Richard; Davies, Colin; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain


    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) define a chronological sequence of steps, most commonly diagnostic or treatment, to be followed in providing care for patients. Care pathways help to ensure quality standards are met and to reduce variation in practice. Although research on the computerisation of ICP progresses, there is still little knowledge on what are the requirements for designing user-friendly and usable electronic care pathways, or how users (normally health care professionals) interact with interfaces that support design, analysis and visualisation of ICPs. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to address this gap by evaluating the usability of a novel web-based tool called COCPIT (Collaborative Online Care Pathway Investigation Tool). COCPIT supports the design, analysis and visualisation of ICPs at the population level. In order to address the aim of this study, an evaluation methodology was designed based on heuristic evaluations and a mixed method usability test. The results showed that modular visualisation and direct manipulation of information related to the design and analysis of ICPs is useful for engaging and stimulating users. However, designers should pay attention to issues related to the visibility of the system status and the match between the system and the real world, especially in relation to the display of statistical information about care pathways and the editing of clinical information within a care pathway. The paper concludes with recommendations for interface design.

  15. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes. (United States)

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M


    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  16. Care and Quality of Life in the Dying Phase: The contribution of the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veerbeek (Laetitia)


    textabstractThis thesis concerns the professional care and the quality of life for dying patients and their relatives in the hospital, the nursing home and the primary care setting. The effect of introducing the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP) on the content of care and the

  17. Challenges of Rural Cancer Care in the United States. (United States)

    Charlton, Mary; Schlichting, Jennifer; Chioreso, Catherine; Ward, Marcia; Vikas, Praveen


    Rural cancer patients face many challenges in receiving care, including limited availability of cancer treatments and cancer support providers (oncologists, social workers, mental healthcare providers, palliative care specialists, etc), transportation barriers, financial issues, and limited access to clinical trials. Oncologists and other cancer care providers experience parallel challenges in delivering care to their rural cancer patients. Although no one approach fully addresses the many challenges of rural cancer care, a number of promising strategies and interventions have been developed that transcend the issues associated with long travel distances. These include outreach clinics, virtual tumor boards, teleoncology and other telemedicine applications, workforce recruitment and retention initiatives, and provider and patient education programs. Given the projected increase in demand for cancer care due to the aging population and increasing number of Americans with health insurance through the Affordable Care Act, expansion of these efforts and development of new approaches are critical to ensure access to high-quality care.

  18. The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedenson Bernard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that inactivation of virtually any component within the pathway containing the BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins would increase the risks for lymphomas and leukemias. In people who do not have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, the encoded proteins prevent breast/ovarian cancer. However BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins have multiple functions including participating in a pathway that mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks by error-free methods. Inactivation of BRCA1, BRCA2 or any other critical protein within this "BRCA pathway" due to a gene mutation should inactivate this error-free repair process. DNA fragments produced by double strand breaks are then left to non-specific processes that rejoin them without regard for preserving normal gene regulation or function, so rearrangements of DNA segments are more likely. These kinds of rearrangements are typically associated with some lymphomas and leukemias. Methods Literature searches produced about 2500 epidemiology and basic science articles related to the BRCA pathway. These articles were reviewed and copied to a database to facilitate access. Meta-analyses of statistical information compared risks for hematologic cancers vs. mutations for the components in a model pathway containing BRCA1/2 gene products. Results Deleterious mutations of genes encoding proteins virtually anywhere within the BRCA pathway increased risks up to nearly 2000 fold for certain leukemias and lymphomas. Cancers with large increases in risk included mantle cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and prolymphocytic leukemia. Mantle cell lymphoma is defined by a characteristic rearrangement of DNA fragments interchanged between chromosomes 11 and 14. DNA translocations or rearrangements also occur in significant percentages of the other cancers. Conclusion An important function of the BRCA pathway is to

  19. Oral Cancer Care and Oromaxillofacial Surgery. (United States)

    Yadav, S K


    Oral cancers are one of the most common cancers affecting people of Nepal and it the sixth most common cancer in the world. Unlike other cancers the early detection of the disease is possible through a routine examination of the oral cavity which is usually done by a dental practitioner. Through a series of phases like prevention, screening, early intervention, diagnosis and staging, management with tumor ablative surgeries, and rehabilitation to restore the function and esthetic part for better clinical outcome, the role of the specialty of dentistry is immensified. From a patient perspective, having a direct referral line within the dental community between dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons will contribute to cost reduction and improvement in outcomes. Trained oral and maxillofacial surgeon especially in the head and neck oncology plays a vital role in exploring functional multidisciplinary efforts to enhance patient care, academic excellence and research initiatives and evaluate for gaps in patient care. This article highlights the role of such professionals in a multidisciplinary team approach for the proper management of head and neck cancers which have significantly and logically additive effect for a better outcome.

  20. Enzalutamide: targeting the androgen signalling pathway in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalken, J.A.; Fitzpatrick, J.M.


    Significant progress has been made in the understanding of the underlying cancer biology of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with the androgen receptor (AR) signalling pathway remaining implicated throughout the prostate cancer disease continuum. Reactivation of the AR signalling pathway

  1. Promoting Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Care Strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    care for patients with advanced breast cancer because, at this stage, patients will no longer gain from antitumor interventions 10. The creation of palliative and supportive care for patients with advanced breast cancer will help to prevent unnecessary and avoidable suffering. Palliative and supportive care. Palliative care has ...

  2. Collaboration and communication in colorectal cancer care: a qualitative study of the challenges experienced by patients and health care professionals. (United States)

    Kamradt, Martina; Baudendistel, Ines; Längst, Gerda; Kiel, Marion; Eckrich, Felicitas; Winkler, Eva; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik


    Colorectal cancer is becoming a chronic condition. This has significant implications for the delivery of health care and implies the involvement of a range of health care professionals (HCPs) from different settings to ensure the needed quality and continuity of care. To explore the challenges that patients and HCPs experience in the course of colorectal cancer care and the perceived consequences caused by these challenges. Ten semi-structured focus groups were conducted including patients receiving treatment for colorectal cancer, representatives of patient support groups, physicians and other non-physician HCPs from different health care settings. Participants were asked to share their experiences regarding colorectal cancer care. All data were audio- and videotaped, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using qualitative content analysis. Patients and HCPs (total N = 47) experienced collaboration and communication as well as exchange of information between HCPs as challenging. Particularly communication and information exchange with GPs appeared to be lacking. The difficulties identified restricted a well-working coordination of care and seemed to cause inappropriate health care. Colorectal cancer care seems to require an effective, well-working collaboration and communication between the different HCPs involved ensuring the best possible care to suit patients' individual needs. However, the perceived challenges and consequences of our participants seem to restrict the delivery of the needed quality of care. Therefore, it seems crucial (i) to include all HCPs involved, especially the GP, (ii) to support an efficient and standardized exchange of health-related information and (iii) to focus on the patients' entire pathway of care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Intergenerational pathways leading to foster care placement of foster care alumni's children. (United States)

    Jackson Foster, Lovie J; Beadnell, Blair; Pecora, Peter J


    This study examined a path model that postulated intergenerational relationships between biological parent psychosocial functioning and foster care alumni mental health, economic status, and social support; and from these to the likelihood of children of foster care alumni being placed in foster care. The sample included 742 adults who spent time in foster care as children with a private foster care agency and who reported having at least one biological child. A full pathway was found between poorer father's functioning to greater alumni depression, which was in turn associated with negative social support, and then a greater likelihood of child out of home placement. Other parent to alumni paths were that poorer father functioning was associated with alumni anxiety and PTSD, and poorer mother's mental health was associated with PTSD; however, anxiety and PTSD were not implicated as precursors of foster care placement of the child. Findings support the need for increased practice and policy support to address the mental health needs of parents of children in or at risk of foster care, as well as the children themselves, as family history may have a lasting influence on quality of life, even when children are raised apart from biological parents.

  4. Intergenerational pathways leading to foster care placement of foster care alumni’s children (United States)

    Beadnell, Blair; Pecora, Peter J.


    This study examined a path model that postulated intergenerational relationships between biological parent psychosocial functioning and foster care alumni mental health, economic status, and social support; and from these to the likelihood of children of foster care alumni being placed in foster care. The sample included 742 adults who spent time in foster care as children with a private foster care agency and who reported having at least one biological child. A full pathway was found between poorer father’s functioning to greater alumni depression, which was in turn associated with negative social support, and then a greater likelihood of child out of home placement. Other parent to alumni paths were that poorer father functioning was associated with alumni anxiety and PTSD, and poorer mother’s mental health was associated with PTSD; however, anxiety and PTSD were not implicated as precursors of foster care placement of the child. Findings support the need for increased practice and policy support to address the mental health needs of parents of children in or at risk of foster care, as well as the children themselves, as family history may have a lasting influence on quality of life, even when children are raised apart from biological parents. PMID:25729315

  5. Intensive care for cancer patients: An interdisciplinary challenge for cancer specialists and intensive care physicians. (United States)

    Schellongowski, Peter; Kiehl, Michael; Kochanek, Matthias; Staudinger, Thomas; Beutel, Gernot

    Every sixth to eighth European intensive care unit patient suffers from an underlying malignant disease. A large proportion of these patients present with cancer-related complications. This review explains why the prognosis of critically ill cancer patients has improved substantially over the last decades and which risk factors are of prognostic importance. Furthermore, the main reasons for intensive care unit admission - acute respiratory failure and septic complications - are discussed with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic specifics. In addition, we discuss potential intensive care unit admission criteria with respect to cancer prognosis. The successful management of critically ill cancer patients requires a close collaboration of intensivists with hematologists, oncologists and colleagues from other disciplines, such as infectious disease specialists, microbiologists, radiologists, surgeons, pharmacists, and others.

  6. Telemedicine for rural cancer care in North Queensland: bringing cancer care home. (United States)

    Sabesan, Sabe; Larkins, Sarah; Evans, Rebecca; Varma, Suresh; Andrews, Athena; Beuttner, Petra; Brennan, Sean; Young, Michael


    To describe the use of telemedicine in cancer care (teleoncology model of care) for rural patients in North Queensland. This is a descriptive study. Data on demographical and clinical factors were retrieved from the teleoncology database of Townsville Hospital and review of medical records for the period between May 2007 and May 2011. The medical oncologists at the Townsville Cancer Centre, a regional cancer centre in North Queensland, have been providing their services to rural hospitals in Townsville and Mt Isa districts via videoconferencing since 2007.   Cancer care delivery to rural sites via Townsville teleoncology model. The ability of the teleoncology model to provide the following services to rural towns: (i) specialist consultations; (ii) urgent specialist medical care; (iii) care for Indigenous patients; and (iv) remote supervision of chemotherapy administration. Between May 2007 and May 2011, 158 patients from 18 rural towns received a total of 745 consultations. Ten of these patients were consulted urgently and treatment plans initiated locally, avoiding interhospital transfers. Eighteen Indigenous patients received consultative services, being accompanied by more than four to six family members. Eighty-three patients received a range of intravenous and oral chemotherapy regimens in Mt Isa and oral agents in other towns through remote supervision by medical oncologists from Townsville. Teleoncology model of care allows rural and Indigenous cancer patients to receive specialist consultations and chemotherapy treatments closer to home, thus minimising the access difficulties faced by the rural sector. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. Genome Stability Pathways in Head and Neck Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Jenkins


    Full Text Available Genomic instability underlies the transformation of host cells toward malignancy, promotes development of invasion and metastasis and shapes the response of established cancer to treatment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of genomic stability in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC, with an emphasis on DNA repair pathways. HNSCC is characterized by distinct profiles in genome stability between similarly staged cancers that are reflected in risk, treatment response and outcomes. Defective DNA repair generates chromosomal derangement that can cause subsequent alterations in gene expression, and is a hallmark of progression toward carcinoma. Variable functionality of an increasing spectrum of repair gene polymorphisms is associated with increased cancer risk, while aetiological factors such as human papillomavirus, tobacco and alcohol induce significantly different behaviour in induced malignancy, underpinned by differences in genomic stability. Targeted inhibition of signalling receptors has proven to be a clinically-validated therapy, and protein expression of other DNA repair and signalling molecules associated with cancer behaviour could potentially provide a more refined clinical model for prognosis and treatment prediction. Development and expansion of current genomic stability models is furthering our understanding of HNSCC pathophysiology and uncovering new, promising treatment strategies.

  8. Inhibition of sonic hedgehog pathway and pluripotency maintaining factors regulate human pancreatic cancer stem cell characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Su‐Ni; Fu, Junsheng; Nall, Dara; Rodova, Mariana; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K


    Activation of the sonic hedgehog (SHh) pathway is required for the growth of numerous tissues and organs and recent evidence indicates that this pathway is often recruited to stimulate growth of cancer stem cells (CSCs...

  9. The “CROMa” Project: A Care Pathway for Clinical Management of Patients with Bisphosphonate Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Capocci


    Full Text Available Aim. To describe 7 years of activity of “CROMa” (Coordination of Research on Osteonecrosis of the Jaws project of “Sapienza” University of Rome. Materials and Methods. A preventive and therapeutic care pathway was created for patients with bisphosphonates (BPs exposure. Demographic, social, behavioural, pharmacological, and clinical variables were registered in a dedicated database. Results. In the project, 502 patients, 403 females and 99 males, were observed. Bone pathologies were 79% osteometabolic diseases (OMD and 21% metastatic cancer (CA. Females were 90% in OMD group and 41% in CA. BP administration was 54% oral, 31% IV, and 11% IM; 89% of BPs were amino-BP and 11% non-amino-BP. Consistently with bone pathology (OMD/CA, alendronate appears to be prevalent for OMD (40% relative, while zoledronate was indicated in 92% of CA patients. Out of 502 cases collected, 28 BRONJ were detected: 17 of them were related to IV BP treatment. Preventive oral assessment was required for 50% of CA patients and by 4% of OMD patients. Conclusions. The proposed care pathway protocols for BP exposed patients appeared to be useful to meet treatment and preventive needs, in both oncological and osteometabolic diseases patients. Patients’ and physicians’ prevention awareness can be the starting point of a multilevel prevention system.

  10. Internet tools to enhance breast cancer care. (United States)

    Shachar, Shlomit Strulov; Muss, Hyman B


    Internet tools have become a great aid in the daily practice of physicians who treat breast cancer patients. In cancer care there are frequent and important intersections where major decisions need to be made; these include (1) whether or not to give chemotherapy; (2) how much toxicity to expect, and (3) the life expectancy of the patient, considering non-breast cancer comorbidities. These decisions can be made more accurately using calculators based on data sets of thousands of patients as opposed to physician intuition. Such tools also help patients and caregivers in optimal decision making, as they estimate the absolute benefits and risks of treatment. In this perspective we describe selected internet sites that are useful across several domains of care, including the potential benefits of different adjuvant regimens for early breast cancer, prognosis after neoadjuvant therapy, prognosis for ductal carcinoma in situ, and toxicity and life expectancy estimates. We review the variables required to use the tools, the results obtained, the methods of validation, and the advantages and disadvantages of each tool.

  11. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Cancer Stem Cell Signaling Pathways. (United States)

    Abetov, Danysh; Mustapova, Zhanar; Saliev, Timur; Bulanin, Denis; Batyrbekov, Kanat; Gilman, Charles P


    The main aim of oncologists worldwide is to understand and then intervene in the primary tumor initiation and propagation mechanisms. This is essential to allow targeted elimination of cancer cells without altering normal mitotic cells. Currently, there are two main rival theories describing the process of tumorigenesis. According to the Stochastic Model, potentially any cell, once defunct, is capable of initiating carcinogenesis. Alternatively the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) Model posits that only a small fraction of undifferentiated tumor cells are capable of triggering carcinogenesis. Like healthy stem cells, CSCs are also characterized by a capacity for self-renewal and the ability to generate differentiated progeny, possibly mediating treatment resistance, thus leading to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Moreover, molecular signaling profiles are similar between CSCs and normal stem cells, including Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways. Therefore, development of novel chemotherapeutic agents and proteins (e.g., enzymes and antibodies) specifically targeting CSCs are attractive pharmaceutical candidates. This article describes small molecule inhibitors of stem cell pathways Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog, and their recent chemotherapy clinical trials.

  12. Novel modeling of cancer cell signaling pathways enables systematic drug repositioning for distinct breast cancer metastases. (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Jin, Guangxu; Cui, Kemi; Ren, Ding; Liu, Timothy; Chen, Peikai; Wong, Solomon; Li, Fuhai; Fan, Yubo; Rodriguez, Angel; Chang, Jenny; Wong, Stephen T C


    A new type of signaling network element, called cancer signaling bridges (CSB), has been shown to have the potential for systematic and fast-tracked drug repositioning. On the basis of CSBs, we developed a computational model to derive specific downstream signaling pathways that reveal previously unknown target-disease connections and new mechanisms for specific cancer subtypes. The model enables us to reposition drugs based on available patient gene expression data. We applied this model to repurpose known or shelved drugs for brain, lung, and bone metastases of breast cancer with the hypothesis that cancer subtypes have their own specific signaling mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, we addressed specific CSBs for each metastasis that satisfy (i) CSB proteins are activated by the maximal number of enriched signaling pathways specific to a given metastasis, and (ii) CSB proteins are involved in the most differential expressed coding genes specific to each breast cancer metastasis. The identified signaling networks for the three types of breast cancer metastases contain 31, 15, and 18 proteins and are used to reposition 15, 9, and 2 drug candidates for the brain, lung, and bone metastases. We conducted both in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments as well as analysis on patient tumor specimens to evaluate the targets and repositioned drugs. Of special note, we found that the Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, sunitinib and dasatinib, prohibit brain metastases derived from breast cancer, addressing one particularly challenging aspect of this disease. ©2013 AACR.

  13. Pursuing Normality: Reflections on Cancer Survivorship Care of Lymphoma Survivors. (United States)

    Madsen, Louise S; Handberg, Charlotte


    The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. The aim of this study was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46 semistructured interviews with 9 lymphoma survivors. Interpretive description methodology and social practice theory guided the analytical framework. "Pursuing normality" was an overall finding and was comprised of 2 overarching patterns, "future prospects" and "survivorship care perceptions," both implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease." The findings add to our understanding of possible barriers for participation in cancer survivorship care and outline important aspects to account for in the practice of health professionals. The study findings may guide practice to establish a systematic approach for providing information to cancer survivors regarding the possible management of their symptoms and of the content and purpose of cancer survivorship care.

  14. Perspectives on Palliative Care in Cancer Clinical Trials: Diverse Meanings from Multidisciplinary Cancer Care Providers. (United States)

    Mollica, Michelle A; Kent, Erin E; Castro, Kathleen M; Ellis, Erin M; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Falisi, Angela L; Gaysynsky, Anna; Huang, Grace C; Palan, Martha A; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia


    Palliative care (PC) is often misunderstood as exclusively pertaining to end-of-life care, which may be consequential for its delivery. There is little research on how PC is operationalized and delivered to cancer patients enrolled in clinical trials. We sought to understand the diverse perspectives of multidisciplinary oncology care providers caring for such patients in a teaching hospital. We conducted qualitative semistructured interviews with 19 key informants, including clinical trial principal investigators, oncology fellows, research nurses, inpatient and outpatient nurses, spiritual care providers, and PC fellows. Questions elicited information about the meaning providers assigned to the term "palliative care," as well as their experiences with the delivery of PC in the clinical trial context. Using grounded theory, a team-based coding method was employed to identify major themes. Four main themes emerged regarding the meaning of PC: (1) the holistic nature of PC, (2) the importance of symptom care, (3) conflict between PC and curative care, and (4) conflation between PC and end-of-life care. Three key themes emerged with regard to the delivery of PC: (1) dynamics among providers, (2) discussing PC with patients and family, and (3) the timing of PC delivery. There was great variability in personal meanings of PC, conflation with hospice/end-of-life care, and appropriateness of PC delivery and timing, particularly within cancer clinical trials. A standard and acceptable model for integrating PC concurrently with treatment in clinical trials is needed.

  15. Stem cell pathways contribute to clinical chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Steg, Adam D; Bevis, Kerri S; Katre, Ashwini A; Ziebarth, Angela; Dobbin, Zachary C; Alvarez, Ronald D; Zhang, Kui; Conner, Michael; Landen, Charles N


    Within heterogeneous tumors, subpopulations often labeled cancer stem cells (CSC) have been identified that have enhanced tumorigenicity and chemoresistance in ex vivo models. However, whether these populations are more capable of surviving chemotherapy in de novo tumors is unknown. We examined 45 matched primary/recurrent tumor pairs of high-grade ovarian adenocarcinomas for expression of CSC markers ALDH1A1, CD44, and CD133 using immunohistochemistry. Tumors collected immediately after completion of primary therapy were then laser capture microdissected and subjected to a quantitative PCR array examining stem cell biology pathways (Hedgehog, Notch, TGF-β, and Wnt). Select genes of interest were validated as important targets using siRNA-mediated downregulation. Primary samples were composed of low densities of ALDH1A1, CD44, and CD133. Tumors collected immediately after primary therapy were more densely composed of each marker, whereas samples collected at first recurrence, before initiating secondary therapy, were composed of similar percentages of each marker as their primary tumor. In tumors collected from recurrent platinum-resistant patients, only CD133 was significantly increased. Of stem cell pathway members examined, 14% were significantly overexpressed in recurrent compared with matched primary tumors. Knockdown of genes of interest, including endoglin/CD105 and the hedgehog mediators Gli1 and Gli2, led to decreased ovarian cancer cell viability, with Gli2 showing a novel contribution to cisplatin resistance. These data indicate that ovarian tumors are enriched with CSCs and stem cell pathway mediators, especially at the completion of primary therapy. This suggests that stem cell subpopulations contribute to tumor chemoresistance and ultimately recurrent disease.

  16. Targeting the Phosphoinositide‐3 (PI3) Kinase Pathway in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baselga, José


    The phosphoinositide‐3 kinase (PI3K) pathway has been identified as an important target in breast cancer research for a number of years, but is new to most clinicians responsible for the daily challenges of breast cancer management...

  17. Molecular Pathways: Fumarate Hydratase-Deficient Kidney Cancer: Targeting the Warburg Effect in Cancer (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston; Rouault, Tracey A.


    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which affected individuals are at risk for development of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type II papillary kidney cancer. HLRCC is characterized by germline mutation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH). FH-deficient kidney cancer is characterized by impaired oxidative phosphorylation and a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis, a form of metabolic reprogramming referred to as the Warburg effect. Increased glycolysis generates ATP needed for increased cell proliferation. In FH-deficient kidney cancer levels of AMPK, a cellular energy sensor, are decreased; resulting in diminished p53 levels, decreased expression of the iron importer, DMT1, leading to low cellular iron levels, and to enhanced fatty acid synthesis by diminishing phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate limiting step for fatty acid synthesis. Increased fumarate and decreased iron levels in FH-deficient kidney cancer cells inactivate prolyl hydroxylases, leading to stabilization of HIF1α, and increased expression of genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and GLUT1 to provide fuel needed for rapid growth demands. Several therapeutic approaches for targeting the metabolic basis of FH-deficient kidney cancer are under development or are being evaluated in clinical trials, including the use of agents such as metformin, which would reverse the inactivation of AMPK, approaches to inhibit glucose transport, LDH-A, the anti-oxidant response pathway, the heme oxygenase pathway and approaches to target the tumor vasculature and glucose transport with agents such as bevacizumab and erlotinib. These same types of metabolic shifts, to aerobic glycolysis with decreased oxidative phosphorylation, have been found in a wide variety of other cancer types. Targeting the metabolic basis of a rare cancer such as fumarate hydratase

  18. Age differences in presentation, diagnosis pathway and management of colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Esteva, Magdalena; Ruiz, Amador; Ramos, Maria; Casamitjana, Monserrat; Sánchez-Calavera, María A; González-Luján, Luis; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; Leiva, Alfonso; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Costa-Alcaraz, Ana M; Macià, Francesc; Espí, Alejandro; Segura, Josep M; Lafita, Sergio; Novella, Maria T; Yus, Carmen; Oliván, Barbara; Cabeza, Elena; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Llobera, Joan


    The gap in survival between older and younger European cancer patients is getting wider. It is possible that cancer in the elderly is being managed or treated differently than in their younger counterparts. This study aims to explore age disparities with respect to the clinical characteristics of the tumour, diagnostic pathway and treatment of colorectal cancer patients. We conducted a multicenter cross sectional study in 5 Spanish regions. Consecutive incident cases of CRC were identified from pathology services. From patient interviews, hospital and primary care clinical records, we collected data on symptoms, stage, doctors investigations, time duration to diagnosis/treatment, quality of care and treatment. 777 symptomatic cases, 154 were older than 80 years. Stage was similar by age group. General symptoms were more frequent in the eldest and abdominal symptoms in the youngest. No differences were found regarding perception of symptom seriousness and symptom disclosure between age groups as no longer duration to diagnosis or treatment was observed in the oldest groups. In primary care, only ultrasound is more frequently ordered in those 80 years had a significantly higher proportion of iron testing and abdominal XR requested in hospital. We observed a high resection rate independently of age but less adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage III colon cancer, and of radiotherapy in stage II and III rectal cancer as age increases. There are no relevant age disparities in the CRC diagnosis process with similar stage, duration to diagnosis, investigations and surgery. However, further improvements have to be made with respect to adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Care Pathway-Based Approach on Outcomes in a Specialist Intellectual Disability Inpatient Unit (United States)

    Devapriam, John; Alexander, Regi; Gumber, Rohit; Pither, Judith; Gangadharan, Satheesh


    Specialist intellectual disability inpatient units have come under increased scrutiny, leading to questions about the quality of service provision in this sector. A care pathway-based approach was implemented in such a unit and its impact on outcome variables was measured. The care pathway-based approach resulted in the turnover of more patients,…

  20. Care pathways for organ donation after brain death: guidance from available literature? (United States)

    Hoste, Pieter; Vanhaecht, Kris; Ferdinande, Patrick; Rogiers, Xavier; Eeckloo, Kristof; Blot, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Vogelaers, Dirk; Vandewoude, Koenraad


    A discussion of the literature concerning the impact of care pathways in the complex and by definition multidisciplinary process of organ donation following brain death. Enhancing the quality and safety of organs for transplantation has become a central concern for governmental and professional organizations. At the local hospital level, a donor coordinator can use a range of interventions to improve the donation and procurement process. Care pathways have been proven to represent an effective intervention in several settings for optimizing processes and outcomes. A discussion paper. A systematic review of the Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases was conducted for articles published until June 2015, using the keywords donation after brain death and care pathways. Each paper was reviewed to investigate the effects of existing care pathways for donation after brain death. An additional search for unpublished information was conducted. Although literature supports care pathways as an effective intervention in several settings, few studies have explored its use and effectiveness for complex care processes such as donation after brain death. Nurses should be aware of their role in the donation process. Care pathways have the potential to support them, but their effectiveness has been insufficiently explored. Further research should focus on the development and standardization of the clinical content of a care pathway for donation after brain death and the identification of quality indicators. These should be used in a prospective effectiveness assessment of the proposed pathway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Determinants of increased primary health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.; Schellevis, F.; Rijken, M.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.


    Purpose: The number of cancer survivors is increasing, and patients with cancer often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment. Because of the variety of health problems and high prevalence of comorbidity, primary care physicians (PCPs) seem obvious candidates to take care of

  2. Follow-up Medical Care After Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Follow-Up Medical Care Once you’re done with cancer treatment, you ... to this page included, e.g., “Follow-Up Medical Care was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” ...

  3. Care of the dying: how do we replace the Liverpool Care Pathway? (United States)

    Davis, Charles; Tomas, Jon


    Death is an inescapable certainty of life. Variability in care for dying persons, however, is present. The Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) sought to guide care for the last days of life but was phased out after intense scrutiny. A governmental report and rapid review of evidence were considered alongside mass and social media reporting. An evidence review of end-of-life care was undertaken. Any person's death is inherently challenging. Much consideration must be given to holistic needs when approaching death. Communication skills may be lacking for professional and patient alike. The LCP became flawed in use rather than intention or principle. Seeming financial gains from death were concerning to all. We have responsibility for making choices prospectively in order for them to influence our care when we are dying. Normalization of death is key on both micro- and macro communication levels. Perceptions of relevant terminology; review of the definition of dying; improved recognition of the dying process and measuring the impact of communication skills training. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Cross Cancer Genomic Investigation of Inflammation Pathway for Five Common Cancers: Lung, Ovary, Prostate, Breast, and Colorectal Cancer. (United States)

    Hung, Rayjean J; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Goode, Ellen L; Brhane, Yonathan; Muir, Kenneth; Chan, Andrew T; Marchand, Loic Le; Schildkraut, Joellen; Witte, John S; Eeles, Rosalind; Boffetta, Paolo; Spitz, Margaret R; Poirier, Julia G; Rider, David N; Fridley, Brooke L; Chen, Zhihua; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fredrick; Easton, Douglas F; Landi, Maria Teresa; Brennan, Paul; Houlston, Richard; Christiani, David C; Field, John K; Bickeböller, Heike; Risch, Angela; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Chanock, Stephen; Berndt, Sonja I; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Song, Honglin; Phelan, Catherine; Wentzensen, Nicholas; Peters, Ulrike; Slattery, Martha L; Sellers, Thomas A; Casey, Graham; Gruber, Stephen B; Hunter, David J; Amos, Christopher I; Henderson, Brian


    Inflammation has been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer development as an initiator or promoter, yet no large-scale study of inherited variation across cancer sites has been conducted. We conducted a cross-cancer genomic analysis for the inflammation pathway based on 48 genome-wide association studies within the National Cancer Institute GAME-ON Network across five common cancer sites, with a total of 64 591 cancer patients and 74 467 control patients. Subset-based meta-analysis was used to account for possible disease heterogeneity, and hierarchical modeling was employed to estimate the effect of the subcomponents within the inflammation pathway. The network was visualized by enrichment map. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified three pleiotropic loci within the inflammation pathway, including one novel locus in Ch12q24 encoding SH2B3 (rs3184504), which reached GWAS significance with a P value of 1.78 x 10(-8), and it showed an association with lung cancer (P = 2.01 x 10(-6)), colorectal cancer (GECCO P = 6.72x10(-6); CORECT P = 3.32x10(-5)), and breast cancer (P = .009). We also identified five key subpathway components with genetic variants that are relevant for the risk of these five cancer sites: inflammatory response for colorectal cancer (P = .006), inflammation related cell cycle gene for lung cancer (P = 1.35x10(-6)), and activation of immune response for ovarian cancer (P = .009). In addition, sequence variations in immune system development played a role in breast cancer etiology (P = .001) and innate immune response was involved in the risk of both colorectal (P = .022) and ovarian cancer (P = .003). Genetic variations in inflammation and its related subpathway components are keys to the development of lung, colorectal, ovary, and breast cancer, including SH2B3, which is associated with lung, colorectal, and breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  5. Expression profiling based on graph-clustering approach to determine colon cancer pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qu Zhu


    Full Text Available Context: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. DNA microarray-based technologies allow simultaneous analysis of expression of thousands of genes. Aim: To search for important molecular markers and pathways that hold great promise for further treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Here, we performed a comprehensive gene-level assessment of colorectal cancer using 35 colorectal cancer and 24 normal samples. Results: It was shown that AURKA, MT1G, and AKAP12 had a high degree of response in colorectal cancer. Besides, we further explored the underlying molecular mechanism within these different genes. Conclusions: The results indicated calcium signaling pathway and vascular smooth muscle contraction pathway were the two significant pathways, giving hope to provide insights into the development of novel therapeutic targets and pathways.

  6. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care. (United States)

    Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J


    In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.

  7. Mapping change in health care: pathways for nursing. (United States)

    August, J M


    Health care is changing. Economic, political, social, environmental, and cultural factors all influence the population's need for health care and the delivery of health services. Emphasis is placed on providing quality services at the lowest possible costs, leading to a variety of alternatives to hospital care. This changing health care scene presents both opportunity and challenge for the health care professional. Nursing, in particular, is in a unique position and can play a pivotal role in all health care reform initiatives.

  8. Communication in Cancer Care (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Effective communication in cancer care between the health care team, cancer patients, and their family is important. Learn about communication skills that support a patient-centered practice and how to talk with adults and children about their diagnosis, prognosis, and transition to end-of-life care in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Access to Cancer Care and General Medical Care Services Among Cancer Survivors in the United States: An Analysis of 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Data. (United States)

    de Moor, Janet S; Virgo, Katherine S; Li, Chunyu; Chawla, Neetu; Han, Xuesong; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Ekwueme, Donatus U; McNeel, Timothy S; Rodriguez, Juan L; Yabroff, K Robin


    Cancer survivors require appropriate health care to manage their unique health needs. This study describes access to cancer care among cancer survivors in the United States and compares access to general medical care between cancer survivors and people who have no history of cancer. We assessed access to general medical care using the core 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We assessed access to cancer care using the MEPS Experiences With Cancer Survey. We used multivariable logistic regression to compare access to general medical care among 2 groups of cancer survivors (those who reported having access to all necessary cancer care [n = 1088] and those who did not [n = 70]) with self-reported access to general medical care among people who had no history of cancer (n = 22 434). Of the 1158 cancer survivors, 70 (6.0%) reported that they did not receive all necessary cancer care. Adjusted analyses found that cancer survivors who reported not receiving all necessary cancer care were also less likely to report receiving general medical care (78.0%) than cancer survivors who reported having access to necessary cancer care (87.1%) and people who had no history of cancer (87.8%). This study provides nationally representative data on the proportion of cancer survivors who have access to necessary cancer care and yields insight into factors that impede survivors' access to both cancer care and general medical care. This study is a reference for future work on access to care.

  10. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care. (United States)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David; Beckett, Paul; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gaga, Mina; Gamarra, Fernando; Grigoriu, Bogdan; Hansen, Niels C G; Hubbard, Richard; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Jovanovic, Dragana; Konsoulova, Assia; Kollmeier, Jens; Massard, Gilbert; McPhelim, John; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Milroy, Robert; Paesmans, Marianne; Peake, Mick; Putora, Paul-Martin; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Sitter, Helmut; Skaug, Knut; Spiro, Stephen; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Taright, Samya; Thomas, Michael; van Schil, Paul E; Vansteenkiste, Johan F; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Sculier, Jean-Paul


    Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe. The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe.

  11. Lung cancer patterns of care in south western Sydney, Australia


    Vinod, S; Delaney, G; Bauman, A; Barton, M


    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in New South Wales (NSW). There is a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer in the South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS) than the NSW average. The aim of this study was to document patterns of lung cancer care for SWSAHS residents.

  12. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David


    . The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...... countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe....

  13. Quality of care: Distress, health care use and needs of women with breast cancer


    Lo-Fo-Wong, D.N.N.


    The aims of this thesis were to: (1) examine enduring distress and its predictors in women with breast cancer; (2) determine the extent to which distress-related problems are portrayed in a graphic novel about breast cancer; (3) examine health care use and additional needs (with regard to medical, paramedical, psychosocial, supplementary, CAM, and dental care services), and predictors of health care use in women with breast cancer; and (4) examine predictors of unmet care needs of women with ...

  14. Racial Disparities in the Quality of Prostate Cancer Care (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0540 TITLE: Racial Disparities in the Quality of Prostate Cancer Care PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nina Bickell CONTRACTING...11-1-0540 Racial Disparities in the Quality of Prostate Cancer Care 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC101939 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...the quality of prostate cancer care delivered may be contributing to the racial disparity in mortality. While it is clear that physician

  15. Heterogeneous Effects of Direct Hypoxia Pathway Activation in Kidney Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Salama

    Full Text Available General activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathways is classically associated with adverse prognosis in cancer and has been proposed to contribute to oncogenic drive. In clear cell renal carcinoma (CCRC HIF pathways are upregulated by inactivation of the von-Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor. However HIF-1α and HIF-2α have contrasting effects on experimental tumor progression. To better understand this paradox we examined pan-genomic patterns of HIF DNA binding and associated gene expression in response to manipulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α and related the findings to CCRC prognosis. Our findings reveal distinct pan-genomic organization of canonical and non-canonical HIF isoform-specific DNA binding at thousands of sites. Overall associations were observed between HIF-1α-specific binding, and genes associated with favorable prognosis and between HIF-2α-specific binding and adverse prognosis. However within each isoform-specific set, individual gene associations were heterogeneous in sign and magnitude, suggesting that activation of each HIF-α isoform contributes a highly complex mix of pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Slánská


    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually more than 27,000 persons die of cancer in the Czech Republic and the overall incidence of malignancies is still increasing. These data shows the need for affordable and good follow-up care especially for patients without any cancer treatment due to irreversible progression of tumor. Currently the outpatient palliative cancer care gets more into the forefront. Prerequisite for a well working outpatient palliative care is cooperation with general practitioners and home health care agencies. The purpose of the so called program of palliative cancer care is to guide a patient in palliative cancer care and to improve the cooperation among health care providers. Methods: During the period from January 2008 to October 2010 we evaluated in patient without any oncology treatment due to irreversible progression of tumor. Results: In palliative outpatient clinic we treated 446 patients, 119 of them received home care services with average length of 27.8 days. 77 patients died at home, 51 in health facilities and 41 in inpatient hospice care. Conclusion: We present pilot study focusing on outpatient palliative cancer care which shows the real benefit from early indication of palliative cancer care. This type of care allows patients to stay as long as possible at home among their close relatives.

  17. Perioperative functional activity of the alternative pathway of complement in patients with colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Qvist, N


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional capacity of the alternative pathway of complement in patients with cancer of the colon before, during, and after operation. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: One university and two district hospitals, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 28 patients having elective...... or emergency operations for colonic cancer. INTERVENTIONS: Measurements of C3b fixing capacity of the alternative complement pathway in serum before, during, and after operation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The functional capacity of the alternative pathway of complement, and changes during operation. RESULTS......: The functional capacity of the alternative pathway in patients with cancer of the colon was above normal (p

  18. Cost and Survival Analysis Before and After Implementation of Dana-Farber Clinical Pathways for Patients With Stage IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. (United States)

    Jackman, David M; Zhang, Yichen; Dalby, Carole; Nguyen, Tom; Nagle, Julia; Lydon, Christine A; Rabin, Michael S; McNiff, Kristen K; Fraile, Belen; Jacobson, Joseph O


    Increasing costs and medical complexity are significant challenges in modern oncology. We explored the use of clinical pathways to support clinical decision making and manage resources prospectively across our network. We created customized lung cancer pathways and partnered with a commercial vendor to provide a Web-based platform for real-time decision support and post-treatment data aggregation. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) Pathways for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were introduced in January 2014. We identified all DFCI patients who were diagnosed and treated for stage IV NSCLC in 2012 (before pathways) and 2014 (after pathways). Costs of care were determined for 1 year from the time of diagnosis. Pre- and postpathway cohorts included 160 and 210 patients with stage IV NSCLC, respectively. The prepathway group had more women but was otherwise similarly matched for demographic and tumor characteristics. The total 12-month cost of care (adjusted for age, sex, race, distance to DFCI, clinical trial enrollment, and EGFR and ALK status) demonstrated a $15,013 savings after the implementation of pathways ($67,050 before pathways v $52,037 after pathways). Antineoplastics were the largest source of cost savings. Clinical outcomes were not compromised, with similar median overall survival times (10.7 months before v 11.2 months after pathways; P = .08). After introduction of a clinical pathway in metastatic NSCLC, cost of care decreased significantly, with no compromise in survival. In an era where comparative outcomes analysis and value assessment are increasingly important, the implementation of clinical pathways may provide a means to coalesce and disseminate institutional expertise and track and learn from care decisions.

  19. PO-20 - Crosstalk between the lectin pathway and haemostasis in patients with pulmonary cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J B; Christensen, T D; Hvas, C L


    types of cancer. The exact role of the complement system in cancer is currently discussed. However, one possible consequence of the increased complement activation could be contribution to the increased thrombosis risk which cancer patients experience. Proteins of the lectin pathway can activate......INTRODUCTION: Recent research has focused on the complement system in cancer, including the lectin pathway of complement activation. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a key activator of the lectin pathway, can bind to tumor cell surfaces in vitro, and lectin pathway activation is increased in several...... coagulation and impair fibrinolysis in vitro, but the significance of this in a clinical setting is not well understood. AIM: We aim to investigate associations between lectin pathway and haemostatic activation in patients with lung cancer undergoing thoracoscopic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients...

  20. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.


    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  1. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  2. Spiritual care by nurses in curative cancer care: Protocol for a national, multicentre, mixed method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Marieke; Ebenau, Anne F.; Koning, Helen; Visser, Anja; Leget, Carlo; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; van Leeuwen, René; Ruben, Riet; Wulp, Marijke; Garssen, Bert


    To gain insight into the quantity and quality of spiritual care provided by nurses in curative cancer care, from the perspectives of both patients and nurses. Cancer causes patients to suffer from diverse symptoms related to their illness. Nurses play an important role in the care for people with

  3. Spiritual care by nurses in curative cancer care : Protocol for a national, multicentre, mixed method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Marieke; Ebenau, Anne F; Koning, Helen; Visser, Anja; Leget, Carlo; Van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Van Leeuwen, René; Ruben, Riet; Wulp, Marijke; Garssen, Bert

    Aim: To gain insight into the quantity and quality of spiritual care provided by nurses in curative cancer care, from the perspectives of both patients and nurses. Background: Cancer causes patients to suffer from diverse symptoms related to their illness. Nurses play an important role in the care

  4. The Role of Advanced Practice Nurses in Cancer Survivorship Care. (United States)

    Corcoran, Stacie; Dunne, Megan; McCabe, Mary S


    To review advanced practice nursing roles in planning, implementing, and evaluating survivorship care. Review of the literature, published articles, government and organizational reports. The increased focus on improving post-treatment cancer care presents opportunities for advanced practice nurses to meet the physical and psychosocial needs of cancer survivors. As experts in the comprehensive delivery of care, oncology advanced practice nurses are positioned to initiate, deliver, and evaluate survivorship care through innovative models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomarker Identification and Pathway Analysis by Serum Metabolomics of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrong Chen


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, for which no validated tumor biomarker is sufficiently accurate to be useful for diagnosis. Additionally, the metabolic alterations associated with the disease are unclear. In this study, we investigated the construction, interaction, and pathways of potential lung cancer biomarkers using metabolomics pathway analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database and the Human Metabolome Database to identify the top altered pathways for analysis and visualization. We constructed a diagnostic model using potential serum biomarkers from patients with lung cancer. We assessed their specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves, which could be used to distinguish patients with lung cancer from normal subjects. The pathway analysis indicated that sphingolipid metabolism was the top altered pathway in lung cancer. ROC curve analysis indicated that glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (GpAEA and sphingosine were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Compared with the traditional lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment, GpAEA and sphingosine were as good or more appropriate for detecting lung cancer. We report our identification of potential metabolic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of lung cancer and clarify the metabolic alterations in lung cancer.

  6. Primary care perspectives on prostate cancer survivorship: implications for improving quality of care. (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T


    Primary care providers often care for men with prostate cancer due to its prolonged clinical course and an increasing number of survivors. However, their attitudes and care patterns are inadequately studied. In this context, we surveyed primary care providers regarding the scope of their prostate cancer survivorship care. The 2006 Early Detection and Screening for Prostate Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Survey conducted by the Michigan Public Health Institute investigated the beliefs and practice patterns of primary care providers in Michigan. We evaluated responses from 902 primary care providers regarding the timing and content of their prostate cancer survivorship care and relationships with specialty care. Two-thirds (67.6%) of providers cared for men during and after prostate cancer treatment. Providers routinely inquired about incontinence, impotence and bowel problems (83.3%), with a few (14.2%) using surveys to measure symptoms. However, only a minority felt 'very comfortable' managing the side effects of prostate cancer treatment. Clear plans (76.1%) and details regarding management of treatment complications (65.2%) from treating specialists were suboptimal. Nearly one-half (45.1%) of providers felt it was equally appropriate for them and treating specialists to provide prostate cancer survivorship care. Primary care providers reported that prostate cancer survivorship care is prevalent in their practice, yet few felt very comfortable managing side effects of prostate cancer treatment. To improve quality of care, implementing prostate cancer survivorship care plans across specialties, or transferring primary responsibility to primary care providers through survivorship guidelines, should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bicalutamide 150 mg plus standard care vs standard care alone for early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLeod, David G; Iversen, Peter; See, William A


    To evaluate, in the ongoing Early Prostate Cancer (EPC) trial programme, the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once daily in addition to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer....

  8. Public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. (United States)

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph; Jassem, Jacek


    We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients' family members, were surveyed. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations' perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. ©AlphaMed Press.

  9. Integrating Primary Care Providers in the Care of Cancer Survivors: Gaps in Evidence and Future Opportunities (United States)

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; O’Malley, Denalee M.; Hudson, Shawna V.


    For over a decade since the release of the Institute of Medicine report, From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition, there has been a focus on providing coordinated, comprehensive care for cancer survivors that emphasized the role of primary care. Several models of care have been described which primarily focused on primary care providers (PCPs) as receivers of cancer survivors and specific types of information (e.g. survivorship care plans) from oncology based care, and not as active members of the cancer survivorship team. In this paper, we reviewed survivorship models that have been described in the literature, and specifically focused on strategies aiming to integrate primary care providers in caring for cancer survivors across different settings. We offer insights differentiating primary care providers’ level of expertise in cancer survivorship and how such expertise may be utilized. We provide recommendations for education, clinical practice, research and policy initiatives that may advance the integration of primary care providers in the care of cancer survivors in diverse clinical settings. PMID:28049575

  10. Role of Notch signalling pathway in cancer and its association with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    screening, detection, diagnosis, staging and risk stratification of various cancers. DNA methylation can be therapeutically reversed and demethylating drugs have proven to be promising in cancer treatment. This review focusses on the methylation status of genes in Notch signalling pathway from various cancers and how ...

  11. Bicalutamide 150 mg plus standard care vs standard care alone for early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLeod, David G; Iversen, Peter; See, William A


    To evaluate, in the ongoing Early Prostate Cancer (EPC) trial programme, the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once daily in addition to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer.......To evaluate, in the ongoing Early Prostate Cancer (EPC) trial programme, the efficacy and tolerability of bicalutamide 150 mg once daily in addition to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer....

  12. Health care use after diagnosis of cancer in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Korevaar, J.C.; McBride, M.L.


    Purpose: Young patients with cancer often require extensive care during and shortly after cancer treatment for medical, psychosocial and educational problems. Approximately 85% are treated by an oncologist; however, their additional health care in this phase has barely been studied. The role of the

  13. Primary care for young adult cancer survivors: an international perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holge-Hazelton, B.; Blake-Gumbs, L.; Miedema, B.; Rijswijk, E. van


    PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare and

  14. Assessing breast cancer risk in a primary care setting. (United States)

    Kiely, Deirdre; Schwartz, Shira


    Individuals who are given a preventive exam by a primary care provider are more likely to agree to cancer screening. The provider recommendation has been identified as the strongest factor associated with screening utilization. This article provides a framework for breast cancer risk assessment for an advanced practice registered nurse working in primary care practice.

  15. The pathways to primary mental health care in high-density suburbs in Harare, Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Patel, V; Simunyu, E; Gwanzura, F


    The pathways to care for mental illness are diverse and are dependent on sociocultural and economic factors. The objective of this study was to describe the pathways to primary care for patients with common mental disorders in Harare. One hundred and nine consecutive patients with conspicuous psychiatric morbidity identified by general nurses in three primary health care clinics (PHC) and by four traditional medical practitioners were interviewed with the Pathways to Care Schedule. Other than those patients with an acute illness, most patients consulted more than one care provider; three-quarters of those with a history of prior consultations had consulted both traditional and biomedical care providers. Biomedical care providers were the most common first care provider consulted; if this treatment failed, then patients tried other biomedical or traditional care providers. Different factors operated in the decision-making process in choosing between consulting biomedical and traditional care providers. Traditional care providers provided explanations more often than biomedical care providers; explanations given were most often spiritual. Injectable treatments were often prescribed for mental illness, especially by private general practitioners (GPs). Such treatments, and many oral treatments, were non-specific. Dissatisfaction with consultations was most commonly due to lack of symptomatic improvement. The costs of consultation were highest for private GPs, general hospitals and traditional healers; faith-healers, PHCs and hospital psychiatric departments were the cheapest.

  16. Care pathways in US healthcare settings: current successes and limitations, and future challenges. (United States)

    Chawla, Anita; Westrich, Kimberly; Matter, Susanna; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Dubois, Robert


    Care pathways are used widely in US healthcare settings and are expected to have greater influence on quality of care and patient outcomes in the future. We conducted qualitative research to evaluate the state of care pathways and their impact in the United States. Targeted literature review followed by an online survey and in-person interviews. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched for publications on care pathways (January 1, 2005, to July 21, 2014) to inform the subsequent surveys and interviews with payers, providers, and pathway vendors regarding care pathway design, development, and management. A targeted hand search was completed in May 2015 to supplement the earlier review. Twenty-nine publications, posters, or abstracts on specific care pathways were identified; the online survey and follow-up interviews included 26 and 18 respondents, respectively. Positive trends in current care pathways development and implementation include prioritization of high-quality evidence, enhancing the role of providers in development and implementation, and flexibility for providers to tailor treatment decisions to patients' needs. Nevertheless, there are some limitations in methodology for development and implementation, in criteria for evaluation, and in the degree of transparency surrounding these activities. Our research confirms that high-quality evidence of efficacy and safety are expected to be central to future pathway development, and that physicians play a major role in development and implementation. To achieve the goals of improving quality of care while managing costs, further efforts are required regarding systematic development and evaluation, consistent implementation and compliance metrics, and transparency in implementation outcomes and financial motivators.

  17. Use of information on the shared customers of healthcare services to support care pathway planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Nylander


    Conclusions The level of integration in the Finnish social welfare and healthcare system is high and seems to be increasing, especially in health centres. Within one year a client uses many kinds of inpatient services. This may at best represent a functioning system of care pathways and at worst mean overlapping work and lack of coordination. This information is of great importance to senior officers in care pathway planning.

  18. Care Pathways in Persistent Orofacial Pain: Qualitative Evidence from the DEEP Study. (United States)

    Breckons, M; Bissett, S M; Exley, C; Araujo-Soares, V; Durham, J


    Persistent orofacial pain is relatively common and known to have an adverse effect on quality of life. Previous studies suggest that the current care pathway may be problematic, but it is not well understood which health services patients access and what their experience is. The aim of this study was to explore care pathways and their impact from the perspective of patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of patients recruited from primary (community based) and secondary (specialist hospital based) care in the United Kingdom. Questions focused on the stages in their pathway and the impact of the care that they had received. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, and analysis followed principles of the constant comparative method. NVivo 10 was used to help organize and analyze data. Twenty-two patients were interviewed at baseline, and 18 took part in a second interview at 12 mo. Three main themes emerged from the data: the "fluidity of the care pathway," in which patients described moving among health care providers in attempts to have their pain diagnosed and managed, occurring alongside a "failure to progress," where despite multiple appointments, patients described frustration at delays in obtaining a diagnosis and effective treatment for their pain. Throughout their care pathways, patients described the "effects of unmanaged pain," where the longer the pain went unmanaged, the greater its potential to negatively affect their lives. Findings of this study suggest that the current care pathway is inefficient and fails to meet patient needs. Future work needs to focus on working with stakeholder groups to redesign patient-centered care pathways. Knowledge Transfer Statement: Data from qualitative interviews conducted with patients with persistent orofacial pain suggest significant problems with the existing care pathway, consisting of delays to diagnosis, treatment, and referral. Patients describing

  19. Impact of hospice care on end-of-life hospitalization of elderly patients with lung cancer in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chao Kang


    Conclusion: Hospice care has provided a humane and cost-efficient pathway for end-of-life elderly patients with lung cancer. Parenteral nutrition/hydration should be limited for terminal care patients. Opioids should be promoted for the relief of pain and dyspnea in acute ward care. Family physicians and radiation oncologists play important roles in hospice care. Compared with the prevalence of hospice care in the United Kingdom and other developed countries, hospice care in Taiwan is in the position to be expanded.

  20. Advancement of Wnt signal pathway and the target of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Quan


    Full Text Available Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proved to play an important role in the development and promotion of cancer metastasis. The activation of Wnt signals can lead to duplicating, updating, metastasizing and relapsing. The Wnt signaling pathway is mainly divided into the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the Wnt/calcium pathway. A better understanding of all the diverse functions of Wnt and their molecular mechanisms has evoked prevailing interest in identifying additional targets related to the Wnt /β-catenin pathways in breast cancer. A number of new target, related to Wnt /β-catenin pathways have been identified in recent years, including NOP14, BKCa channels, Emilin2, WISP, MicroRNAs, NRBP1, TRAF4, and Wntless. In this review, we will introduce the new targets related to the Wnt /β-catenin pathways in breast cancer.

  1. Diet and Nutrition in Cancer Survivorship and Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Bazzan


    Full Text Available The primary goal of palliative cancer care is typically to relieve suffering and improve quality of life. Most approaches to diet in this setting have focused only on eating as many calories as possible to avoid cachexia. However, as the concept of palliative care has evolved to include all aspects of cancer survivorship and not just end of life care, there is an increasing need to thoughtfully consider diet and nutrition approaches that can impact not only quality of life but overall health outcomes and perhaps even positively affect cancer recurrence and progression. In this regard, there has been a recent emphasis in the literature on nutrition and cancer as an important factor in both quality of life and in the pathophysiology of cancer. Hence, the primary purpose of this paper is to review the current data on diet and nutrition as it pertains to a wide range of cancer patients in the palliative care setting.


    Alexander, Koshy; Goldberg, Jessica; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz


    SYNOPSIS Older cancer patients are best served by a multidisciplinary approach with Palliative Care (PC) playing an integral role. PC focuses on symptom control irrespective of its cause and should not be associated only with terminal care. It provides an additional layer of support in the care of the cancer patient with an emphasis on quality of life. In this article, we discuss the evaluation and management of pain and other common non-pain symptoms that occur in the elderly cancer patient, as well as end of life care. PMID:26614860

  3. Primary care for young adult cancer survivors: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Blake-Gumbs, Lyla; Miedema, Baujke


    PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare...... issues the YA cancer patient may present with. The role of the FP in follow-up care seems to be very limited. CONCLUSIONS: YACs in the western world seem to have comparable medical and psychosocial problems. However, the nature of health insurance is such that it impacts differently on the care...

  4. Best Practice in Basic Oral Care among Cancer Patients


    Wanyonyi, Celestine; Suila, Jennibeth


    Basic oral care maintains oral cleanliness, reduces the impact of oral microbial flora, prevents infections in the oral cavity, thereby preventing cancer treatment complications. Nurses caring for cancer patients are well situated to perform various roles that affect the patients’ oral health such as identifying patients at risk of developing oral complications, and educating cancer patients about the importance and means of having good oral health throughout their treatment to prevent, ...

  5. Information communication technology: new approach for rural cancer care improvement. (United States)

    Maserat, Elham


    Cancer control aims to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of cancer and to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. For rural populations this presents particular problems. This article covers challenges of oncology care in rural areas and solutions via applying information communication technology with specialty telemedicine for overcoming problems in prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care. In addition, telecommunications infrastructures and frameworks for implementation of telemedicine are described.

  6. Obstacles to continuity of care in young mental health service users’ pathways - an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ådnanes


    Full Text Available Background: Users of mental health services often move between different primary and specialised health and care services, depending on their current condition, and this often leads to fragmentation of care. The aim of this study was to map care pathways in the case of young adult mental health service users and to identify key obstacles to continuity of care.Method: Quarterly semi-structured interviews were performed with nine young adults with mental health difficulties, following their pathways in and out of different services in the course of a year.Results: Key obstacles to continuity of care included the mental health system's lack of access to treatment, lack of integration between different specialist services, lack of progress in care and inadequate coordination tools such as ‘Individual Plan’ and case conferences that did not prevent fragmented care pathways.Conclusions: Continuity of care should be more explicitly linked to aspirations for development and progress in the users' care pathways, and how service providers can cooperate with users to actually develop and make progress. Coordination tools such as case conferences and ‘individual plans’ should be upgraded to this end and utilised to the utmost. This may be the most effective way to counteract the system obstacles.

  7. Selaginellatamariscina attenuates metastasis via Akt pathways in oral cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crude extracts of Selaginellatamariscina, an oriental medicinal herb, have been evidenced to treat several human diseases. This study investigated the mechanisms by which Selaginellatamariscina inhibits the invasiveness of human oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC HSC-3 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina attenuated HSC-3 cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-metastatic activities of Selaginellatamariscina occurred at least partially because of the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activity and the down-regulation of protein expression. The expression and function of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were regulated by Selaginellatamariscina at a transcriptional level, as shown by quantitative real-time PCR and reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP data further indicated that binding of the cAMP response element-binding (CREB protein and activating protein-1 (AP-1 to the MMP-2 promoter diminished at the highest dosage level of Selaginellatamariscina. The DNA-binding activity of specificity protein 1 (SP-1 to the MMP-9 promoter was also suppressed at the same concentration. Selaginellatamariscina did not affect the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, but did inhibit the effects of gelatinase by reducing the activation of serine-threonine kinase Akt. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina may be a potent adjuvant therapeutic agent in the prevention of oral cancer.

  8. Cell Death Pathways in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroz, Pawel, E-mail: [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Yaroslavsky, Anastasia [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Boston University College of Engineering, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kharkwal, Gitika B [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Hamblin, Michael R. [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging cancer therapy that uses the combination of non-toxic dyes or photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and destroy tumors. The PS can be localized in various organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membranes and this sub-cellular location governs much of the signaling that occurs after PDT. There is an acute stress response that leads to changes in calcium and lipid metabolism and causes the production of cytokines and stress response mediators. Enzymes (particularly protein kinases) are activated and transcription factors are expressed. Many of the cellular responses center on mitochondria and frequently lead to induction of apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway involving caspase activation and release of cytochrome c. Certain specific proteins (such as Bcl-2) are damaged by PDT-induced oxidation thereby increasing apoptosis, and a build-up of oxidized proteins leads to an ER-stress response that may be increased by proteasome inhibition. Autophagy plays a role in either inhibiting or enhancing cell death after PDT.

  9. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarzija, Ivana [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Beard, Peter, E-mail: [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  10. Integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer care: Survey of oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Salins


    Conclusion: Oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients felt that integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer improves symptom control, end-of-life care, health-related communication, and continuity of care. The perceptions of benefit of the palliative care intervention in the components surveyed, differed among the three groups.

  11. Palliative care for patients with cancer: do patients receive the care they consider important?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Hofstede, J.; Rijken, P.M.; Korevaar, J.C.; Donker, G.A.; Francke, A.L.


    Background: Many patients with advanced cancer receive palliative care from a GP and homecare nurse. Care for physical/psychosocial well-being, respect for patients’ autonomy and information provision are important elements of palliative care, but it is not known whether patients receive the care

  12. Redesigning Cancer Care Delivery: Views From Patients and Caregivers. (United States)

    Patel, Manali I; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Blayney, Douglas W; Moore, David; Nevedal, Andrea; Asch, Steven; Milstein, Arnold; Coker, Tumaini R


    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Although treatments have improved, patients and caregivers continue to report significant gaps in their care. The objective of this study was to examine the views of patients and caregivers on their experiences with current cancer care delivery and identify key strategies to improve the delivery of care. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 75 patients and 45 caregivers across the United States. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Participants reported multiple gaps in care delivery, including barriers in health communication with health care providers, lack of elucidation of care goals, lack of care coordination, and challenges in accessing care. Participants identified that greater use of nonphysician providers and alternative formats, such as telephone-based care and home and community-based care, would narrow these gaps. Understanding patients' and caregivers' experiences with gaps in cancer care delivery can inform cancer care delivery redesign efforts and lead to targeted interventions that result in patient-centered and family-oriented care.

  13. Impact of combined hospice care on terminal cancer patients. (United States)

    Loke, Song-Seng; Rau, Kung-Ming; Huang, Chih-Fang


    Many patients with advanced cancer will develop physical and psychological symptoms related to their disease. These symptoms are infrequently treated by conventional care. Palliative care programs have been developed to fill this gap in care. However, there are limited beds in hospice units. To allow more terminal cancer patients to receive care from a hospice team, a combined hospice care system was recently developed in Taiwan. This study is a report of our experiences with this system. From January to December 2009, terminal cancer patients who accepted consultation from a hospice team for combined hospice care were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, referring department, type of cancer, and outcome were analyzed. A total of 354 terminal cancer patients in acute wards were referred to a hospice consulting team. The mean patient age was 61 years, and the proportion of males was 63.28%. After combined hospice care, there was a significant improvement in the sign rate of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders from 41.53% to 71.47% (p care also enabled 64.21% of terminal cancer patients who were not transferred to hospice ward to receive combined care by a hospice consulting team while in acute wards, thus increasing the hospice utilization of terminal cancer patients. The major symptoms presented by the patients were pain (58%), dyspnea (52%), constipation (45%), and fatigue (23%). Through the hospice consulting system, hospice combined care has a positive effect on the utilization of hospice care, rate of DNR signing and quality of end-of-life care for terminal cancer patients.

  14. The relationship between integrated care and cancer patient experience: A scoping review of the evidence. (United States)

    Foglino, Silvia; Bravi, Francesca; Carretta, Elisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Dobrow, Mark J; Brown, Adalsteinn D


    Health policy documents underscore the need to develop organizational models to optimize the integration of cancer care pathways around patient needs. Still, there is a lack of clarity about the meaning of integrated care as perceived by patients. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the integration of cancer services and patients' experience. We completed a scoping review of the available literature searching PubMed, Embase and Scopus from the earliest date available in each database to February 2013. From 1760 bibliographic records, we identified 30 articles relevant for this analysis. Based on the qualitative conventional content analysis, we defined three integrated care approaches: "individual care provider", "team care providers", "mixed approach", that impact on the following patient experience dimensions: patient satisfaction, quality of life, psychological and physical outcomes, continuity of care and empowerment. This scoping review identifies important aspects of integration from patients' perspective and suggests that policy makers should consider how to best include patients' experience into the patient care pathway. Future perspectives include engaging patients, family members, caregivers and clinicians in an on-going dialogue and have them participate actively in developing, implementing and evaluating policies, services and programmes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Investigating referral pathways from primary care to consumer health organisations. (United States)

    Young, Charlotte E; Mutch, Allyson J; Boyle, Frances M; Dean, Julie H


    While chronic disease places an increasing burden on Australia's primary care system it is unrealistic to expect GPs to meet the range of support needs experienced by patients managing chronic conditions. Consumer health organisations (CHO) have the potential to augment clinical care by providing a variety of supportive services; however, they are underutilised by patients and GPs. This qualitative study investigates GPs' knowledge and perceptions of CHO and their contributions to chronic disease care. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 10 GPs. Overall, participants demonstrated clear understanding of the role of CHO in chronic disease management, but a critical finding was the way GPs' view of their own chronic care role appears to influence referral practices. GPs operating in a traditional role were less likely to refer to CHO than those who had adopted a chronic care approach. A second key finding related to GPs' views of Diabetes Australia. All GPs identified this organisation as an important referral point, providing some reassurance that CHO can be integrated into the primary care sector. Further research is needed to determine how the 'definite advantages' associated with Diabetes Australia can be used to extend GP referral and enhance the health system's integration of other CHO.

  16. Mortality and postoperative care pathways after emergency gastrointestinal surgery in 2904 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Andersen, M; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Møller, M H


    BACKGROUND: Emergency major gastrointestinal (GI) surgery carries a considerable risk of mortality and postoperative complications. Effective management of complications and appropriate organization of postoperative care may improve outcome. The importance of the latter is poorly described...... in emergency GI surgical patients. We aimed to present mortality data and evaluate the postoperative care pathways used after emergency GI surgery. METHODS: A population-based cohort study with prospectively collected data from six Capital Region hospitals in Denmark. We included 2904 patients undergoing major...... may contribute to the high postoperative mortality. Future research should focus on improving risk stratification and evaluating the effect of different postoperative care pathways in emergency GI surgery....

  17. DIXDC1 activates the Wnt signaling pathway and promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (United States)

    Tan, Cong; Qiao, Fan; Wei, Ping; Chi, Yayun; Wang, Weige; Ni, Shujuan; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Tongzhen; Sheng, Weiqi; Du, Xiang; Wang, Lei


    DIXDC1 (Dishevelled-Axin domain containing 1) is a DIX (Dishevelled-Axin) domain-possessing protein that promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and increases the invasion and migration ability of non-small-cell lung cancer via the PI3K pathway. As a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, the biological role of DIXDC1 in human gastric cancer and the relationship between DIXDC1 and the Wnt pathway are unclear. In the current study, the upregulation of DIXDC1 was detected in gastric cancer and was associated with advanced TNM stage cancer, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. We also found that the overexpression of DIXDC1 could promote the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells. The upregulation of MMPs and the downregulation of E-cadherin were found to be involved in the process. DIXDC1 enhanced β-catenin nuclear accumulation, which activated the Wnt pathway. Additionally, the inhibition of β-catenin in DIXDC1-overexpressing cells reversed the metastasis promotion effects of DIXDC1. These results demonstrate that the expression of DIXDC1 is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and that DIXDC1 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis through the activation of the Wnt pathway; E-cadherin and MMPs are also involved in this process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Emerging Models of Interprofessional Collaboration in Cancer Care. (United States)

    Knoop, Teresa; Wujcik, Debra; Wujcik, Kari


    To present emerging models for oncology health professionals to consider when coordinating cancer care among professionals, beginning as early as initial professional education and training and continuing along the cancer continuum to include cancer treatment and psychosocial support. Journal articles indexed on the National Library of Medicine database and personal communications with oncology colleagues. Interprofessional collaboration is becoming increasingly important in the specialty of oncology. The complexity of new therapies and their associated side-effect profiles benefit from a collaborative, interprofessional approach to the care of the patient with cancer. Additionally, oncology patients can benefit from interprofessional collaboration across the complexities of the care continuum. Oncology nurses are often in roles that can facilitate interprofessional collaboration, optimizing the care of patients with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Compliance with clinical pathways for inpatient care in Chinese public hospitals. (United States)

    He, Xiao Yan; Bundorf, M Kate; Gu, Jian Jun; Zhou, Ping; Xue, Di


    The National Health and Family Planning Commission of China has issued more than 400 clinical pathways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of medical care delivered by public hospitals in China. The aim of our study is to determine whether patient care is compliant with national clinical pathways in public general hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai. We identified the clinical pathways established by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China for 5 common conditions (community-acquired pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, cesarean section, type-2 diabetes). We randomly selected patients with each condition admitted to one of 7 public general hospitals in Pudong New Area in China in January, 2013. We identified key process indicators (KPIs) for each pathway and, based on chart review for each patient, determined whether the patient's care was compliant for each indicator. We calculated the proportion of care which was compliant with clinical pathways for each indicator, the average proportion of indicators that were met for each patient, and the proportion of patients whose care was compliant for all measures. For selected indicators, we compared compliance rates among hospitals in our study with those from other countries. Average compliance rates across the KPIs for each condition ranged from 61 % for AMI to 89 % for pneumonia. The percent of patient receiving fully compliant care ranged from 0 for AMI and heart failure to 39 % for pneumonia. Compared to the compliance rate for process indicators in the hospitals of other countries, some rates in the hospitals that we audited were higher, but some were lower. Few patients received care that complied with all the pathways for each condition. The reasons for low compliance with national clinical pathways and how to improve clinical quality in public hospitals of China need to be further explored.

  20. The fibroblast Tiam1-osteopontin pathway modulates breast cancer invasion and metastasis. (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Tian, Xuejun; Oh, Sun Y; Movassaghi, Mohammad; Naber, Stephen P; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Buchsbaum, Rachel J


    The tumor microenvironment has complex effects in cancer pathophysiology that are not fully understood. Most cancer therapies are directed against malignant cells specifically, leaving pro-malignant signals from the microenvironment unaddressed. Defining specific mechanisms by which the tumor microenvironment contributes to breast cancer metastasis may lead to new therapeutic approaches against advanced breast cancer. We use a novel method for manipulating three-dimensional mixed cell co-cultures, along with studies in mouse xenograft models of human breast cancer and a histologic study of human breast cancer samples, to investigate how breast cancer-associated fibroblasts affect the malignant behaviors of breast cancer cells. Altering fibroblast Tiam1 expression induces changes in invasion, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cell characteristics in associated breast cancer cells. These changes are both dependent on fibroblast secretion of osteopontin and also long-lasting even after cancer cell dissociation from the fibroblasts, indicating a novel Tiam1-osteopontin pathway in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts. Notably, inhibition of fibroblast osteopontin with low doses of a novel small molecule prevents lung metastasis in a mouse model of human breast cancer metastasis. Moreover, fibroblast expression patterns of Tiam1 and osteopontin in human breast cancers show converse changes correlating with invasion, supporting the hypothesis that this pathway in tumor-associated fibroblasts regulates breast cancer invasiveness in human disease and is thus clinically relevant. These findings suggest a new therapeutic paradigm for preventing breast cancer metastasis. Pro-malignant signals from the tumor microenvironment with long-lasting effects on associated cancer cells may perpetuate the metastatic potential of developing cancers. Inhibition of these microenvironment signals represents a new therapeutic strategy against cancer metastasis that

  1. Caring for cancer patients on non-specialist wards.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Finola


    As cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, every nurse will be required to care for patients with the condition at some point in his\\/her career. However, non-specialized oncology nurses are often ill-prepared to nurse patients suffering from cancer. This literature review aims to provide an overview of current trends and developments in cancer care nursing in an attempt to identify the range of previous research pertaining to caring for patients with cancer on non-specialist wards. The review finds that non-specialized cancer nurses report a lack of education and training with regard to cancer care and cancer treatments, which acts as a barrier to providing quality nursing care. Emotional and communication issues with patients and their families can also cause non-specialist nurses significant distress. International research has shown that specialist oncology nurses make a considerable difference to physical and psychosocial patient care. It is therefore paramount that non-speciality nurses\\' educational needs are met to develop clinical competence and to provide supportive holistic care for both patients and their families.

  2. Modelling self-management pathways for people with diabetes in primary care


    Penn, ML; Kennedy, AP; Vassilev, II; Chew-Graham, CA; Protheroe, J; Rogers, A.; Monks, T


    Background: self-management support to facilitate people with type 2 diabetes to effectively manage their condition is complex to implement. Organisational and system elements operating in relation to providing optimal self-management support in primary care are poorly understood. We have applied operational research techniques to model pathways in primary care to explore and illuminate the processes and points where people struggle to find self-management support.Methods: primary care clinic...

  3. Genetic Alterations in the Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase/Akt Pathway in Thyroid Cancer (United States)


    Background Aberrant activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in thyroid tumorigenesis, particularly in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and aggressive thyroid cancer, such as anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). As the drivers of this process, many genetic alterations activating the PI3K/Akt pathway have been identified in thyroid cancer in recent years. Summary This review summarizes the current knowledge on major genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway. These include PIK3CA mutations and genomic amplification/copy gain, Ras mutations, PTEN mutations, RET/PTC and PPARγ/Pax8 rearrangements, as well as amplification/copy gain of PIK3CB, PDK1, Akt, and various receptor tyrosine kinase genes. Most of these genetic alterations are particularly common in FTC and many of them are even more common in ATC; they are generally less common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), in which the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway activated by the BRAF mutation instead plays a major role. Methylation and, thus, epigenetic silencing of PTEN, a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, occurs in close association with activating genetic alterations of the PI3K/Akt pathway, constituting a unique self-enhancement mechanism for this pathway. Many of these genetic alterations are mutually exclusive in differentiated thyroid tumors, but with increasing concurrence from benign tumors to FTC to ATC. RET/PTC, Ras, and receptor tyrosine kinase could dually activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. Most cases of ATC harbor genetic alterations in these genes or other genetic combinations that can activate both pathways. It is proposed that genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway promote thyroid cell transformation to FTC and that genetic alterations in the MAPK pathway promote cell transformation to PTC; accumulation of multiple genetic alterations that can activate both pathways promotes thyroid cancer aggressiveness and progression to ATC

  4. Accelerating the delivery of patient-centered, high-quality cancer care. (United States)

    Abrahams, Edward; Foti, Margaret; Kean, Marcia A


    Significant progress has been made in the past 50 years across the field of oncology, and, as a result, the number of cancer survivors in the United States is more than 14.5 million. In fact, the number of cancer survivors continues to grow on an annual basis, which is due in part to improved treatments that help people with cancer live longer, and improvements in early detection that allow doctors to find cancer earlier when the disease is easier to treat. However, in spite of this progress, innovation in cancer research and care is at risk as the rise in health care spending is leading to significant pressure to contain costs. As the oncology community seeks to ensure that innovation in cancer research and care continues, it is imperative that stakeholders focus their attention on the value that the research and care continuum provides. Over the past several years, the Turning the Tide Against Cancer initiative has worked with the cancer community to accelerate the delivery of patient-centered, high-quality cancer research and care, while addressing value and cost. This article highlights policy recommendations that resulted from the convening of an expert working group comprising leaders from across the oncology field. Of the recommendations, the co-conveners have identified several issue areas that merit particular focus in 2015: Support FDA's efforts to modernize its framework for bringing new medicines to patients, through facilitating and implementing innovative approaches to drug development and regulatory review. Ensure that cancer clinical pathways or similar decision-support tools are transparent; developed through a physician-driven process that includes patient input; and meet minimum standards for clinical appropriateness, timeliness, and patient centeredness. Support oncology decision-support tools that are timely, clinically appropriate, and patient centered. Build on existing efforts to convene a multistakeholder committee and develop a report on

  5. How Effective Are Clinical Pathways With and Without Online Peer-Review? An Analysis of Bone Metastases Pathway in a Large, Integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Flickinger, John C.; Rakfal, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rodgers, Edwin [Via Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Purpose: Clinical pathways are an important tool used to manage the quality in health care by standardizing processes. This study evaluated the impact of the implementation of a peer-reviewed clinical pathway in a large, integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network. Methods: In 2003, we implemented a clinical pathway for the management of bone metastases with palliative radiation therapy. In 2009, we required the entry of management decisions into an online tool that records pathway choices. The pathway specified 1 or 5 fractions for symptomatic bone metastases with the option of 10-14 fractions for certain clinical situations. The data were obtained from 13 integrated sites (3 central academic, 10 community locations) from 2003 through 2010. Results: In this study, 7905 sites were treated with 64% of courses delivered in community practice and 36% in academic locations. Academic practices were more likely than community practices to treat with 1-5 fractions (63% vs. 23%; p < 0.0001). The number of delivered fractions decreased gradually from 2003 to 2010 for both academic and community practices (p < 0.0001); however, greater numbers of fractions were selected more often in community practices (p < 0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that a significantly greater selection of 1-5 fractions developed after implementation online pathway monitoring (2009) with an odds ratio of 1.2 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.4) for community and 1.3 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.6) for academic practices. The mean number of fractions also decreased after online peer review from 6.3 to 6.0 for academic (p = 0.07) and 9.4 to 9.0 for community practices (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to examine the efficacy of a clinical pathway for radiation oncology in an integrated cancer network. Clinical pathway implementation appears to be effective in changing patterns of care, particularly with online clinical

  6. Insights into pancreatic cancer etiology from pathway analysis of genome-wide association study data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. and the etiology of this highly lethal disease has not been well defined. To identify genetic susceptibility factors for pancreatic cancer, we conducted pathway analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS data in 3,141 pancreatic cancer patients and 3,367 controls with European ancestry.Using the gene set ridge regression in association studies (GRASS method, we analyzed 197 pathways identified from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. We used the logistic kernel machine (LKM test to identify major contributing genes to each pathway. We conducted functional enrichment analysis of the most significant genes (P<0.01 using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID.Two pathways were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons (P<0.00025 and in replication testing: neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, (Ps<0.00002, and the olfactory transduction pathway (P = 0.0001. LKM test identified four genes that were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer after Bonferroni correction (P<1×10(-5: ABO, HNF1A, OR13C4, and SHH. Functional enrichment analysis using DAVID consistently found the G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway (including both neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and olfactory transduction pathways to be the most significant pathway for pancreatic cancer risk in this study population.These novel findings provide new perspectives on genetic susceptibility to and molecular mechanisms of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Toll-Like Receptor Pathway as Mediator of Bisphosphonate Effects in Breast Cancer (United States)


    receptors TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 on the gastric epithelium in Helicobacter pylori infection. Clin Exp Immunol 136, 521-526. 10. Leifer, C.A., Kennedy...AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0600 TITLE: Toll -Like Receptor Pathway’as Mediator of Bisphosphonate Effects in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2004 - 14 Jun 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Toll -Like Receptor Pathway as Mediator of Bisphosphonate Effects in Breast Cancer 5b

  8. Induction of Cancer Cell Death by Isoflavone: The Role of Multiple Signaling Pathways (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Bao, Bin; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul H.


    Soy isoflavones have been documented as dietary nutrients broadly classified as “natural agents” which plays important roles in reducing the incidence of hormone-related cancers in Asian countries, and have shown inhibitory effects on cancer development and progression in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the cancer preventive or therapeutic activity of soy isoflavones against cancers. Emerging experimental evidence shows that isoflavones could induce cancer cell death by regulating multiple cellular signaling pathways including Akt, NF-κB, MAPK, Wnt, androgen receptor (AR), p53 and Notch signaling, all of which have been found to be deregulated in cancer cells. Therefore, homeostatic regulation of these important cellular signaling pathways by isoflavones could be useful for the activation of cell death signaling, which could result in the induction of apoptosis of both pre-cancerous and/or cancerous cells without affecting normal cells. In this article, we have attempted to summarize the current state-of-our-knowledge regarding the induction of cancer cell death pathways by isoflavones, which is believed to be mediated through the regulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways. The knowledge gained from this article will provide a comprehensive view on the molecular mechanism(s) by which soy isoflavones may exert their effects on the prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of human malignancies, which would also aid in stimulating further in-depth mechanistic research and foster the initiation of novel clinical trials. PMID:22200028

  9. [A research pathway in care and relational touch]. (United States)

    Bourhis, Hélène


    Passionate about the relational dimension of care, this nurse-turned-researcher shares with us the key stages of her university career guided by the place of touch in the therapeutic relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Health care professionals' perspectives of the experiences of family caregivers during in-patient cancer care. (United States)

    Ekstedt, Mirjam; Stenberg, Una; Olsson, Mariann; Ruland, Cornelia M


    Being a family member of a patient who is being treated in an acute care setting for cancer often involves a number of challenges. Our study describes Norwegian cancer care health professionals' perceptions of family members who served as family caregivers (FCs) and their need for support during the in-hospital cancer treatment of their ill family member. Focus group discussions were conducted with a multidisciplinary team of 24 experienced social workers, physicians, and nurses who were closely involved in the patients' in-hospital cancer treatment and care. Drawing on qualitative hermeneutic analysis, four main themes describe health professionals' perceptions of FCs during the patient's in-hospital cancer care: an asset and additional burden, infinitely strong and struggling with helplessness, being an outsider in the center of care, and being in different temporalities. We conclude that it is a challenge for health care professionals to support the family and create room for FC's needs in acute cancer care. System changes are needed in health care, so that the patient/FC dyad is viewed as a unit of care in a dual process of caregiving, which would enable FCs to be given space and inclusion in care, with their own needs simultaneously considered alongside those of the patient. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Clinical Updates in Women's Health Care Summary: Gynecologic and Obstetric Care for Breast Cancer Survivors: Primary and Preventive Care Review. (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer Griffin


    Breast cancer treatment has an impact on the physical, psychologic, sexual, and reproductive aspects of women's lives. Therefore, it is important for obstetrician-gynecologists to be well versed in the screening, diagnosis, and management of breast cancer. This monograph is an overview of critical issues related to the provision of ongoing care to breast cancer survivors.

  12. Surveillance and Care of the Gynecologic Cancer Survivor. (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Long, Margaret E; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M


    Care of the gynecologic cancer survivor extends beyond cancer treatment to encompass promotion of sexual, cardiovascular, bone, and brain health; management of fertility, contraception, and vasomotor symptoms; and genetic counseling. This is a narrative review of the data and guidelines regarding care and surveillance of the gynecologic cancer survivor. We searched databases including PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus using the search terms gynecologic cancer, cancer surveillance, and cancer survivor and reached a consensus for articles chosen for inclusion in the review based on availability in the English language and publication since 2001, as well as key older articles, consensus statements, and practice guidelines from professional societies. However, we did not undertake an extensive systematic search of the literature to identify all potentially relevant studies, nor did we utilize statistical methods to summarize data. We offer clinical recommendations for the management of gynecologic cancer survivors based on review of evidence and our collective clinical experience. Key messages include the limitations of laboratory studies, including CA-125, and imaging in the setting of gynecologic cancer surveillance, hormonal and non-hormonal management of treatment-related vasomotor symptoms and genitourinary syndrome of menopause, as well as recommendations for general health screening, fertility preservation, and contraception. A holistic approach to care extending beyond cancer treatment alone benefits gynecologic cancer survivors. In addition to surveillance for cancer recurrence and late treatment side effects, survivors benefit from guidance on hormonal, contraceptive, and fertility management and promotion of cardiovascular, bone, brain, and sexual health.

  13. Feasibility of a physical activity pathway for Irish primary care physiotherapy services. (United States)

    Barrett, Emer M; Hussey, Juliette; Darker, Catherine D


    To establish consensus on a physical activity pathway suitable for use by physiotherapists in Irish primary care. The physical activity pathway "Let's Get Moving" was examined to agree recruitment criteria and seek consensus on component parts. Modified Delphi approach which attempts to achieve a convergence of opinion, over a series of iterations. Three rounds of questionnaires were used. Primary care. 41 senior physiotherapists working in primary care for a median of 6 years (IQR 3.7 to 8.5). Statements achieving consensus; defined as at least 70% of participants scoring a 6 or a 7, indicating high agreement, on a 7 point Likert scale. The response rate was 98%. There was a high degree of consensus for many components of the pathway. Participants agreed that all patients attending physiotherapy should be eligible for recruitment onto the pathway as well as accepting referrals from other health professionals and direct access from the public. Private physiotherapists highlighted concerns about recruiting fee paying patients onto the pathway. The pathway should be integrated into other preventative and chronic disease programmes in primary care. Modifications to the original pathway included the use of a pedometer in addition to the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire. Training needs in physical activity screening and motivational interviewing, as well as additional staffing were identified to support implementation. The Physical Activity Pathway "Let's Get Moving" was accepted as a clinically feasible resource to primary care physiotherapists with some modifications and with the support of additional resources. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of a clinical pathway for acute stroke care in a district general hospital: an audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegert Richard J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organised stroke care saves lives and reduces disability. A clinical pathway might be a form of organised stroke care, but the evidence for the effectiveness of this model of care is limited. Methods This study was a retrospective audit study of consecutive stroke admissions in the setting of an acute general medical unit in a district general hospital. The case-notes of patients admitted with stroke for a 6-month period before and after introduction of the pathway, were reviewed to determine data on length of stay, outcome, functional status, (Barthel Index, BI and Modified Rankin Scale, MRS, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP sub-type, use of investigations, specific management issues and secondary prevention strategies. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences in case-mix. Results N = 77 (prior to the pathway and 76 (following the pathway. The median (interquartile range, IQR age was 78 years (67.75–84.25, 88% were European NZ and 37% were male. The median (IQR BI at admission for the pre-pathway group was less than the post-pathway group: 6 (0–13.5 vs. 10 (4–15.5, p = 0.018 but other baseline variables were statistically similar. There were no significant differences between any of the outcome or process of care variables, except that echocardiograms were done less frequently after the pathway was introduced. A good outcome (MRS Conclusion A clinical pathway for acute stroke management appeared to have no benefit for the outcome or processes of care and may even have been associated with worse outcomes. These data support the conclusions of a recent Cochrane review.

  15. Using a supportive care framework to understand and improve palliative care among cancer patients in Africa. (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L


    Cancer incidence and mortality are increasing in Africa, which is leading to greater demands for palliative care. There has been little progress in terms of research, pain management, and policies related to palliative care. Palliative care in Africa is scarce and scattered, with most African nations lacking the basic services. To address these needs, a guiding framework that identifies care needs and directs palliative care services could be utilized. Therefore, using the supportive care framework developed by Fitch (Fitch, 2009), we here review the literature on palliative care for patients diagnosed with cancer in Africa and make recommendations for improvement. The PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Medline databases were searched. Some 25 English articles on research from African countries published between 2004 and 2014 were selected and reviewed. The reviewed literature was analyzed and presented using the domains of the supportive care framework. Palliative care patients with cancer in Africa, their families, and caregivers experience increasing psychological, physical, social, spiritual, emotional, informational, and practical needs. Care needs are often inadequately addressed because of a lack of awareness as well as deficient and scattered palliative care services and resources. In addition, there is sparse research, education, and policies that address the dire situation in palliative care. Our review findings add to the existing body of knowledge demonstrating that palliative care patients with cancer in Africa experience disturbing care needs in all domains of the supportive care framework. To better assess and address these needs, holistic palliative care that is multidomain and multi-professional could be utilized. This approach needs to be individualized and to offer better access to services and information. In addition, research, education, and policies around palliative care for cancer

  16. Extending pathways and processes using molecular interaction networks to analyse cancer genome data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnogor Natalio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular processes and pathways, whose deregulation may contribute to the development of cancers, are often represented as cascades of proteins transmitting a signal from the cell surface to the nucleus. However, recent functional genomic experiments have identified thousands of interactions for the signalling canonical proteins, challenging the traditional view of pathways as independent functional entities. Combining information from pathway databases and interaction networks obtained from functional genomic experiments is therefore a promising strategy to obtain more robust pathway and process representations, facilitating the study of cancer-related pathways. Results We present a methodology for extending pre-defined protein sets representing cellular pathways and processes by mapping them onto a protein-protein interaction network, and extending them to include densely interconnected interaction partners. The added proteins display distinctive network topological features and molecular function annotations, and can be proposed as putative new components, and/or as regulators of the communication between the different cellular processes. Finally, these extended pathways and processes are used to analyse their enrichment in pancreatic mutated genes. Significant associations between mutated genes and certain processes are identified, enabling an analysis of the influence of previously non-annotated cancer mutated genes. Conclusions The proposed method for extending cellular pathways helps to explain the functions of cancer mutated genes by exploiting the synergies of canonical knowledge and large-scale interaction data.

  17. Pathways to Care of Alcohol -Dependent Patients: An Exploratory Study From a Tertiary Care Substance Use Disorder Treatment Center. (United States)

    Pal Singh Balhara, Yatan; Prakash, Sathya; Gupta, Rishab


    No study from India has examined pathways to care in alcohol using population systematically. The present study aimed to understand the pathways to care among alcohol-dependent individuals seeking help at a tertiary care center. It was a cross-sectional, observational study. A total of 58 subjects diagnosed with alcohol- dependence syndrome as per DSM-IV-TR were included in the study. Pathways to care were assessed using the world health organization encounter form. For 56.9% of the subjects, first point of contact was with a tertiary care addiction psychiatrist. Traditional healers were consulted by about 5.2% of the patients seeking help for the first time. The mean duration of main problems due to alcohol use was 5.82 ± 4.95 years. The first contact tended to be at place nearer to the patient's residence while further contacts tended to be farther away. Family, friends and neighbours together constituted the single largest group suggesting patients to seek care. There is a long time lag between the onset of alcohol use related problems and the first help seeking attempt. Of those who do decide to seek help, the proportion of those obtaining specialist help is higher than commonly believed.

  18. Interventions to promote energy balance and cancer survivorship: priorities for research and care. (United States)

    Alfano, Catherine M; Molfino, Alessio; Muscaritoli, Maurizio


    The growing population of cancer survivors worldwide and the growing epidemics of obesity and physical inactivity have brought increased attention to the role that interventions to promote exercise and a healthy body weight may play in mitigating the chronic and late effects of cancer. In this light, the authors describe the similarities and differences in research and clinical priorities related to energy balance interventions among post-treatment cancer survivors in Europe versus North America. Randomized controlled trials that targeted nutrition, exercise, and weight are reviewed to determine the affect on survivorship outcomes. Interventions focused on improving prognosis or survival are investigated along with the emerging literature on the interventions targeting pathways and mechanisms of prognosis or survival. Current North American and European guidelines for diet, exercise, and weight control among cancer survivors also are investigated along with the implications of the current state of this science for clinical care. Finally, the authors delineate future European and American priorities for research and care involving energy balance among survivors. It is hoped that this dialogue launches an international conversation that will lead to better research and care for all post-treatment cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  19. Oncogenic pathways in hereditary and sporadic breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenemans, P.; Verstraeten, R.A.; Verheijen, R.H.M.


    Cancer is a genetic disease. Breast cancer tumorigenesis can be described as a multi-step process in which each step is thought to correlate with one or more distinct mutations in major regulatory genes. The question addressed is how far a multi-step progression model for sporadic breast cancer

  20. End-of-life care at a community cancer center. (United States)

    Cowall, David E; Yu, Bennett W; Heineken, Sandra L; Lewis, Elizabeth N; Chaudhry, Vishal; Daugherty, Joan M


    The evidence-based use of resources for cancer care at end of life (EOL) has the potential to relieve suffering, reduce health care costs, and extend life. Internal benchmarks need to be established within communities to achieve these goals. The purpose for this study was to evaluate data within our community to determine our EOL cancer practices. A random sample of 390 patients was obtained from the 942 cancer deaths in Wicomico County, Maryland, for calendar years 2004 to 2008. General demographic, clinical event, and survival data were obtained from that sample using cancer registry and hospice databases as well as manual medical record reviews. In addition, the intensity of EOL cancer care was assessed using previously proposed indicator benchmarks. The significance of potential relationships between variables was explored using χ(2) analyses. Mean age at death was 70 years; 52% of patients were male; 34% died as a result of lung cancer. Median survival from diagnosis to death was 8.4 months with hospice admission and 5.8 months without hospice (P = .11). Four of eight intensity-of-care indicators (ie, intensive care unit [ICU] admission within last month of life, > one hospitalization within last month of life, hospital death, and hospice referral < 3 days before death) all significantly exceeded the referenced benchmarks. Hospice versus nonhospice admissions were associated (P < .001) with ICU admissions (2% v 13%) and hospital deaths (2% v 54%). These data suggest opportunities to improve community cancer center EOL care.

  1. Pathways to Preventing Substance Use Among Youth in Foster Care. (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun K; Buchanan, Rohanna; Price, Joseph M


    Substance use problems are highly prevalent among youth in foster care. Such problems in adolescence have long-lasting implications for subsequent adjustment throughout adulthood and even across generations. Although several programs have demonstrated positive results in reducing substance use in at-risk youth, few studies have systemically examined how such programs work for foster youth and whether they are effective for both genders. This study examined the efficacy of KEEP SAFE, a family-based and skill-focused program designed to prevent substance use and other related health risking behaviors among youth in foster care. We hypothesized that improving the caregiver-youth relationship would lead to later reductions in youths' involvement with deviant peers, which subsequently would lead to less substance use, and that this mechanism would work comparably for both genders. A sample of 259 youth (154 girls, ages 11-17 years) in foster care and their caregivers participated in a randomized controlled trial and was followed for 18 months post-baseline. Results indicated that the intervention significantly reduced substance use in foster youth at 18 months post-baseline and that the intervention influenced substance use through two processes: youths' improved quality of relationships with caregivers at 6 months post-baseline and fewer associations with deviant peers at 12 months post-baseline. This suggests that these two processes may be fruitful immediate targets in substance use prevention programs for foster youth. We also found little gender differences in direct and mediating effects of the intervention, suggesting KEEP SAFE may be effective for both genders in foster care.

  2. Integrating palliative care into the trajectory of cancer care. (United States)

    Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo


    Over the past five decades, palliative care has evolved from serving patients at the end of life into a highly specialized discipline focused on delivering supportive care to patients with life-limiting illnesses throughout the disease trajectory. A growing body of evidence is now available to inform the key domains in the practice of palliative care, including symptom management, psychosocial care, communication, decision-making, and end-of-life care. Findings from multiple studies indicate that integrating palliative care early in the disease trajectory can result in improvements in quality of life, symptom control, patient and caregiver satisfaction, illness understanding, quality of end-of-life care, survival, and costs of care. In this narrative Review, we discuss various strategies to integrate oncology and palliative care by optimizing clinical infrastructures, processes, education, and research. The goal of integration is to maximize patient access to palliative care and, ultimately, to improve patient outcomes. We provide a conceptual model for the integration of supportive and/or palliative care with primary and oncological care. We also discuss how health-care systems and institutions need to tailor integration based on their resources, size, and the level of primary palliative care available.

  3. Integrating palliative care into the trajectory of cancer care (United States)

    Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo


    Over the past five decades, palliative care has evolved from serving patients at the end of life into a highly specialized discipline focused on delivering supportive care to patients with life-limiting illnesses throughout the disease trajectory. A growing body of evidence is now available to inform the key domains in the practice of palliative care, including symptom management, psychosocial care, communication, decision-making, and end-of-life care. Findings from multiple studies indicate that integrating palliative care early in the disease trajectory can result in improvements in quality of life, symptom control, patient and caregiver satisfaction, quality of end-of-life care, survival, and costs of care. In this narrative Review, we discuss various strategies to integrate oncology and palliative care by optimizing clinical infrastructures, processes, education, and research. The goal of integration is to maximize patient access to palliative care and, ultimately, to improve patient outcomes. We provide a conceptual model for the integration of supportive and/or palliative care with primary and oncological care. We end by discussing how health-care systems and institutions need to tailor integration based on their resources, size, and the level of primary palliative care available. PMID:26598947

  4. Targeting the Mevalonate Pathway to Reduce Mortality from Ovarian Cancer (United States)


    gluconeogenesis pathway was upregulated in cells treated with lovastatin (Fig. 4C and Supplementary Table S3). Four of the genes including PC, ENO2, ENO3, and...HKDC1 in the glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis pathway were upregulated in both cell lines following lovastatin treatment (Fig. 4C). To confirm expression...gene set, DNA replication. C, expression levels of genes in the glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis pathway. Red circle, genes upregulated by lovastatin; blue

  5. Process evaluation of an integrated care pathway in geriatric rehabilitation for people with complex health problems. (United States)

    Everink, Irma H J; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Maessen, Jose M C; Schols, Jos M G A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M


    An integrated care pathway in geriatric rehabilitation was developed to improve coordination and continuity of care for community-living older adults in the Netherlands, who go through the process of hospital admission, admission to a geriatric rehabilitation facility and discharge back to the home situation. This pathway is a complex intervention and is focused on improving communication, triage and transfers of patients between the hospital, geriatric rehabilitation facility and primary care organisations. A process evaluation was performed to assess the feasibility of this pathway. The study design incorporated mixed methods. Feasibility was assessed thru if the pathway was implemented according to plan (fidelity and dose delivered), (b) if patients, informal caregivers and professionals were satisfied with the pathway (dose received) and (c) which barriers and facilitators influenced implementation (context). These components were derived from the theoretical framework of Saunders and colleagues. Data were collected using three structured face-to-face interviews with patients, self-administered questionnaires among informal caregivers, and group interviews with professionals. Furthermore, data were collected from the information transfer system in the hospital, patient files of the geriatric rehabilitation facility and minutes of evaluation meetings. In total, 113 patients, 37 informal caregivers and 19 healthcare professionals participated in this process evaluation. The pathway was considered largely feasible as two components were fully implemented according to plan and two components were largely implemented according to plan. The timing and quality of medical discharge summaries were not sufficiently implemented according to plan and professionals indicated that the triage instrument needed refinement. Healthcare professionals were satisfied with the implementation of the pathway and they indicated that due to improved collaboration, the quality of care

  6. Palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmer MJ


    Full Text Available Terrah L Foster,1,2 Cynthia J Bell,1 Carey F McDonald,2 Joy S Harris,3 Mary Jo Gilmer,1,21Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, 2Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, 3Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Pediatric palliative care aims to enhance life and decrease suffering of children and adolescents living with life-threatening conditions and their loved ones. Oncology nurses are instrumental in providing palliative care to pediatric oncology populations. This paper describes pediatric palliative care and provides an overview of literature related to the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of palliative nursing care for children and adolescents with cancer. Nurses can provide optimal palliative care by accounting for children's understanding of death, encouraging early initiation of palliative care services, and improving utilization of pediatric palliative care in cancer settings. Specific roles of registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in pediatric palliative care will be addressed. Recommendations for future research are made to further advance the science of pediatric palliative care and decrease suffering for children and teens with cancer.Keywords: pediatric palliative care, pediatric cancer, oncology, child, suffering

  7. Lung cancer physicians’ referral practices for palliative care consultation (United States)

    Smith, C. B.; Nelson, J. E.; Berman, A. R.; Powell, C. A.; Fleischman, J.; Salazar-Schicchi, J.; Wisnivesky, J. P.


    Background: Integration of palliative care with standard oncologic care improves quality of life and survival of lung cancer patients. We surveyed physicians to identify factors influencing their decisions for referral to palliative care. Methods: We provided a self-administered questionnaire to physicians caring for lung cancer patients at five medical centers. The questionnaire asked about practices and views with respect to palliative care referral. We used multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of low referral rates (palliative care consultation. Multivariate analysis, controlling for provider characteristics, found that low referral rates were associated with physicians’ concerns that palliative care referral would alarm patients and families [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21–0.98], while the belief that palliative care specialists have more time to discuss complex issues (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.56–6.02) was associated with higher rates of referral. Conclusions: Although palliative care consultation is increasingly available and recommended throughout the trajectory of lung cancer, our data indicate it is underutilized. Understanding factors influencing decisions to refer can be used to improve integration of palliative care as part of lung cancer management. PMID:21804051

  8. SNP-SNP interaction analysis of NF-κB signaling pathway on breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamshidi, Maral; Fagerholm, Rainer; Khan, Sofia


    , in an extensive dataset (n = 30,431) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, we investigated the association of 917 SNPs in 75 genes in the NF-κB pathway with breast cancer prognosis. We explored SNP-SNP interactions on survival using the likelihood-ratio test comparing multivariate Cox' regression models...

  9. Caring for survivors of breast cancer: perspective of the primary care physician. (United States)

    Smith, S L; Wai, E S; Alexander, C; Singh-Carlson, S


    Increasing numbers of women are surviving breast cancer, and survivorship care is becoming more complex. Primary care physicians provide care for most survivors of breast cancer in the Canadian province of British Columbia. The present study offers insight into the confidence of primary care physicians in their abilities to provide such care. It also explores potential ways to assist those providers in enhancing this aspect of their practice. A questionnaire was mailed to 1000 primary care physicians caring for survivors of breast cancer. The questionnaire explored the perspectives of the responding physicians on their ability to manage various aspects of survivorship care for breast cancer patients, identified preferences for the content and format of communication from oncologists at the time of transition from active oncology treatment to survivorship, and determined the means most commonly used to obtain knowledge about breast cancer. This 1-page, 31-item checkbox and open-answer questionnaire assessed the perceptions of primary care physicians about the care of breast cancer survivors after completion of active treatment and their personal preferences for resources providing information about breast cancer. The questionnaire response rate was 59%. Primary care physicians reported being most confident in screening for recurrence and managing patient anxiety; they were least confident in managing lymphedema and providing psychosocial counselling. Compared with physicians following fewer survivors of breast cancer, those who followed more breast cancer survivors had higher confidence in managing the biomedical aspects of follow-up and in providing counselling about nutrition and exercise. Most physicians found discharge letters from oncologists to be useful. Point-form discharge information was preferred by 43%; detailed description, by 19%; and both formats, by 38%. The most useful information items identified for inclusion in a discharge letter were a diagnosis

  10. Elucidation of altered pathways in tumor-initiating cells of triple-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne G; Ehmsen, Sidse; Terp, Mikkel G


    A limited number of cancer cells within a tumor are thought to have self-renewing and tumor-initiating capabilities that produce the remaining cancer cells in a heterogeneous tumor mass. Elucidation of central pathways preferentially used by tumor-initiating cells/cancer stem cells (CSCs) may allow...... reduction was also observed using patient-derived primary cancer cells. Further, blocking NF-κB signaling in mice transplanted with tumor-initiating cells significantly reduced tumor outgrowth. Our study demonstrates that suppressed apoptosis, activation of pathways associated with cell viability and CSCs...... their exploitation as potential cancer therapy targets. We used single cell cloning to isolate and characterize four isogenic cell clones from a triple-negative breast cancer cell line; two exhibited mesenchymal-like and two epithelial-like characteristics. Within these pairs, one, but not the other, resulted...

  11. The nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia. (United States)

    Hopkinson, Jane B


    Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome. Its defining feature is involuntary weight loss, which arises, in part, because of muscle atrophy and is accompanied by functional decline. International expert consensus recommends that nutritional support and counselling is a component of multimodal therapy for cancer cachexia, as poor nutritional intake can contribute to progression of the syndrome. The present paper focuses on what is presently known about the nursing contribution to nutritional care in cancer cachexia. There is potential for nurses to play an important role. However, obstacles to this include lack of a robust evidence base to support their nutritional care practices and unmet need for education about nutrition in cancer. The nursing role's boundaries and the outcomes of nurse-delivered nutritional care in cancer cachexia are both uncertain and should be investigated.

  12. Economic modelling of diagnostic and treatment pathways in National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines: the Modelling Algorithm Pathways in Guidelines (MAPGuide) project. (United States)

    Lord, J; Willis, S; Eatock, J; Tappenden, P; Trapero-Bertran, M; Miners, A; Crossan, C; Westby, M; Anagnostou, A; Taylor, S; Mavranezouli, I; Wonderling, D; Alderson, P; Ruiz, F


    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guidelines (CGs) make recommendations across large, complex care pathways for broad groups of patients. They rely on cost-effectiveness evidence from the literature and from new analyses for selected high-priority topics. An alternative approach would be to build a model of the full care pathway and to use this as a platform to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiple topics across the guideline recommendations. In this project we aimed to test the feasibility of building full guideline models for NICE guidelines and to assess if, and how, such models can be used as a basis for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). A 'best evidence' approach was used to inform the model parameters. Data were drawn from the guideline documentation, advice from clinical experts and rapid literature reviews on selected topics. Where possible we relied on good-quality, recent UK systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Two published NICE guidelines were used as case studies: prostate cancer and atrial fibrillation (AF). Discrete event simulation (DES) was used to model the recommended care pathways and to estimate consequent costs and outcomes. For each guideline, researchers not involved in model development collated a shortlist of topics suggested for updating. The modelling teams then attempted to evaluate options related to these topics. Cost-effectiveness results were compared with opinions about the importance of the topics elicited in a survey of stakeholders. The modelling teams developed simulations of the guideline pathways and disease processes. Development took longer and required more analytical time than anticipated. Estimates of cost-effectiveness were produced for six of the nine prostate cancer topics considered, and for five of eight AF topics. The other topics were not evaluated owing to lack of data or time constraints. The modelled results suggested 'economic priorities' for an update that differed from

  13. Impact of Chronic Conditions on the Cost of Cancer Care... (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Impact of Chronic Conditions on the Cost of Cancer Care for Medicaid Beneficiaries, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare...

  14. Fighting Global Disparities in Cancer Care: A Surgical Oncology View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoekstra, Harald J; Wobbes, Theo; Heineman, Erik; Haryono, Samuel; Aryandono, Teguh; Balch, Charles M


    .... Surgery is still the mainstay for most solid tumors; however, low- and middle-income countries are facing an increasing lack of primary surgical care for easily treatable conditions, including breast, colon, and head and neck cancers...

  15. Cancer Care Gets Personal: How Tumor Treatments Are Changing (United States)

    ... January 2018 Print this issue Cancer Care Gets Personal How Tumor Treatments Are Changing En español Send ... also be passed down from your parents. These insights have led scientists to look for the unique ...

  16. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Wnt signaling pathway genes with breast cancer in Saudi patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saud Alanazi

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease involving genetic and epigenetic alterations in genes encoding proteins that are components of various signaling pathways. Candidate gene approach have identified association of genetic variants in the Wnt signaling pathway genes and increased susceptibility to several diseases including breast cancer. Due to the rarity of somatic mutations in key genes of Wnt pathway, we investigated the association of genetic variants in these genes with predisposition to breast cancers. We performed a case-control study to identify risk variants by examining 15 SNPs located in 8 genes associated with Wnt signaling. Genotypic analysis of individual locus showed statistically significant association of five SNPs located in β-catenin, AXIN2, DKK3, SFRP3 and TCF7L2 with breast cancers. Increased risk was observed only with the SNP in β-catenin while the other four SNPs conferred protection against breast cancers. Majority of these associations persisted after stratification of the cases based on estrogen receptor status and age of on-set of breast cancer. The rs7775 SNP in exon 6 of SFRP3 gene that codes for either arginine or glycine exhibited very strong association with breast cancer, even after Bonferroni's correction. Apart from these five variants, rs3923086 in AXIN2 and rs3763511 in DKK4 that did not show any association in the overall population were significantly associated with early on-set and estrogen receptor negative breast cancers, respectively. This is the first study to utilize pathway based approach to identify association of risk variants in the Wnt signaling pathway genes with breast cancers. Confirmation of our findings in larger populations of different ethnicities would provide evidence for the role of Wnt pathway as well as screening markers for early detection of breast carcinomas.

  17. Targeting cancer stem-like cells in glioblastoma and colorectal cancer through metabolic pathways. (United States)

    Kahlert, U D; Mooney, S M; Natsumeda, M; Steiger, H-J; Maciaczyk, J


    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are thought to be the main cause of tumor occurrence, progression and therapeutic resistance. Strong research efforts in the last decade have led to the development of several tailored approaches to target CSCs with some very promising clinical trials underway; however, until now no anti-CSC therapy has been approved for clinical use. Given the recent improvement in our understanding of how onco-proteins can manipulate cellular metabolic networks to promote tumorigenesis, cancer metabolism research may well lead to innovative strategies to identify novel regulators and downstream mediators of CSC maintenance. Interfering with distinct stages of CSC-associated metabolics may elucidate novel, more efficient strategies to target this highly malignant cell population. Here recent discoveries regarding the metabolic properties attributed to CSCs in glioblastoma (GBM) and malignant colorectal cancer (CRC) were summarized. The association between stem cell markers, the response to hypoxia and other environmental stresses including therapeutic insults as well as developmentally conserved signaling pathways with alterations in cellular bioenergetic networks were also discussed. The recent developments in metabolic imaging to identify CSCs were also summarized. This summary should comprehensively update basic and clinical scientists on the metabolic traits of CSCs in GBM and malignant CRC. © 2016 UICC.

  18. A Health Economics Response to the Review of the Liverpool Care Pathway (United States)

    Coast, Joanna


    Abstract Background: In 2011 the Palliative Care Funding Review highlighted concerns about the funding, provision, and quality of care at the end of life. Two years on, an independent review of the Liverpool Care Pathway—prompted by a storm of negative media coverage— has raised concerns around a lack of funding, availability of support for the dying and their relatives, and patient centered care. There are recommendations to increase funding through a national tariff for palliative care services, address inconsistencies, and replace the Liverpool Care Pathway with individual end-of-life care plans. Objective: This paper explores the economic implications of the review's recommendations and links these to inadequacies with the current economic framework currently recommended for use in the United Kingdom by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, before highlighting aspects of ongoing research aimed at addressing these inadequacies. Methods: As well as the published report More Care, Less Pathway, we draw upon preliminary qualitative evidence from 19 semistructured interviews conducted with academics specializing in economics and/or end-of-life care. Conclusions: While there is a need for increased funding in the short term (highlighted in recent reviews), increasing funding to services that have little evidence base appears to be an irresponsible long-term strategy. Hence there should also be increased investment in research and increased emphasis in particular on developing economic tools to evaluate services. PMID:24199790

  19. Documenting coordination of cancer care between primary care providers and oncology specialists in Canada. (United States)

    Brouwers, Melissa C; Vukmirovic, Marija; Tomasone, Jennifer R; Grunfeld, Eva; Urquhart, Robin; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Walker, Melanie; Webster, Fiona; Fitch, Margaret


    To report on the findings of the CanIMPACT (Canadian Team to Improve Community-Based Cancer Care along the Continuum) Casebook project, which systematically documented Canadian initiatives (ie, programs and projects) designed to improve or support coordination and continuity of cancer care between primary care providers (PCPs) and oncology specialists. Pan-Canadian environmental scan. Canada. Individuals representing the various initiatives provided data for the analysis. Initiatives included in the Casebook met the following criteria: they supported coordination and collaboration between PCPs and oncology specialists; they were related to diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, or personalized medicine; and they included breast or colorectal cancer or both. Data were collected on forms that were compiled into summaries (ie, profiles) for each initiative. Casebook initiatives were organized based on the targeted stage of the cancer care continuum, jurisdiction, and strategy (ie, model of care or type of intervention) employed. Thematic analysis identified similarities and differences among employed strategies, the level of primary care engagement, implementation barriers and facilitators, and initiative evaluation. The CanIMPACT Casebook profiles 24 initiatives. Eleven initiatives targeted the survivorship stage of the cancer care continuum and 15 focused specifically on breast or colorectal cancer or both. Initiative teams implemented the following strategies: nurse patient navigation, multidisciplinary care teams, electronic communication or information systems, PCP education, and multicomponent initiatives. Initiatives engaged PCPs at various levels. Implementation barriers included lack of care standardization across jurisdictions and incompatibility among electronic communication systems. Implementation facilitators included having clinical and program leaders publicly support the initiative, repurposing existing resources, receiving financial support, and

  20. A Seizure Care Pathway in the Emergency Department: Preliminary Quality and Safety Improvements


    Parameswaran M. Iyer; McNamara, Patricia H.; Margaret Fitzgerald; Liam Smyth; Christopher Dardis; Tania Jawad; Plunkett, Patrick K.; Doherty, Colin P.


    Aim. To evaluate the utility of a seizure care pathway for seizure presentations to the emergency department (ED) in order to safely avoid unnecessary admission and to provide early diagnostic and therapeutic guidance and minimize length of stay in those admitted. Methods. 3 studies were conducted, 2 baseline audits and a 12-month intervention study and prospective data was collected over a 12-month period (Nov 2008-09). Results. Use of the Pathway resulted in a reduction in the number of epi...

  1. Learning the landscape: implementation challenges of primary care innovators around cancer survivorship care. (United States)

    O'Malley, Denalee; Hudson, Shawna V; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Howard, Jenna; Rubinstein, Ellen; Lee, Heather S; Overholser, Linda S; Shaw, Amy; Givens, Sarah; Burton, Jay S; Grunfeld, Eva; Parry, Carly; Crabtree, Benjamin F


    This study describes the experiences of early implementers of primary care-focused cancer survivorship delivery models. Snowball sampling was used to identify innovators. Twelve participants (five cancer survivorship primary care innovators and seven content experts) attended a working conference focused on cancer survivorship population strategies and primary care transformation. Data included meeting discussion transcripts/field notes, transcribed in-depth innovator interviews, and innovators' summaries of care models. We used a multistep immersion/crystallization analytic approach, guided by a primary care organizational change model. Innovative practice models included: (1) a consultative model in a primary care setting; (2) a primary care physician (PCP)-led, blended consultative/panel-based model in an oncology setting; (3) an oncology nurse navigator in a primary care practice; and (4) two subspecialty models where PCPs in a general medical practice dedicated part of their patient panel to cancer survivors. Implementation challenges included (1) lack of key stakeholder buy-in; (2) practice resources allocated to competing (non-survivorship) change efforts; and (3) competition with higher priority initiatives incentivized by payers. Cancer survivorship delivery models are potentially feasible in primary care; however, significant barriers to widespread implementation exist. Implementation efforts would benefit from increasing the awareness and potential value-add of primary care-focused strategies to address survivors' needs. Current models of primary care-based cancer survivorship care may not be sustainable. Innovative strategies to provide quality care to this growing population of survivors need to be developed and integrated into primary care settings.

  2. Telemedicine and telesurgery in cancer care: inaugural conference at MD Anderson Cancer Center. (United States)

    Satcher, Robert L; Bogler, Oliver; Hyle, Laurel; Lee, Andrew; Simmons, Angela; Williams, Robert; Hawk, Ernest; Matin, Surena; Brewster, Abenaa M


    Despite the growing incidence of cancer worldwide, there are an insufficient number of primary care physicians, community oncologists, and surgeons to meet the demand for cancer care, especially in rural and other medically underserved areas. Teleoncology, including diagnostics, treatment, and supportive care, has the potential to enhance access to cancer care and to improve clinician education and training. Major cancer centers such as The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center must determine how teleoncology will be used as part of strategic planning for the future. The Telemedicine and Telesurgery in Cancer Care (TTCC) conference was convened to determine technologically based strategies for addressing global access to essential cancer care services. The TTCC conference brought policy makers together with physicians, legal and regulatory experts to define strategies to optimize available resources, including teleoncology, to advance global cancer care. The TTCC conference discourse provided insight into the present state of access to care, expertise, training, technology and other interventions, including teleoncology, currently available through MD Anderson, as well as a vision of what might be achievable in the future, and proposals for moving forward with a comprehensive strategy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Teleoncology: Current and future applications for improving cancer care globally


    Hazin, Ribhi; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim


    Access to quality cancer care is often unavailable not only in low- and middle-income countries but also in rural or remote areas of high-income countries. Teleoncology (oncology applications of medical telecommunications, including pathology, radiology, and other related disciplines) has the potential to enhance both access to and the quality of clinical cancer care as well as education and training. Its implementation in the developing world requires an approach tailored to priorities, reso...

  4. Randomised clinical trial of early specialist palliative care plus standard care versus standard care alone in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Damkier, Anette


    BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of early palliative care have been found in advanced cancer, but the evidence is not unequivocal. AIM: To investigate the effect of early specialist palliative care among advanced cancer patients identified in oncology departments. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The Danish...... Palliative Care Trial (DanPaCT) ( NCT01348048) is a multicentre randomised clinical trial comparing early referral to a specialist palliative care team plus standard care versus standard care alone. The planned sample size was 300. At five oncology departments, consecutive patients...... scales and survival. RESULTS: Totally 145 patients were randomised to early specialist palliative care versus 152 to standard care. Early specialist palliative care showed no effect on the primary outcome of change in primary need (-4.9 points (95% confidence interval -11.3 to +1.5 points); p = 0...

  5. The influence of the CHIEF pathway on colorectal cancer-specific mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Slattery

    Full Text Available Many components of the CHIEF (Convergence of Hormones, Inflammation, and Energy Related Factors pathway could influence survival given their involvement in cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion stimulation. We used ARTP (Adaptive Rank Truncation Product to test if genes in the pathway were associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Colon cancer (n = 1555 and rectal cancer (n = 754 cases were followed over five years. Age, center, stage at diagnosis, and tumor molecular phenotype were considered when calculating ARTP p values. A polygenic risk score was used to summarize the magnitude of risk associated with this pathway. The JAK/STAT/SOC was significant for colon cancer survival (PARTP = 0.035. Fifteen genes (DUSP2, INFGR1, IL6, IRF2, JAK2, MAP3K10, MMP1, NFkB1A, NOS2A, PIK3CA, SEPX1, SMAD3, TLR2, TYK2, and VDR were associated with colon cancer mortality (PARTP < 0.05; JAK2 (PARTP  = 0.0086, PIK3CA (PARTP = 0.0098, and SMAD3 (PARTP = 0.0059 had the strongest associations. Over 40 SNPs were significantly associated with survival within the 15 significant genes (PARTP < 0.05. SMAD3 had the strongest association with survival (HRGG 2.46 95% CI 1.44,4.21 PTtrnd = 0.0002. Seven genes (IL2RA, IL8RA, IL8RB, IRF2, RAF1, RUNX3, and SEPX1 were significantly associated with rectal cancer (PARTP < 0.05. The HR for colorectal cancer-specific mortality among colon cancer cases in the upper at-risk alleles group was 11.81 (95% CI 7.07, 19. 74 and was 10.99 (95% CI 5.30, 22.78 for rectal cancer. These results suggest that several genes in the CHIEF pathway are important for colorectal cancer survival; the risk associated with the pathway merits validation in other studies.

  6. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic cancer. (United States)

    Gaertner, Jan; Wolf, J; Voltz, R


    At present, clinicians and healthcare providers are increasingly urged to advance the provision of state-of-the-art palliative care for patients with incurable cancer. This review provides an overview about the recent findings and practical suggestions. In the last decade, the awareness about the logistic and personal resources needed to meet the somatic and psychological needs of patients with progressive and life-threatening diseases has increased and in parallel, palliative care concepts and expertise have evolved substantially. Care concepts for patients with metastatic cancer emphasized the potential of interdisciplinary care. For example, in 2010, a randomized trial reported a benefit for patients with lung cancer who received early palliative care in addition to routine care. It is discussed that this was because of increased quality of life and detailed exploration of patient preferences. Patients, families and physicians benefit from shared care concepts of oncology and specialized palliative care. Although this concept is already becoming increasingly implemented in tertiary (comprehensive cancer-) care settings, the potential of this approach should be explored for other clinical settings such as office-based oncology.

  7. Relatives' level of satisfaction with advanced cancer care in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustussen, Mikaela; Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, Michael Lynge


    Palliative cancer care in Greenland is provided by health professionals at local level, the national Queen Ingrid's Hospital and at Rigshospitalet in Denmark. To improve and develop care for relatives of patients with advanced cancer, we conducted a mixed method study examining relatives' level...... from health professionals. They experienced a lack of security, worries about the future and a lack of support at home. The study showed a substantial level of dissatisfaction among relatives of patients with advanced cancer. We strongly recommend a focus on psychosocial care, more access...... to information and to include relatives in decision making and in the future planning of palliative care services. An assessment of relatives' needs is essential to develop an adequate palliative care in a range of settings....

  8. The Perceptions Of Traditional Healers Of Cervical Cancer Care At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women report at clinics and hospitals ... Black women consult traditional healers first, before they consult health-care professionals. Although cervical cancer survival rates are said to be improving across South Africa, not ... Keywords: Traditional healers, traditional medicine, western medicine, cervical cancer, perceptions.

  9. Gedunin inhibits pancreatic cancer by altering sonic hedgehog signaling pathway


    Subramani, Ramadevi; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Nandy, Sushmita Bose; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Camacho, Fernando; Medel, Joshua; Alabi, Damilola; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar


    INTRODUCTION The lack of efficient treatment options for pancreatic cancer highlights the critical need for the development of novel and effective chemotherapeutic agents. The medicinal properties found in plants have been used to treat many different illnesses including cancers. This study focuses on the anticancer effects of gedunin, a natural compound isolated from Azadirachta indica. METHODS Anti?proliferative effect of gedunin on pancreatic cancer cells was assessed using MTS assay. We u...

  10. Pathways to Understanding Ovarian Cancer, Epidemiology, Genetic Susceptibility, and Survival (United States)


    for age, matching factors, OC use, parity , tubal ligation, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer Endometriosis was not available in NHS...ligation and parity may be more strongly associated with tumors of ovarian origin, while family history of ovarian cancer and possibly past smoking...and older from eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire between 1992 and 2008. Cases were incident cases of ovarian cancer identified through hospital

  11. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit. (United States)

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul


    Following the UK "Brexit" vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised.

  12. Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Supportive and palliative care research includes studies to prevent or treat the acute and chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer and its treatment, and to examine the effects of cancer and its treatment on quality of life and psychosocial issues and treatment strategies at the end of life. Active Projects can range from caregiver issues to geriatrics, physical functioning to cognitive dysfunction. | Examining symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment, quality of life and end of life.

  13. Calcium influx pathways in breast cancer: opportunities for pharmacological intervention. (United States)

    Azimi, I; Roberts-Thomson, S J; Monteith, G R


    Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+) permeable ion channels is a key trigger and regulator of a diverse set of cellular events, such as neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction. Ca(2+) influx is also a regulator of processes relevant to cancer, including cellular proliferation and migration. This review focuses on calcium influx in breast cancer cells as well as the potential for pharmacological modulators of specific Ca(2+) influx channels to represent future agents for breast cancer therapy. Altered expression of specific calcium permeable ion channels is present in some breast cancers. In some cases, such changes can be related to breast cancer subtype and even prognosis. In vitro and in vivo models have now helped identify specific Ca(2+) channels that play important roles in the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. However, some aspects of our understanding of Ca(2+) influx in breast cancer still require further study. These include identifying the mechanisms responsible for altered expression and the most effective therapeutic strategy to target breast cancer cells through specific Ca(2+) channels. The role of Ca(2+) influx in processes beyond breast cancer cell proliferation and migration should become the focus of studies in the next decade. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Characterization of the loss of SUMO pathway function on cancer cells and tumor proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyue He

    Full Text Available SUMOylation is a post-translational ubiquitin-like protein modification pathway that regulates important cellular processes including chromosome structure, kinetochore function, chromosome segregation, nuclear and sub-nuclear organization, transcription and DNA damage repair. There is increasing evidence that the SUMO pathway is dysregulated in cancer, raising the possibility that modulation of this pathway may have therapeutic potential. To investigate the importance of the SUMO pathway in the context of cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, we applied lentivirus-based short hairpin RNAs (shRNA to knockdown SUMO pathway genes in human cancer cells. shRNAs for SAE2 and UBC9 reduced SUMO conjugation activity and inhibited proliferation of human cancer cells. To expand upon these observations, we generated doxycycline inducible conditional shRNA cell lines for SAE2 to achieve acute and reversible SAE2 knockdown. Conditional SAE2 knockdown in U2OS and HCT116 cells slowed cell growth in vitro, and SAE2 knockdown induced multiple terminal outcomes including apoptosis, endoreduplication and senescence. Multinucleated cells became senescent and stained positive for the senescence marker, SA-β Gal, and displayed elevated levels of p53 and p21. In an attempt to explain these phenotypes, we confirmed that loss of SUMO pathway activity leads to a loss of SUMOylated Topoisomerase IIα and the appearance of chromatin bridges which can impair proper cytokinesis and lead to multinucleation. Furthermore, knockdown of SAE2 induces disruption of PML nuclear bodies which may further promote apoptosis or senescence. In an in vivo HCT116 xenograft tumor model, conditional SAE2 knockdown strongly impaired tumor growth. These data demonstrate that the SUMO pathway is required for cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, implicating the SUMO pathway as a potential cancer therapeutic target.

  15. Curcumin and emodin down-regulate TGF-β signaling pathway in human cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chandrakant Thacker

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  16. A Novel Pathway-Based Approach Improves Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Using Germline Genetic Variations. (United States)

    Qian, David C; Han, Younghun; Byun, Jinyoung; Shin, Hae Ri; Hung, Rayjean J; McLaughlin, John R; Landi, Maria Teresa; Seminara, Daniela; Amos, Christopher I


    Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic variants that are strongly associated with lung cancer, these variants have low penetrance and serve as poor predictors of lung cancer in individuals. We sought to increase the predictive value of germline variants by considering their cumulative effects in the context of biologic pathways. For individuals in the Environment and Genetics in Lung Cancer Etiology study (1,815 cases/1,971 controls), we computed pathway-level susceptibility effects as the sum of relevant SNP variant alleles weighted by their log-additive effects from a separate lung cancer GWAS meta-analysis (7,766 cases/37,482 controls). Logistic regression models based on age, sex, smoking, genetic variants, and principal components of pathway effects and pathway-smoking interactions were trained and optimized in cross-validation and further tested on an independent dataset (556 cases/830 controls). We assessed prediction performance using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Compared with typical binomial prediction models that have epidemiologic predictors (AUC = 0.607) in addition to top GWAS variants (AUC = 0.617), our pathway-based smoking-interactive multinomial model significantly improved prediction performance in external validation (AUC = 0.656, P approach demonstrated a larger increase in AUC over nongenetic counterpart models relative to previous approaches that incorporate variants. This model is the first of its kind to evaluate lung cancer prediction using subtype-stratified genetic effects organized into pathways and interacted with smoking. We propose pathway-exposure interactions as a potentially powerful new contributor to risk inference. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(8); 1208-15. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Financial Burden of Cancer Care | Cancer Trends Progress Report (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Prostate cancer and supportive care: a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of men's experiences and unmet needs. (United States)

    King, A J L; Evans, M; Moore, T H M; Paterson, C; Sharp, D; Persad, R; Huntley, A L


    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, accounting for an estimated 1.1 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 ( Currently, there is a lack of specific guidance on supportive care for men with prostate cancer. This article describes a qualitative systematic review and synthesis examining men's experience of and need for supportive care. Seven databases were searched; 20 journal articles were identified and critically appraised. A thematic synthesis was conducted in which descriptive themes were drawn out of the data. These were peer support, support from partner, online support, cancer specialist nurse support, self-care, communication with health professionals, unmet needs (emotional support, information needs, support for treatment-induced side effects of incontinence and erectile dysfunction) and men's suggestions for improved delivery of supportive care. This was followed by the development of overarching analytic themes which were: uncertainty, reframing, and the timing of receiving treatment, information and support. Our results show that the most valued form of support men experienced following diagnosis was one-to-one peer support and support from partners. This review highlights the need for improved access to cancer specialist nurses throughout the care pathway, individually tailored supportive care and psychosexual support for treatment side effects. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Building a rapid learning health care system for oncology: the regulatory framework of CancerLinQ. (United States)

    Schilsky, Richard L; Michels, Dina L; Kearbey, Amy H; Yu, Peter Paul; Hudis, Clifford A


    Today is a time of unprecedented opportunity and challenge in health care generally and cancer care in particular. An explosion of scientific knowledge, the rapid introduction of new drugs and technologies, and the unprecedented escalation in the cost of health care challenge physicians to quickly assimilate new information and appropriately deploy new advances while also delivering efficient and high-quality care to a rapidly growing and aging patient population. At the same time, big data, with its potential to drive rapid understanding and innovation, promises to transform the health care industry, as it has many others already. CancerLinQ is an initiative of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and its Institute for Quality, developed to build on these opportunities and address these challenges by collecting information from the electronic health records of large numbers of patients with cancer. CancerLinQ is, first and foremost, a quality measurement and reporting system through which oncologists can harness the depth and power of their patients' clinical records and other data to improve the care they deliver. The development and deployment of CancerLinQ raises many important questions about the use of big data in health care. This article focuses on the US federal regulatory pathway by which CancerLinQ will accept patient records and the approach of ASCO toward stewardship of the information. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. A new stochastic and state space model of human colon cancer incorporating multiple pathways. (United States)

    Tan, Wai Y; Yan, Xiao W


    Studies by molecular biologists and geneticists have shown that tumors of human colon cancer are developed from colon stem cells through two mechanisms: The chromosomal instability and the micro-satellite instability. The purpose of this paper is therefore to develop a new stochastic and state space model for carcinogenesis of human colon cancer incorporating these biological mechanisms. Based on recent biological studies, in this paper we have developed a state space model for human colon cancer. In this state space model, the stochastic system is represented by a stochastic model, involving 2 different pathways-the chromosomal instability pathway and the micro-satellite instability pathway; the observation, cancer incidence data, is represented by a statistical model. Based on this model we have developed a generalized Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters through the posterior modes of the parameters via Gibbs sampling procedures. We have applied this model to fit and analyze the SEER data of human colon cancers from NCI/NIH. Our results indicate that the model not only provides a logical avenue to incorporate biological information but also fits the data much better than other models including the 4-stage single pathway model. This model not only would provide more insights into human colon cancer but also would provide useful guidance for its prevention and control and for prediction of future cancer cases.

  1. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.


    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  2. Health care access and smoking cessation among cancer survivors: implications for the Affordable Care Act and survivorship care. (United States)

    Burcu, Mehmet; Steinberger, Eileen K; Sorkin, John D


    The study objectives are to examine prevalence of current smoking, and to assess the association of both health insurance (HI) and access to care with smoking cessation among cancer survivors. We performed an analysis from a cross-sectional study of cancer survivors aged 18-64 years using nationally representative data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. We assessed the prevalence of current smoking among cancer survivors. Also, in a subset excluding never smokers, we assessed cessation status of cancer survivors operationalized as comparing current to former smokers. The study population (N = 18,896) was predominantly 45-64 years of age, female, and white. The prevalence of current smoking was substantially greater among cancer survivors without HI (40.9 %) than for those with HI (19.5 %). Cancer survivors with no HI had 2-fold greater adjusted odds of not quitting cigarette smoking compared to those with HI. Among those with insurance, cancer survivors who did not have regular health care provider or could not see doctor due to cost or had their last routine checkup ≥1 year ago had 60-80 % fold greater adjusted odds of not quitting cigarette smoking compared to cancer survivors who had better access to health care. Cancer survivors without HI have substantially greater current smoking rates compared with those with HI. Among cancer survivors with HI, those who experienced health care access-related problems had lower cessation rates than their counterparts. Smoking cessation needs to be recognized as a crucial component of preventive care for cancer survivors. Continuous patient engagement and cancer-patient-centered strategies are urgently needed to achieve optimal results for quit rates particularly for young cancer survivors who are most susceptible to current smoking.

  3. Lack of Needs Assessment in Cancer Survivorship Care and Rehabilitation in Hospitals and Primary Care Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Jensen, Charlotte Maria; Maribo, Thomas


    the aim of this study was to describe specific survivorship care and rehabilitation needs and plans as stated by patients with cancer at hospitals when diagnosed and when primary care survivorship care and rehabilitation begins. Methods: Needs assessment forms from cancer patients at two hospitals and two...... primary care settings were analyzed. The forms included stated needs and survivorship care and rehabilitation plans. All data were categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results: Eighty-nine patients at hospitals and 99 in primary care, stated...... their needs. Around 50% of the patients completed a survivorship care and rehabilitation plan. In total, 666 (mean 7.5) needs were stated by hospital patients and 836 (mean 8.0) by those in primary care. The needs stated were primarily within the ICF component “body functions and structure”, and the most...

  4. Clinical Pathways: A Catalyst for the Adoption of Hypofractionation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bhavana V.; Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Heron, Dwight E.; Flickinger, John C.; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail:


    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (HF-WBI) remains underutilized in the United States despite support by multiple clinical trials. We evaluated the success of iterative modifications of our breast cancer clinical pathway on the adoption of HF-WBI in a large, integrated radiation oncology network. Methods and Materials: The breast clinical pathway was modified in January 2011 (Amendment 1) to recommend HF-WBI as the first option for women ≥70 of age with stages 0 to IIA, while maintaining conventional fractionation (CF) as a pathway-concordant secondary option. In January 2013 (Amendment 2), the pathway's HF-WBI recommendation was extended to women ≥50 years of age. In January 2014 (Amendment 3), the pathway mandated HF-WBI as the only pathway-concordant option in women ≥50 years of age, and all pathway-discordant plans were subject to peer review and justification. Women ≥50 years of age with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant WBI were included in this analysis. Results: We identified 5112 patients from 2009 to 2014 who met inclusion criteria. From 2009 to 2012, the overall HF-WBI use rate was 8.3%. Following Amendments 2 and 3 (2013 and 2014, respectively), HF-WBI use significantly increased to 21.8% (17.3% in the community, 39.7% at academic sites) and 76.7% (75.5% in the community, 81.4% at academic sites), respectively (P<.001). Compared to 2009 to 2012, the relative risk of using HF-WBI was 7.9 (95% confidence interval: 7.1-8.6, P<.001) and 10.7 (95% CI: 10.3-11.0, P<.001), respectively, after Amendments 2 and 3, respectively. Age ≥70 and treatment at an academic site increased the likelihood of receiving HF-WBI in 2009 to 2012 and following Amendment 2 (P<.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the transformative effect of a clinical pathway on patterns of care for breast radiation therapy. Although our initial HF-WBI use rate was low (8%-22%) and

  5. Characterising cancer burden and quality of care at two palliative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also assesses the extent of differences in service delivery and the impact these might have on outcomes. Methods: Data on all cancer ... to services available. Quality of care was assessed as superior at Tiyanjane, demonstrating the importance of multiple stakeholder involvement in the delivery of palliative care services.

  6. CARE Track for Advanced Cancer: Impact and Timing of an Outpatient Palliative Care Clinic. (United States)

    Blackhall, Leslie J; Read, Paul; Stukenborg, George; Dillon, Patrick; Barclay, Joshua; Romano, Andrew; Harrison, James


    Studies suggest that outpatient palliative care can reduce hospitalization and increase hospice utilization for patients with cancer, however there are insufficient resources to provide palliative care to all patients from time of diagnosis. It is also unclear whether inpatient consultation alone provides similar benefits. A better understanding of the timing, setting, and impact of palliative care for patients with cancer is needed. The purpose of this study was to measure timing of referral to outpatient palliative care and impact on end-of-life (EOL) care. The Comprehensive Assessment with Rapid Evaluation and Treatment (CARE Track) program is a phased intervention integrating outpatient palliative care into cancer care. In Year 1 patients were referred at the discretion of their oncologist. Academic medical center. We compared EOL hospitalization, hospice utilization, and costs of care for CARE Track patients compared to those never seen by palliative care or seen only in hospital. Patients were referred a median of 72.5 days prior to death. CARE Track patients had few hospitalizations at end of life, were less likely to die in hospital, had increased hospice utilization, and decreased costs of care; these results were significant even after controlling for differences between groups. Inpatient consultation alone did not impact these variables. However, only approximately half of patients with incurable cancers were referred to this program. Referral outpatient palliative care within 3 months of death improved EOL care and reduced costs, benefits not seen with inpatient care only. However, many patients were never referred, and methods of systematically identifying appropriate patients are needed.

  7. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression. (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong


    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  8. Computational modelling of cancerous mutations in the EGFR/ERK signalling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gormand Amelie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR activated Extracellular-signal Regulated Kinase (ERK pathway is a critical cell signalling pathway that relays the signal for a cell to proliferate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Deregulation of the EGFR/ERK pathway due to alterations affecting the expression or function of a number of pathway components has long been associated with numerous forms of cancer. Under normal conditions, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF stimulates a rapid but transient activation of ERK as the signal is rapidly shutdown. Whereas, under cancerous mutation conditions the ERK signal cannot be shutdown and is sustained resulting in the constitutive activation of ERK and continual cell proliferation. In this study, we have used computational modelling techniques to investigate what effects various cancerous alterations have on the signalling flow through the ERK pathway. Results We have generated a new model of the EGFR activated ERK pathway, which was verified by our own experimental data. We then altered our model to represent various cancerous situations such as Ras, B-Raf and EGFR mutations, as well as EGFR overexpression. Analysis of the models showed that different cancerous situations resulted in different signalling patterns through the ERK pathway, especially when compared to the normal EGF signal pattern. Our model predicts that cancerous EGFR mutation and overexpression signals almost exclusively via the Rap1 pathway, predicting that this pathway is the best target for drugs. Furthermore, our model also highlights the importance of receptor degradation in normal and cancerous EGFR signalling, and suggests that receptor degradation is a key difference between the signalling from the EGF and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF receptors. Conclusion Our results suggest that different routes to ERK activation are being utilised in different cancerous situations which therefore has interesting implications

  9. Genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Jieping; Rudolph, Anja; Moysich, Kirsten B


    Immunosuppression plays a pivotal role in assisting tumors to evade immune destruction and promoting tumor development. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes may be implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. We included 42,510 female breast cancer cases and.......5 × 10(-4) and 0.63, respectively). Our data provide evidence that the immunosuppression pathway genes STAT3, IL5, and GM-CSF may be novel susceptibility loci for breast cancer in women of European ancestry....... and 40,577 controls of European ancestry from 37 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (2015) with available genotype data for 3595 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 candidate genes. Associations between genotyped SNPs and overall breast cancer risk, and secondarily according...

  10. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Johansen, Christoffer


    BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility and psychosocial impact of a hospital-based home care (HBHC) program for children with cancer. PROCEDURE: A HBHC program was carried out with 51 children (0-18 years) with cancer to assess its feasibility in terms of satisfaction, care preferences, safety...... children and 43 parents in the home care group, and 47 children and 66 parents receiving standard hospital care. RESULTS: All parents in the HBHC program were satisfied and preferred home care. There were no serious adverse events associated with HBHC, and costs did not increase. When adjusting for age......, gender, diagnosis and time since diagnosis, we found significant higher HRQOL scores in parent-reported physical health (P = 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.2-19.5) and worry (P = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.4-20.6) in the home-care group indicating better physical health and less worry for children...

  11. LIF promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer through the AKT-mTOR pathway (United States)

    Yu, Haiyang; Wu, Lihua; Zhao, Yuhan; Zhang, Cen; Yue, Xuetian; Liu, Zhen; Wu, Hao; Haffty, Bruce G.; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei


    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a multi-functional cytokine protein. The role of LIF in tumorigenesis is not well-understood. Here, we found that LIF promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. LIF promotes cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells in vitro, and the growth of xenograft breast tumors in vivo. LIF also promotes invasion and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and metastasis of breast cancer in vivo. We found that LIF activates the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. Inhibiting the AKT activity can largely block the activation of the mTOR pathway by LIF, suggesting that LIF activates the mTOR pathway through AKT. Inhibiting the AKT activity as well as inhibiting the mTOR activity largely block the promoting effect of LIF on tumorigenesis and metastasis. Furthermore, overexpression of LIF is significantly associated with a poorer relapse free survival in breast cancer patients. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that LIF plays an important role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer, and could be an important prognostic marker for breast cancer. PMID:24553191

  12. Changing practice and improving care using a low-risk tracheotomy clinical pathway. (United States)

    Smith, Kristine A; Matthews, T Wayne; Dubé, Mirette; Spence, Gerald; Dort, Joseph C


    Tracheotomy is a common procedure. Postoperative care is usually managed by nonexpert clinicians. Prolonged decannulation is associated with a high incidence of complications. At present, no clinical protocol exists to guide clinicians through decannulation. To address this deficiency, we developed a low-risk tracheotomy clinical pathway. To determine the effect of our low-risk tracheotomy clinical pathway on the time to decannulation and to determine its safety and sustainability by assessing the incidence of adverse events. Our study combined retrospective and prospective cohorts from July 1, 2008, through January 31, 2012. Low-risk adult patients undergoing tracheotomy at a tertiary care hospital constituted the study population. A baseline cohort of 26 patients underwent retrospective assessment. After development of the pathway, a pilot group of 34 consecutive patients underwent evaluation; of these, 13 were ineligible because of high-risk factors, which included potential upper airway obstruction, unfavorable neck anatomy, or medical factors such as coagulopathy. To assess the sustainability of the pathway, a follow-up cohort underwent assessment. Of 107 consecutive patients, 39 met the low-risk criteria. Length of follow-up was 30 days after decannulation. The low-risk tracheotomy clinical pathway, which provides a stepwise approach to decannulation. Total time to decannulation (in days). We hypothesized that the pathway would reduce the total time to decannulation. The secondary outcome constituted adverse events. All hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Mean (SD) total time to decannulation in the baseline cohort was 15.50 (12.08) days. After implementation of the pathway in the pilot cohort, mean (SD) total time to decannulation decreased to 5.74 (2.79) days (P tracheotomy clinical pathway is associated with a sustainable decrease in total time to decannulation without any associated increase in adverse events. We therefore believe that this

  13. Colorectal cancer: Quality of surgical care in Michigan. (United States)

    Kanters, Arielle; Mullard, Andrew J; Arambula, Jennifer; Fasbinder, Laurie; Krapohl, Greta; Wong, Sandra L; Campbell, Darrell A; Hendren, Samantha


    Surgery remains the cornerstone therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study assesses CRC quality measures for surgical cases in Michigan. In this retrospective cohort study, processes of care and outcomes for CRC resection cases were abstracted in 30 hospitals in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (2014-2015). Measures were case-mix and reliability adjusted, using logistic regression models. For 871 cases (640 colon cancer, 231 rectal cancer), adjusted morbidity (27.4%) and mortality rates (1.5%) were low. Adjusted process measures showed gaps in quality of care. Mesorectal excision was documented in 59.4% of rectal cancer (RC) cases, 65% of RC cases had sphincter preserving surgery, 18.7% of cases had quality of care measures for CRC, suggesting opportunity for regional quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene expression, molecular class changes and pathway analysis after neoadjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer (United States)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Liu, Shuying; Chen, Huiqin; Do, Kim-Anh; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Symmans, W. Fraser; Pusztai, Lajos


    Purpose To examine gene expression differences between pre- and post-NST specimens of breast cancers and identify biological changers that may lead to new therapeutic insights. Methods Gene expression data from pre-chemotherapy fine needle aspiration specimens were compared to resected residual cancers in 21 patients after 4-6 months of NST. We removed stroma-associated genes to minimize confounding effects. PAM50 was used to assign molecular class. Paired t-test and gene set analysis were used to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways. Results The ER and HER2 status based on mRNA expression remained stable in all but two cases and there were no changes in proliferation metrics (Ki67 and PCNA expression). Molecular class changed in 8 cases (33.3%) usually to normal-like class and which was associated with low residual cancer cell cellularity. The expression of 200-600 probe sets changed between baseline and post-NST samples. In basal-like cancers, pathways driven by increased expression of PI3K, small G proteins and CAMK2 and energy metabolism were enriched while immune cell-derived and the sonic hedgehog pathways were depleted in residual cancer. In non-basal-like breast cancers, notch signaling and energy metabolism (e.g. fatty acid synthesis) were enriched and sonic hedgehog signaling and immune-related pathways were depleted in residual cancer. There was no increase in epithelial mesenchymal transition or cancer stem cell signatures. Conclusions Our data indicates that energy metabolism related processes are up-regulated and immune related signals are depleted in residual cancers. Targeting these biological processes may represent promising adjuvant treatment strategies for patients with residual cancer. PMID:22235097

  15. The Significance of the Sulfatase Pathway for Local Estrogen Formation in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Sinreih


    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer (EC is the most common estrogen-dependent gynecological malignancy in the developed World. To investigate the local formation of estradiol (E2, we first measured the concentrations of the steroid precursor androstenedione (A-dione and the most potent estrogen, E2, and we evaluated the metabolism of A-dione, estrone-sulfate (E1-S, and estrone (E1 in cancerous and adjacent control endometrium. Furthermore, we studied expression of the key genes for estradiol formation via the aromatase and sulfatase pathways. A-dione and E2 were detected in cancerous and adjacent control endometrium. In cancerous endometrium, A-dione was metabolized to testosterone, and no E2 was formed. Both, E1-S and E1 were metabolized to E2, with increased levels of E2 seen in cancerous tissue. There was no significant difference in expression of the key genes of the aromatase (CYP19A1 and the sulfatase (STS, HSD17B1, HSD17B2 pathways in cancerous endometrium compared to adjacent control tissue. The mRNA levels of CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 were low, and HSD17B14, which promotes inactivation of E2, was significantly down-regulated in cancerous endometrium, especially in patients with lymphovascular invasion. At the protein level, there were no differences in the levels of STS and HSD17B2 between cancerous and adjacent control tissue by Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry revealed intense staining for STS and HSD17B2, and weak staining for SULT1E1 and HSD17B1 in cancerous tissue. Our data demonstrate that in cancerous endometrium, E2 is formed from E1-S via the sulfatase pathway, and not from A-dione via the aromatase pathway.

  16. Induction of discrete apoptotic pathways by bromo-substituted indirubin derivatives in invasive breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, Katerina A. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Liapis, Vasilis; Evdokiou, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Basil Hetzel Institute, Adelaide University, Adelaide (Australia); Constantinou, Constantina [St. George' s University of London Medical School at the University of Nicosia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alex L. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Koumas, Laura; Costeas, Paul A. [Center for Study of Hematological Malignancies, Nicosia (Cyprus); Constantinou, Andreas I., E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of 6BIO and 7BIO are evaluated against five breast cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6BIO induces a caspase dependent apoptotic effect via the intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO promotes G{sub 2}/M cells cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers a caspase-8 mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers and a caspase independent pathway. -- Abstract: Indirubin derivatives gained interest in recent years for their anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the anticancer properties of the two novel bromo-substituted derivatives 6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (6BIO) and 7-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (7BIO) in five different breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays identified that 6BIO and 7BIO are most effective in preventing the proliferation of the MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cell line from a total of five breast cancer cell lined examined. In addition it was found that the two compounds induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. 6BIO induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-9 pathway. 7BIO up-regulates p21 and promotes G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which is subsequently followed by the activation of two different apoptotic pathways: (a) a pathway that involves the upregulation of DR4/DR5 and activation of caspase-8 and (b) a caspase independent pathway. In conclusion, this study provides important insights regarding the molecular pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by two indirubin derivatives that can find clinical applications in targeted cancer therapeutics.

  17. [Coordinating complex nursing care: building a guidance tool for cancer patients, to direct them towards the coordination nurse]. (United States)

    Froger, Raphael; Allenet, Benoit; Guillem, Pascale


    Introduction : following the 2009-2013 Cancer Plan, the experimental oncology nursing coordination (IDEC) showed a positive impact on the fluidity of care pathways. The 2014-2019 cancer plan guides their mission to complex cases. The objective of this study is to build a tool to facilitate the recruitment of patients likely to experience a complex path. Method : two phases have formed this research. The first one collected the elements of the dimensions that can predict the complexity of the care path, by focus group. The second consisted of reduction and selection of priority items and to estimate their importance by the Delphi method. Results : from the 12 selected items, two are recognized as a significant risk scoring, seven probably correlated with a complex pathway and three unrelated to the complexity of the pathways. Discussion : later this instrument would be validated by a test sample to evaluate its psychometric properties, metrological and feasibility.

  18. A Pan-Cancer Proteogenomic Atlas of PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway Alterations | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    Molecular alterations involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway (including mutation, copy number, protein, or RNA) were examined across 11,219 human cancers representing 32 major types. Within specific mutated genes, frequency, mutation hotspot residues, in silico predictions, and functional assays were all informative in distinguishing the subset of genetic variants more likely to have functional relevance. Multiple oncogenic pathways including PI3K/Akt/mTOR converged on similar sets of downstream transcriptional targets.

  19. Integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer care and patient related outcomes: A critical review of evidence


    Naveen Salins; Raghavendra Ramanjulu; Lipika Patra; Jayita Deodhar; Mary Ann Muckaden


    Introduction: World Health Organization and American Society of Clinical Oncology recommend early integration of specialist palliative care in patients with cancer. This paper focuses on critical review of evidence on integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer care and patient-related outcomes. Methods: The question for the literature search was - Does integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer care influences patient-related outcomes? 31 articles related to ...

  20. Integrating Multiple Microarray Data for Cancer Pathway Analysis Using Bootstrapping K-S Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han


    Full Text Available Previous applications of microarray technology for cancer research have mostly focused on identifying genes that are differentially expressed between a particular cancer and normal cells. In a biological system, genes perform different molecular functions and regulate various biological processes via interactions with other genes thus forming a variety of complex networks. Therefore, it is critical to understand the relationship (e.g., interactions between genes across different types of cancer in order to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of cancer. Here we propose an integrative method based on the bootstrapping Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and a large set of microarray data produced with various types of cancer to discover common molecular changes in cells from normal state to cancerous state. We evaluate our method using three key pathways related to cancer and demonstrate that it is capable of finding meaningful alterations in gene relations.

  1. Symptom interpretation and health care seeking in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Lene; Petersen, Lone K; Blaakær, Jan


    BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process...... with ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. RESULTS: A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14...... knowledge concerning the onset of their symptoms. The early symptoms of ovarian cancer might be uncharacteristic and non-disease-specific when interpreted as personal experiences, but they had similarities when analysed together. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic delay in ovarian cancer seems far from being...

  2. Barriers to lung cancer care: health professionals' perspectives. (United States)

    Dunn, J; Garvey, G; Valery, P C; Ball, D; Fong, K M; Vinod, S; O'Connell, D L; Chambers, S K


    Globally, lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Problematically, there is a wide variation in the management and survival for people with lung cancer and there is limited understanding of the reasons for these variations. To date, the views of health professionals across relevant disciplines who deliver such care are largely absent. The present study describes Australian health professionals' views about barriers to lung cancer care to help build a research and action agenda for improving lung cancer outcomes. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a multidisciplinary group of 31 Australian health professionals working in lung cancer care for an average of 16 years (range 1-35 yrs.; SD = 10.2) seeing a mean of 116 patients annually. Three superordinate themes were identified: illness representations, cultural influences, and health system context. Illness representations included three themes: symptoms attributed as smoking-related but not cancer, health-related stigma, and therapeutic nihilism. Cultural influence themes included Indigenous health care preferences, language and communication, and sociodemographic factors. Health system context included lack of regional services and distance to treatment, poor care coordination, lack of effective screening methods, and health professional behaviours. Fractured and locally isolated approaches routinely confound responses to the social, cultural and health system complexities that surround a diagnosis of lung cancer and subsequent treatment. Improving outcomes for this disadvantaged patient group will require government, health agencies, and the community to take an aggressive, integrated approach balancing health policy, treatment priorities, and societal values.

  3. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, H; Schmiegelow, K


    The study aims to describe the experiences of a hospital-based home care programme in the families of children with cancer. Fourteen parents, representing 10 families, were interviewed about their experiences of a hospital-based home care programme during a 4-month period in 2009 at a university...... hospital in Denmark. Five children participated in all or part of the interview. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that hospital-based home care enabled the families to remain intact throughout the course of treatment......, as it decreased the strain on the family and the ill child, maintained normality and an ordinary everyday life and fulfilled the need for safety and security. According to family members of children with cancer, hospital-based home care support enhanced their quality of life during the child's cancer trajectory...

  4. Cancer Therapy Targeting the HER2-PI3K Pathway: Potential Impact on the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoula Lakka Klement


    Full Text Available The HER2-PI3K pathway is the one of the most mutated pathways in cancer. Several drugs targeting the major kinases of this pathway have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and many are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. However, the HER2-PI3K pathway is also pivotal for maintaining the physiological function of the heart, especially in the presence of cardiac stress. Clinical studies have shown that in patients treated with doxorubicin concurrently with Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the HER2 receptor, the New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure was significantly increased compared to those who were treated with doxorubicin alone (16 vs. 3%. Studies in transgenic mice have also shown that other key kinases of this pathway, such as PI3Kα, PDK1, Akt and mTOR, are important for protecting the heart from ischemia-reperfusion and aortic stenosis induced cardiac dysfunction. Studies, however, have also shown that inhibition of PI3Kγ improve cardiac function of a failing heart. In addition, results from transgenic mouse models are not always consistent with the outcome of the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway. Here, we will review these findings and discuss how we can address the cardiac side-effects caused by inhibition of this important pathway in both cancer and cardiac biology.

  5. Morphological evidence for an invasion-independent metastasis pathway exists in multiple human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Sayaka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously described an alternative invasion-independent pathway of cancer metastasis in a murine mammary tumor model. This pathway is initiated by intravasation of tumor nests enveloped by endothelial cells of sinusoidal vasculature within the tumor. In this study, we examined whether evidence for the invasion-independent pathway of metastasis is present in human cancers. Methods Archival specimens of 10 common types of human cancers were examined for the presence of sinusoidal vasculature enveloping tumor nests and subsequently generated endothelial-covered tumor emboli in efferent veins. Results A percentage of tumor emboli in all cancers was found to be enveloped by endothelial cells, but these structures were particularly prevalent in renal cell carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas and follicular thyroid carcinomas. A common feature of the vasculature in these tumors was the presence of dilated sinusoid-like structures surrounding tumor nests. A high mean vascular area within tumors, an indication of sinusoidal vascular development, was significantly related to the presence of endothelial-covered tumor emboli. Conclusions These results suggest that an invasion-independent metastatic pathway is possible in a wide variety of human cancers. Further investigation of this phenomenon may present new therapeutic strategies for the amelioration of cancer metastasis.

  6. Pathways between physical activity and quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Meadows, Rachel; Bonner, Timethia; Dobhal, Megha; Borra, Sujana; Killion, Jordan A; Paxton, Raheem


    Several studies have indicated that the relationship between physical activity and quality of life is not directed but mediated through various pathways. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of cancer-related fatigue, disability, and functional status as potential mediators in African-American breast cancer survivors. African-American breast cancer survivors (N = 135, mean age = 63) aged 55 years and older participated in a web-based survey consisting of measures assessing physical activity, functional status, cancer-related fatigue, disability, quality of life, and sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the structural relationships among the constructs. The initial structural model fit the data and revealed a significant relationship between physical activity and quality of life (β = 0.34, P life (β = 0.11, P > 0.05) and mediated through pathways of functional status and fatigue (total β = 0.16, P life. Our data suggest that physical activity may be indirectly related to quality of life through pathways consisting of fatigue and functional status. Further longitudinal studies are needed to test the pathways through which varying levels of physical activity influence cancer-related and quality of life outcomes in minority cancer survivors.

  7. Is admittance to specialised palliative care among cancer patients related to sex, age and cancer diagnosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsersen, Mathilde; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Jensen, Anders Bonde


    /units. Patients with brain cancer were more often admitted to hospices, whereas patients with prostate cancer were more often admitted to hospital-based palliative care teams/units. CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that the variations in relation to sex, age and cancer diagnoses can be fully explained by differences...... to investigate whether cancer patients' admittance to SPC in Denmark varied in relation to sex, age and diagnosis, and whether the patterns differed by type of institution (hospital-based palliative care team/unit, hospice, or both). METHODS: This was a register-based study of adult patients living in Denmark...... who died from cancer in 2010-2012. Data sources were the Danish Palliative Care Database, Danish Register of Causes of Death and Danish Cancer Registry. The associations between the explanatory variables (sex, age, diagnosis) and admittance to SPC were investigated using logistic regression. RESULTS...

  8. Site of childhood cancer care in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Reedijk, A M J; van der Heiden-van der Loo, M; Visser, O; Karim-Kos, H E; Lieverst, J A; de Ridder-Sluiter, J G; Coebergh, J W W; Kremer, L C; Pieters, R


    Due to the complexity of diagnosis and treatment, care for children and young adolescents with cancer preferably occurs in specialised paediatric oncology centres with potentially better cure rates and minimal late effects. This study assessed where children with cancer in the Netherlands were treated since 2004. All patients aged under 18 diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2013 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) and linked with the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) database. Associations between patient and tumour characteristics and site of care were tested statistically with logistic regression analyses. This population-based study of 6021 children diagnosed with cancer showed that 82% of them were treated in a paediatric oncology centre. Ninety-four percent of the patients under 10 years of age, 85% of the patients aged 10-14 and 48% of the patients aged 15-17 were treated in a paediatric oncology centre. All International Classification of Childhood Cancers (ICCC), 3rd edition, ICCC-3 categories, except embryonal tumours, were associated with a higher risk of treatment outside a paediatric oncology centre compared to leukaemia. Multivariable analyses by ICCC-3 category revealed that specific tumour types such as chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), embryonal carcinomas, bone tumours other type than osteosarcoma, non-rhabdomyosarcomas, thyroid carcinomas, melanomas and skin carcinomas as well as lower-staged tumours were associated with treatment outside a paediatric oncology centre. The site of childhood cancer care in the Netherlands depends on the age of the cancer patient, type of tumour and stage at diagnosis. Collaboration between paediatric oncology centre(s), other academic units is needed to ensure most up-to-date paediatric cancer care for childhood cancer patients at the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social objectives in cancer care: the example of palliative day care. (United States)

    Payne, M


    Social objectives are poorly specified and evaluated in cancer care. Palliative day care is an example where social objectives are often identified but research has focused on health-care outcomes. A literature review identifies four types of social objective: emotional and spiritual care, general social care, services for families and carers and creative arts. Social objectives include: distinguishing between therapeutic work and leisure and supportive interventions, promoting service continuity, reducing social isolation, increasing social interaction, reassuring introduction to palliative care, rehearsal of reactions to illness with a sympathetic audience, integration of families and carers into care services, respite for carers and creative work for three separable objectives. It is argued that interventions to achieve social objectives may be defined and evaluated in a measurable way. Similarly, social objectives and interventions can be specified at other stages in the cancer journey.

  10. The Snail-Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis (United States)


    area code) Table of Contents...binding energies) enabled identification of two areas of probable binding, with the consensus sequence starting around C3–C5 and again around C12 to...grading of invasive ductal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2000;88: 907–13. 21. Dancey CP, Reidy J. Estatística sem matem"atica para psicologia : usando

  11. Characterizing and Targeting Androgen Receptor Pathway-Independent Prostate Cancer (United States)


    potential to treat castration- resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 72: abstr 3848. 41. Haag P, Bektic J, Bartsch G, Klocker H, Eder IE (2005) Androgen...AR gene amplification, and PTEN gene deletion. (A) Illustration of the 4-color FISH technique for the detection of rearrangements of TMPRSS2 and/or...shown below the corresponding illustration . (B) FISH probes used to detect AR gene amplification and PTEN gene deletion AR gene amplification was

  12. What's in a care pathway? Towards a cultural cartography of the new NHS. (United States)

    Pinder, Ruth; Petchey, Roland; Shaw, Sara; Carter, Yvonne


    Maps are increasingly understood as socio-cultural and political constructs, rather than mirrors of nature. Drawing on the insights of cultural cartographers, this paper presents a critical analysis of a specific instance of map-making in health policy, namely the growing use of care pathways in care planning and service delivery. Widely regarded to date as devices for ensuring quality of care, equity of treatment, optimal resource allocation and a rational division of labour between healthcare professionals, they have been seen as helpful--and technically neutral--tools for routing patients through the system. By contrast, we argue that the metaphors are misleading: lived experience and its objectification in pathway maps continually re-create one another, as we explore the slippage between map, map-making and mapping. This paper is based on interviews and observations with a variety of healthcare workers in three areas of south eastern England. We trace the development of a series of pathways-in-process, and show how they configure the patient, highlighting some aspects of their experiences, whilst silencing others. We also analyse the role of pathways in the carving up and surveillance of space round the emergence of the 'hybrid professional', particularly new practitioners such as GP specialists, specialist nurses, extended scope therapists and others. In considering the wider implications of care pathways as part of the contemporary discourse on policy, the paper critiques the rationalist, and sometimes evangelical assumptions underpinning their current popularity. In particular, we suggest that a critical and processual understanding of pathways might contribute to a more informed appreciation of their potential (and their limitations) as mechanisms for healthcare policy implementation.

  13. Genetic variability of the mTOR pathway and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Campa


    Full Text Available The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. We chose the SNPs (n = 11 with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01 and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer (OR(allele = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.94, p = 1.3 x 10⁻³ for rs546950 and OR(allele = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93, p = 5.6 x 10⁻⁴ for rs4955720. We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project. In conclusion, we found an association with prostate cancer risk for two SNPs belonging to PRKCI, a gene which is frequently overexpressed in various neoplasms, including prostate cancer.

  14. Prostate Cancer Mortality-To-Incidence Ratios Are Associated with Cancer Care Disparities in 35 Countries. (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Lang; Wang, Shao-Chuan; Ho, Cheng-Ju; Kao, Yu-Lin; Hsieh, Tzuo-Yi; Chen, Wen-Jung; Chen, Chih-Jung; Wu, Pei-Ru; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Lee, Huei; Sung, Wen-Wei


    The variation in mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) among countries reflects the clinical outcomes and the available interventions for colorectal cancer treatments. The association between MIR of prostate cancer and cancer care disparities among countries is an interesting issue that is rarely investigated. For the present study, cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. The rankings and total expenditures on health of various countries were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO). The association between variables was analyzed by linear regression analyses. In this study, we estimated the role of MIRs from 35 countries that had a prostate cancer incidence greater than 5,000 cases per year. As expected, high prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates were observed in more developed regions, such as Europe and the Americas. However, the MIRs were 2.5 times higher in the less developed regions. Regarding the association between MIR and cancer care disparities, countries with good WHO ranking and high total expenditures on health/gross domestic product (GDP) were significant correlated with low MIR. The MIR variation for prostate cancer correlates with cancer care disparities among countries further support the role of cancer care disparities in clinical outcome.

  15. Caring for cancer patients with an intellectual disability: Attitudes and care perceptions of UK oncology nurses. (United States)

    Flynn, Samantha; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Bramwell, Ros; Stevens-Gill, Debbie; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas


    Caring for people with cancer or an intellectual disability (ID) is stressful: little is known about the combined impact of caring for cancer patients with an ID, though this is expected to be especially challenging. Eighty-three nurses, working in oncology or a related field (i.e. palliative care) were recruited. Perceptions of caring for patients with and without an ID were measured, alongside potentially confounding information about participant demographic characteristics and perceived stress. Participants felt less comfortable communicating with patients with an ID about their illness (F(1,82) = 59.52, p cancer patients with an ID may intensify this, already difficult, role. Through training and knowledge exchange, oncology nurse's confidence in communication, providing appropriate care, and positivity towards this patient group may be improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Palliative Care in Iran: Moving Toward the Development of Palliative Care for Cancer. (United States)

    Rassouli, Maryam; Sajjadi, Moosa


    Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Iran and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. Patients' quality of life is altered rather enormously due to cancer, which doubles the importance of and the need for providing palliative care in Iran. Although many steps have been taken toward the development and providing of palliative care in Iran, there is still a large gap between the status quo and the desirable state. This study presents the current state of palliative care for cancer patients and discusses the barriers, challenges and outlook of palliative care in Iran. If infrastructural projects that have recently been launched prove successful, proper advancement toward the providing of palliative care services in Iran will then not far on the horizon. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Fostering development of nursing practices to support integrated care when implementing integrated care pathways: what levers to use? (United States)

    Longpré, Caroline; Dubois, Carl-Ardy


    Care integration has been the focus of recent health system reforms. Given their functions at all levels of the care continuum, nurses have a substantial and primordial role to play in such integration processes. The aim of this study was to identify levers and strategies that organizations can use to support the development of a nursing practice aligned with the requirements of care integration in a health and social services centre (HSSC) in Quebec. The research design was a cross-sectional descriptive qualitative study based on a single case study with nested levels of analysis. The case was a public, multi-disciplinary HSSC in a semi-urban region of Quebec. Semi-structured interviews with 37 persons (nurses, professionals, managers, administrators) allowed for data saturation and ensured theoretical representation by covering four care pathways constituting different care integration contexts. Analysis involved four steps: preparing a predetermined list of codes based on the reference framework developed by Minkman (2011); coding transcript content; developing general and summary matrices to group observations for each care pathway; and creating a general model showing the overall results for the four pathways. The organization's capacity for response with regard to developing an integrated system of services resulted in two types of complementary interventions. The first involved investing in key resources and renewing organizational structures; the second involved deploying a series of organizational and clinical-administrative processes. In resource terms, integration efforts resulted in setting up new strategic services, re-arranging physical infrastructures, and deploying new technological resources. Organizational and clinical-administrative processes to promote integration involved renewing governance, improving the flow of care pathways, fostering continuous quality improvement, developing new roles, promoting clinician collaboration, and strengthening

  18. Quality of care: Distress, health care use and needs of women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo-Fo-Wong, D.N.N.


    The aims of this thesis were to: (1) examine enduring distress and its predictors in women with breast cancer; (2) determine the extent to which distress-related problems are portrayed in a graphic novel about breast cancer; (3) examine health care use and additional needs (with regard to medical,


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana E. Kafetzopoulou


    Full Text Available Recent preclinical studies have associated beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR signaling with breast cancer pathways such as progression and metastasis. These findings have been supported by clinical and epidemiological studies which examined the effect of beta-blocker therapy on breast cancer metastasis, recurrence and mortality. Results from these studies have provided initial evidence for the inhibition of cell migration in breast cancer by beta-blockers and have introduced the beta-adrenergic receptor pathways as a target for therapy. This paper analyzes gene expression profiles in breast cancer patients, utilising Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs to identify molecular signatures corresponding to possible disease management pathways and biomarker treatment strategies associated with beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2 cell signaling. The adrenergic receptor relationship to cancer is investigated in order to validate the results of recent studies that suggest the use of beta-blockers for breast cancer therapy. A panel of genes is identified which has previously been reported to play an important role in cancer and also to be involved in the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling.

  20. Biomarker identification in breast cancer: Beta-adrenergic receptor signaling and pathways to therapeutic response. (United States)

    Kafetzopoulou, Liana E; Boocock, David J; Dhondalay, Gopal Krishna R; Powe, Desmond G; Ball, Graham R


    Recent preclinical studies have associated beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling with breast cancer pathways such as progression and metastasis. These findings have been supported by clinical and epidemiological studies which examined the effect of beta-blocker therapy on breast cancer metastasis, recurrence and mortality. Results from these studies have provided initial evidence for the inhibition of cell migration in breast cancer by beta-blockers and have introduced the beta-adrenergic receptor pathways as a target for therapy. This paper analyzes gene expression profiles in breast cancer patients, utilising Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to identify molecular signatures corresponding to possible disease management pathways and biomarker treatment strategies associated with beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) cell signaling. The adrenergic receptor relationship to cancer is investigated in order to validate the results of recent studies that suggest the use of beta-blockers for breast cancer therapy. A panel of genes is identified which has previously been reported to play an important role in cancer and also to be involved in the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling.

  1. Proteomics analyses of prostate cancer cells reveal cellular pathways associated with androgen resistance. (United States)

    Höti, Naseruddin; Shah, Punit; Hu, Yingwei; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Hui


    While significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, each year tens of thousands of men still die from prostate cancer in the United States. Thus, greater understanding of cellular pathways and molecular basis of prostate cancer progression in the development of androgen resistance is needed to treat these lethal phenotypes. To dissect the mechanism of androgen resistance, we utilize a proteomics approach to study the development of androgen resistance in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Our results showed the predominant involvement of metabolic pathways that were elevated in androgen resistance phenotype. We further found the amplification of PI3K/AKT pathway and the overexpression of proteasome proteins while the mitochondrial oxidation phosphorylation was severely hampered in castration-resistant LNCaP-95 cells compared to LNCaP cells. Interestingly, we also found the induction of Dicer, a cytoplasmic endoribonuclease microRNA regulator in the androgen-ablated LNCaP-95 prostate cancer cells. We verified some of these data by orthogonal methods including Western blot analysis and in castrated animal xenograft studies. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing induced expression of proteasome proteins in androgen ablation prostate cancer cells. If validated in clinical studies, the findings will have significant implications in understanding the complexity of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Regulation of Inflammatory Pathways in Cancer and Infectious Disease of the Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Adefuye


    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading gynaecological malignancies worldwide. It is an infectious disease of the cervix, associated with human papillomavirus infection (HPV, infection with bacterial agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Furthermore, it is an AIDS-defining disease with an accelerated mortality in HIV-infected women with cervical cancer. With the introduction of robust vaccination strategies against HPV in the developed world, it is anticipated that the incidence of cervical cancer will decrease in the coming years. However, vaccination has limited benefit for women already infected with high-risk HPV, and alternative therapeutic intervention strategies are needed for these women. Many pathological disorders, including cervical cancer, are characterised by the exacerbated activation and maintenance of inflammatory pathways which are considered to be regulated by infectious agents. In cervical cancer, hyperactivation of these inflammatory pathways and regulation of immune infiltrate into tissues can potentially play a role not only in tumorigenesis but also in HIV infection. In this paper we will discuss the contribution of inflammatory pathways to cervical cancer progression and HIV infection and the role of HIV in cervical cancer progression.

  3. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. (United States)

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei


    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  4. Mechanisms for the induction of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori infection: aberrant DNA methylation pathway. (United States)

    Maeda, Masahiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu


    Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer have been established in the last two decades. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation is induced in multiple driver genes, which inactivates them. Methylation profiles in gastric cancer are associated with specific subtypes, such as microsatellite instability. Recent comprehensive and integrated analyses showed that many cancer-related pathways are more frequently altered by aberrant DNA methylation than by mutations. Aberrant DNA methylation can even be present in noncancerous gastric mucosae, producing an "epigenetic field for cancerization." Mechanistically, H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, but not H. pylori itself, plays a direct role in the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. The expression of three inflammation-related genes, Il1b, Nos2, and Tnf, is highly associated with the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Importantly, the degree of accumulated aberrant DNA methylation is strongly correlated with gastric cancer risk. A recent multicenter prospective cohort study demonstrated the utility of epigenetic cancer risk diagnosis for metachronous gastric cancer. Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation by a demethylating agent was shown to inhibit gastric cancer development in an animal model. Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which H. pylori infection induces gastric cancer, and this can be utilized for translational opportunities.

  5. Models of helping and coping in cancer care. (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Wortman, C B


    This paper provides a theoretical analysis of four models of helping and coping as they relate to cancer care. The four conceptual models focus on the issue of whether or not patients should be viewed as responsible for the cause or the treatment of their cancer. The moral model, characterized by the holistic health movement, holds patients responsible for both causing and resolving health problems. The compensatory model, exemplified by cancer education programs, attributes low responsibility to patients for causing health problems but high responsibility for resolving them. The medical model views patients as neither responsible for causing nor for resolving health problems. The enlightenment model, typified by the healing movement, holds people responsible for causing their health problems, but not for resolving them. An attempt is made to examine existing programs in cancer care in light of these models. The present analysis addresses the following questions. Why is each of these models appealing? Why are they sometimes embraced by patients or health care providers? What are the benefits and disadvantages of using each of these models with cancer patients? What happens when the health care provider and patient hold different models regarding the patient's responsibility or participation in the cause of the disease or its treatment? Further research is needed to determine the conditions under which a particular model results in better health outcomes for patients, and to assess how factors such as extent of disease or type of cancer influence the patient's choice of a model.

  6. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan


    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  7. Self-assessment in cancer patients referred to palliative care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömgren, Annette S; Goldschmidt, Dorthe; Groenvold, Mogens


    BACKGROUND: Research in palliative care is considered difficult due to the poor health of patients. However, patient-provided data are essential for a thorough description of patient symptomatology and for the evaluation of care. METHODS: The authors examined the feasibility of a questionnaire......-based study using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life instrument EORTC QLQ-C30, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in cancer patients who were receiving palliative care. This report describes...... the symptomatology of participating patients and examines differences in symptomatology between patients in three palliative care functions: inpatient, outpatient, and palliative home care. RESULTS: Of 267 eligible patients who were referred to a department of palliative medicine, initial self...

  8. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H.J. Kao


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGanoderma lucidum, commonly referred to as Lingzhi, has been used in Asia for health promotion for centuries. The anti-cancer effects of G. lucidum have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the observed anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma have prompted its usage by cancer patients alongside chemotherapy.The main two bioactive components of G. lucidum can be broadly grouped into triterpenes and polysaccharides. Despite triterpenes and polysaccharides being widely known as the major active ingredients, the different biological pathways by which they exert their anti-cancer effect remain poorly defined. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of action may lead to more widespread use of Ganoderma as an anti-cancer agent.The aim of this paper is to summarise the various bioactive mechanisms that have been proposed for the anti-cancer properties of triterpenes and polysaccharides extracted from G. lucidum. A literature search of published papers on NCBI with keywords “Ganoderma” and “cancer” was performed. Among those, studies which specifically examined the anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma triterpenes and polysaccharides were selected to be included in this paper.We have found five potential mechanisms which are associated with the anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma triterpenes and three potential mechanisms for Ganoderma polysaccharides. In addition, G. lucidum has been used in combination with known anti-cancer agents to improve the anti-cancer efficacies. This suggests Ganoderma’s bioactive pathways may compliment that of anti-cancer agents. In this paper we present several potential anti-cancer mechanisms of Ganoderma triterpenes and polysaccharides which can be used for the development of Ganoderma as an anti-cancer agent.

  9. Molecular Pathways: At the Crossroads of Cancer Epigenetics and Immunotherapy. (United States)

    Maio, Michele; Covre, Alessia; Fratta, Elisabetta; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Taverna, Pietro; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Coral, Sandra; Sigalotti, Luca


    Epigenetic regulation allows heritably modulating gene expression profiles without modifying the primary sequence of gDNA. Under physiologic conditions, epigenetic patterns determine tissue-specific gene expression landscapes, gene imprinting, inactivation of chromosome X, and preservation of genomic stability. The most characterized mediators of epigenetic inheritance are gDNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications that cooperate to alter chromatin state and genome transcription. According to these notions, it is not surprising that cancer cells invariantly deploy epigenetic alterations to achieve gene expression patterns required for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. In this context, the recently uncovered use of epigenetic alterations by cancer cells to become stealth from the host's immune recognition has significant immunobiologic relevance in tumor progression, and it appears to have potential clinical usefulness. Indeed, immune evasion is among the major obstacles to further improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies and to increase long-lasting disease control. Luckily, different "epigenetic drugs" able to revert these "epimutations" are available, some of which have already been approved for clinical use. Here, we summarize the immunomodulatory activities of epigenetic drugs that lead to improved immune recognition of cancer cells and focus on the potential of this class of agents in improving the anticancer activity of novel immunotherapies through combinatorial epigenetic immunotherapy approaches. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Genetic Ancestry Is not Associated with Breast Cancer Recurrence or Survival in U.S. Latina Women Enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Pathways Study. (United States)

    Engmann, Natalie J; Ergas, Isaac J; Yao, Song; Kwan, Marilyn L; Roh, Janise M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Kushi, Lawrence H; Fejerman, Laura


    Background: The U.S. Hispanic/Latino population is heterogeneous both socioculturally and by the proportion of European, Indigenous American, and African ancestry of the regions from which individuals originate. A previous study reported that genetic ancestry was associated with breast cancer survival among Latinas, independent of sociodemographic and tumor characteristics, suggesting that a genetic factor associated with ancestry may affect breast cancer survival. Methods: We evaluated the association of genetic ancestry with breast cancer outcomes among 506 Latina women with invasive breast cancer in the Pathways Study, a cohort study within Kaiser Permanente, an integrated health care delivery system. Proportional hazards models were used to assess the effect of ancestry on breast cancer recurrence (53 events), breast cancer-specific mortality (31 events) and all-cause mortality (54 events), with a mean follow-up time of 6 years. Results: Indigenous American ancestry was not associated with breast cancer recurrence [HR = 1.00 per 10% increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-1.16], breast cancer mortality (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.77-1.17), or all-cause mortality (HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.80-1.08). Adjustment for sociodemographic variables, tumor characteristics, and treatment did not alter the associations. Conclusions: Our results suggest that previously reported differences in breast cancer survival by genetic ancestry may be overcome by improving health care access and/or quality. Impact: Improving health care access and quality may reduce breast cancer disparities among U.S. Latinas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1466-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Assessing Patient-Centered Communication in Cancer Care: Stakeholder Perspectives (United States)

    Mazor, Kathleen M.; Gaglio, Bridget; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Alexander, Gwen L.; Stark, Azadeh; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Walsh, Kathleen; Boggs, Jennifer; Lemay, Celeste A.; Firneno, Cassandra; Biggins, Colleen; Blosky, Mary Ann; Arora, Neeraj K.


    Purpose: Patient-centered communication is critical to quality cancer care. Effective communication can help patients and family members cope with cancer, make informed decisions, and effectively manage their care; suboptimal communication can contribute to care breakdowns and undermine clinician-patient relationships. The study purpose was to explore stakeholders' views on the feasibility and acceptability of collecting self-reported patient and family perceptions of communication experiences while receiving cancer care. The results were intended to inform the design, development, and implementation of a structured and generalizable patient-level reporting system. Methods: This was a formative, qualitative study that used semistructured interviews with cancer patients, family members, clinicians, and leaders of health care organizations. The constant comparative method was used to identify major themes in the interview transcripts. Results: A total of 106 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic saturation was achieved. All stakeholders recognized the importance of communication and endorsed efforts to improve communication during cancer care. Patients, clinicians, and leaders expressed concerns about the potential consequences of reports of suboptimal communication experiences, such as damage to the clinician-patient relationship, and the need for effective improvement strategies. Patients and family members would report good communication experiences in order to encourage such practices. Practical and logistic issues were identified. Conclusion: Patient reports of their communication experiences during cancer care could increase understanding of the communication process, stimulate improvements, inform interventions, and provide a basis for evaluating changes in communication practices. This qualitative study provides a foundation for the design and pilot testing of such a patient reporting system. PMID:23943884

  12. Genetic variation in multiple biologic pathways, flavonoid intake, and breast cancer. (United States)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Bradshaw, Patrick T; McCullough, Lauren E; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Steck, Susan E; Fink, Brian N; Xu, Xinran; Ahn, Jiyoung; Ambrosone, Christine B; Crew, Katherine D; Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Chen, Jia; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D


    We previously reported an inverse association between flavonoid intake and breast cancer incidence, which has been confirmed by others, but no studies have considered simultaneously potential interactions of flavonoids with multiple genetic polymorphisms involved in biologically relevant pathways (oxidative stress, carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, and one-carbon metabolism). To estimate interaction effects between flavonoids and 13 polymorphisms in these four pathways on breast cancer risk, we used population-based data (n = 875 cases and 903 controls) and several statistical approaches, including conventional logistic regression and semi-Bayesian hierarchical modeling (incorporating prior information on the possible biologic functions of genes), which also provides biologic pathway-specific effect estimates. Compared to the standard multivariate model, the results from the hierarchical model indicate that gene-by-flavonoid interaction estimates are attenuated, but more precise. In the hierarchical model, the average effect of the deleterious versus beneficial gene, controlling for average flavonoid intake in the DNA repair pathway, and adjusted for the three other biologically relevant pathways (oxidative stress, carcinogen metabolism, and one-carbon metabolism), resulted in a 27 % increase risk for breast cancer [odds ratio = 1.27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.70, 2.29]. However, the CI was wide. Based on results from the semi-Bayesian model, breast cancer risk may be influenced jointly by flavonoid intake and genes involved in DNA repair, but our findings require confirmation.

  13. Developing Effective and Efficient care pathways in chronic Pain: DEEP study protocol. (United States)

    Durham, Justin; Breckons, Matthew; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Exley, Catherine; Steele, Jimmy; Vale, Luke


    Pain affecting the face or mouth and lasting longer than three months ("chronic orofacial pain", COFP) is relatively common in the UK. This study aims to describe and model current care pathways for COFP patients, identify areas where current pathways could be modified, and model whether these changes would improve outcomes for patients and use resources more efficiently. The study takes a prospective operations research approach. A cohort of primary and secondary care COFP patients (n = 240) will be recruited at differing stages of their care in order to follow and analyse their journey through care. The cohort will be followed for two years with data collected at baseline 6, 12, 18, and 24 months on: 1) experiences of the care pathway and its impacts; 2) quality of life; 3) pain; 4) use of health services and costs incurred; 5) illness perceptions. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be used to collect data on patient experiences from a purposive sub-sample of the total cohort (n = 30) at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Four separate appraisal groups (public, patient, clincian, service manager/commissioning) will then be given data from the pathway analysis and asked to determine their priority areas for change. The proposals from appraisal groups will inform an economic modelling exercise. Findings from the economic modelling will be presented as incremental costs, Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), and the incremental cost per QALY gained. At the end of the modelling a series of recommendations for service change will be available for implementation or further trial if necessary. The recent white paper on health and the report from the NHS Forum identified chronic conditions as priority areas and whilst technology can improve outcomes, so can simple, appropriate and well-defined clinical care pathways. Understanding the opportunity cost related to care pathways benefits the wider NHS. This research develops a method to help design efficient systems built

  14. Care strategies and therapeutic pathways for chronic pain patients in Abruzzo Region, Italy. (United States)

    Leuter, C; Piroli, A; Paladini, A; Tudini, M; Varrassi, G


    Chronic pain is considered to be among the most disabling and costly diseases in North America, Europe and Australia. A large survey was conducted on chronic pain in Europe, called Pain in Europe. Italy ranks third in Europe in terms of prevalence, with 26% of the population suffering from chronic pain at some point. In 2010 Italy passed Law 38/2010, to ensure treatment for pain control in patients with oncological diseases as well as in patients with chronic non-cancer pain through a network of care services. This study aims to provide preliminary information regarding the application of L.38/2010 in the Abruzzo region of Italy. A descriptive study was conducted on a non-probabilistic sample of people who attended pain therapy centres of the local health service in 2014. The patients (129) were interviewed by centre staff using a validated questionnaire. Recruitment was carried out by enrolling consecutive cases over a three-month period (February to April). Almost two-thirds of the patients had visited several physicians before requesting help. The initial visit to the pain therapy centre was made after some months in 37.2% of cases, and in 38% of patients it was made years after the onset of pain. The reasons given for this long wait before seeking specialist medical treatment for chronic pain reveal a wait-and-see attitude on the part of patients, who controlled their pain by taking painkillers. Responsibility for this delay in requesting assistance can however also be attributed 'externally' to the fact that patients were not aware that this kind of centre was available. The results of the study describe, in a regional context, a situation in which L.38/2010 is hard to apply. The study showed how the care pathway for these patients is still characterised by difficulty in accessing the network of local services. Clearly, more effort needs to be directed towards an effective application of L.38/2010, with increased availability of resources to develop and

  15. The PI3K/AKT Pathway as a Target for Cancer Treatment. (United States)

    Mayer, Ingrid A; Arteaga, Carlos L


    Anticancer targeted therapies are designed to exploit a particular vulnerability in the tumor, which in most cases results from its dependence on an oncogene and/or loss of a tumor suppressor. Genes in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway are the most frequently altered in human cancers. Aberrant activation of this pathway, as a result of these somatic alterations, is associated with cellular transformation, tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug resistance. Several drugs targeting PI3K/ATK are currently in clinical trials, alone or in combination, in both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. These drugs are the focus of this review.

  16. Metabolic intervention on lipid synthesis converging pathways abrogates prostate cancer growth. (United States)

    Fritz, V; Benfodda, Z; Henriquet, C; Hure, S; Cristol, J-P; Michel, F; Carbonneau, M-A; Casas, F; Fajas, L


    One of the most conserved features of all cancers is a profound reprogramming of cellular metabolism, favoring biosynthetic processes and limiting catalytic processes. With the acquired knowledge of some of these important changes, we have designed a combination therapy in order to force cancer cells to use a particular metabolic pathway that ultimately results in the accumulation of toxic products. This innovative approach consists of blocking lipid synthesis, at the same time that we force the cell, through the inhibition of AMP-activated kinase, to accumulate toxic intermediates, such as malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. This results in excess of oxidative stress and cancer cell death. Our new therapeutic strategy, based on the manipulation of metabolic pathways, will certainly set up the basis for new upcoming studies defining a new paradigm of cancer treatment.

  17. Research advances in sorafenib-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in liver cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chaoya


    Full Text Available Currently, sorafenib is the multi-target inhibitor for the treatment of advanced primary liver cancer, and can effectively prolong the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced primary liver cancer. The application of sorafenib in the targeted therapy for liver cancer has become a hot topic. Major targets or signaling pathways include Raf/Mek/Erk, Jak/Stat, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, VEGFR and PDGFR, STAT, microRNA, Wnt/β-catenin, autolysosome, and tumor-related proteins, and sorafenib can regulate the proliferation, differentiation, metastasis, and apoptosis of liver cancer cells through these targets. This article reviews the current research on the action of sorafenib on these targets or signaling pathways to provide useful references for further clinical research on sorafenib.

  18. A Review of mTOR Pathway Inhibitors in Gynecologic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina de Melo


    Full Text Available The treatment of advanced gynecologic cancers remains palliative in most of cases. Although systemic treatment has entered into the era of targeted drugs the antitumor efficacies of current therapies are still limited. In this context there is a great need for more active treatment and rationally designed targeted therapies. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR is a signaling pathway in mammal cells that coordinates important cell activities. It has a critical function in the survival, growth, and proliferation of malignant cells and was object of important research in the last two decades. The mTOR pathway emerges as an attractive therapeutic target in cancer because it serves as a convergence point for many growth stimuli and, through its downstream substrates, controls cellular processes that contribute to the initiation and maintenance of cancer. Aberrant PI3K-dependent signaling occurs frequently in a wide range of tumor types, including endometrial, cervical, and ovarian cancers. The present study reviewed the available evidence regarding the potential impact of some mTOR pathway inhibitors in the treatment of gynecological cancer. Few advances in medical management have occurred in recent years in the treatment of advanced or recurrent gynecological malignancies, and a poor prognosis remains. Rationally designed molecularly targeted therapy is an emerging and important option in this setting; then more investigation in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-targeted therapies is warranted.

  19. Clinical and Prognostic Value of the C-Met/HGF Signaling Pathway in Cervical Cancer. (United States)

    Boromand, Nadia; Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Sales, Soodabeh Shahid; Farazestanian, Marjaneh; Gharib, Masoumeh; Fiuji, Hamid; Behboodi, Negin; Ghobadi, Niloofar; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Ferns, Gordon A; Avan, Amir


    Aberrant activation of the HGF/c-Met signalling pathway is reported to be associated with cell proliferation, progression, and metastasis features of several tumor types, including cervical cancer, suggesting that it may be of potential value as a novel therapeutic target. Furthermore, HPV-positive patients had a higher serum level of HGF or c-Met protein, compared with HPV-negative patients. c-Met or HGF overexpression in lesions of cervical cancer is reported to be related to a poorer prognosis, and hence this may be of value as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. Several approaches have been developed for targeting HGF and/or c-Met. One of these is crizotinib (a dual c-Met/ALK inhibitor). This has been approved by FDA for the treatment of lung-cancer. Further investigations are required to evaluate and optimize the use of c-Met inhibitors in cervical cancer or parallel targeting signalling pathway associated/activated via MET/HGF pathway. The main aim of current review was to give an overview of the potential of the c-Met/HGF pathway as a prognostic, or predictive biomarker in cervical cancer. This article isprotected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Regorafenib inhibited gastric cancer cells growth and invasion via CXCR4 activated Wnt pathway. (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Qi; Tang, Lei; Sun, Li; Han, Ting; Wang, Li-Wei; Xiao, Xiu-Ying


    Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor. Recently, several clinical trials have revealed that regorafenib has an anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer. However, only part of patients benefit from regorafenib, and the mechanisms of regorafenib's anti-tumor effect need further demonstrating. In this study, we would assess the potential anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of regorafenib in gastric cancer cells, and explore novel biomarkers for patients selecting of regorafenib. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells were analyzed via cell proliferation and invasion. The underlying mechanisms were demonstrated using molecular biology techniques. We found that regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation and invasion at the concentration of 20μmol/L and in a dose dependent manner. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib related to the decreased expression of CXCR4, and elevated expression and activation of CXCR4 could reverse the inhibition effect of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells. Further studies revealed that regorafenib reduced the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and led to decreased expression of Wnt pathway target genes, while overexpression and activation of CXCR4 could attenuate the inhibition effect of regorafenib on Wnt/β-Catenin pathway. Our findings demonstrated that regorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and further reducing the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway.

  1. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: new genes in confined pathways. (United States)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard


    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among affected families without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The new pathogenic variants are rare, posing challenges to estimation of risk attribution through patient cohorts. In this Review article, we examine HBOC genes, focusing on their role in genome maintenance, the possibilities for functional testing of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making.

  2. Will PI3K pathway inhibitors be effective as single agents in patients with cancer? (United States)

    Garrett, Joan T.; Chakrabarty, Anindita; Arteaga, Carlos L.


    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis regulates essential cellular functions including cell survival, proliferation, metabolism, migration, and angiogenesis. The PI3K pathway is activated in human cancers by mutation, amplification, and deletion of genes encoding components of this pathway. The critical role of PI3K in cancer has led to the development of drugs targeting the effector mechanisms of this signaling network. Recent studies have shown that inhibition at multiple levels of the PI3K pathway results in FOXO-dependent feedback reactivation of several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which, in turn, limit the sustained inhibition of this pathway and attenuates the action of therapeutic antagonists. This suggests that if used as single agents, PI3K pathway inhibitors may have limited clinical activity. We propose herein that to successfully target the output of the PI3K pathway in cancer cells, combination therapies that hinder these compensatory mechanisms should be used. Thus, combination therapies that target RTKs, PI3K, and mTOR activities may be required to maximize the clinical benefit derived from treatment with these inhibitors. PMID:22248929

  3. The economic cost of pathways to care in first episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heslin, Margaret


    Few studies have examined the economic cost of psychoses other than schizophrenia and there have been no studies of the economic cost of pathways to care in patients with their first episode of psychosis. The aims of this study were to explore the economic cost of pathways to care in patients with a first episode of psychosis and to examine variation in costs. Data on pathways to care for first episode psychosis patients referred to specialist mental health services in south-east London and Nottingham between 1997-2000. Costs of pathway events were estimated and compared between diagnostic groups. The average costs for patients in south-east London were £54 (CI £33-£75) higher, compared to patients in Nottingham. Across both centres unemployed patients had £25 (CI £7-£43) higher average costs compared to employed patients. Higher costs were associated with being unemployed and living in south-east London and these differences could not be accounted for by any single factor. This should be considered when the National Health Service (NHS) is making decisions about funding.

  4. Oncologists' perspectives on concurrent palliative care in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. (United States)

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Ahles, Tim


    The purpose of this study was to understand oncology clinicians' perspectives about the care of advanced cancer patients following the completion of the ENABLE II (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends) randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a concurrent oncology palliative care model. This was a qualitative interview study of 35 oncology clinicians about their approach to patients with advanced cancer and the effect of the ENABLE II RCT. Oncologists believed that integrating palliative care at the time of an advanced cancer diagnosis enhanced patient care and complemented their practice. Self-assessment of their practice with advanced cancer patients comprised four themes: (1) treating the whole patient, (2) focusing on quality versus quantity of life, (3) “some patients just want to fight,” and (4) helping with transitions; timing is everything. Five themes comprised oncologists' views on the complementary role of palliative care: (1) “refer early and often,” (2) referral challenges: “Palliative” equals “hospice”; “Heme patients are different,” (3) palliative care as consultants or co-managers, (4) palliative care “shares the load,” and (5) ENABLE II facilitated palliative care integration. Oncologists described the RCT as holistic and complementary, and as a significant factor in adopting concurrent care as a standard of care.

  5. The RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway in cancer cell-selective apoptosis (United States)

    Kaneda, Yasufumi


    A replication-incompetent hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Fragments of the viral RNA genome transported by HVJ-E are recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). Specific pro-apoptotic factor are selectively upregulated in cancer cells downstream of the RIG-I/MAVS pathway. PMID:23734313

  6. Challenges faced by palliative care physicians when caring for doctors with advanced cancer. (United States)

    Noble, S I R; Nelson, A; Finlay, I G


    It is possible that patients with advanced cancer, who are from the medical profession, have different or additional care needs than other patients. Previous training, professional experiences and access to information and services may influence their needs and subsequent illness behaviour. Caring for ;one of our own' may also evoke particular feelings and emotions from health professionals involved in their care and pose unique challenges in the delivery of equitable patient-centred care. To explore the experiences of palliative care physicians when caring for members of the medical profession with advanced incurable cancer. Semi-structured interviews exploring the experiences of senior palliative care physicians were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) for emergent themes. Data were collected from ten senior palliative care physicians with a combined total of 107 years of palliative care career experience, caring for a reported combined estimate of 120 doctor-patients. On the basis of their reflections, palliative care physicians reported that doctor-patients appear to find it difficult to assume a patient role, especially at a time they are likely to be truly vulnerable. This patient group will routinely attempt to maintain control of their care and environment using various strategies. These include self-referrals, accessing their own tests, directing the consultation and putting barriers up to psychosocial aspects of palliative care. Doctor-patients' general practitioners are at risk of exclusion from the management of care, and referral to palliative care services appears to occur later in the illness journey of doctor-patients compared to lay patients. Participants recalled how caring for colleagues evokes powerful emotional responses, such as a strong desire to provide the best care possible as well as feelings of anxiety. They frequently find themselves under pressure to disclose

  7. Residency pathways to ambulatory care practice: Essential insights for students, residents, and educators. (United States)

    Westberg, Sarah M; Beatty, Stuart J; Corona, Andrea R; Deines, Sarah; Gunning, Karen M; Gurgle, Holly E; Holtan, Haley S; Marciniak, Macary Weck; McConnell, Karen J; McGivney, Melissa A Somma; Patel, Rachana J


    To provide a guiding document describing residency training opportunities in ambulatory care for students, postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residents, practicing pharmacists, and pharmacy educators. Student pharmacists, residents, practitioners, and educators can benefit from a guiding document describing the various pathways to develop as an ambulatory care practitioner through residency training. The benefits and differences of PGY1 and postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) ambulatory care residency programs are included. There are many possible training options for pharmacists interested in pursuing a career in ambulatory care pharmacy practice. In addition to the required ambulatory and community experience required for all Doctorate of Pharmacy students, postgraduate training in an ambulatory environment can allow for specialization. Candidates for residency training can complete a PGY1 pharmacy residency or a PGY1 community-based pharmacy residency, possibly followed by a PGY2 ambulatory care residency. Career paths for ambulatory care pharmacists vary regionally across the country according to competition for positions, local availability of training programs, and the experience of regional leaders. A comprehensive description of these available training pathways and advantages of each are beneficial for students, residents, practicing pharmacists, and educators. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methylseleninic acid suppresses pancreatic cancer growth involving multiple pathways. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Zhe; Xiong, Hua; Cheng, Yan; Liao, Joshua Dezhong; Deng, Yibin; Lü, Junxuan


    As a potential novel agent for treating pancreatic cancer, methylseleninic acid (MSeA) was evaluated in cell culture and xenograft models. Results showed that MSeA induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a majority of human and mouse pancreatic cancer cell lines, but G2 arrest in human PANC-1 and PANC-28 cell lines. In contrast to our previous finding in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells having a lack of P53 activation by MSeA, induction of G2 arrest in PANC-1 cells was accompanied by increased mutant P53 Ser15 phosphorylation, upregulation of P53-targets P21Cip1 and GADD45 and G2 checkpoint kinase (Chk2) activation, suggestive of DNA damage responses. A rapid inhibition of AKT phosphorylation was followed by reduced mTOR signaling and increased autophagy in PANC-1 cells attenuating caspase-mediated apoptosis execution. Furthermore, daily oral treatment with MSeA (3 mg Se/kg body weight) significantly suppressed growth of subcutaneously inoculated PANC-1 xenograft in SCID mice. Immunohistochemical analyses detected increased p-Ser15 P53, P21Cip1, pS139-H2AX (DNA damage responses), and caspase-3 cleavage and decreased pSer473AKT and Ki67 proliferative index and reduced intratumor vascular density in MSeA-treated xenograft. These results provide impetus for further research of MSeA in the therapy and/or chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer.

  9. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacy, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Liu, Lianyong [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Punan Hospital, Shanghai 200125 (China); He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Tian, Jianqing, E-mail: [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China)


    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • CHIP is significantly upregulated in thyroid cancer cells. • Overexpression of CHIP facilitates proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • Silencing of CHIP inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • CHIP promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via activating the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  10. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering and Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, #268, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Jianwen, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering and Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, #268, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ni, Lei, E-mail: [Department of Respiration, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)


    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  11. Availability of stage at diagnosis, cancer treatment delay and compliance with cancer guidelines as cancer registry indicators for cancer care in Europe: Results of EUROCHIP-3 survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Kwast, A.; Gavin, A.; Baili, P.; Otter, R.


    EUROCHIP (European Cancer Health Indicators Project) focuses on understanding inequalities in the cancer burden, care and survival by the indicators “stage at diagnosis,” “cancer treatment delay” and “compliance with cancer guidelines” as the most important indicators. Our study aims at providing

  12. Critical pathways for the management of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia in institutionalised health care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daftari Ashi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a complex disease in which several providers should interact continuously and in a coordinated manner to provide proper health care. However, standardizing criteria to treat patients with preeclampsia is problematical and severe flaws have been observed in the management of the disease. This paper describes a set of critical pathways (CPs designed to provide uniform criteria for clinical decision-making at different levels of care of pregnant patients with preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Methods Clinicians and researchers from different countries participated in the construction of the CPs. The CPs were developed using the following steps: a Definition of the conceptual framework; b Identification of potential users: primary care physicians and maternal and child health nurses in ambulatory settings; ob/gyn and intensive care physicians in secondary and tertiary care levels. c Structural development. Results The CPs address the following care processes: 1. Screening for preeclampsia, risk assessment and classification according to the level of risk. 2. Management of preeclampsia at primary care clinics. 3. Evaluation and management of preeclampsia at secondary and tertiary care hospitals: 4. Criteria for clinical decision-making between conservative management and expedited delivery of patients with severe preeclampsia. Conclusion Since preeclampsia continues to be one of the primary causes of maternal deaths and morbidity worldwide, the expected impact of these CPs is the contribution to improving health care quality in both developed and developing countries. The CPs are designed to be applied in a complex health care system, where different physicians and health providers at different levels of care should interact continuously and in a coordinated manner to provide care to all preeclamptic women. Although the CPs were developed using evidence-based criteria, they could require careful evaluation and

  13. The Future of LGBT Cancer Care: Practice and Research Implications. (United States)

    Rice, David; Schabath, Matthew B


    To synthesize state of the knowledge collected in this volume and propose future directions for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer practice, education, research, and advocacy. Current and extant literature. Health care disparities that are known but not yet fully elucidated in the LGBT population carry into the cancer arena. Substantially more effort is required in the domains of patient care, nursing practice, nursing and patient-facing services provider education, patient education, nursing and interprofessional research, governmental commitment, professional organization action, and patient advocacy. Professional nurses are committed to the uniqueness of each individual and respect and value the health and well-being of each individual. To that commitment, oncology nurses are positioned to advance the research in the field, which will help to clarify the issues and concerns related to LGBT cancer, address the health care inequities in this important population, and lead to improved outcomes for all. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Teleoncology: current and future applications for improving cancer care globally. (United States)

    Hazin, Ribhi; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim


    Access to quality cancer care is often unavailable in low-income and middle-income countries, and also in rural or remote areas of high-income countries. Teleoncology-oncology applications of medical telecommunications, including pathology, radiology, and other related disciplines-has the potential to enhance access to and quality of clinical cancer care, and to improve education and training. Implementation of teleoncology in the developing world requires an approach tailored to priorities, resources, and needs. Teleoncology can best achieve its proposed goals through consistent and long-term application. We review teleoncology initiatives that have the potential to decrease cancer-care inequality between resource-poor and resource-rich institutions and offer guidelines for the development of teleoncology programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Engagement and experience with cancer-related follow-up care among young adult survivors of childhood cancer after transfer to adult care. (United States)

    Szalda, Dava; Pierce, Lisa; Hobbie, Wendy; Ginsberg, Jill P; Brumley, Lauren; Wasik, Monika; Li, Yimei; Schwartz, Lisa A


    Young adult survivors (YAS) of childhood cancer require annual adult-focused, cancer-related follow-up given their risk for late effects of treatment. This study describes perception of and engagement with adult-focused, cancer-related follow-up care and general health care among YAS formally transferred to adult care from pediatric survivorship care. YAS transferred from pediatric survivorship care in the prior 1-5 years completed measures indicating engagement with cancer-related follow-up care, other health care utilization, content of communication by providers, quality of cancer-related care, and satisfaction with health care in the prior year. Eighty YAS (M age = 27.7 years, M time since diagnosis = 10.4 years) participated. Just over half of YAS surveyed (n = 44, 55%) endorsed continuing cancer-related follow-up care since transfer. Those with cancer-related follow-up endorsed seeing subspecialty survivorship providers (n = 16, 44%) and primary care providers (n = 22, 50%) or utilizing a shared care model (n = 6, 14%). About a third of YAS endorsed seeing subspecialists (n = 29, 36%) or using other support services (n = 22, 27%). YAS-perceived content of communication varied significantly depending on care model with less cancer-related content being discussed by primary care providers, though perceived quality of cancer-related care and satisfaction with health care was generally favorable. YAS report less than optimal engagement in cancer-related follow-up care and communication in their health care encounters. Young adult survivors should receive anticipatory guidance about expectations for delivery and content of adult-focused cancer-related follow-up care.

  16. The integrated care pathway for post stroke patients (iCaPPS): a shared care approach between stakeholders in areas with limited access to specialist stroke care services. (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Aznida Firzah; Mohd Nordin, Nor Azlin; Ali, Mohd Fairuz; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah; Sulong, Saperi; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed


    Lack of intersectoral collaboration within public health sectors compound efforts to promote effective multidisciplinary post stroke care after discharge following acute phase. A coordinated, primary care-led care pathway to manage post stroke patients residing at home in the community was designed by an expert panel of specialist stroke care providers to help overcome fragmented post stroke care in areas where access is limited or lacking. Expert panel discussions comprising Family Medicine Specialists, Neurologists, Rehabilitation Physicians and Therapists, and Nurse Managers from Ministry of Health and acadaemia were conducted. In Phase One, experts chartered current care processes in public healthcare facilities, from acute stroke till discharge and also patients who presented late with stroke symptoms to public primary care health centres. In Phase Two, modified Delphi technique was employed to obtain consensus on recommendations, based on current evidence and best care practices. Care algorithms were designed around existing work schedules at public health centres. Indication for patients eligible for monitoring by primary care at public health centres were identified. Gaps in transfer of care occurred either at post discharge from acute care or primary care patients diagnosed at or beyond subacute phase at health centres. Essential information required during transfer of care from tertiary care to primary care providers was identified. Care algorithms including appropriate tools were summarised to guide primary care teams to identify patients requiring further multidisciplinary interventions. Shared care approaches with Specialist Stroke care team were outlined. Components of the iCaPPS were developed simultaneously: (i) iCaPPS-Rehab© for rehabilitation of stroke patients at community level (ii) iCaPPS-Swallow© guided the primary care team to screen and manage stroke related swallowing problems. Coordinated post stroke care monitoring service for patients

  17. Developing cancer services strategy in primary care in England: primary care trust managers' views of the primary care cancer leads initiative. (United States)

    Leese, Brenda; Heywood, Phil; Allgar, Victoria; Walker, Reg; Darr, Aamra; Din, Ikhlaq


    Primary care cancer lead clinicians (PCCLs) act strategically in primary care trusts (PCTs) in England to improve communication and understanding of cancer across primary and secondary care and provide a link between Cancer Networks and primary care. The aim is to evaluate the first three years of the initiative. A postal questionnaire was sent to all PCT chief executives in all PCTs in England and some were passed on to other PCT managers for completion. The response rate was 61 per cent. PCT directors of public health were the largest group of respondents (29 per cent). Most (74 per cent) PCCLs were GPs and 22 per cent were nurses. PCCLs were most likely to focus on palliative care and preventive services. Key achievements were identified as raising awareness of cancer, developing relationships and promoting primary care. The personal skills of the PCCLs were important as was support of colleagues at all levels. Lack of time was a major barrier to achievement, as was a lack of understanding of the role from others. Links with the Cancer Networks were being developed. About 85 per cent of managers wanted the role to continue. The paper illustrates that PCCLs are at the forefront of improving cancer services in primary care. They are particularly important in view of the priority of reducing premature deaths and promotion of healthy lifestyles.

  18. Identification of significant pathways in gastric cancer based on protein-protein interaction networks and cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongwang Hu


    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers worldwide. However, despite its clinical importance, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the aggressiveness of this cancer are still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biology, genetics and molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer would be useful in developing novel targeted approaches for treating this disease. In this study we used protein-protein interaction networks and cluster analysis to comprehensively investigate the cellular pathways involved in gastric cancer. A primary immunodeficiency pathway, focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interactions and the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 were identified as four important pathways associated with the progression of gastric cancer. The genes in these pathways, e.g., ZAP70, IGLL1, CD79A, COL6A3, COL3A1, COL1A1, CYP2C18 and CYP2C9, may be considered as potential therapeutic targets for gastric cancer.

  19. Identification of mutated driver pathways in cancer using a multi-objective optimization model. (United States)

    Zheng, Chun-Hou; Yang, Wu; Chong, Yan-Wen; Xia, Jun-Feng


    New-generation high-throughput technologies, including next-generation sequencing technology, have been extensively applied to solve biological problems. As a result, large cancer genomics projects such as the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium are producing large amount of rich and diverse data in multiple cancer types. The identification of mutated driver genes and driver pathways from these data is a significant challenge. Genome aberrations in cancer cells can be divided into two types: random 'passenger mutation' and functional 'driver mutation'. In this paper, we introduced a Multi-objective Optimization model based on a Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) to solve the maximum weight submatrix problem, which can be employed to identify driver genes and driver pathways promoting cancer proliferation. The maximum weight submatrix problem defined to find mutated driver pathways is based on two specific properties, i.e., high coverage and high exclusivity. The multi-objective optimization model can adjust the trade-off between high coverage and high exclusivity. We proposed an integrative model by combining gene expression data and mutation data to improve the performance of the MOGA algorithm in a biological context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dysregulation of signaling pathways associated with innate antibacterial immunity in patients with pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Słotwiński


    Full Text Available Disorders of innate antibacterial response are of fundamental importance in the development of gastrointestinal cancers, including pancreatic cancer. Multi-regulatory properties of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs (e.g., regulation of proliferation, the activity of NF-κB, gene transcription of apoptosis proteins, regulation of angiogenesis, HIF-1α protein expression are used in experimental studies to better understand the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, for early diagnosis, and for more effective therapeutic intervention. There are known numerous examples of TLR agonists (e.g., TLR2/5 ligands, TLR6, TLR9 of antitumor effect. The direction of these studies is promising, but a small number of them does not allow for an accurate assessment of the impact of TLR expression disorders, proteins of these signaling pathways, or attempts to block or stimulate them, on the results of treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. It is known, however, that the expression disorders of proteins of innate antibacterial response signaling pathways occur not only in tumor tissue but also in peripheral blood leukocytes of pancreatic cancer patients (e.g., increased expression of TLR4, NOD1, TRAF6, which is one of the most important factors facilitating further tumor development. This review mainly focuses on the genetic aspects of signaling pathway disorders associated with innate antibacterial response in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  1. Polyphenolic Nutrients in Cancer Chemoprevention and Metastasis: Role of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) Pathway. (United States)

    Amawi, Haneen; Ashby, Charles R; Samuel, Temesgen; Peraman, Ramalingam; Tiwari, Amit K


    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer metastasis. Polyphenols have been reported to be efficacious in the prevention of cancer and reversing cancer progression. Recently, the antimetastatic efficacy of polyphenols has been reported, thereby expanding the potential use of these compounds beyond chemoprevention. Polyphenols may affect EMT pathways, which are involved in cancer metastasis; for example, polyphenols increase the levels of epithelial markers, but downregulate the mesenchymal markers. Polyphenols also alter the level of expression and functionality of important proteins in other signaling pathways that control cellular mesenchymal characteristics. However, the specific proteins that are directly affected by polyphenols in these signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to analyze current evidence regarding the role of polyphenols in attenuating EMT-mediated cancer progression and metastasis. We also discuss the role of the most important polyphenol subclasses and members of the polyphenols in reversing metastasis and targeting EMT. Finally, limitations and future directions to improve our understanding in this field are discussed.

  2. Young adult cancer survivors' follow-up care expectations of oncologists and primary care physicians. (United States)

    Hugh-Yeun, Kiara; Kumar, Divjot; Moghaddamjou, Ali; Ruan, Jenny Y; Cheung, Winson Y


    Young adult cancer survivors face unique challenges associated with their illness. While both oncologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) may be involved in the follow-up care of these cancer survivors, we hypothesized that there is a lack of clarity regarding each physician's roles and responsibilities. A self-administered survey was mailed to young adult cancer survivors in British Columbia, Canada, who were aged 20 to 39 years at the time of diagnosis and alive at 2 to 5 years following the diagnosis to capture their expectations of oncologists and PCPs in various important domains of cancer survivorship care. Multivariate logistic regression models that adjusted for confounders were constructed to examine for predictors of the different expectations. Of 722 young cancer survivors surveyed, 426 (59%) responded. Among them, the majority were White women with breast cancer. Oncologists were expected to follow the patient's most recent cancer and treatment-related side effects while PCPs were expected to manage ongoing and future cancer surveillance as well as general preventative care. Neither physician was perceived to be responsible for addressing the return to daily activities, reintegration to interpersonal relationships, or sexual function. Older survivors were significantly less likely to expect oncologists (p = 0.03) and PCPs (p = 0.01) to discuss family planning when compared to their younger counterparts. Those who were White were significantly more likely to expect PCPs to discuss comorbidities (p = 0.009) and preventative care (p = 0.001). Young adult cancer survivors have different expectations of oncologists and PCPs with respect to their follow-up care. Physicians need to better clarify their roles in order to further improve the survivorship phase of cancer care for young adults. Young adult cancer survivors have different expectations of their oncologists and PCPs. Clarification of the roles of each physician group during follow-up can

  3. Play as a care strategy for children with cancer


    Lima, Kálya Yasmine Nunes de; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira


    OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of play in the care process as perceived by children with cancer. METHOD: A descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study conducted in a children's cancer unit in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Data were collected between October 2013 and January 2014 by means of photographic records and semi-structured interviews with eight children, and content analysis with emphasis on two categories: Auxiliary instruments during play; and The influence of play ...

  4. Critical Pathways for Post-Emergency Outpatient Diagnosis and Treatment: Tools to Improve the Value of Emergency Care (United States)

    Schuur, Jeremiah D.; Baugh, Christopher W.; Hess, Erik P.; Hilton, Joshua A.; Pines, Jesse M.; Asplin, Brent R.


    The decision to admit a patient to the hospital after an emergency department (ED) visit is expensive, frequently not evidence-based, and variable. Outpatient critical pathways are a promising approach to reduce hospital admission after emergency care. Critical pathways exist to risk-stratify patients for potentially serious diagnoses (e.g. acute myocardial infarction) or evaluate response to therapy (e.g. community acquired pneumonia) within a short time period (i.e. less than 36 hours), to determine if further hospital-based acute care is needed. Yet, such pathways are variably used while many patients are admitted for conditions for which they could be treated as outpatients. In this article, the authors propose a model of post-ED critical pathways, describe their role in emergency care, list common diagnoses that are amenable to critical pathways in the outpatient setting, and propose a research agenda to address barriers and solutions to increase the use of outpatient critical pathways. If emergency providers are to routinely conduct rapid evaluations in outpatient or observation settings, they must have several conditions at their disposal: 1) evidence-based tools to accurately risk-stratify patients for protocolized care, 2) systems of care that reliably facilitate workup in the outpatient setting, and 3) a medical environment conducive to non-inpatient pathways, with aligned risks and incentives among patients, providers, and payers. Increased use of critical pathways after emergency care is a potential way to improve the value of emergency care. PMID:21676050

  5. Non-specific chemical inhibition of the Fanconi anemia pathway sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemont Céline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum compounds such as cisplatin and carboplatin are DNA crosslinking agents widely used for cancer chemotherapy. However, the effectiveness of platinum compounds is often tempered by the acquisition of cellular drug resistance. Until now, no pharmacological approach has successfully overcome cisplatin resistance in cancer treatment. Since the Fanconi anemia (FA pathway is a DNA damage response pathway required for cellular resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, identification of small molecules that inhibit the FA pathway may reveal classes of chemicals that sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin. Results Through a cell-based screening assay of over 16,000 chemicals, we identified 26 small molecules that inhibit ionizing radiation and cisplatin-induced FANCD2 foci formation, a marker of FA pathway activity, in multiple human cell lines. Most of these small molecules also compromised ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair, indicating that they are not selective toward the regulation of FANCD2. These compounds include known inhibitors of the proteasome, cathepsin B, lysosome, CHK1, HSP90, CDK and PKC, and several uncharacterized chemicals including a novel proteasome inhibitor (Chembridge compound 5929407. Isobologram analyses demonstrated that half of the identified molecules sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. Among them, 9 demonstrated increased efficiency toward FA pathway-proficient, cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Six small molecules, including bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor, CA-074-Me (cathepsin B inhibitor and 17-AAG (HSP90 inhibitor, synergized with cisplatin specifically in FA-proficient ovarian cancer cells (2008 + FANCF, but not in FA-deficient isogenic cells (2008. In addition, geldanamycin (HSP90 inhibitor and two CHK1 inhibitors (UCN-01 and SB218078 exhibited a significantly stronger synergism with cisplatin in FA

  6. American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. (United States)

    Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A


    The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1,073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.This guideline was developed through a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has been published jointly by invitation and consent in both CA: A Cancer Journal for

  7. The voice of experience: results from Cancer Control New Zealand's first national cancer care survey. (United States)

    O'Brien, Inga; Britton, Emma; Sarfati, Diana; Naylor, Wayne; Borman, Barry; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Simpson, Andrew; Tamblyn, Craig; Atkinson, Chris


    The 2009 Cancer Care Survey aimed to gather information from patients about their experiences receiving outpatient cancer care. In mid-2009, Cancer Control New Zealand sent an NRC+Picker postal survey to a stratified sample of 3251 eligible adults, who had received outpatient cancer care between October 2008 and March 2009. Eight cancer treatment facilities across New Zealand provided patient lists from which potential respondents were selected. The final response rate to the survey was 68%. Most of the patients surveyed responded very positively to questions related to specialist care coordination (91% positive response; 95%CI: 90-93), the level of privacy (87% positive response; 95%CI: 85-89), and the dignity and respect provided by healthcare professionals (86% positive response; 95%CI: 85-88). However, patients tended to be much less positive about the level of information they received on the effects of cancer treatment on their day-to-day life (responses ranging between 30% and 40% positive) and the level of emotional support provided (36% positive response; 95%CI: 33-39). Responses from different cancer services tended to follow similar patterns, although for twelve questions there was at least a 20% difference in response between services. Overall, patients rated their outpatient cancer care experiences as positive, but important gaps exist in the provision of information, emotional support, and treating patients within the context of their living situation. Cancer patient experience surveys can achieve high response rates and generate useful information on patient perceptions of their care. This data can be used to inform quality improvement efforts at both national and cancer treatment service levels.

  8. Pharmacopuncture for Cancer Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cheon


    Full Text Available Background. Pharmacopuncture, injection to acupoints with pharmacological medication or herbal medicine, is a new acupuncture therapy widely available in Korea and China for cancer-related symptoms. However, the evidence is yet to be clear. Objective. To determine pharmacopuncture’s effectiveness on cancer-related symptoms. Methods. Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture in cancer patients. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results. Twenty-two studies involving 2,459 patients were included. Five trials of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV underwent meta-analysis. Pharmacopuncture significantly relieved severity of CINV compared with control group (3 trials, risk ratio (RR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.14–1.44. The frequency of CINV was also significantly reduced with pharmacopuncture (2 trials, RR 2.47, 95% CI = 2.12–2.89. Seventeen trials studied various symptoms, and in most studies, pharmacopuncture significantly relieved pain, ileus, hiccup, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in various cancer patients. ROB was generally high. Conclusion. It may be suggested with caution that pharmacopuncture may help various symptom relief in cancer patients, but it is hard to draw a firm conclusion due to clinical heterogeneity and high ROB of the included studies, hence warranting further investigation.

  9. IT-supported integrated care pathways for diabetes: A compilation and review of good practices. (United States)

    Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm; de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; de la Calle, Matias; de Sabata, Maria Stella; Hauck, Bastian; Montante, Sabrina; Moritz, Annette; Pelizzola, Dario; Saraheimo, Markku; Guldemond, Nick A


    Integrated Care Pathways (ICPs) are a method for the mutual decision-making and organization of care for a well-defined group of patients during a well-defined period. The aim of a care pathway is to enhance the quality of care by improving patient outcomes, promoting patient safety, increasing patient satisfaction, and optimizing the use of resources. To describe this concept, different names are used, e.g. care pathways and integrated care pathways. Modern information technologies (IT) can support ICPs by enabling patient empowerment, better management, and the monitoring of care provided by multidisciplinary teams. This study analyses ICPs across Europe, identifying commonalities and success factors to establish good practices for IT-supported ICPs in diabetes care. A mixed-method approach was applied, combining desk research on 24 projects from the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) with follow-up interviews of project participants, and a non-systematic literature review. We applied a Delphi technique to select process and outcome indicators, derived from different literature sources which were compiled and applied for the identification of successful good practices. Desk research identified sixteen projects featuring IT-supported ICPs, mostly derived from the EIP on AHA, as good practices based on our criteria. Follow-up interviews were then conducted with representatives from 9 of the 16 projects to gather information not publicly available and understand how these projects were meeting the identified criteria. In parallel, the non-systematic literature review of 434 PubMed search results revealed a total of eight relevant projects. On the basis of the selected EIP on AHA project data and non-systematic literature review, no commonalities with regard to defined process or outcome indicators could be identified through our approach. Conversely, the research produced a heterogeneous picture in all aspects of the projects

  10. [Radiation therapy in breast cancer. Education and care nurses]. (United States)

    Castaños Jaúregui, Iratxe; Balsa Marco, José Carmelo


    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. One in ten women must face breast cancer during her life. Radiotherapy is an essential part of the treatment. 87% of patient undergoing Radiotherapy will experience radiodermitis. The care during the treatment is part of the daily practice of the nursing staff In the nursing consultation nurses give to the patient self-care recommendations. It's important that the patient follows these recommendations given by the nurse in order to prevent the appearance of the possible side effects.

  11. An action plan for translating cancer survivorship research into care. (United States)

    Alfano, Catherine M; Smith, Tenbroeck; de Moor, Janet S; Glasgow, Russell E; Khoury, Muin J; Hawkins, Nikki A; Stein, Kevin D; Rechis, Ruth; Parry, Carla; Leach, Corinne R; Padgett, Lynne; Rowland, Julia H


    To meet the complex needs of a growing number of cancer survivors, it is essential to accelerate the translation of survivorship research into evidence-based interventions and, as appropriate, recommendations for care that may be implemented in a wide variety of settings. Current progress in translating research into care is stymied, with results of many studies un- or underutilized. To better understand this problem and identify strategies to encourage the translation of survivorship research findings into practice, four agencies (American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, LIVE STRONG: Foundation, National Cancer Institute) hosted a meeting in June, 2012, titled: "Biennial Cancer Survivorship Research Conference: Translating Science to Care." Meeting participants concluded that accelerating science into care will require a coordinated, collaborative effort by individuals from diverse settings, including researchers and clinicians, survivors and families, public health professionals, and policy makers. This commentary describes an approach stemming from that meeting to facilitate translating research into care by changing the process of conducting research-improving communication, collaboration, evaluation, and feedback through true and ongoing partnerships. We apply the T0-T4 translational process model to survivorship research and provide illustrations of its use. The resultant framework is intended to orient stakeholders to the role of their work in the translational process and facilitate the transdisciplinary collaboration needed to translate basic discoveries into best practices regarding clinical care, self-care/management, and community programs for cancer survivors. Finally, we discuss barriers to implementing translational survivorship science identified at the meeting, along with future directions to accelerate this process. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  12. [Palliative care in patients without cancer: Impact of the end-of-life care team]. (United States)

    Nishikawa, Mitsunori; Yokoe, Yuriko; Kubokawa, Naomi; Hukuda, Koji; Hattori, Hideyuki; Hong, Young-Jae; Miura, Hisayuki; Shibasaki, Masataka; Endo, Hidetoshi; Takeda, Jun; Odate, Mitsuru; Senda, Kazuyoshi; Nakashima, Kazumitsu


    Palliative care improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing problems associated with life-threatening illnesses by promoting the prevention and relief of suffering. Palliative care in Japan has been developed mainly for cancer patients. At the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, an end-of-life care team (EOLCT) has been developed to promote palliative care for patients without cancer. In the first 6 months of its operation, 109 requests were received by the team, 40% of which were for patients without cancer or related disease, including dementia, frailty due to advanced age, chronic respiratory failure, chronic heart failure, and intractable neurologic diseases. The main purpose of the EOLCT is to alleviate suffering. The relevant activities of the team include the use of opioids, providing family care, and giving support in decision-making (advance care planning) regarding withholding; enforcement; and withdrawal of mechanical ventilators, gastric feeding tubes, and artificial alimentation. The EOLCT is also involved in ongoing discussions of ethical problems. The team is actively engaged in the activities of the Japanese Geriatric Society and contributes to the development of decision-making guidelines for end-of-life by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The EOLCT can be helpful in promoting palliative care for patients with diseases other than cancer. The team offers support during times of difficulty and decision-making.

  13. Smarter palliative care for cancer: Use of smartphone applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Rani Jamwal


    Full Text Available Smartphones are technologically advanced mobile phone devices which use software similar to computer-based devices as a user-friendly interface. This review article is aimed to inform the palliative care professionals, cancer patients and their caregivers about the role of smartphone applications (apps in the delivery of palliative care services, through a brief review of existing literature on the development, feasibility, analysis, and effectiveness of such apps. There is a dearth need for sincere palliative care clinicians to work together with software professionals to develop the suitable smartphone apps in accordance with the family/caregivers' necessities and patients' biopsychosocial characteristics that influence the technology driven evidence informed palliative cancer care.

  14. Early stage cervical cancer : quality of cancer care and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Quirine Dionne


    To improve quality of cancer care treatment-related information is needed. This could be acquired by registries. Since January 1984, the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) collects prospectively more than 200 relevant clinical and pathological parameters of women with cervical cancer treated in

  15. Assessing the Development of Multidisciplinary Care: Experience of the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program. (United States)

    Friedman, Eliot L; Chawla, Neetu; Morris, Paul T; Castro, Kathleen M; Carrigan, Angela C; Das, Irene Prabhu; Clauser, Steven B


    The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) began in 2007 with a goal of expanding cancer research and delivering quality care in communities. The NCCCP Quality of Care (QoC) Subcommittee was charged with developing and improving the quality of multidisciplinary care. An assessment tool with nine key elements relevant to MDC structure and operations was developed. Fourteen NCCCP sites reported multidisciplinary care assessments for lung, breast, and colorectal cancer in June 2010, June 2011, and June 2012 using an online reporting tool. Each site evaluated their level of maturity (level 1 = no multidisciplinary care, level 5 = highly integrated multidisciplinary care) in nine elements integral to multidisciplinary care. Thematic analysis of open-ended qualitative responses was also conducted. The proportion of sites that reported level 3 or greater on the assessment tool was tabulated at each time point. For all tumor types, sites that reached this level increased in six elements: case planning, clinical trials, integration of care coordination, physician engagement, quality improvement, and treatment team integration. Factors that enabled improvement included increasing organizational support, ensuring appropriate physician participation, increasing patient navigation, increasing participation in national quality initiatives, targeting genetics referrals, engaging primary care providers, and integrating clinical trial staff. Maturation of multidisciplinary care reflected focused work of the NCCCP QoC Subcommittee. Working group efforts in patient navigation, genetics, and physician conditions of participation were evident in improved multidisciplinary care performance for three common malignancies. This work provides a blueprint for health systems that wish to incorporate prospective multidisciplinary care into their cancer programs. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Understanding and Targeting the ALT Pathway in Human Breast Cancer (United States)


    Cancer Res 59, 4175- 4179 (1999). 10. Johnson, F. B. et al. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae WRN homolog Sgs1p participates in telomere maintenance is unclear whether these characteristics are relevant for the ALT mechanism of telomere maintenance or sufficient for properly not sufficient to unleash the telomere recombination characteristic of ALT cells. Although ALT and telomerase are not mutually exclusive, the ALT

  17. Developing a clinical pathway for the identification and management of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients: an online Delphi consensus process. (United States)

    Shaw, Joanne M; Price, Melanie A; Clayton, Josephine M; Grimison, Peter; Shaw, Tim; Rankin, Nicole; Butow, Phyllis N


    People with cancer and their families experience high levels of psychological morbidity. However, many cancer services do not routinely screen patients for anxiety and depression, and there are no standardized clinical referral pathways. This study aimed to establish consensus on elements of a draft clinical pathway tailored to the Australian context. A two-round Delphi study was conducted to gain consensus among Australian oncology and psycho-oncology clinicians about the validity of 39 items that form the basis of a clinical pathway that includes screening, assessment, referral and stepped care management of anxiety and depression in the context of cancer. The expert panel comprised 87 multidisciplinary clinician members of the Australian Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group (PoCoG). Respondents rated their level of agreement with each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as >80% of respondents scoring within 2 points on the Likert scale. Consensus was reached for 21 of 39 items, and a further 15 items approached consensus except for specific contextual factors, after two Delphi rounds. Formal screening for anxiety and depression, a stepped care model of management and recommendations for inclusion of length of treatment and time to review were endorsed. Consensus was not reached on items related to roles and responsibilities, particularly those not applicable across cancer settings. This study identified a core set of evidence- and consensus-based principles considered essential to a stepped care model of care incorporating identification, referral and management of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients.

  18. Primers on molecular pathways - cycling toward pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Elsawa, Sherine F; Almada, Luciana L


    Human cells divide and proliferate during the early stages of life to support development, and throughout adult life to support normal cellular turnover. Each dividing cell follows an orderly and tightly regulated series of events known as the cell cycle. This process ensures proper cellular division that maintains DNA and chromosomal integrity and responds appropriately to external signals which communicate the level of demand for new cells. In cancer, genetic mutations leading to the overexpression of proteins which support cell cycle progression, or the downregulation of proteins involved in cell cycle inhibition contributes to the dysregulated cellular division and proliferation of malignant cells. The resulting uninhibited cellular proliferation provides ample opportunity for additional genetic mutations that lead to tumor progression. In the following review, we provide a brief introduction to the cell cycle and a discussion of the mechanism underlying the dysregulation of the cell cycle in human cancer. We pay particular attention to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, an aggressive tumor that has a 5-year survival rate of 3-5%, and is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in the US. and IAP.

  19. Healing pathways: art therapy for American Indian cancer survivors. (United States)

    Warson, Elizabeth


    There is a paucity of research addressing quality of life factors for American Indian and Alaska Native cancer survivors. Complementary forms of therapy, such as art therapy, are beginning to address quality of life factors through the "healing" arts for cancer survivors. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot was to explore the effects of culturally relevant art interventions on stress reduction for American Indian cancer survivors and their family members. Forty-six adult participants attended one of three workshops held within two settlements of the Coharie tribe and one southeastern urban tribal center. The data collected consisted of a pretest and posttest State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and artwork resulting from three directed interventions. The artwork was analyzed using qualitative coding methods; however, the scores from the STPI were inconclusive because the inventory was determined to be culturally biased. While statistical significance was not achieved, the findings from qualitative coding reinforced a native concept of wellness focusing on the complex interaction between mind, body, spirit, and context. This pilot study also demonstrated how a community-driven approach was instrumental in the development of the overall workshop format. An expansion of the pilot study is also presented with preliminary results available in 2012.

  20. Pancreatic cancer from bench to bedside: molecular pathways and treatment options. (United States)

    Kosmidis, Christoforos; Sapalidis, Konstantinos; Kotidis, Efstathios; Mixalopoulos, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsavlis, Drosos; Baka, Sofia; Man, Yan-Gao; Kanellos, John


    In the last forty years the pancreatic cancer treatment has made advances, however; still novel drugs are needed. It is known that the five year survival rate remains around 5%. The best treatment option still remains surgery, if patients are diagnosed early. In the last decade the biology of pancreatic cancer has been vastly explored and novel agents such as; tyrosine kinase agents, or vaccines have been added as a treatment perspective. The big challenge is now to translate this knowledge in better outcomes for patients. In this current review we will present information from pancreatic cancer diagnosis to molecular pathways and treatment options; current and future.

  1. Preferences for cancer investigation: a vignette-based study of primary-care attendees. (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Bigwood, Lin; Peters, Tim J; Walter, Fiona M; Hamilton, Willie


    testing centre (colorectal and lung cancers), a family history of cancer (colorectal and lung cancers), and higher household income (colorectal and pancreatic cancers). Participants in our sample expressed a clear preference for diagnostic testing at all risk levels, and individuals want to be tested at risk levels well below those stipulated by UK guidelines. This willingness should be considered during design of cancer pathways, particularly in primary care. The public engagement with our study should encourage general practitioners to involve patients in referral decision making. The National Institute for Health Research Programme Grants for Applied Research programme. Copyright © 2014 Banks et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. End-of-life care for cancer patients in an Internal Medicine department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lusiani


    Full Text Available Introduction Many cancer patients die in the hospital, in spite of their preference to end their lives at home. Internal Medicine wards are poorly equipped to care for dying patients. Staff members have no specific training in palliative care, and the organization of the ward lacks flexibility. The entire staff (physicians and nurses of the Internal Medicine ward of our hospital took part in a specially designed training program, and a protocol for end-of-life care (EOL-care was implemented to improve the comfort of patients with terminal cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of this protocol on clinical practice in the ward, in terms of the number of interventions and the degree of control of key symptoms. Materials and methods The EOL-care protocol, which was established in cooperation with the Sue Ryder Foundation, was a modified version of the Liverpool Care Pathway. The main objective was to ensure the comfort of the dying patient through judicious discontinuation of all non-essential medications and interventions, frequent and systematic assessment of the key symptoms, and greater emphasis on communication with the patient and his/her caregivers. We compared 82 unselected cases managed with conventional care, representing the 20% of the deaths that occurred in 2007-2008 in our ward (controls, and 27 consecutive cancer patients cared for with the EOL-care protocol between May 2009 and February 2010 (cases. Results Patients in the case group received fewer interventions than controls (catheterization rate: 0% vs 19.4%; invasive procedure rate: 0% vs 8.5%; parenteral nutrition: 0% vs 3.6%, but they obtained almost complete relief of symptoms (pain, dyspnea, respiratory tract obstruction by secretions, agitation, nausea/vomiting. The most prominent result was pain relief: systematic checks revealed persistent pain in only 2.9% of the EOL-care group versus 59.7% of the controls during the last 48 hours of life. Discussion This

  3. WDR26 in Advanced Breast Cancer: A Novel Regulator of the P13K/AKT Pathway (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0539 TITLE: WDR26 in Advanced Breast Cancer : A Novel Regulator of the P13K/ AKT Pathway PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER WDR26 in Advanced Breast Cancer : A Novel Regulator of the P13K/AKT Pathway 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0539 5c. PROGRAM...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The PI3K/AKT pathway is one of the most deregulated pathways in breast cancers (>70%), and a major contributor to tumor progression

  4. Conditional Disclosure on Pathways to Care: Coping Preferences of Young People at Risk of Psychosis. (United States)

    Gronholm, Petra C; Thornicroft, Graham; Laurens, Kristin R; Evans-Lacko, Sara


    The interrelationship between stigma and help-seeking is under-researched among children and adolescents. This study explored stigma in relation to pathways to care among young people putatively in an early stage of increased risk of developing psychotic disorders. "Pathways to care" was defined as help-seeking and support from informal and formal resources, and increased risk was determined through the presence of persistent psychotic-like experiences and internalizing/externalizing psychopathology. Twenty-nine qualitative interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. We defined the superordinate theme in these data as "conditional disclosure," a concept reflecting the rules and prerequisites that influenced how/whether participants sought help. Through parallels between these findings and established stigma theory, we examined how these conditions could be interpreted as influenced by stigma. Our findings demonstrate the influence of stigma on young people's perceptions of a range of pre-clinical symptoms, and on how they seek support for these symptoms.

  5. SNP-SNP interaction analysis of NF-κB signaling pathway on breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jamshidi (Maral); R. Fagerholm (Rainer); S. Khan (Sofia); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); J. Li (Jingmei); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); P. Devilee (Peter); P.A. Fasching (Peter); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); J. Dennis (Joe); Q. Wang (Qing); Q. Guo (Qi); V. Rhenius (Valerie); S. Cornelissen (Sten); A. Rudolph (Anja); J.A. Knight (Julia); C.R. Loehberg (Christian); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); J.L. Hopper (John L.); M.C. Southey (Melissa); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); H. Flyger (Henrik); H. Brenner (Hermann); B. Holleczek (B.); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); L. Van Dyck (Laurien); I. Nevelsteen (Ines); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); G.G. Giles (Graham); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); B.E. Henderson (Brian); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John W. M.); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); J. Simard (Jacques); A.M. Dunning (Alison); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); P. Hall (Per); C. Blomqvist (Carl); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); H. Nevanlinna (Heli)


    textabstractIn breast cancer, constitutive activation of NF-κB has been reported, however, the impact of genetic variation of the pathway on patient prognosis has been little studied. Furthermore, a combination of genetic variants, rather than single polymorphisms, may affect disease prognosis.

  6. Understanding Lymphatic Drainage Pathways of the Ovaries to Predict Sites for Sentinel Nodes in Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, M.; Kraima, A.C.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Van Gorp, T.; Smit, N.N.; Van Munsteren, J.C.; De Ruiter, M.C.


    Objective: In ovarian cancer, detection of sentinel nodes is an upcoming procedure. Perioperative determination of the patient’s sentinel node(s) might prevent a radical lymphadenectomy and associated morbidity. It is essential to understand the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries, which are

  7. Preoperative mannan-binding lectin pathway and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jensenius, Jens Christian


    PURPOSE: Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of innate immunity is associated with increased susceptibility to infections. In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), postoperative infection is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1...

  8. Promising Targets for Cancer Immunotherapy: TLRs, RLRs, and STING-Mediated Innate Immune Pathways. (United States)

    Li, Kai; Qu, Shuai; Chen, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Ming


    Malignant cancers employ diverse and intricate immune evasion strategies, which lead to inadequately effective responses of many clinical cancer therapies. However, emerging data suggest that activation of the tolerant innate immune system in cancer patients is able, at least partially, to counteract tumor-induced immunosuppression, which indicates triggering of the innate immune response as a novel immunotherapeutic strategy may result in improved therapeutic outcomes for cancer patients. The promising innate immune targets include Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like Receptors (RLRs), and Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). This review discusses the antitumor properties of TLRs, RLRs, and STING-mediated innate immune pathways, as well as the promising innate immune targets for potential application in cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Molecular Pathways: Cachexia Signaling-A Targeted Approach to Cancer Treatment. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuji; Hanna, Diana L; Zhang, Wu; Baba, Hideo; Lenz, Heinz-Josef


    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass, which negatively affects quality of life and portends a poor prognosis. Numerous molecular substrates and mechanisms underlie the dysregulation of skeletal muscle synthesis and degradation observed in cancer cachexia, including proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL1, and IL6), and the NF-κB, IGF1/AKT/mTOR, and myostatin/activin-SMAD pathways. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that anti-cachexia drugs (such as MABp1 and soluble receptor antagonist of myostatin/activin) not only prevent muscle wasting but also may prolong overall survival. In this review, we focus on the significance of cachexia signaling in patients with cancer and highlight promising drugs targeting tumor cachexia in clinical development. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 3999-4004. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Comparison of prostate cancer diagnosis in patients receiving unrelated urological and non-urological cancer care. (United States)

    Corcoran, Anthony T; Smaldone, Marc C; Egleston, Brian L; Simhan, Jay; Ginzburg, Serge; Morgan, Todd M; Walton, John; Chen, David Y T; Viterbo, Rosalia; Greenberg, Richard E; Uzzo, Robert G; Kutikov, Alexander


    To evaluate prostate cancer diagnosis rates and survival outcomes in patients receiving unrelated (non-prostate) urological care with those in patients receiving non-urological care. We conducted a population-based study using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify men who underwent surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC; n = 18,188) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC; n = 45,093) between 1992 and 2008. Using SEER*stat software to estimate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), we investigated rates of prostate cancer diagnosis in patients with RCC and patients with CRC. Adjusting for patient age, race and year of diagnosis on multivariate analysis, we used Cox and Fine and Gray proportional hazards regressions to evaluate overall and disease-specific survival endpoints. The observed incidence of prostate cancer was higher in both the patients with RCC and those with CRC: SIR = 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-1.46) vs 1.06 (95% CI 1.02-1.11). Adjusted prostate cancer SIRs were 30% higher (P cancer-adjusted mortalities (sub-distribution Hazard Ratio (sHR) = 1.17, P prostate cancer-specific mortality (sHR = 0.827, P = 0.391). Rates of prostate cancer diagnosis were higher in patients with RCC (a cohort with unrelated urological cancer care) than in those with CRC. Despite higher overall mortality in patients with RCC, prostate cancer-specific survival was similar in both groups. Opportunities may exist to better target prostate cancer screening in patients who receive non-prostate-related urological care. Furthermore, urologists should not feel obligated to perform prostate-specific antigen screening for all patients receiving non-prostate-related urological care. © 2013 BJU International.

  11. Managing Matajoosh: determinants of first Nations' cancer care decisions. (United States)

    Lavoie, Josée G; Kaufert, Joseph; Browne, Annette J; O'Neil, John D


    Accessing cancer treatment requires First Nation peoples living in rural and remote communities to either commute to care, or to relocate to an urban centre for the length or part of the treatment. While Canadians living in rural and remote communities must often make difficult decisions following a cancer diagnosis, such decisions are further complicated by the unique policy and socio-historical contexts affecting many First Nation peoples in Canada. These contexts often intersect with negative healthcare experiences which can be related to jurisdictional confusion encountered when seeking care. Given the rising incidence of cancer within First Nation populations, there is a growing potential for negative health outcomes. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on the experience of First Nation peoples' access to cancer care in the province of Manitoba. We analyzed policy documents and government websites; interviewed individuals who have experienced relocation (N = 5), family members (N = 8), healthcare providers and administrators (N = 15). Although the healthcare providers (social workers, physicians, nurses, patient navigators, and administrators) we interviewed wanted to assist patients and their families, the focus of care remained informed by patients' clinical reality, without recognition of the context which impacts and constrains access to cancer care services. Contrasting and converging narratives identify barriers to early diagnosis, poor coordination of care across jurisdictions and logistic complexities that result in fatigue and undermine adherence. Providers and decision-makers who were aware of this broader context were not empowered to address system's limitations. We argue that a whole system's approach is required in order to address these limitations.

  12. Bioinformatics analysis with graph-based clustering to detect gastric cancer-related pathways. (United States)

    Liu, P; Wang, X; Hu, C H; Hu, T H


    Despite a dramatic reduction in incidence and mortality rates, gastric cancer still remains one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide, especially in China. We sought to identify a set of discriminating genes that could be used for characterization and prediction of response to gastric cancer. Using bioinformatics analysis, two gastric cancer datasets, GSE19826 and GSE2685, were merged to find novel target genes and domains to explain pathogenesis; we selected differentially expressed genes in these two datasets and analyzed their correlation in order to construct a network. This network was examined to find graph clusters and related significant pathways. We found that ALDH2 and CCNB1 were associated with gastric cancer. We also mined for the underlying molecular mechanisms involving these differently expressed genes. We found that ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cell cycle were among the significantly associated pathways. We were able to detect genes and pathways that were not considered in previous research on gastric cancer, indicating that this approach could be an improvement on the investigative mechanisms for finding genetic associations with disease.

  13. Inferring predominant pathways in cellular models of breast cancer using limited sample proteomic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinke David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecularly targeted drugs inhibit aberrant signaling within oncogenic pathways. Identifying the predominant pathways at work within a tumor is a key step towards tailoring therapies to the patient. Clinical samples pose significant challenges for proteomic profiling, an attractive approach for identifying predominant pathways. The objective of this study was to determine if information obtained from a limited sample (i.e., a single gel replicate can provide insight into the predominant pathways in two well-characterized breast cancer models. Methods A comparative proteomic analysis of total cell lysates was obtained from two cellular models of breast cancer, BT474 (HER2+/ER+ and SKBR3 (HER2+/ER-, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Protein interaction networks and canonical pathways were extracted from the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledgebase (IPK based on association with the observed pattern of differentially expressed proteins. Results Of the 304 spots that were picked, 167 protein spots were identified. A threshold of 1.5-fold was used to select 62 proteins used in the analysis. IPK analysis suggested that metabolic pathways were highly associated with protein expression in SKBR3 cells while cell motility pathways were highly associated with BT474 cells. Inferred protein networks were confirmed by observing an up-regulation of IGF-1R and profilin in BT474 and up-regulation of Ras and enolase in SKBR3 using western blot. Conclusion When interpreted in the context of prior information, our results suggest that the overall patterns of differential protein expression obtained from limited samples can still aid in clinical decision making by providing an estimate of the predominant pathways that underpin cellular phenotype.

  14. Integrated analysis of breast cancer cell lines reveals unique signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, Laura M.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Talcott, Carolyn L.; Laderoute, Keith R.; Knapp, Merrill; Guan, Yinghui; Hu, Zhi; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Weber, Barbara L.; Laquerre, Sylvie; Jackson, Jeffrey R.; Wooster, Richard F.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.


    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the accumulation of genetic defects that negatively impact control of cell division, motility, adhesion and apoptosis. Deregulation in signaling along the EGFR-MAPK pathway is common in breast cancer, though the manner in which deregulation occurs varies between both individuals and cancer subtypes. We were interested in identifying subnetworks within the EGFR-MAPK pathway that are similarly deregulated across subsets of breast cancers. To that end, we mapped genomic, transcriptional and proteomic profiles for 30 breast cancer cell lines onto a curated Pathway Logic symbolic systems model of EGFR-MEK signaling. This model was comprised of 539 molecular states and 396 rules governing signaling between active states. We analyzed these models and identified several subtype specific subnetworks, including one that suggested PAK1 is particularly important in regulating the MAPK cascade when it is over-expressed. We hypothesized that PAK1 overexpressing cell lines would have increased sensitivity to MEK inhibitors. We tested this experimentally by measuring quantitative responses of 20 breast cancer cell lines to three MEK inhibitors. We found that PAK1 over-expressing luminal breast cancer cell lines are significantly more sensitive to MEK inhibition as compared to those that express PAK1 at low levels. This indicates that PAK1 over-expression may be a useful clinical marker to identify patient populations that may be sensitive to MEK inhibitors. All together, our results support the utility of symbolic system biology models for identification of therapeutic approaches that will be effective against breast cancer subsets.

  15. Steroidogenic germline polymorphism predictors of prostate cancer progression in the estradiol pathway. (United States)

    Lévesque, Eric; Laverdière, Isabelle; Audet-Walsh, Etienne; Caron, Patrick; Rouleau, Mélanie; Fradet, Yves; Lacombe, Louis; Guillemette, Chantal


    Reliable biomarkers that predict prostate cancer outcomes are urgently needed to improve and personalize treatment approaches. With this goal in mind, we individually and collectively appraised common genetic polymorphisms related to estradiol metabolic pathways to find prostate cancer prognostic markers. The genetic profiles of 526 men with organ-confined prostate cancer were examined to find common genetic polymorphisms related to estradiol metabolic pathways and these findings were replicated in a cohort of 213 men with more advanced disease (follow-up time for both cohorts, >7.4 years). Specifically, we examined 71 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in SULT2A1, SULT2B1, CYP1B1, COMT, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A43, NQO1, and NQO2 and assessed the impact of the SNPs alone and in combination on prostate cancer progression and on circulating hormone levels. According to a multivariate analysis, CYP1B1 (rs1800440), COMT (rs16982844), and SULT2B1 (rs12460535, rs2665582, rs10426628) were significantly associated with prostate cancer progression and hormone levels. Remarkably, by combining the SNP information with previously identified HSD17B2 markers, the patients could be stratified into four distinct prognostic subgroups. The most prominent association was observed for the eight-marker combination [CYP1B1 (rs1800440), SULT2B1 (rs12460535, rs2665582, and rs10426628), and HSD17B2 (rs4243229, rs1364287, rs2955162, and rs1119933)]. This study identified specific germline variations in estradiol metabolism-related pathways, namely CYP1B1, SULT2B1, and HSD17B2, as novel prognostic markers that are cumulatively associated with increased risk of prostate cancer progression. This panel of markers warrants additional investigation and validation to help stratify patients according to their risk of progression. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2971-83. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Evaluating the quality of colorectal cancer care across the interface of healthcare sectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ludt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC has a high prevalence in western countries. Diagnosis and treatment of CRC is complex and requires multidisciplinary collaboration across the interface of health care sectors. In Germany, a new nationwide established program aims to provide quality information of healthcare delivery across different sectors. Within this context, this study describes the development of a set of quality indicators charting the whole pathway of CRC-care including data specifications that are necessary to operationalize these indicators before practice testing. METHODS: Indicators were developed following a systematic 10 step modified 'RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method' which involved a multidisciplinary panel of thirteen participants. For each indicator in the final set, data specifications relating to sources of quality information, data collection procedures, analysis and feedback were described. RESULTS: The final indicator set included 52 indicators covering diagnostic procedures (11 indicators, therapeutic management (28 indicators and follow-up (6 indicators. In addition, 7 indicators represented patient perspectives. Primary surgical tumor resection and pre-operative radiation (rectum carcinoma only were perceived as most useful tracer procedures initiating quality data collection. To assess the quality of CRC care across sectors, various data sources were identified: medical records, administrative inpatient and outpatient data, sickness-funds billing code systems and patient survey. CONCLUSION: In Germany, a set of 52 quality indicators, covering necessary aspects across the interfaces and pathways relevant to CRC-care has been developed. Combining different sectors and sources of health care in quality assessment is an innovative and challenging approach but reflects better the reality of the patient pathway and experience of CRC-care.

  17. Duration of untreated psychosis and the pathway to care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K; King, Howard; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Davis, Glen P; Mtshemla, Sisanda; Nene, Siphumelele; Susser, Ezra


    Considerable controversy surrounds the role of traditional health practitioners (THPs) as first-contact service providers and their influence on the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined first-contact patterns and pathways to psychiatric care among individuals with severe mental illness in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a referral-based tertiary psychiatric government hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Information on pathways to care was collected using the World Health Organization's Encounter Form. General hospital was the most common first point of contact after mental disorder symptom onset and the strongest link to subsequent psychiatric treatment. Family members were the most common initiators in seeking care. First contact with THPs was associated with longer DUP and higher number of provider contacts in the pathway based on adjusted regression analyses. Strengthening connections between psychiatric and general hospitals and provision of culturally competent family-based psychoeducation to reduce DUP are warranted.

  18. PI3K-AKT-mTOR Pathway is Dominant over Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kaarbø


    Full Text Available Background: Androgen receptor (AR and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K signaling are two of the most important pathways implicated in prostate cancer. Previous work has shown that there is crosstalk between these two pathways; however, there are conflicting findings and the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Here we studied the AR–PI3K pathway crosstalk in prostate cancer cells in vitro as well as in vivo.

  19. Identification of Potential Drug Targets in Cancer Signaling Pathways using Stochastic Logical Models. (United States)

    Zhu, Peican; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Uludağ, Hasan; Han, Jie


    The investigation of vulnerable components in a signaling pathway can contribute to development of drug therapy addressing aberrations in that pathway. Here, an original signaling pathway is derived from the published literature on breast cancer models. New stochastic logical models are then developed to analyze the vulnerability of the components in multiple signalling sub-pathways involved in this signaling cascade. The computational results are consistent with the experimental results, where the selected proteins were silenced using specific siRNAs and the viability of the cells were analyzed 72 hours after silencing. The genes elF4E and NFkB are found to have nearly no effect on the relative cell viability and the genes JAK2, Stat3, S6K, JUN, FOS, Myc, and Mcl1 are effective candidates to influence the relative cell growth. The vulnerabilities of some targets such as Myc and S6K are found to vary significantly depending on the weights of the sub-pathways; this will be indicative of the chosen target to require customization for therapy. When these targets are utilized, the response of breast cancers from different patients will be highly variable because of the known heterogeneities in signaling pathways among the patients. The targets whose vulnerabilities are invariably high might be more universally acceptable targets.

  20. The importance of the PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway in the progression of ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Dobbin, Zachary C; Landen, Charles N


    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of death due to cancer in women despite being the tenth in incidence. Unfortunately, the five-year survival rate is only 45%, which has not improved much in the past 30 years. Even though the majority of women have successful initial therapy, the low rate of survival is due to the eventual recurrence and succumbing to their disease. With the recent release of the Cancer Genome Atlas for ovarian cancer, it was shown that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was one of the most frequently mutated or altered pathways in patients' tumors. Researching how the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway affects the progression and tumorigensis of ovarian cancer will hopefully lead to new therapies that will increase survival for women. This review focuses on recent research on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its role in the progression and tumorigensis of ovarian cancer.

  1. Analysis of PIK3CA Mutations and Activation Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cossu-Rocca

    Full Text Available Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC accounts for 12-24% of all breast carcinomas, and shows worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Molecular studies demonstrated that TNBCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different clinical and pathologic features, prognosis, genetic-molecular alterations and treatment responsivity. The PI3K/AKT is a major pathway involved in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, and is the most frequently altered pathway in breast cancer, apparently with different biologic impact on specific cancer subtypes. The most common genetic abnormality is represented by PIK3CA gene activating mutations, with an overall frequency of 20-40%. The aims of our study were to investigate PIK3CA gene mutations on a large series of TNBC, to perform a wider analysis on genetic alterations involving PI3K/AKT and BRAF/RAS/MAPK pathways and to correlate the results with clinical-pathologic data.PIK3CA mutation analysis was performed by using cobas® PIK3CA Mutation Test. EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes were analyzed by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to identify PTEN loss and to investigate for PI3K/AKT pathways components.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 23.7% of TNBC, whereas no mutations were identified in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes. Moreover, we observed PTEN loss in 11.3% of tumors. Deregulation of PI3K/AKT pathways was revealed by consistent activation of pAKT and p-p44/42 MAPK in all PIK3CA mutated TNBC.Our data shows that PIK3CA mutations and PI3K/AKT pathway activation are common events in TNBC. A deeper investigation on specific TNBC genomic abnormalities might be helpful in order to select patients who would benefit from current targeted therapy strategies.

  2. Abstract 5324: Pan-cancer identification of mutated pathways and protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leiserson, Mark D.; Vandin, Fabio; Wu, Hsin-Ta


    . Many of these gene sets have biological functions often perturbed in cancer, such as chromatin modification (e.g. the SWI/SNF and BAP1 complexes) and DNA damage repair (e.g. SHPRH). These results demonstrate the ability of HotNet2 and Dendrix++ to identify novel combinations of mutations in thousands......Large-scale cancer sequencing efforts such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and others have shown that tumors exhibit extensive mutational heterogeneity with relatively few genes mutated at significant frequency and many genes mutated in only a small number of individuals. This long tail...... phenomenon complicates the identification of driver mutations by their observed frequency. The long tail is explained in part by the fact that driver mutations target genes in signaling and regulatory pathways, and these pathways may be perturbed by different mutations in different tumors.We developed two...

  3. Targeting androgen-independent pathways: new chances for patients with prostate cancer? (United States)

    Cattrini, C; Zanardi, E; Vallome, G; Cavo, A; Cerbone, L; Di Meglio, A; Fabbroni, C; Latocca, M M; Rizzo, F; Messina, C; Rubagotti, A; Barboro, P; Boccardo, F


    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PC). Most patients eventually progress to a condition known as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), characterized by lack of response to ADT. Although new androgen receptor signaling (ARS) inhibitors and chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced to overcome resistance to ADT, many patients progress because of primary or acquired resistance to these agents. This comprehensive review aims at exploring the mechanisms of resistance and progression of PC, with specific focus on alterations which lead to the activation of androgen receptor (AR)-independent pathways of survival. Our work integrates available clinical and preclinical data on agents which target these pathways, assessing their potential clinical implication in specific settings of patients. Given the rising interest of the scientific community in cancer immunotherapy strategies, further attention is dedicated to the role of immune evasion in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How to target apoptosis signaling pathways for the treatment of pediatric cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eFulda


    Full Text Available Apoptosis represents one of the most important forms of cell death in higher organisms and is typically dysregulated in human cancers, including pediatric tumors. This implies that ineffective engagement of cell death programs can contribute to tumor formation as well as tumor progression. In addition, the majority of cytotoxic therapeutic principles rely on the activation of cell death signaling pathways in cancer cells. Blockade of signaling networks that lead to cell death can therefore confer treatment resistance. A variety of genetic and epigenetic events as well as dysfunctional regulation of signaling networks have been identified as underlying causes of cell death resistance in childhood malignancies. Apoptosis pathways can be therapeutically exploited by enhancing proapoptotic signals or by neutralizing antiapoptotic programs. The challenge in the coming years will be to successfully transfer this knowledge into the development of innovative treatment approaches for children with cancer.

  5. Current practice and knowledge of oral care for cancer patients: a survey of supportive health care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, Gerry J.; Epstein, Joel B.; Williams, Karen B.; Gorsky, Meir; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.


    The Oral Care Study Section of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) and the International Society for Oral Oncology (ISOO) conducted a survey on clinical practices of oral/dental management of cancer patients among supportive health care providers. The main purpose was

  6. Quantifying the Cumulative Impact of Differences in Care on Prostate Cancer Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fesinmeyer, Megan


    ... of the disparity in prostate cancer outcomes. This work involves first examining how care patterns are correlated throughout all phases of cancer care within racial groups in order to gain a fuller understanding of how racial differences across...

  7. Robotic surgery in cancer care: opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza


    Malignancy-associated mortality, decreased productivity, and spiritual, social and physical burden in cancer patients and their families impose heavy costs on communities. Therefore cancer prevention, early detection, rapid diagnosis and timely treatment are very important. Use of modern methods based on information technology in cancer can improve patient survival and increase patient and health care provider satisfaction. Robot technology is used in different areas of health care and applications in surgery have emerged affecting the cancer treatment domain. Computerized and robotic devices can offer enhanced dexterity by tremor abolition, motion scaling, high quality 3D vision for surgeons and decreased blood loss, significant reduction in narcotic use, and reduced hospital stay for patients. However, there are many challenges like lack of surgical community support, large size, high costs and absence of tactile and haptic feedback. A comprehensive view to identify all factors in different aspects such as technical, legal and ethical items that prevent robotic surgery adoption is thus very necessary. Also evidence must be presented to surgeons to achieve appropriate support from physicians. The aim of this review article is to survey applications, opportunities and barriers to this advanced technology in patients and surgeons as an approach to improve cancer care.

  8. Impact of a bronchiolitis clinical care pathway on treatment and hospital stay. (United States)

    Walker, Claire; Danby, Susan; Turner, Steve


    Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection of infancy where management has varied considerably in the past. The aim of the present study was to determine whether patient treatment and outcomes changed after introduction of a clinical care pathway. Infants aged up to 6 months admitted to hospital with bronchiolitis were identified as part of an annual audit of bronchiolitis management between winters 2003/2004 and 2009/2010. The primary outcome, duration of stay (DOS), was compared before and after the clinical pathway was introduced before the winter 2005/2006. There were 328 infants identified, mean age 75 days, respiratory syncitial virus was detected in 89%. After the clinical pathway was introduced, the proportion of infants prescribed salbutamol fell from 50% to 8% (p < 0.001) and ipratropium bromide from 38% to 0% (p < 0.001) but the proportion prescribed antibiotics was unchanged. The median DOS was 79 h prior to the clinical pathway and 66 h afterwards (p = 0.010) but there was no difference in days where supplemental oxygen or nasogastric feeding was required. A clinical pathway for the management of acute bronchiolitis can be implemented in the hospital setting and the conservative approach, in particular not prescribing bronchodilators, is not associated with prolonged duration of stay.

  9. Finding the Right Care | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    Trained as a registered nurse and with a doctoral degree in public health, Jane D. is no stranger to the U.S. health care system. But, when she found herself facing a diagnosis of anal cancer in 2013, she felt adrift.

  10. Oral care of the cancer patient receiving radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzhausen, T. (Medical Univ. of Southern Africa, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Community Dentistry)


    Radiation therapy is frequently being used for the patient with oral cancer. The survival rate is increasing, due to more effective treatment technique. The question of whether any teeth should be extracted, the mode of therapy and the side effects of radiation like Xerostomia, caries, stomatitis, trismus and osteo-radionecrosis and also post radiation care are discussed.

  11. Cancer patients, emergencies service and provision of palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Miranda


    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To describe the clinical and sociodemographic profile of cancer patients admitted to the Emergency Center for High Complexity Oncologic Assistance, observing the coverage of palliative and home care. Method: Cross sectional study including adult cancer patients admitted to the emergency service (September-December/2011 with a minimum length of hospital stay of two hours. Student’s t-test and Pearson chi-square test were used to compare the means. Results: 191 patients were enrolled, 47.6% elderly, 64.4% women, 75.4% from the city of Recife and greater area. The symptom prevalent at admission was pain (46.6%. 4.2% of patients were linked to palliative care and 2.1% to home care. The most prevalent cancers: cervix (18.3%, breast (13.6% and prostate (10.5%; 70.7% were in advanced stages (IV, 47.1%; 39.4% without any cancer therapy. Conclusion: Patients sought the emergency service on account of pain, probably due to the incipient coverage of palliative and home care. These actions should be included to oncologic therapy as soon as possible to minimize the suffering of the patient/family and integrate the skills of oncologists and emergency professionals.

  12. Original Research Characterising cancer burden and quality of care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unattended to.” (MCH healthcare worker). obtained from the directors of each palliative care facility. Identification numbers instead of names were used for all data obtained, and raw data were solely available to the study investigators. Results. Quantitative. There were 2362 cancer patients registered between October.

  13. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Helena; Hallström, Inger; Kjaergaard, Hanne


    Hospital-based home care (HBHC) is widely applied in Pediatric Oncology. We reviewed the potential effect of HBHC on children's physical health and risk of adverse events, parental and child satisfaction, quality of life of children and their parents, and costs. A search of PubMed, CINAHL...... for children with cancer....

  14. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, Anne E.; Abrams, Annah N.; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K.; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo


    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family

  15. Follow-Up Care for Older Women With Breast Cancer (United States)


    Begg C, Glicksman A, et al. 20. Greene MG, Adelman R, Charon R, Hoffman S. Ageism inThe effect of age on the care of women with breast cancer in the...713-8. 11. Greene MG, Adelman R, Charon R, Hoffman S. Ageism in the medical encounter: An exp loratory study of the doctor-elderly patient

  16. Inhibition of ER stress and unfolding protein response pathways causes skeletal muscle wasting during cancer cachexia (United States)

    Bohnert, Kyle R.; Gallot, Yann S.; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Kumar, Ashok


    Cachexia is a devastating syndrome that causes morbidity and mortality in a large number of patients with cancer. However, the mechanisms of cancer cachexia remain poorly understood. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes stress. The ER responds to this stress through activating certain pathways commonly known as the unfolding protein response (UPR). The main function of UPR is to restore homeostasis, but excessive or prolonged activation of UPR can lead to pathologic conditions. In this study, we examined the role of ER stress and UPR in regulation of skeletal muscle mass in naïve conditions and during cancer cachexia. Our results demonstrate that multiple markers of ER stress are highly activated in skeletal muscle of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and ApcMin/+ mouse models of cancer cachexia. Treatment of mice with 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a chemical chaperon and a potent inhibitor of ER stress, significantly reduced skeletal muscle strength and mass in both control and LLC-bearing mice. Blocking the UPR also increased the proportion of fast-type fibers in soleus muscle of both control and LLC-bearing mice. Inhibition of UPR reduced the activity of Akt/mTOR pathway and increased the expression of the components of the ubiquitin–proteasome system and autophagy in LLC-bearing mice. Moreover, we found that the inhibition of UPR causes severe atrophy in cultured myotubes. Our study provides initial evidence that ER stress and UPR pathways are essential for maintaining skeletal muscle mass and strength and for protection against cancer cachexia.—Bohnert, K. R., Gallot, Y. S., Sato, S., Xiong, G., Hindi, S. M., Kumar, A. Inhibition of ER stress and unfolding protein response pathways causes skeletal muscle wasting during cancer cachexia. PMID:27206451

  17. Interconnection of Estrogen/Testosterone Metabolism and Mevalonate Pathway in Breast and Prostate Cancers. (United States)

    Mokarram, Pooneh; Alizadeh, Javad; Razban, Vahid; Barazeh, Mahdi; Solomon, Claudia; Kavousipour, Soudabeh


    The metabolic steroid hormones, 17β stradiol (E2) and testosterone play key roles in several functions including carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, cellular signaling, cell proliferation, and cancer promotion. Steroid hormones have long been characterized as cell proliferation and differentiation regulators and are closely related to the development of breast and prostate cancers. Moreover, cholesterol metabolism, mainly in adipose tissue, leads to the production of steroids and cytokines, thus increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Recent studies also shown that testosterone and E2 increase the levels of key enzymes of the mevalonate pathway, leading to post-translational prenylation and farnesylation of numerous proteins in RAS signaling in several cancers, including breast and prostate cancers. There is accumulating evidence both clinically and experimentally suggesting that changes in the metabolism of cholesterol may also have an important role in carcinogenesis. In this regard, the cells treated with mevalonate in culture showed elevated proliferation. Therefore, investigation on cholesterol as a precursor of steroid hormones has confirmed the effects cholesterol metabolite on breast and prostate cancers. Indeed, recent evidence strongly suggests that the MVA pathway and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCOA) have a crucial regulatory role in cellular proliferation and transformation. Therefore, the use of mevalonate inhibitors decreases the production of several biologically active downstream products of the mevalonate pathway, including cholesterol. Although for approximately 20 years statins have been identified as anticancer agents, recent studies have sparked some controversy. Therefore, further investigation to evaluate mevalonate- dependent therapeutic agents per se and in combination with other agents is merited. The current review is an attempt to elucidate the

  18. Improving Goals of Care Discussion in Advanced Cancer Patients (United States)


    Primary Stage IV Hepatobiliary; Esophageal; Colorectal Cancer; Glioblastoma; Cancer of Stomach; Cancer of Pancreas; Melanoma; Head or Neck Cancer; Stage III; Stage IV; Lung Cancers; Pancreatic Cancers

  19. Patterns of surgical care for uterine cancers in Ontario. (United States)

    Elit, L; Schultz, S; Prysbysz, R; Kwon, J; Saskin, R; Gunraj, N; Wilton, A S; Simunovic, M; Urbach, D


    To facilitate the planning of future resources for cancer services in Ontario, Cancer Care Ontario commissioned an evaluation of operative services delivered for uterine cancer. Women with an incident diagnosis of a uterine malignancy were identified from 1 April 2003 to 31 March 2004 using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Record linkages were created to other provincial health databases such as the Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Uterine cancer affected 1,436 women. Disease specific rates of cancer were higher in rural areas and those from the highest income quintiles. Surgery occurred in 94.7% of women. Use of surgery did not appear to vary by SEC, urban/rural residence or LHIN. Gynecologists conducted 76.1% of the operations. Lymphadenectomy took place in 18.7% of women. Lymphadenectomy rates were highest in gynecologic oncologists (43.3%). All women were assessed by CXR. Radiation therapy consults were preformed in half of the women with uterine cancer but treatment was only delivered in half of those seen. Medical oncologists saw about 6.3% of women with uterine cancers. There appear to be variations in incidence rates of uterine cancer with disease being more frequent in those of the highest SES. In two-thirds of the population, surgery is delivered in the region where the patient lives. Subspecialty care from gynecologic oncologists was provided to one-third of women. Rates of lymphadenectomy as part of a surgical attempt to assess disease spread appear low. These pilot data would be enhanced with further information such as comorbidity, treatment intent (palliative/curative), histology, grade and stage.

  20. Does fear of cancer recurrence predict cancer survivors' health care use? (United States)

    Lebel, Sophie; Tomei, Christina; Feldstain, Andrea; Beattie, Sara; McCallum, Megan


    Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is the most frequently cited unmet need among cancer survivors. Theoretical models of FCR suggest that patients with elevated levels of FCR will more frequently consult health care professionals for reassurance about their health. However, the relationship between FCR and health care utilization has not yet been firmly established. We examined the relationship between FCR and quantity of medications, number of emergency room (ER) visits, outpatient visits, specialist visits, allied health visits, and hospital overnight visits. A total of 231 participants diagnosed with breast, colon, prostate, or lung cancer in the past 10 years were recruited from a cancer survivor registry. Participants were sent a survey package that included demographic and medical characteristics, a health care utilization questionnaire, and the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory. A multiple regression analysis indicated that higher FCR significantly predicted greater number of outpatient visits in the past 6 months (ß = .016, F(1, 193) = 5.08, p = .025). A hierarchical multiple regression indicated that higher FCR significantly predicted greater number of ER visits in the past 6 months when controlling for relationship status and education level (F(1, 179) = 4.00, p = .047). The relationship between FCR and health care use has been understudied. Results indicate that patients with elevated FCR may indeed use more health care services. We recommend that clinicians monitor health care use in patients who are struggling with FCR.

  1. Experiences of nursing students in caring for pediatric cancer patients. (United States)

    Kostak, Melahat Akgun; Mutlu, Aysel; Bilsel, Aysegul


    This study was performed to determine the experiences of nursing students in caring for paediatric cancer patients and their families. This qualitative survey was carried out with 14 students studying in the nursing department of the Faculty of Health Sciences of a university in Edirne, Turkey. Data were obtained through focus group interviews and evaluated based on a qualitative content analysis. It was determined that students, for the most part, experienced problems related to communication, sadness, helplessness, fear, anxiety, resentment and anger. In addition, the students were affected most often by effects of the disease and invasive procedures on paediatric cancer patients and their families during the process of caring for them in the oncology clinic. It would be useful to inform nursing students, prior to clinical practice, about the special needs of paediatric cancer patients and families who stay in oncology clinics, and to follow up with appropriate guidance during the clinical practices.

  2. Family Caregivers to Adults with Cancer: The Consequences of Caring. (United States)

    Williams, Anna-Leila


    A person living with cancer will potentially have some degree of physical, cognitive, and/or psychological impairment, periods of unemployment, financial concerns, social isolation, and existential questions, any or all of which can impact the family and friends who surround them. In our current era of health care, patients with cancer receive invasive diagnostic studies and aggressive treatment as outpatients, and then convalesce at home. As such, cancer family caregivers are de facto partners with the healthcare team. The cancer family caregiver role is demanding and may lead to increased morbidity and mortality-in effect, the cancer family caregiver can become a second patient in need of care. This chapter discusses the consequences cancer family caregivers may accrue. The topics covered include caregiver mood disturbance and psychological impairment and some of the mutable factors that contribute to these states (i.e., sleep disturbance, decline in physical health, restriction of activities, and financial concerns), uncertainty, spiritual concerns, and caregiver witnessing. There is a discussion of the factors that influence the caregiving experience (caregiver characteristics, patient characteristics, and social supports). The chapter concludes with comments on intervention studies that have been conducted to ameliorate the burden of caregiving, and the state of caregiver research.

  3. The effect of multidisciplinary team care on cancer management. (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Ganiy Opeyemi


    Over the past 15 years, the multidisciplinary team management of many medical conditions especially cancers has increasingly taken a prominent role in patient management in many hospitals and medical centres in the developed countries. In the United Kingdom, it began to gain prominence following the Calman-Heine report in 1995 which suggested that each Cancer Unit in a hospital should have in place arrangements for non-surgical oncological input into services, with a role for a non-surgical oncologist. The report further suggested that a lead clinician with a well established interest in cancer care should be appointed to organise and coordinate the whole range of cancer services provided within the Cancer Unit. Many people have argued that the multidisciplinary team management of patients has resulted in better care and improved survival. However, there are barriers to the optimal effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team. This paper aims to review various studies on the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team in the management of cancer patients and also discuss some of the barriers to the multidisciplinary team.

  4. Impact of emotional competence on supportive care needs, anxiety and depression symptoms of cancer patients: a multiple mediation model. (United States)

    Baudry, A-S; Lelorain, S; Mahieuxe, M; Christophe, V


    The aim of this study was to test the effect of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence on cancer patients' supportive care needs, as mediated by anxiety and depression symptoms. Cross-sectional design: 137 cancer patients (42% breast or ovarian cancer, 58% gastrointestinal cancer) in 4 French hospitals completed the Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form (SCNS-SF). Bootstrap methods with PROCESS Macro were used to test multiple mediation models. Emotional competence presented a direct or indirect beneficial effect on the satisfaction of supportive care needs, anxiety and depression symptoms. As expected, anxiety and depression symptoms had also strong positive correlations with unmet needs. All multiple mediation models were significant, except for physical needs: intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence impacted anxiety and depression symptoms, which in turn impacted psychological, sexual, care/support, and information needs. These innovative results show the important effect of patients' emotional competence on their supportive care need satisfaction, as mediated by anxiety and depression. Consequently, patients with high emotional competence may require less psychosocial input from medical clinicians. Thus, emotional competence may be integrated into health models and psychosocial interventions to improve patient adjustment. Further investigation is, however, needed to know which are the most beneficial specific emotional competences and at what point of the cancer pathway.

  5. Complementary medicine in palliative care and cancer symptom management. (United States)

    Mansky, Patrick J; Wallerstedt, Dawn B


    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients varies according to geographical area, gender, and disease diagnosis. The prevalence of CAM use among cancer patients in the United States has been estimated to be between 7% and 54%. Most cancer patients use CAM with the hope of boosting the immune system, relieving pain, and controlling side effects related to disease or treatment. Only a minority of patients include CAM in the treatment plan with curative intent. This review article focuses on practices belonging to the CAM domains of mind-body medicine, CAM botanicals, manipulative practices, and energy medicine, because they are widely used as complementary approaches to palliative cancer care and cancer symptom management. In the area of cancer symptom management, auricular acupuncture, therapeutic touch, and hypnosis may help to manage cancer pain. Music therapy, massage, and hypnosis may have an effect on anxiety, and both acupuncture and massage may have a therapeutic role in cancer fatigue. Acupuncture and selected botanicals may reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis, and hypnosis and guided imagery may be beneficial in anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Transcendental meditation and the mindfulness-based stress reduction can play a role in the management of depressed mood and anxiety. Black cohosh and phytoestrogen-rich foods may reduce vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Most CAM approaches to the treatment of cancer are safe when used by a CAM practitioner experienced in the treatment of cancer patients. The potential for many commonly used botanical to interact with prescription drugs continues to be a concern. Botanicals should be used with caution by cancer patients and only under the guidance of an oncologist knowledgeable in their use.

  6. Gene expression meta-analysis identifies metastatic pathways and transcription factors in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua; Kruse, Torben


    studies. Besides classification of outcome, these global expression patterns may reflect biological mechanisms involved in metastasis of breast cancer. Our purpose has been to investigate pathways and transcription factors involved in metastasis by use of gene expression data sets. METHODS: We have...... tumors compared to non-metastasizing tumors. Meta-analysis has been used to determine overrepresentation of pathways and transcription factors targets, concordant deregulated in metastasizing breast tumors, in several data sets. RESULTS: The major findings are upregulation of cell cycle pathways......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Metastasis is believed to progress in several steps including different pathways but the determination and understanding of these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in breast tumors has been used to predict outcome in recent...

  7. Microsatellite Instability Pathway and EMAST in Colorectal Cancer. (United States)

    Carethers, John M


    Microsatellite instability (MSI) refers to the biochemical detection of frameshifted microsatellite sequences from genomic DNA. Genesis of MSI is due to defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) that fails to correct post DNA replicative slippage mistakes at microsatellites. Most of the estimated 100,000 genomic microsatellites are non-coding; however, ~150-300 microsatellites are coding such that, when frameshifted during the pathogenesis of an MSI tumor, can generate immunogenic neopeptide antigens that limit the growth of tumor and prolong patient survival. In addition to the immune reaction and longer survival, patients with MSI colorectal cancers tend to have poorly differentiated tumors with mucinous features that are located in the right colon. Patients with MSI tumors are more resistant to 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy but may be responsive to PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade. Specific defects of MMR function not only drive MSI but also elevate microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats that may further modify patient outcome.

  8. From viruses to cancer stem cells: dissecting the pathways to malignancy. (United States)

    Argyle, David J; Blacking, Thalia


    Cancer is a disease of all vertebrate species and has been well documented throughout history with fossil records indicating that dinosaurs of the Jurassic period suffered from the disease. The Greek physician, Galen is accredited with describing human tumours as having the shape of a crab, with leg like tendrils invading deep into surrounding tissues--hence the term cancer. Today cancer can be defined as any malignant growth or tumour caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division that is able to invade tissues locally and spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream. This is obviously a simplistic attempt at describing a complex disease that can utilize a myriad of biological pathways to sustain growth and proliferation. Dissecting these pathways has been the challenge of cancer researchers for decades in the search for new treatment strategies. This review attempts to condense our understanding of cancer and to offer insights into an alternative theory regarding the existence of true cancer stem cells and how this will inform the development of new therapeutics.

  9. Targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer and perspectives with natural compounds from mother nature. (United States)

    Millimouno, Faya M; Dong, Jia; Yang, Liu; Li, Jiang; Li, Xiaomeng


    Although the incidences are increasing day after day, scientists and researchers taken individually or by research group are trying to fight against cancer by several ways and also by different approaches and techniques. Sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, diterpenoids, and polyphenolic represent a large and diverse group of naturally occurring compounds found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants with various anticancer properties. In this review, our aim is to give our perspective on the current status of the natural compounds belonging to these groups and discuss their natural sources, their anticancer activity, their molecular targets, and their mechanism of actions with specific emphasis on apoptosis pathways, which may help the further design and conduct of preclinical and clinical trials. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs, the selected natural compounds induce apoptosis by targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways including transcription factors, growth factors, tumor cell survival factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and angiogenesis that are frequently deregulated in cancers and suggest that their simultaneous targeting by these compounds could result in efficacious and selective killing of cancer cells. This review suggests that they provide a novel opportunity for treatment of cancer, but clinical trials are still required to further validate them in cancer chemotherapy. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. The 15kDa selenoprotein and thioredoxin reductase 1 promote colon cancer by different pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra A Tsuji

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins mediate much of the cancer-preventive properties of the essential nutrient selenium, but some of these proteins have been shown to also have cancer-promoting effects. We examined the contributions of the 15kDa selenoprotein (Sep15 and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1 to cancer development. Targeted down-regulation of either gene inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and formation of experimental metastases of mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cells. Surprisingly, combined deficiency of Sep15 and TR1 reversed the anti-cancer effects observed with down-regulation of each single gene. We found that inflammation-related genes regulated by Stat-1, especially interferon-γ-regulated guanylate-binding proteins, were highly elevated in Sep15-deficient, but not in TR1-deficient cells. Interestingly, components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were up-regulated in cells lacking both TR1 and Sep15. These results suggest that Sep15 and TR1 participate in interfering regulatory pathways in colon cancer cells. Considering the variable expression levels of Sep15 and TR1 found within the human population, our results provide insights into new roles of selenoproteins in cancer.

  11. The "parallel pathway": a novel nutritional and metabolic approach to cancer patients. (United States)

    Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Molfino, Alessio; Gioia, Gianfranco; Laviano, Alessandro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo


    Cancer-associated malnutrition results from a deadly combination of anorexia, which leads to reduced food intake, and derangements of host metabolism inducing body weight loss, and hindering its reversal with nutrient supplementation. Cancer patients often experience both anorexia and weight loss, contributing to the onset of the clinical feature named as anorexia-cachexia syndrome. This condition has a negative impact upon patients' nutritional status. The pathogenesis of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome is multifactorial, and is related to: tumour-derived factors, host-derived factors inducing metabolic derangements, and side effects of anticancer therapies. In addition, the lack of awareness of cancer patients' nutritional issues and status by many oncologists, frequently results in progressive weight loss going undiagnosed until it becomes severe. The critical involvement of host inflammatory response in the development of weight loss, and, in particular, lean body mass depletion, limits the response to the provision of standard nutrition support. A novel nutritional and metabolic approach, named "parallel pathway", has been devised that may help maintain or improve nutritional status, and prevent or delay the onset of cancer cachexia. Such an approach may improve tolerance to aggressive anticancer therapies, and ameliorate the functional capacity and quality of life even in advanced disease stages. The "parallel pathway" implies a multiprofessional and multimodal approach aimed at ensuring early, appropriate and continuous nutritional and metabolic support to cancer patients in any phase of their cancer journey.

  12. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiener L


    Full Text Available Lori Wiener,1,*,# Meaghann Shaw Weaver,2,3,*,# Cynthia J Bell,4,# Ursula M Sansom-Daly,5–7 1Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Oncology, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC, USA; 3Department of Oncology, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA; 4College of Nursing, Wayne State University and Hospice of Michigan Institute, Detroit, MI, USA; 5Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children’s Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 6Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women’s and Children’s Health, UNSW Medicine, The University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 7Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children’s/Prince of Wales Hospitals, Randwick, NSW, Australia *These authors have contributed equally to this work #On behalf of the Pediatric Palliative Care Special Interest Group at Children’s National Health System Abstract: Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential

  13. Large-scale DNA methylation expression analysis across 12 solid cancers reveals hypermethylation in the calcium-signaling pathway. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Li, Qi-Gang; Liu, Jia; He, Yong-Han; Kong, Qing-Peng


    Tumorigenesis is linked to the role of DNA methylation in gene expression regulation. Yet, cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease in which the global pattern of DNA methylation and gene expression, especially across diverse cancers, is not well understood. We investigated DNA methylation status and its association with gene expressions across 12 solid cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Results showed that global hypermethylation was an important characteristic across all 12 cancer types. Moreover, there were more epigenetically silenced than epigenetically activated genes across the cancers. Further analysis identified epigenetically silenced genes shared in the calcium-signaling pathway across the different cancer types. Reversing the aberrant DNA methylation of genes involved in the calcium-signaling pathway could be an effective strategy for suppressing cancers and developing anti-cancer drugs.

  14. Exploiting tumor vulnerabilities: epigenetics, cancer metabolism and the mTOR pathway in the era of personalized medicine. (United States)

    Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; González-Suárez, Eva; Portela, Anna; Gentilella, Antonio; Esteller, Manel


    Patient stratification according to drug responses, together with the discovery of novel antitumor targets, is leading to a new era of personalized cancer treatments. With the aim of identifying emerging pathways and the challenges faced by clinicians during clinical trials, the IDIBELL Cancer Conference on Personalized Cancer Medicine took place in Barcelona on December 3-4, 2012. This conference brought together speakers working in different areas of cancer research (epigenetics, metabolism and the mTOR pathway, cell death and the immune system, clinical oncology) to discuss the latest developments in personalized cancer medicine. ©2013 AACR.

  15. [Update of breast cancer in primary care (IV/V)]. (United States)

    Álvarez-Hernández, C; Brusint, B; Vich, P; Díaz-García, N; Cuadrado-Rouco, C; Hernández-García, M


    Breast cancer is a prevalent disease affecting all areas of patients' lives. Therefore, family physicians must thoroughly understand this pathology in order to optimize the health care services and make the best use of available resources, for these patients. A series of 5 articles on breast cancer is presented below. It is based on a review of the scientific literature over the last 10 years. This fourth article deals with the treatment of the disease, the role of the primary care physician, and management of major complications. This summary report aims to provide a current and practical review about this problem, providing answers to family doctors and helping them to support their patients and care for them throughout their illness. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequently mutated genes/pathways and genomic instability as prevention targets in liver cancer. (United States)

    Rao, Chinthalapally V; Asch, Adam S; Yamada, Hiroshi Y


    The incidence of liver cancer has increased in recent years. Worldwide, liver cancer is common: more than 600000 related deaths are estimated each year. In the USA, about 27170 deaths due to liver cancer are estimated for 2016. Liver cancer is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For all stages combined, the 5-year survival rate is 15-17%, leaving much to be desired for liver cancer prevention and therapy. Heterogeneity, which can originate from genomic instability, is one reason for poor outcome. About 80-90% of liver cancers are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and recent cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed frequently mutated genes in HCC. In this review, we discuss the cause of the tumor heterogeneity based on the functions of genes that are frequently mutated in HCC. We overview the functions of the genes that are most frequently mutated (e.g. TP53, CTNNB1, AXIN1, ARID1A and WWP1) that portray major pathways leading to HCC and identify the roles of these genes in preventing genomic instability. Notably, the pathway analysis suggested that oxidative stress management may be critical to prevent accumulation of DNA damage and further mutations. We propose that both chromosome instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MIN) are integral to the hepatic carcinogenesis process leading to heterogeneity in HCC and that the pathways leading to heterogeneity may be targeted for prognosis, prevention and treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Targeting the human cancer pathway protein interaction network by structural genomics. (United States)

    Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Hang, Dehua; Lu, Long Jason; Tong, Liang; Gerstein, Mark B; Montelione, Gaetano T


    Structural genomics provides an important approach for characterizing and understanding systems biology. As a step toward better integrating protein three-dimensional (3D) structural information in cancer systems biology, we have constructed a Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network (HCPIN) by analysis of several classical cancer-associated signaling pathways and their physical protein-protein interactions. Many well known cancer-associated proteins play central roles as "hubs" or "bottlenecks" in the HCPIN. At least half of HCPIN proteins are either directly associated with or interact with multiple signaling pathways. Although some 45% of residues in these proteins are in sequence segments that meet criteria sufficient for approximate homology modeling (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) E-value structurally covered using high accuracy homology modeling criteria (i.e. BLAST E-value structures. The HCPIN Website provides a comprehensive description of this biomedically important multipathway network together with experimental and homology models of HCPIN proteins useful for cancer biology research. To complement and enrich cancer systems biology, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium is targeting >1000 human proteins and protein domains from the HCPIN for sample production and 3D structure determination. The long range goal of this effort is to provide a comprehensive 3D structure-function database for human cancer-associated proteins and protein complexes in the context of their interaction networks. The network-based target selection (BioNet) approach described here is an example of a general strategy for targeting co-functioning proteins by structural genomics projects.

  18. Targeting the Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network by Structural Genomics* (United States)

    Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Hang, Dehua; Lu, Long Jason; Tong, Liang; Gerstein, Mark B.; Montelione, Gaetano T.


    Structural genomics provides an important approach for characterizing and understanding systems biology. As a step toward better integrating protein three-dimensional (3D) structural information in cancer systems biology, we have constructed a Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network (HCPIN) by analysis of several classical cancer-associated signaling pathways and their physical protein-protein interactions. Many well known cancer-associated proteins play central roles as “hubs” or “bottlenecks” in the HCPIN. At least half of HCPIN proteins are either directly associated with or interact with multiple signaling pathways. Although some 45% of residues in these proteins are in sequence segments that meet criteria sufficient for approximate homology modeling (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) E-value structurally covered using high accuracy homology modeling criteria (i.e. BLAST E-value structures. The HCPIN Website provides a comprehensive description of this biomedically important multipathway network together with experimental and homology models of HCPIN proteins useful for cancer biology research. To complement and enrich cancer systems biology, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium is targeting >1000 human proteins and protein domains from the HCPIN for sample production and 3D structure determination. The long range goal of this effort is to provide a comprehensive 3D structure-function database for human cancer-associated proteins and protein complexes in the context of their interaction networks. The network-based target selection (BioNet) approach described here is an example of a general strategy for targeting co-functioning proteins by structural genomics projects. PMID:18487680

  19. Early palliative care for adults with advanced cancer. (United States)

    Haun, Markus W; Estel, Stephanie; Rücker, Gerta; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Villalobos, Matthias; Thomas, Michael; Hartmann, Mechthild


    Incurable cancer, which often constitutes an enormous challenge for patients, their families, and medical professionals, profoundly affects the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. In standard cancer care, palliative measures generally are initiated when it is evident that disease-modifying treatments have been unsuccessful, no treatments can be offered, or death is anticipated. In contrast, early palliative care is initiated much earlier in the disease trajectory and closer to the diagnosis of incurable cancer. To compare effects of early palliative care interventions versus treatment as usual/standard cancer care on health-related quality of life, depression, symptom intensity, and survival among adults with a diagnosis of advanced cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, OpenGrey (a database for grey literature), and three clinical trial registers to October 2016. We checked reference lists, searched citations, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-randomised controlled trials (cRCTs) on professional palliative care services that provided or co-ordinated comprehensive care for adults at early advanced stages of cancer. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. We assessed risk of bias, extracted data, and collected information on adverse events. For quantitative synthesis, we combined respective results on our primary outcomes of health-related quality of life, survival (death hazard ratio), depression, and symptom intensity across studies in meta-analyses using an inverse variance random-effects model. We expressed pooled effects as standardised mean differences (SMDs, or Hedges' adjusted g). We assessed certainty of evidence at the outcome level using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and

  20. Understanding Lymphatic Drainage Pathways of the Ovaries to Predict Sites for Sentinel Nodes in Ovarian Cancer. (United States)

    Kleppe, Marjolein; Kraima, Anne C; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Van Gorp, Toon; Smit, Noeska N; van Munsteren, Jacoba C; DeRuiter, Marco C


    In ovarian cancer, detection of sentinel nodes is an upcoming procedure. Perioperative determination of the patient's sentinel node(s) might prevent a radical lymphadenectomy and associated morbidity. It is essential to understand the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries, which are surprisingly up till now poorly investigated, to predict the anatomical regions where sentinel nodes can be found. We aimed to describe the lymphatic drainage pathways of the human ovaries including their compartmental fascia borders. A series of 3 human female fetuses and tissues samples from 1 human cadaveric specimen were studied. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded transverse sections (8 or 10 μm) using antibodies against Lyve-1, S100, and α-smooth muscle actin to identify the lymphatic endothelium, Schwann, and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created. Two major and 1 minor lymphatic drainage pathways from the ovaries were detected. One pathway drained via the proper ligament of the ovaries (ovarian ligament) toward the lymph nodes in the obturator fossa and the internal iliac artery. Another pathway drained the ovaries via the suspensory ligament (infundibulopelvic ligament) toward the para-aortic and paracaval lymph nodes. A third minor pathway drained the ovaries via the round ligament to the inguinal lymph nodes. Lymph vessels draining the fallopian tube all followed the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries. The lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries invariably run via the suspensory ligament (infundibulopelvic ligament) and the proper ligament of the ovaries (ovarian ligament), as well as through the round ligament of the uterus. Because ovarian cancer might spread lymphogenously via these routes, the sentinel node can be detected in the para-aortic and paracaval regions, obturator fossa and surrounding internal iliac arteries, and inguinal regions. These findings support the strategy of

  1. Palliative care and the cancer patient: current state and state of the art. (United States)

    Von Roenn, Jamie H


    Comprehensive cancer care requires the integration of palliative care practices and principles across the trajectory of the cancer experience. It complements the treatment of curable disease and may be the sole focus of care for those patients with advanced incurable disease. As the incidence of cancer increases worldwide and the burden of cancer rises, especially in low and middle resource countries, the need for palliative care is greater than ever before. There are numerous barriers to the provision of integrated care, including the ongoing misconception that palliative care is end-of-life care, the "cure-care dichotomy," inadequate training of health professionals and lack of resources. This article reviews the essential elements of comprehensive cancer care and the challenges to providing integrated cancer and palliative care to patients world-wide.

  2. Overexpression of piRNA pathway genes in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Ly Lim

    Full Text Available The importance of the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway for germ cell maintenance, genome integrity, DNA methylation and retrotransposon control raises possible roles of this pathway in cancer. Indeed aberrant expression of human PIWI orthologs and Maelstrom has been observed in various cancers. In this study we explored the expression and function of piRNA pathway genes in human ovarian cancer, based on our recent work, which showed widespread expression of piRNA pathway genes in the mammalian. Our work shows that PIWIL1 and MAEL expression is significantly increased in malignant EOC (n = 25 compared to benign tumor tissues (n = 19 and normal ovarian tissue (n = 8. The expression of PIWIL3 is lower in malignant and benign tissues when compared to normal ovary. Sequencing of PIWIL1 transcript revealed that in many tumors deletion of exon 17 leads to the introduction of a premature stop codon in the PIWI domain, likely due to a splicing error. In situ hybridization on tumor sections revealed that L1, PIWIL1, 2 and MAEL are specifically expressed in epithelial cells (cancerous cells of EOC. Furthermore, PIWIL2 and MAEL are co-expressed in the stromal cells adjacent to tumor cells. Since PIWIL1 and MAEL are up regulated in malignant EOC and expressed in the epithelial cells, we investigated if these two genes affect invasiveness of ovarian cancer cell lines that do not normally express these genes. PIWIL1 and MAEL were transiently over expressed in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, followed by real-time measurements of cell invasiveness. Surprisingly both PIWIL1 and MAEL over expression decreased the invasiveness of SKOV3 cells. Our findings support a growing body of evidence that shows that genes in this pathway are upregulated in cancer. In ovarian cancer we show for the first time that Piwil1 transcript may often be abnormal result in non functional product. In contrast to what has been observed in other cell types, we found that PIWIL1 and

  3. Managing Cancer Care: a psycho-educational intervention to improve knowledge of care options and breast cancer self-management. (United States)

    Schulman-Green, Dena; Jeon, Sangchoon


    We tested the feasibility and acceptability of a psycho-educational self-management intervention, Managing Cancer Care: A Personal Guide (MCC), to improve knowledge of care options (curative, palliative, and hospice care) among a range of breast cancer self-management skills. We conducted a one-group, pre-post-test study among women with non-metastatic breast cancer (n = 105). We gave participants the printed, self-guided, seven-module intervention following enrollment. At baseline and 2  months, we measured knowledge of care options, desired and actual role in self-management, medical communication skills, experience and management of transitions, anxiety, depression, uncertainty, and self-efficacy. We conducted interviews to obtain module ratings and qualitative data on strengths and limitations of MCC. Knowledge of care options (δ = 0.40 (1.11), p = 0.0005) and desired role in self-management (δ = -0.28 (1.08), p = 0.0177) significantly improved. Less skilled medical communicators significantly improved their communication (δ = 3.47, standard deviation = 6.58, p = 0.0449). Multivariate modeling showed that changes in our primary outcomes of medical communication and management of transitions seemed to drive positive changes in our secondary outcomes of anxiety, depression, uncertainty, and self-efficacy. Participants highly rated MCC and reported the importance of understanding care options despite non-metastatic disease. MCC is a feasible and acceptable means of improving knowledge of care options and other aspects of breast cancer self-management. The combination of modules offered in MCC appears to have beneficial interactive effects. We are currently testing MCC more rigorously in a randomized controlled trial to explore mediating and moderating relationships. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Ski modulate the characteristics of pancreatic cancer stem cells via regulating sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. (United States)

    Song, Libin; Chen, Xiangyuan; Gao, Song; Zhang, Chenyue; Qu, Chao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Luming


    Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies shows that Ski may act as both a tumor proliferation-promoting factor and a metastatic suppressor in human pancreatic cancer and also may be a therapeutic target of integrative therapies. At present, pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor recurrence accompanied by resistance to conventional therapies. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is found to be aberrantly activated in CSCs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the role of Ski in modulating pancreatic CSCs and to examine the molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic cancer treatment both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro study, the results showed that enhanced Ski expression could increase the expression of pluripotency maintaining markers, such as CD24, CD44, Sox-2, and Oct-4, and also components of Shh signaling pathway, such as Shh, Ptch-1, Smo, Gli-1, and Gli-2, whereas depletion of Ski to the contrary. Then, we investigated the underlying mechanism and found that inhibiting Gli-2 expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) can decrease the effects of Ski on the maintenance of pancreatic CSCs, indicating that Ski mediates the pluripotency of pancreatic CSCs mainly through Shh pathway. The conclusion is that Ski may be an important factor in maintaining the stemness of pancreatic CSCs through modulating Shh pathway.

  5. The European quality of care pathways (EQCP study on the impact of care pathways on interprofessional teamwork in an acute hospital setting: study protocol: for a cluster randomised controlled trial and evaluation of implementation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneckere Svin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although care pathways are often said to promote teamwork, high-level evidence that supports this statement is lacking. Furthermore, knowledge on conditions and facilitators for successful pathway implementation is scarce. The objective of the European Quality of Care Pathway (EQCP study is therefore to study the impact of care pathways on interprofessional teamwork and to build up understanding on the implementation process. Methods/design An international post-test-only cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (cRCT, combined with process evaluations, will be performed in Belgium, Ireland, Italy, and Portugal. Teams caring for proximal femur fracture (PFF patients and patients hospitalized with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD will be randomised into an intervention and control group. The intervention group will implement a care pathway for PFF or COPD containing three active components: a formative evaluation of the actual teams’ performance, a set of evidence-based key interventions, and a training in care pathway-development. The control group will provide usual care. A set of team input, process and output indicators will be used as effect measures. The main outcome indicator will be relational coordination. Next to these, process measures during and after pathway development will be used to evaluate the implementation processes. In total, 132 teams have agreed to participate, of which 68 were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 64 to the control group. Based on power analysis, a sample of 475 team members per arm is required. To analyze results, multilevel analysis will be performed. Discussion Results from our study will enhance understanding on the active components of care pathways. Through this, preferred implementation strategies can be defined. Trail registration NCT01435538

  6. REGγ regulates ERα degradation via ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in breast cancer

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    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan [Breast Disease Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bi, Jiong [Laboratory of General Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Li; Zhang, Fan [Breast Disease Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Cui, Youhong [Institute of Pathology and Southwest Cancer Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Jiang, Jun, E-mail: [Breast Disease Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)


    Highlights: • High expression of REGγ is correlated with ERα status and poor clinical features. • Cell growth, mobility and invasion are significantly impaired by REGγ knockdown. • REGγ indirectly regulates ERα protein expression. - Abstract: REGγ is a proteasome coactivator which regulates proteolytic activity in eukaryotic cells. Abundant lines of evidence have showed that REGγ is over expressed in a number of human carcinomas. However, its precise role in the pathogenesis of cancer is still unclear. In this study, by examining 200 human breast cancer specimens, we demonstrated that REGγ was highly expressed in breast cancers, and the expression of REGγ was positively correlated with breast cancer patient estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) status. Moreover, the expression of REGγ was found positively associated with poor clinical features and low survival rates in ERα positive breast cancer patients. Further cell culture studies using MCF7 and BT474 breast cancer cell lines showed that cell proliferation, motility, and invasion capacities were decreased significantly by REGγ knockdown. Lastly, we demonstrated that REGγ indirectly regulates the degradation of ERα protein via ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. In conclusion, our findings provide the evidence that REGγ expression was positively correlated with ERα status and poor clinical prognosis in ERα positive breast cancer patients. As well, we disclose a new connection between the two molecules that are both highly expressed in most breast cancer cases.

  7. Synergistic inhibition of autophagy and neddylation pathways as a novel therapeutic approach for targeting liver cancer. (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Hu, Tao; Liang, Yupei; Jiang, Yanan; Pan, Yongfu; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongping; Li, Pei; Jeong, Lak Shin; Chu, Yiwei; Qi, Hui; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M; Dong, Ziming; Jia, Lijun


    Liver cancer is the second-most frequent cause of cancer death in the world and is highly treatment resistant. We reported previously that inhibition of neddylation pathway with specific NAE inhibitor MLN4924, suppressed the malignant phenotypes of liver cancer. However, during the process, MLN4924 induces pro-survival autophagy as a mechanism of drug resistance. Here, we report that blockage of autophagy with clinically-available autophagy inhibitors (e.g. chloroquine) significantly enhanced the efficacy of MLN4924 on liver cancer cells by triggering apoptosis. Mechanistically, chloroquine enhanced MLN4924-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. NOXA) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins. Importantly, the down-regulation of NOXA expression via siRNA silencing substantially attenuated apoptosis of liver cancer cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that blockage of autophagy augmented MLN4924-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The elimination of DNA damage or blockage of ROS production significantly reduced the expression of NOXA, and thereby attenuated apoptosis and reduced growth inhibition of liver cancer cells. Moreover, blockage of autophagy enhanced the efficacy of MLN4924 in an orthotopic model of human liver cancer, with induction of NOXA and apoptosis in tumor tissues. These findings provide important preclinical evidence for clinical investigation of synergistic inhibition of neddylation and autophagy in liver