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Sample records for cancer 6-year analysis

  1. Once-Weekly, High-Dose Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer: 6-Year Analysis of 60 Early-Stage, 42 Locally Advanced, and 7 Metastatic Lung Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Omar M.; Sandhu, Taljit S.; Lattin, Paul B.; Chang, Jung H.; Lee, Choon K.; Groshko, Gayle A.; Lattin, Cheryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To explore once-weekly stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in nonoperable patients with localized, locally advanced, or metastatic lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 primary (89 untreated plus 13 recurrent) and 7 metastatic tumors were studied. The median follow-up was 38 months, the average patient age was 75 years. Of the 109 tumors studied, 60 were Stage I (45 IA and 15 IB), 9 were Stage II, 30 were Stage III, 3 were Stage IV, and 7 were metastases. SBRT only was given in 73% (40 Gy in four fractions to the planning target volume to a total dose of 53 Gy to the isocenter for a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy 10 ). SBRT was given as a boost in 27% (22.5 Gy in three fractions once weekly for a dose of 32 Gy at the isocenter) after 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the primary plus the mediastinum. The total biologically effective dose was 120 Gy 10 . Respiration gating was used in 46%. Results: The overall response rate was 75%; 33% had a complete response. The overall response rate was 89% for Stage IA patients (40% had a complete response). The local control rate was 82%; it was 100% and 93% for Stage IA and IB patients, respectively. The failure rate was 37%, with 17% within the planning target volume. No Grade 3-4 acute toxicities developed in any patient; 12% and 7% of patients developed Grade 1 and 2 toxicities, respectively. Late toxicity, all Grade 2, developed in 3% of patients. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate for Stage I was 70% and was 74% and 64% for Stage IA and IB patients, respectively. The 3-year Stage III cause-specific survival rate was 30%. The patients with metastatic lung cancer had a 57% response rate, a 27% complete response rate, an 86% local control rate, a median survival time of 19 months, and 23% 3-year survival rate. Conclusions: SBRT is noninvasive, convenient, fast, and economically attractive; it achieves results similar to surgery for early or metastatic lung cancer patients who are older

  2. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: disease control and quality of life at 6 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Alan J; Santoro, Michael; Diblasio, Fred; Ashley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may yield disease control for prostate cancer in a brief, hypofractionated treatment regimen without increasing treatment toxicity. Our report presents a 6-year update from 304 low- (n = 211), intermediate- (n = 81), and high-risk (n = 12) prostate cancer patients who received CyberKnife SBRT. The median PSA at presentation was 5.8 ng/ml. Fifty-seven patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for up to one year. The first 50 patients received a total dose of 35 Gy in 5 fractions of 7 Gy. The subsequent 254 patients received a total dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions of 7.25 Gy. Toxicity was assessed with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary and rectal toxicity scale. Biochemical failure was assessed using the nadir + 2 definition. No patients experienced Grade III or IV acute complications. Fewer than 5% of patients experienced any acute Grade II urinary or rectal toxicities. Late urinary Grade II complications were observed in 4% of patients treated to 35 Gy and 9% of patients treated to 36.25 Gy. Five (2%) late Grade III urinary toxicities occurred in patients who were treated with 36.25 Gy. Late Grade II rectal complications were observed in 2% of patients treated to 35 Gy and 5% of patients treated to 36.25 Gy. Bowel and urinary quality of life (QOL) scores initially decreased, but later returned to baseline values. An overall decrease of 20% in the sexual QOL score was observed. QOL in each domain was not differentially affected by dose. For patients that were potent prior to treatment, 75% stated that they remained sexually potent. Actuarial 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival was 97% for low-risk, 90.7% for intermediate-risk, and 74.1% for high-risk patients. PSA fell to a median of 0.12 ng/ml at 5 years; dose did not influence median PSA levels. In this large series with long-term follow-up, we found excellent biochemical control rates and

  3. Comparison of the incidence of oesophageal cancer in two 6-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resulting in 407 000 deaths globally and making it the 8thmost ... most likely cause of cancer-related deaths.[1] Globally ... for 90% of cases in most European and Asian countries. .... in the African population represented here was much greater.

  4. Analysis of injuries from the Army Ten Miler: A 6-year retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Paul F; Griffin, Sarah C; Anderson-Barnes, Victoria C; Tsao, Jack W; O'Connor, Francis G

    2013-01-01

    A number of long-distance running events are held each year in the United States; the Army Ten Miler (ATM) is one such race held annually in Washington, DC. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively analyze medical encounters for runners participating in the ATM from 1998 to 2004. Of the estimated 91,750 runners over the 6-year period, 73,100 participants finished the race and were included in the data analysis. Demographic and injury data were collected from medical records of participants who received medical care while participating in the ATM, and injury-related factors were assessed. The most common category of injury was musculoskeletal (44%), followed by medical-related problems (27%) and dermatological injuries (27%). Similar to marathon and ironman races, ATM injury rates correlate with race-day temperature and dew point. Overall, however, the injury rates observed at the ATM were relatively low compared to those reported for longer distance events. Finally, we detail the medical coverage provided at the ATM, as this coverage could be used as a guide for similarly distanced races.

  5. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the increasing use of varicella-vaccines in the general population and rapid initiation of VZV-immunoglobulins and acyclovir in case of exposure has been beneficial for some patients, immunocompromised individuals are still at risk for unfavourable courses. Methods In this single center, 6-year analysis we review incidence, hospitalization and complication rates of VZV-infections in our center and compare them to published data. Furthermore, we report three instructive cases. Results Hospitalization rate of referred children with VZV-infections was 45%, among these 17% with malignancies and 9% under immunosuppressive therapy. Rate of complications was not elevated in these two high-risk cohorts, but one ALL-patient died due to VZV-related complications. We report one 4-year old boy with initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who showed a rapidly fatal outcome of his simultaneous varicella-infection, one 1.8-year old boy with an identical situation but a mild course of his disease, and an 8.5-year old boy with a steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. This boy developed severe hepatic involvement during his varicella-infection but responded to immediate withdrawl of steroids and administration of acyclovir plus single-dose cidofovir after nonresponse to acyclovir after 48 h. Conclusion Our data show that patients with malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy should be hospitalized and treated immediately with antiviral agents. Despite these measures the course of VZV-infections can be highly variable in these patients. We discuss aids to individual decision-making for these difficult situations.

  6. Analysis of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit for 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence rate, causative pathogens and clinical features of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU for 6 years. Methods : This study was retrospectively performed to review the clinical and laboratory characteristics including sex, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, length of hospitalization, length of total parenteral nutrition, presence of central venous catheter, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, microorganisms isolated from blood culture, complications and mortality in 175 patients between January 2003 and December 2008. Results : 1 Sepsis was present in 175 of 3,747 infants for 6 years. There were more gram-positive organisms. 2 The gram-negatives were more prevalent in preterm. There were no significant differences of other clinical features between two groups. 3 Underlying diseases were found in 73.7%, and the most common disease was cardiovascular disease. The most common organisms of gram-positives and gram-negatives were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Serratia marcescens. 4 There was statistically significant difference on platelet counts between two groups (P<0.05. 5 Complications were found in 18.3% and septic shock was the most common. MRSA was the most common pathogen in sepsis with complication. 6 The mortality rate was 7.4%. 7 There were differences in monthly blood stream infection/ 1,000 patient-days. Conclusion : The studies about the factors that can influence neonatal sepsis will contribute to decrease the infection rates in NICUs.

  7. Cumulative ionizing radiation exposure in patients with end stage kidney disease: a 6-year retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coyle, Joe

    2011-08-13

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). To investigate factors which may be independently associated with risk of high cumulative effective dose (CED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study had local institutional review board ethical approval. We conducted a retrospective study of 394 period prevalent ESKD patients attending a single tertiary referral centre between 2004 and 2009. Patient demographics were obtained from case records. Details of radiological investigations were obtained from the institutional radiology computerized database. CED was calculated using standard procedure specific radiation levels. High exposure was defined as CED > 50 mSv, an exposure which has been reported to increase cancer mortality by 5%. Data were compared using Pearson χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: 394 patients were followed for a median of 4 years (1518 patient years follow-up). Of these 63% were male. Seventeen percent of patients had a CED of >50 mSv. Computed tomography (CT) accounted for 9% of total radiological studies\\/procedures while contributing 61.4% of total study dose. Median cumulative dose and median dose per patient year were significantly higher in the hemodialysis (HD) group (15.13 and 5.79 mSv, respectively) compared to the post-transplant group (2.9 and 0.52 mSv, respectively) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ESKD patients are at risk of cumulative exposure to significant levels of diagnostic radiation. The majority of this exposure is imparted as a result of CT examinations to patients in the HD group.

  8. Managing the screen-viewing behaviours of children aged 5-6 years: a qualitative analysis of parental strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R; Zahra, J; Edwards, M J; Kesten, J M; Solomon-Moore, E; Thompson, J L; Sebire, S J

    2016-03-01

    The present study used qualitative methods to: (1) examine the strategies that were used by parents of children aged 5-6 years to manage screen viewing; (2) identify key factors that affect the implementation of the strategies and (3) develop suggestions for future intervention content. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 5-6 years participating in a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive and deductive content analysis. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in the greater Bristol area (UK). 53 parents of children aged 5-6 years. Parents reported that for many children, screen viewing was a highly desirable behaviour that was difficult to manage, and that parents used the provision of screen viewing as a tool for reward and/or punishment. Parents managed screen viewing by setting limits in relation to daily events such as meals, before and after school, and bedtime. Screen-viewing rules were often altered depending on parental preferences and tasks. Inconsistent messaging within and between parents represented a source of conflict at times. Potential strategies to facilitate reducing screen viewing were identified, including setting screen-viewing limits in relation to specific events, collaborative rule setting, monitoring that involves mothers, fathers and the child, developing a family-specific set of alternative activities to screen viewing and developing a child's ability to self-monitor their own screen viewing. Managing screen viewing is a challenge for many parents and can often cause tension in the home. The data presented in this paper provide key suggestions of new approaches that could be incorporated into behaviour change programmes to reduce child screen viewing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. [Impact factors analysis on child neglect of children aged 3-6 year-old in rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pan, Jianping; Zhang, Songjie; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Weiqing; Tao, Fangbiao; Qin, Rui; Gu, Guixiong; Shi, Shuhua; Zhang, Jing; Du, Qiyun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Jiao, Feng; Wang, Huishan; Xu, Tao; Wang, Guixiang; Xi, Weiping; Pang, Songtao; Wang, Xin; Cao, Chunhong; Li, Min; Yang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the major influence factors of child neglect among rural areas children aged 3-6 years in China. According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, distribution characteristics and the level of economic development, we randomly sampled 10 provinces, 26 cities (8 capital cities, 16 prefecture-level cities and 2 municipalities) using lottery method. Depending on the different level of economic and cultural, we sampled one medium county from each city (municipalities sampled two counties), a total of 28 counties. All towns were divided into high, medium and low three levels in accordance with economic and cultural, each level sampled one town, each conty sampled three towns, a total of 84 towns were sampled. Each town sampled 40 children, including 20 boys and 20 girls (including each 10 children aged 3 to 6, half and half boys and girls). 4 096 rural children aged 3-6 years old were sampled and surveyed of China. Based on "the Neglect Norms for Children Aged 3 to 6 Years Old in Rural Areas of China" explored the risk factors of child neglect. SPSS 18. 0 for windows was employed for statistics analysis. Multifactorial analysis was conducted through multivariate Logistic Regression. The total neglected rate of the rural children aged 3 to 6 was 53.7% (2,047/3,810), and the total neglected degree was 44.42±7.57. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, neglected risk of the boys was higher than the girls (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49), neglected risk of children were higher, when their mothers were migrant workers (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.59-3.00); the lower educational level of mothers, the higher neglected risk of children, the children in families that mothers only received primary education or was uneducated were most likely to be neglected (OR=2.92, 95% CI: 1.91-4.47), the second was the families that mothers received primary education (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.29-2.69); the lower the household income, the easier to be neglected the children

  10. Analysis of association of gene variants with obesity traits in New Zealand European children at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mohanraj; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A; Murphy, Rinki; McCowan, Lesley M E; Shelling, Andrew N; On Behalf Of The Children Of Scope Study Group, G

    2017-07-25

    Childhood obesity is a public health problem, which is associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Several gene variants have previously been identified that have provided novel insights into biological factors that contribute to the development of obesity. As obesity tracks through childhood into adulthood, identification of the genetic factors for obesity in early life is important. The objective of this study was to identify putative associations between genetic variants and obesity traits in children at 6 years of age. We recruited 1208 children of mothers from the New Zealand centre of the international Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Eighty common genetic variants associated with obesity traits were evaluated by the Sequenom assay. Body mass index standardised scores (BMI z-scores) and percentage body fat (PBF; measured by bio-impedance assay (BIA)) were used as anthropometric measures of obesity. A positive correlation was found between BMI z-scores and PBF (p obesity and obesity traits in New Zealand European children.

  11. The reliability of language performance measurement in language sample analysis of children aged 5-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The language sample analysis (LSA is more common in other languages than Persian to study language development and assess language pathology. We studied some psychometric properties of language sample analysis in this research such as content validity of written story and its pictures, test-retest reliability, and inter-rater reliability.Methods: We wrote a story based on Persian culture from Schneider’s study. The validity of written story and drawn pictures was approved by experts. To study test-retest reliability, 30 children looked at the pictures and told their own story twice with 7-10 days interval. Children generated the story themselves and tester did not give any cue about the story. Their audio-taped story was transcribed and analyzed. Sentence and word structures were detected in the analysis.Results: Mean of experts' agreement with the validity of written story was 92.28 percent. Experts scored the quality of pictures high and excellent. There was correlation between variables in sentence and word structure (p<0.05 in test-retest, except complex sentences (p=0.137. The agreement rate was 97.1 percent in inter-rater reliability assessment of transcription. The results of inter-rater reliability of language analysis showed that correlation coefficients were significant.Conclusion: The results confirmed that the tool was valid for eliciting language sample. The consistency of language performance in repeated measurement varied from mild to high in language sample analysis approach.

  12. Seasonal variation of semen parameters correlates with environmental temperature and air pollution: A big data analysis over 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Magnani, Elisa; Michelangeli, Marco; Grassi, Roberto; Vecchi, Barbara; Pedroni, Gioia; Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Baraldi, Enrica; Setti, Monica; Trenti, Tommaso; Simoni, Manuela

    2018-04-01

    Male fertility is progressively declining in many developed countries, but the relationship between male infertility and environmental factors is still unclear. To assess the influence of environmental temperature and air pollution on semen parameters, using a big-data approach. A big data analysis of parameters related to 5131 men, living in a province of Northern Italy and undergoing semen analyses between January 2010 and March 2016 was performed. Ambient temperature was recorded on the day of analysis and the 90 days prior to the analysis and the average value of particulate matter (PM) and NO2 in the year of the test. All data were acquired by geocoding patients residential address. A data warehouse containing 990,904,591 data was generated and analysed by multiple regressions. 5573 semen analyses were collected. Both maximum and minimum temperatures registered on the day of collection were inversely related to total sperm number (p < .001), non-progressive motility (NPrM) (p < .005) and normal forms (p < .001). Results were confirmed considering temperature in the 30 and 60 days before collection, but not in the 90 days before collection. Total sperm number was lower in summer/autumn (p < .001) and was inversely related with daylight duration (p < .001). PM10 and PM2.5 were inversely related to PrM (p < .001 and p < .005) and abnormal forms (p < .001). This is the first evaluation of the relationship between male fertility-related parameters and environment using a big-data approach. A seasonal change in semen parameters was found, with a fluctuation related to both temperature and daylight duration. A negative correlation between air pollution and semen quality is suggested. Such seasonal and environmental associations should be considered when assessing changes of male fertility-related parameters over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of early bacterial communities on volcanic deposits on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan: a 6-year study at a fixed site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial colonization on new terrestrial substrates represents the initiation of new soil ecosystem formation. In this study, we analyzed early bacterial communities growing on volcanic ash deposits derived from the 2000 Mount Oyama eruption on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. A site was established in an unvegetated area near the summit and investigated over a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Collected samples were acidic (pH 3.0-3.6), did not utilize any organic substrates in ECO microplate assays (Biolog), and harbored around 106 cells (g dry weight)(-1) of autotrophic Fe(II) oxidizers by most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and the Leptospirillum groups I, II and III were found to be abundant in the deposits by clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The numerical dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also supported by analysis of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Comparing the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from samples differing in age, shifts in Fe(II)-oxidizing populations seemed to occur with deposit aging. The detection of known 16S rRNA gene sequences from Fe(III)-reducing acidophiles promoted us to propose the acidity-driven iron cycle for the early microbial ecosystem on the deposit.

  14. Clarithromycin for 2 Weeks for Stable Coronary Heart Disease: 6-Year Follow-Up of the CLARICOR Randomized Trial and Updated Meta-Analysis of Antibiotics for Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Damgaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: We have reported increased 2.6-year mortality in clarithromycin- versus placebo-exposed stable coronary heart disease patients, but meta-analysis of randomized trials in coronary heart disease patients showed no significant effect of antibiotics on mortality. Here we report the 6-year...... disease versus placebo/no intervention (17 trials, 25,271 patients, 1,877 deaths) showed a significantly increased relative risk of death from antibiotics of 1.10 (1.01-1.20) without heterogeneity. Conclusions: Our results stress the necessity to consider carefully the strength of the indication before...... administering antibiotics to patients with coronary heart disease....

  15. Providing Anesthesia Care in Resource-limited Settings: A 6-year Analysis of Anesthesia Services Provided at Médecins Sans Frontières Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, Promise; Trelles, Miguel; Helmand, Rahmatullah; Amir, Yama; Hassani, Ghulam Haidar; Mftavyanka, Julien; Nzeyimana, Zenon; Akemani, Clemence; Ntawukiruwabo, Innocent Bagura; Charles, Adelin; Yana, Yanang; Moussa, Kalla; Kamal, Mustafa; Suma, Mohamed Lamin; Ahmed, Mowlid; Abdullahi, Mohamed; Wong, Evan G; Kushner, Adam; Latif, Asad

    2016-03-01

    Anesthesia is integral to improving surgical care in low-resource settings. Anesthesia providers who work in these areas should be familiar with the particularities associated with providing care in these settings, including the types and outcomes of commonly performed anesthetic procedures. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of anesthetic procedures performed at Médecins Sans Frontières facilities from July 2008 to June 2014. The authors collected data on patient demographics, procedural characteristics, and patient outcome. The factors associated with perioperative mortality were analyzed. Over the 6-yr period, 75,536 anesthetics were provided to adult patients. The most common anesthesia techniques were spinal anesthesia (45.56%) and general anesthesia without intubation (33.85%). Overall perioperative mortality was 0.25%. Emergent procedures (0.41%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.86; 95% CI, 2.14 to 115.58), specialized surgeries (2.74%; AOR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.27 to 11.47), and surgical duration more than 6 h (9.76%; AOR, 4.02; 95% CI, 1.09 to 14.88) were associated with higher odds of mortality than elective surgeries, minor surgeries, and surgical duration less than 1 h, respectively. Compared with general anesthesia with intubation, spinal anesthesia, regional anesthesia, and general anesthesia without intubation were associated with lower perioperative mortality rates of 0.04% (AOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.18), 0.06% (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.92), and 0.14% (AOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.45), respectively. A wide range of anesthetics can be carried out safely in resource-limited settings. Providers need to be aware of the potential risks and the outcomes associated with anesthesia administration in these settings.

  16. The influence of friends and siblings on the physical activity and screen viewing behaviours of children aged 5-6 years: a qualitative analysis of parent interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M J; Jago, R; Sebire, S J; Kesten, J M; Pool, L; Thompson, J L

    2015-05-14

    The present study uses qualitative data to explore parental perceptions of how their young child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours are influenced by their child's friends and siblings. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of year 1 children (age 5-6 years). Interviews considered parental views on a variety of issues related to their child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours, including the influence that their child's friends and siblings have over such behaviours. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using deductive content analysis. Data were organised using a categorisation matrix developed by the research team. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Data were entered into and coded within N-Vivo. Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in Bristol and the surrounding area that took part in the B-ProAct1v study. Fifty-three parents of children aged 5-6 years. Parents believe that their child's screen viewing and physical activity behaviours are influenced by their child's siblings and friends. Friends are considered to have a greater influence over the structured physical activities a child asks to participate in, whereas the influence of siblings is more strongly perceived over informal and spontaneous physical activities. In terms of screen viewing, parents suggest that their child's friends can heavily influence the content their child wishes to consume, however, siblings have a more direct and tangible influence over what a child watches. Friends and siblings influence young children's physical activity and screen viewing behaviours. Child-focused physical activity and screen viewing interventions should consider the important influence that siblings and friends have over these behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Adnexal torsion in 6 years old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plachkov, I.; Tzvetankov, K.; Dimova, M.; Dobreva, Tz.; Hadjidekov, G.

    2012-01-01

    MRI and US findings in Ovarian torsion in a premenarcheal girl are described. Adnexal torsion is an uncommon cause of severe lower abdominal pain in young women (mean age is 10-11), and in 50% of cases such symptoms are observed in pre-menarchal females. However, adnexal torsion should be considered in all premenarcheal girls admitted with acute abdominal pain and evidence of an ovarian mass. Accurate imaging is crucial after onset of early clinical symptoms to confirm the diagnosis and to preserve the viability of the affected ovary. A pelvic ovoid mass was visualised on ultrasound, suggesting several hypothesis -cystic mass, ovarian torsion, dermoid. Magnetic resonance imaging visualized edematous ovary enlargement and the presence of multiple follicules at the periphery due to congestion from the twisted vascular pedicule. Smooth wail thickening of the partially necrotic. Twisted ovary was seen in the subacute phase, which has been confirmed during laparoscopy. CT was not considered in this 6 years old girl due to ionizing radiation. (authors)

  18. The contribution of early language development to children's emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years: an analysis of data from the Children in Focus sample from the ALSPAC birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Judy; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Peters, Tim J; Roulstone, Susan

    2015-01-01

    An association between children's early language development and their emotional and behavioural functioning is reported in the literature. The nature of the association remains unclear and it has not been established if such an association is found in a population-based cohort in addition to clinical populations. This study examines the reported association between language development and emotional and behavioural functioning in a population-based cohort. Data from 1,314 children in the Children in Focus (CiF) sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were analysed. Regression models identified the extent to which early language ability at 2 years of age and later language ability at 4 years of age is associated with emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years while accounting for biological and social risk and adjusting for age and performance intelligence (PIQ). A series of univariable and multivariable analyses identified a strong influence of biological risk, social risk and early and later language ability to emotional and behavioural functioning. Interestingly, social risk dropped out of the multivariate analyses when age and PIQ were controlled for. Early expressive vocabulary at 2 years and receptive language at 4 years made a strong contribution to emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years in addition to biological risk. The final model accounted for 11.6% of the variance in emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years. The study identified that early language ability at 2 years, specifically expressive vocabulary and later receptive language at 4 years both made a moderate, but important contribution to emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years of age. Although children's language development is important in understanding children's emotional and behavioural functioning, the study shows that it is one of many developmental factors involved. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and

  19. Parental control, nurturance, self-efficacy, and screen viewing among 5- to 6-year-old children: a cross-sectional mediation analysis to inform potential behavior change strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L; Sebire, Simon J

    2015-04-01

    Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for mediated associations between parental control and SV. Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful.

  20. Nationwide survey of US integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebastchi, Amir H; Yuh, David D

    2014-08-01

    Integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residency programs have recently been implemented in the United States. We report the results of the first published nationwide survey assessing the motivations, satisfaction, and ambitions of integrated 6-year residents. A 63-question web-based survey was distributed to 83 residents enrolled in 21 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited integrated 6-year programs in November 2013. There was an outstanding 69% response rate. The median age of integrated 6-year residents was 29 years with women comprising 24%. A clear majority had faculty mentorship (95%) and significant clinical exposure in medical school. Focused (100%) and abbreviated (74%) training curricula were identified as the top advantages of integrated 6-year programs; the format itself was a significant factor (46%) in career choice. Most integrated 6-year residents (95%) were satisfied with their program; 80.7% were satisfied with their operative experience thus far. Career plans skewed toward adult cardiac surgery (67%), followed by pediatric cardiac (24%) and general thoracic (9%) surgery; 49% were not particularly concerned about future employment, with 65% foreseeing an increase in opportunities. Specialized training (eg, aortic, heart failure, minimally invasive, congenital) was anticipated by 77%. Most integrated 6-year residents envision an academic career (94.7%). This survey takes an important snapshot of the nascent integrated 6-year format. Mentorship and intense clinical exposure are critical in attracting applicants. Purported advantages of the format are holding true among integrated 6-year residents, with the majority satisfied with their programs. These early data indicate that this format holds significant promise in attracting and retaining highly qualified trainees to academic cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders,

  2. Dietary patterns in infancy are associated with child diet and weight outcomes at 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C M; Birch, L L; Savage, J S

    2017-05-01

    To assess whether patterns of dietary exposures at 9 months are associated with child diet and weight at 6 years. Data for this study were from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and Year 6 Follow-Up Studies. All data were self-reported monthly. Results of a previous latent class analysis revealed five dietary patterns varying in milk and solid food intake. These five infant dietary patterns were used in the current study to predict child diet and weight outcomes at 6 years, while controlling for confounding variables. Infants with dietary patterns higher in fruit and vegetable intake at 9 months had higher fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years. Similarly, infants with the dietary pattern characterized by foods high in energy density (that is, French Fries and sweet desserts) continued to have higher consumption of these foods at 6 years, and had a higher prevalence of overweight at 6 years (43%) compared with the other classes. Formula-fed infants had higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake and fewer met the dietary guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years than breastfed infants, controlling for factors such as income. Early decisions about milk-feeding, and the types of solid foods offered in infancy can foreshadow dietary patterns and obesity risk later in childhood. Infants who were offered energy-dense foods had higher intake of these foods at 6 years of age.

  3. Vaginal Bleeding In 6 Years Old Young Female: Diagnostic Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 6 year old young girl was referred to Mendefera (Zoba Debub Referral) Hospital with vaginal bleeding of 4 days duration. She had a history of swimming in a river prior to the incident. An aquatic leech bloated with blood detached from the vagina after 100 milliliters of normal saline flushing into the vagina. The patient was ...

  4. Intermediate Term (3-6 Years Post Surgery) Outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operatively, the 5 eyes had VA ranging from 6/60 to NLP, after a variable follow-up period of 3-6 years. Complications included development of tough vascularized retroprosthetic membrane (4 eyes) and infective endophthalmitis in one eye. Conclusion: The intermediate-term outcome of keratoprosthesis surgery in ...

  5. A 6-year review of the outcome of endometrial ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, J; Taylor, N; Healey, M

    1998-02-01

    In June, 1995 a postal questionnaire was distributed to all 232 women who had an endometrial ablation at Monash Medical Centre between July, 1989 and December, 1994. Data was analyzed from the 149 who responded. Length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 6 years 6 months. Of these 78% were satisfied with their ablation and 84% found their menses to be lighter or to have stopped. The repeat ablation rate was 13% and the hysterectomy rate was 17%.

  6. Sleep During Menopausal Transition: A 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampio, Laura; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Kurki, Samu; Huupponen, Eero; Engblom, Janne; Heinonen, Olli J; Polo, Olli; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2017-07-01

    Menopausal transition is associated with increased dissatisfaction with sleep, but the effects on sleep architecture are conflicting. This prospective 6-year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the changes in sleep stages and sleep continuity that occur in women during menopausal transition. Sixty women (mean age 46.0 years, SD 0.9) participated. All women were premenopausal at baseline, and at the 6-year follow-up, women were in different stages of menopausal transition. Polysomnography was used to study sleep architecture at baseline and follow-up. The effects of aging and menopause (assessed as change in serum follicle-stimulating hormone [S-FSH]) on sleep architecture were evaluated using linear regression models. After controlling for body mass index, vasomotor, and depressive symptoms, aging of 6 years resulted in shorter total sleep time (B -37.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] -71.5 to (-3.3)), lower sleep efficiency (B -6.5, 95%CI -12.7 to (-0.2)), as well as in increased transitions from slow-wave sleep (SWS) to wakefulness (B 1.0, 95%CI 0.1 to 1.9), wake after sleep onset (B 37.7, 95%CI 12.5 to 63.0), awakenings per hour (B 1.8, 95%CI 0.8 to 2.8), and arousal index (B 2.3, 95%CI 0.1 to 4.4). Higher S-FSH concentration in menopausal transition was associated with increased SWS (B 0.09, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.16) after controlling for confounding factors. A significant deterioration in sleep continuity occurs when women age from 46 to 52 years, but change from premenopausal to menopausal state restores some SWS. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  8. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  9. Giant aneurysm in 6 years old child - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, S.; Penkov, M.; Todorov, Y; Minkin, K.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms rare in childhood is. Even among the reported series of childhood aneurysms, it is unusual to find their occurrence in children less than 7 years old. The pathogenesis of these lesions is also a matter of debate and speculations. The peak age of incidence of juvenile cerebral aneurysms appear to be 12 years, occurrence below the age of 7 being rarity. We show a case of 6 years old boy with giant aneurysm. found because of episodes of headache and vomiting. Discussion of pathogenesis for the rare pathology. After discussion of multidisciplinary team, of neuroradiologist and neurosurgeons was decided to be perform endovascular embolization, because of the better outcome for the patient. We performed endovascular treatment of the aneurysm with achieving total embolization. The patient recovery completely, and after 4 days went home. (authors) Key words: GIANT ANEURYSM. SACCULAR ANEURYSM. EMBOLIZATION. STENT ASSISTED COILING

  10. Colorectal cancer stages transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyao Huo

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression differences in different stages of CRC. Gene expression data on 433 CRC patient samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Gene expression differences were evaluated across CRC stages using linear regression. Genes with p≤0.001 in expression differences were evaluated further in principal component analysis and genes with p≤0.0001 were evaluated further in gene set enrichment analysis. A total of 377 patients with gene expression data in 20,532 genes were included in the final analysis. The numbers of patients in stage I through IV were 59, 147, 116 and 55, respectively. NEK4 gene, which encodes for NIMA related kinase 4, was differentially expressed across the four stages of CRC. The stage I patients had the highest expression of NEK4 genes, while the stage IV patients had the lowest expressions (p = 9*10-6. Ten other genes (RNF34, HIST3H2BB, NUDT6, LRCh4, GLB1L, HIST2H4A, TMEM79, AMIGO2, C20orf135 and SPSB3 had p value of 0.0001 in the differential expression analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that the patients from the 4 clinical stages do not appear to have distinct gene expression pattern. Network-based and pathway-based gene set enrichment analyses showed that these 11 genes map to multiple pathways such as meiotic synapsis and packaging of telomere ends, etc. Ten of these 11 genes were linked to Gene Ontology terms such as nucleosome, DNA packaging complex and protein-DNA interactions. The protein complex-based gene set analysis showed that four genes were involved in H2AX complex II. This study identified a small number of genes that might be associated with clinical stages of CRC. Our analysis was not able to find a molecular basis for the current clinical staging for CRC based on the gene expression patterns.

  11. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: A 6 year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushruta Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical presentations of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and its response to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 28 women of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia evaluated over a period of 6 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Patients were evaluated on the basis of their age, number of deliveries, history of abortion or molar pregnancy, and the treatment received. All patients were scored on the basis of WHO scoring system. Patients with low risk (score /=7 received multiple agent chemotherapy with EMACO regimen. After completion of chemotherapy patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years. The response to treatment was evaluated during follow-up by clinical examination, beta hCG levels and imaging as and when required. Results: Out of 28 women only 27 could be evaluated, because 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Out of 27 patients, 18 patients (66.67% achieved complete remission with the first-line chemotherapy and additional 25.92% (7/27 achieved complete remission with second line chemotherapy resulting in complete remission of 92.5% (25/27. Conclusion: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is curable if patient is properly evaluated and scored. It shows good response to chemotherapy.

  12. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: review of 6 years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanclooster, P; Smet, B; de Gheldere, C; Segers, K

    2001-01-01

    Since 6 years, the totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair has become our procedure of choice to manage inguinal hernia in adult patients, especially for bilateral hernias and recurrences after classical anterior repair. Between March 1993 and March 1999, 976 patients underwent 1259 hernia repairs by an endoscopic total extraperitoneal approach. A large polypropylene prosthesis (15 x 15 cm) is placed and covers all potential defects. Follow-up on patients ranged from 6 to 79 months (mean, 39 months). Per- and postoperative morbidity and complications were acceptable (8.4%) and included conversion to open surgery (0.4%), bleedings (0.3%), urinary retention (4.2%), seromas (2.7%), neuralgias (0.2%), vague persistent groin discomfort (0.4%), orchitis (0.08%) and sigmoido-cutaneous fistula (0.08%). Recurrence rate so far is 0.1%. This retrospective study shows that the totally extraperitoneal repair for inguinal hernia should have a promising future because of low morbidity and low recurrence rate.

  13. Two breast metastases from thyroid carcinoma presented 6 years later after total thyroidectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gene Hyuk; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid carcinoma is usually indolent with good prognosis, as compared to other malignancy. Distant metastases from thyroid cancer are rare and usually manifest as multiple lesions especially in lungs, bones and lymph nodes, in advanced stages of the disease. Metastasis to the breast from thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, with about 16 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we reported a case of metastatic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which presented as 2 breast masses in a 72-year-old woman, 6 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) image findings are nonspecific oval mass with circumscribed or partially indistinct margin, metastases from thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is suspected. Also, fusion images of CT and USG are helpful to the radiologists in localizing the targeted lesion and conducting accurate USG-guided biopsy.

  14. Wear of a 5 megarad cross-linked polyethylene liner: a 6-year RSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callary, Stuart A; Campbell, David G; Mercer, Graham; Nilsson, Kjell G; Field, John R

    2013-07-01

    One cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liner is manufactured using a lower dose of radiation, 5 Mrad, which may result in less cross-linking. The reported in vivo wear rate of this XLPE liner in patients undergoing THA has varied, and has included some patients in each reported cohort who had greater than 0.1 mm/year of wear, which is an historical threshold for osteolysis. Previous studies have measured wear on plain radiographs, an approach that has limited sensitivity. We therefore measured the amount and direction of wear at 6 years using Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in patients who had THAs that included a cross-linked polyethylene liner manufactured using 5 Mrad radiation. We prospectively reviewed wear in 30 patients who underwent primary THAs with the same design of cross-linked acetabular liner and a 28-mm articulation. Tantalum markers were inserted during surgery and all patients had RSA radiographic examinations at 1 week, 6 months, 1, 2, and 6 years postoperatively. The mean proximal, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) wear rates calculated between 1 year and 6 years were 0.014, 0.014, and 0.018 mm/per year, respectively. The direction of the head penetration recorded between 1 week and 6 years was in a proximal direction for all patients, proximolateral for 16 of 24 patients, and proximomedial for eight of 24 patients. The proximal, 2-D and 3-D wear of a XLPE liner produced using 5 Mrad of radiation was low but measurable by RSA after 6 years. No patients had proximal 2-D or 3-D wear rates exceeding 0.1 mm/year. Further followup is needed to evaluate the effect of XLPE wear particles on the development of long-term osteolysis.

  15. Equations for predicting biomass in 2- to 6-year-old Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig D. Whitesell; Susan C. Miyasaka; Robert F. Strand; Thomas H. Schubert; Katharine E. McDuffie

    1988-01-01

    Eucalyptus saligna trees grown in short-rotation plantations on the island of Hawaii were measured, harvested, and weighed to provide data for developing regression equations using non-destructive stand measurements. Regression analysis of the data from 190 trees in the 2.0- to 3.5-year range and 96 trees in the 4- to 6-year range related stem-only...

  16. Trends in National Emergency Medicine Conference Didactic Lectures Over a 6-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Riddell, Jeff; Njie, Abdoulie

    2017-01-01

    National conference didactic lectures have traditionally featured hour-long lecture-based presentations. However, there is evidence that longer lectures can lead to both decreased attention and retention of information. The authors sought to identify trends in lecture duration, lecture types, and number of speakers at four national emergency medicine (EM) conferences over a 6-year period. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the length, number of speakers, and format of didactic lectures at four different national EM conferences over 6 years. The authors abstracted data from the national academic assemblies for the four largest not-for-profit EM organizations in the United States: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. There was a significant yearly decrease in the mean lecture lengths for three of the four conferences. There was an increase in the percentage of rapid fire sessions over the preceding 2 years with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of general educational sessions. There was no significant difference in the mean number of speakers per lecture. An analysis of 4210 didactic lecture sessions from the annual meetings of four national EM organizations over a 6-year period showed significant decreases in mean lecture length. These findings can help to guide EM continuing medical education conference planning and research.

  17. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P dental erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. Survival until 6 years after cholecystectomy: female population of Denmark, 1977-1983

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T F; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Jørgensen, T

    1995-01-01

    It has been a prevailing assumption that cholecystectomy patients by and large follow a pattern of survival similar to that of the normal population. This paper presents a population-based study of the long-term survival after cholecystectomy in order to reassess this assumption. Based on data...... to both hysterectomy patients and a sample of the female population. Adjusting for age and other covariates, patients with psychiatric hospital admissions prior to surgery experienced a threefold risk of dying within 6 years after surgery. Patients with prior somatic admissions and patient with acute...... admissions had a relative risk (RR) of about 1.5. Cholecystectomy patients had a significantly increased mortality when compared to hysterectomy patients, RR = 1.3 (1.1-1.6), and to the population sample. Heart diseases and cancer occurred significantly more often as causes of death among cholecystectomy...

  19. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... provision: ``When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0147] RIN 2127-AK34 Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  20. A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.

  1. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veta, Mitko; Pluim, Josien P W; van Diest, Paul J; Viergever, Max A

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology slide digitization, and which aim at replacing the optical microscope as the primary tool used by pathologist. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancers among women, and image analysis methods that target this disease have a huge potential to reduce the workload in a typical pathology lab and to improve the quality of the interpretation. This paper is meant as an introduction for nonexperts. It starts with an overview of the tissue preparation, staining and slide digitization processes followed by a discussion of the different image processing techniques and applications, ranging from analysis of tissue staining to computer-aided diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer patients.

  2. Irrompimento do primeiro molar permanente em crianças de 5 e 6 anos de idade: implicações da análise longitudinal para prevenção da cárie oclusal Emergence of the first permanent molar in 5-6-year-old children: implications from a longitudinal analysis for occlusal caries prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Frazão

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de irrompimento dentário é essencial para o planejamento de medidas de prevenção da cárie oclusal. Com a ampliação do ensino fundamental de oito para nove anos de duração, um número maior de crianças entre cinco e seis anos de idade é incluído na primeira série do ensino fundamental. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi estimar as tendências do irrompimento dos primeiros molares permanentes em meninos e meninas de 5 e 6 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Em estudo longitudinal, espaços dentários de 497 crianças de 60 meses e mais de idade foram examinados quatro vezes por um dentista calibrado (kappa > 0,97 durante 18 meses. O primeiro molar permanente foi considerado irrompido quando qualquer parte de sua superfície podia ser tocada por uma sonda de ponta esférica. A idade dos participantes foi medida em meses. Intervalos para 95% de confiança dos valores de prevalência e incidência foram apurados conforme o sexo para três coortes etárias: 60,0 a 65,9; 66,0 a 71,9; 72,0 a 77,9 meses. A razão entre as taxas de incidência foi estimada por meio de análise de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: A maioria das crianças entre 66,0 e 71,9 meses e entre 72,0 e 77,9 meses tem pelo menos um molar permanente irrompido. No grupo de 66,0 a 71,9 meses, de cada três crianças pelo menos uma apresentou os quatro primeiros molares permanentes irrompidos. CONCLUSÃO. As tendências de irrompimento observadas justificam a necessidade da adoção de medidas de vigilância e de proteção específica em relação à lesão de cárie oclusal.The timing of tooth emergence is of considerable importance in the planning of prevention of occlusal caries. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to estimate the trends of emergence of the first permanent molars in girls and boys between 5-6 years of age, since more children are included in the first grade after Brazilian elementary education has been extended from eight to nine years of duration. METHODS: Dental spaces of 497

  3. Infant feeding practices and reported food allergies at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccioli, Stefano; Zhang, Yuanting; Verrill, Linda; Ramos-Valle, Moraima; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of physician-diagnosed food allergies among 6-year-old US children and study the impact of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary food introduction on this frequency. Data were analyzed from children who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II Year 6 Follow-Up Study (Y6FU). Children with probable food allergy (pFA) were defined as children with report of physician-diagnosed food allergy at age 6 years. Subgroups of pFA included children who were not diagnosed before 1 year of age (new pFA) and those with atopic risk factors (high risk). Prevalence of total pFA in the Y6FU was 6.34%. The majority of these children had new pFA and high-risk factors. Higher maternal education, higher family income, family history of food allergy, and reported eczema before 1 year of age were significantly associated with higher odds of total or new pFA. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and timing of complementary food introduction were not significantly associated with total pFA. However, exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months compared with no breastfeeding was marginally associated with lower odds of new pFA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51; P = .07); this effect was not observed with high-risk children. Analysis of infant and maternal variables in the Y6FU cohort of US children revealed that socioeconomic and atopic factors were the main predictors of pFA at age 6 years. Exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months may have a preventive effect on development of pFA after 1 year of age in non high-risk children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kurmaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  5. Glycomic Analysis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A, Mucci LA, Ekbom A, et al. The risk of liver and bile duct cancer in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholism, or cirrhosis. Hepatology...the AA and EA men in both GSE6956 and GSE17356 datasets. Table 5. Glycogenes selected from Table 2. N-glycans in liver -secreted and immunoglogulin...January 2012 Available online 3 February 2012 N-glycosylation of proteins provides a rich source of information on liver disease progression

  6. Cancer Patients' Informational Needs: Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Haydeh; Mardani-Hamooleh, Marjan

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the informational needs of cancer patients is a requirement to plan any educative care program for them. The aim of this study was to identify Iranian cancer patients' perceptions of informational needs. The study took a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 25 cancer patients in two teaching hospitals in Iran. Transcripts of the interviews underwent conventional content analysis, and categories were extracted. The results came under two main categories: disease-related informational needs and information needs related to daily life. Disease-related informational needs had two subcategories: obtaining information about the nature of disease and obtaining information about disease prognosis. Information needs related to daily life also had two subcategories: obtaining information about healthy lifestyle and obtaining information about regular activities of daily life. The findings provide deep understanding of cancer patients' informational needs in Iran.

  7. Analysis of competing risk parameters in irradiated prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Mayer, E.; Langsenlehner, U.; Hackl, A.; Pummer, K.; Quehenberger, F.; Feigl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective competing risk analysis of prognostic factors in definitive-irradiated prostate cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Data of 652 patients were analyzed according to three age subgroups ( 75 years; Table 1). Pre-RT PSA values (median 13.4 ng/ml) were available for 340 patients. Adjuvant hormone therapy (n = 261) consisted either of orchiectomy (n = 151) or LHRH agonist with/without antiandrogen therapy or, in the early years, diethystilbestrol. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy (n = 31) using LHRH agonists was given 6 months before and during radiotherapy. Results: Biochemical failure was observed in 69/.340 patients, 5 years after biochemical failure, 64.9% of them also had failed clinically. The cumulative incidence of local failure (LF) and distant metastases (DM) was 9.4% and 37.2%, respectively; LF and DM at the same time were seen in 18.2%. On multivariate analysis (Tables 2 and 3), advanced stage (relative risk [RR] 4.54), pre-RT PSA > 20 ng/ml (RR 2.79) and poorly differentiated tumors (RR 2.96) were significant predictors of biochemical failure. Advanced stage increased the risk of LF (RR 2.18), DM (RR 3.66), and prostate cancer death (PCD; RR 4.30). Hormone therapy decreased the risk of biochemical failure (RR 0.67), DM (RR 0.59), and PCD (RR 0.60) without reaching statistical significance. Median follow-up was 7.6 years. Conclusion: Risk of biochemical failure was predicted by pre-RT PSA, stage, and grade; in patients with biochemical failure, the cumulative incidence of death from intercurrent diseases and PCD was 25.0% and 29.2% after 5 years, respectively. The risk of DM and PCD was predicted by stage and grade. Higher age (> 75 years) decreased the relative risk of LF, DM, and PCD significantly. (orig.)

  8. Content analysis of cancer blog posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin

    2009-10-01

    The efficacy of user-defined subject tagging and software-generated subject tagging for describing and organizing cancer blog contents was explored. The Technorati search engine was used to search the blogosphere for cancer blog postings generated during a two-month period. Postings were mined for relevant subject concepts, and blogger-defined tags and Text Analysis Portal for Research (TAPoR) software-defined tags were generated for each message. Descriptive data were collected, and the blogger-defined tags were compared with software-generated tags. Three standard vocabularies (Opinion Templates, Basic Resource, and Medical Subject Headings [MeSH] Resource) were used to assign subject terms to the blogs, with results compared for efficacy in information retrieval. Descriptive data showed that most of the studied cancer blogs (80%) contained fewer than 500 words each. The numbers of blogger-defined tags per posting (M = 4.49 per posting) were significantly smaller than the TAPoR keywords (M = 23.55 per posting). Both blogger-defined subject tags and software-generated subject tags were often overly broad or overly narrow in focus, producing less than effective search results for those seeking to extract information from cancer blogs. Additional exploration into methods for systematically organizing cancer blog postings is necessary if blogs are to become stable and efficacious information resources for cancer patients, friends, families, or providers.

  9. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, M.; Pluim, J.P.W.; Diest, van P.J.; Viergever, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology

  10. The impact Atopic dermatitis on the life quality of childrens 1-6 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Shariati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most prevalent skin diseases in the world. Although, the disorder is not fatal, it can cause life quality reduction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of atopic dermatitis on life quality of 1-6-year-old children. Materials and Methods: The current study is a descriptive and analytical one designed to assess quality of life (QOL in 1-6-year-old children with atopic dermatitis in Kurdistan province (West of Iran. All the children who attended skin clinic of Besat Hospital, Sanandaj- Iran, during 2014 and 2016, participated in the study. Quality of life questionnaires were used to obtain data. Parents of the participating children were asked to complete the questionnaire. Index of Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD was used to determine the severity of the disease. The study data were analysis using Stata-12 software. Results: During the study, 53 children with atopic dermatitis were identified and 66.04% were male. According to the classification of SCORAD index, 54.36% of the children (19 subjects were included in the moderate group (SCORAD 14-40 and 63.46% (33 persons in the severe group (SCORAD> 40. Mean of life quality score was 9.24 ± 10.48 (range 0-30 and there was no statistically significant difference between the genders (P >0.05. Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between the quality of life and pain severity in AD children; and children with atopic dermatitis had low quality of life and itching, wound, discomfort and sleep disorder, were the factors that mainly impact on their life quality.

  11. Classification tree analysis of second neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazbec, Janez; Todorovski, Ljupčo; Jereb, Berta

    2007-01-01

    Reports on childhood cancer survivors estimated cumulative probability of developing secondary neoplasms vary from 3,3% to 25% at 25 years from diagnosis, and the risk of developing another cancer to several times greater than in the general population. In our retrospective study, we have used the classification tree multivariate method on a group of 849 first cancer survivors, to identify childhood cancer patients with the greatest risk for development of secondary neoplasms. In observed group of patients, 34 develop secondary neoplasm after treatment of primary cancer. Analysis of parameters present at the treatment of first cancer, exposed two groups of patients at the special risk for secondary neoplasm. First are female patients treated for Hodgkin's disease at the age between 10 and 15 years, whose treatment included radiotherapy. Second group at special risk were male patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were treated at the age between 4,6 and 6,6 years of age. The risk groups identified in our study are similar to the results of studies that used more conventional approaches. Usefulness of our approach in study of occurrence of second neoplasms should be confirmed in larger sample study, but user friendly presentation of results makes it attractive for further studies

  12. Screening history of women with cervical cancer: a 6-year study in Aarhus, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemann-Hansen, O; Lidang, M; Niemann, I; Dinesen, J; Baandrup, U; Svanholm, H; Petersen, Lk

    2008-04-08

    To identify possible weaknesses in cervical screening in Aarhus County, 10 years after the programme was introduced, screening histories were examined. A major problem for the screening programme was that 31% of women were never screened and 61% under-screened, the latter group being significantly dominated by older women and high-stage tumours.

  13. Integration of multiple networks and pathways identifies cancer driver genes in pan-cancer analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Claudia; Bertoli, Gloria; Colaprico, Antonio; Olsen, Catharina; Bontempi, Gianluca; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2018-01-06

    Modern high-throughput genomic technologies represent a comprehensive hallmark of molecular changes in pan-cancer studies. Although different cancer gene signatures have been revealed, the mechanism of tumourigenesis has yet to be completely understood. Pathways and networks are important tools to explain the role of genes in functional genomic studies. However, few methods consider the functional non-equal roles of genes in pathways and the complex gene-gene interactions in a network. We present a novel method in pan-cancer analysis that identifies de-regulated genes with a functional role by integrating pathway and network data. A pan-cancer analysis of 7158 tumour/normal samples from 16 cancer types identified 895 genes with a central role in pathways and de-regulated in cancer. Comparing our approach with 15 current tools that identify cancer driver genes, we found that 35.6% of the 895 genes identified by our method have been found as cancer driver genes with at least 2/15 tools. Finally, we applied a machine learning algorithm on 16 independent GEO cancer datasets to validate the diagnostic role of cancer driver genes for each cancer. We obtained a list of the top-ten cancer driver genes for each cancer considered in this study. Our analysis 1) confirmed that there are several known cancer driver genes in common among different types of cancer, 2) highlighted that cancer driver genes are able to regulate crucial pathways.

  14. Addressing the Academic Gap Between 4- and 6-Year Pharmacy Programs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of preceptorship.

  15. Knee osteoarthritis in traumatic knee symptoms in general practice: 6-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kastelein (Marlous); P.A.J. Luijsterburg (Pim); I.M. Koster (Ingrid); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); D. Vroegindeweij (Dammis); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAim: To identify degenerative knee abnormalities using MRI and radiography 6 years after knee trauma, their relation with persistent knee symptoms and baseline prognostic factors. Methods: Adults (18–65 years) with incident traumatic knee symptoms visiting their

  16. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  17. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  18. Language development and affecting factors in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors affecting language developmental screening test results in 33.0- to 75.0-month-old children. The study group consists of 402 children, 172 (42.8%) boys and 230 (57.2%) girls, aged 33.0-75.0 months who were examined in four age groups: 3 years (33.0-39.0 months), 4 years (45.0-51.0 months), 5 years (57.0-63.0 months) and 6 years (69.0-75.0 months). Demographic data and medical history obtained by a standard questionnaire and Denver II Developmental Test results were evaluated. Maternal factors such as mother's age, educational level, and socioeconomic status (SES) correlated with language items in all age groups. Linear regression analysis indicated a significant effect of mother's education and higher SES on certain expressive and receptive language items at 3 and 4 years. Fine motor items were closely related to language items at all ages examined, while in the younger (3- and 4-year-old) group gross motor items also were related to language development. Maternal and socioeconomic factors influence language development in children: these effects, already discernible with a screening test, can be potential targets for social and educational interventions. The interpretation of screening test results should take into account the interaction between fine motor and language development in preschool children.

  19. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babu Kl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. Dental caries was recorded using the criteria given by Warren et al. Following this, impressions were made for the upper and lower arches and dental casts were poured. Interdental spaces were measured on the dental casts using a digital verniercaliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.Results: The number of sites with interdental spaces was higher in the maxillary arch in comparison to the mandibular arch. The highest number of interdental spaces was observed between the maxillary anteriors. The number of demineralized, but non-cavitated tooth surfaces (d1were higher than the number of cavitated tooth surfaces. This difference was significant in the mandibular anterior segment. Dental caries showed a negative correlation with interdental spacing. A significant correlation was found between dental caries and interdental spacing in the posterior segment of the mandibular arch.Conclusion: This study showed that children with no interdental spacing in the primary dentition are at higher risk for dental caries.Key Words: Dental Caries; Interdental Spaces; Interproximal Caries

  20. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  1. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  2. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  3. Trace elements determinations in cancerous and non-cancerous human tissues using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Insup.

    1989-01-01

    Recent improvements in analyzing techniques when coupled to the growing knowledge of trace element biochemistry provide a powerful tool to investigate the relationship between trace elements and cancer. It is hoped that selective delivery or restriction of specific minerals may aid in cancer prevention or treatment. Tissues were collected at the time of surgery of various cancer patients including colon cancer and breast cancer. Three kinds of tissues were taken from a patient; cancerous, noncancerous, and transitional tissue obtained from a region located between the cancer and healthy tissues. A total of 57 tissues were obtained from 19 cancer patients. Seven of them were colon cancer patients, and 5 of them were breast cancer patients. Nine elements were determined using instrumental activation analysis. Cancerous colon tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium and iron than healthy tissues. Cancerous breast tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and rubidium than healthy tissues. Iron can be enriched in cancer tissue because cancer tissue retains more blood vessels. Selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumors. The manganese enrichment can be explained in the same manner as selenium considering its suspected anticarcinogenicity. It is not certain why rubidium was enriched in cancer tissue. It could be that this is the result of alteration of cell membrane permeability, change in extracellular matrix, or increased metabolism in cancer tissue

  4. Analysis of framelets for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, K S; Sakthivel, P; Venkata Sai, P M

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second threatening tumor among the women. The effective way of reducing breast cancer is its early detection which helps to improve the diagnosing process. Digital mammography plays a significant role in mammogram screening at earlier stage of breast carcinoma. Even though, it is very difficult to find accurate abnormality in prevalent screening by radiologists. But the possibility of precise breast cancer screening is encouraged by predicting the accurate type of abnormality through Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. The two most important indicators of breast malignancy are microcalcifications and masses. In this study, framelet transform, a multiresolutional analysis is investigated for the classification of the above mentioned two indicators. The statistical and co-occurrence features are extracted from the framelet decomposed mammograms with different resolution levels and support vector machine is employed for classification with k-fold cross validation. This system achieves 94.82% and 100% accuracy in normal/abnormal classification (stage I) and benign/malignant classification (stage II) of mass classification system and 98.57% and 100% for microcalcification system when using the MIAS database.

  5. Digitalization in radiology--6 years in the St. Elisabeth Oncology Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovic, L; Lehotska, V; Magula, J; Tothova, L

    2008-01-01

    To determine advantages and specific problems of film-free digital hospital focused on radiology department. In the St. Elisabeth Oncology Institute in Bratislava we have more than 6-year experience with digital modalities and the PACS system. During this period many difficulties occurred and are expected to rise with an increasing number of digital modalities. Statistical evaluation of a 6-year period in numerous graphs and schemes. The amount of data can be seen in graphs, which show the amount of examinations and data volume from different modalities for specific time period to October 2007 and present volumes and increase of data amount in megabytes (MB) in the last 6 years. Despite of systematic capacity increase it is a long-term archiving and economical problem. It is crucial to solve the daily amount of data, backup copies, type of archiving media, and priority of data accessibility (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 9). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  6. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.

  7. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation for parkinsonian tremor: a 6 year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hariz, M. I.; Krack, P.; Alesch, F.; Augustinsson, L.-E.; Bosch, A.; Ekberg, R.; Johansson, F.; Johnels, B.; Meyerson, B. A.; N'Guyen, J.-P.; Pinter, M.; Pollak, P.; von Raison, F.; Rehncrona, S.; Speelman, J. D.; Sydow, O.; Benabid, A.-L.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the results of ventral intermediate (Vim) thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with tremor predominant Parkinson's disease (PD) at 6 years post surgery. This was a prolonged follow-up study of 38 patients from eight centres who participated in a multicentre study, the 1 year

  8. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  9. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  10. Preschool Teachers' Emotional Socialization Responses to 4-6 Year-Old Turkish Preschoolers' Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Sukran

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate preschool teachers' emotion socialization responses to Turkish preschoolers' emotional expressions based on children's age and gender. The participants in the current study were 12 preschool full time teachers from 4 preschool and 288 preschoolers ranging in age from 4 to 6 years in Aksaray. In…

  11. Somatic chronic diseases and 6-year change in cognitive functioning among older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.; Kriegsman, D.M.W.; Dik, M.G.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of seven highly prevalent somatic chronic diseases on changes in cognitive functioning is investigated in older persons in a prospective design covering a 6-year follow-up period. The data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). The associations between

  12. Tetralogy of Fallot in a 6-year-old albino ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniesse, Delphine; Hébert, Julie; Larrat, Sylvain; Hélie, Pierre; Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Belanger, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot associated with bidirectional shunting across a large ventricular septal defect, was found in a 6-year-old ferret. The prognosis associated with tetralogy of Fallot is usually poor. This case is interesting given the advanced age of the ferret. The bidirectional shunting, responsible for an acyanotic disease, may explain the unexpected prolonged survival in this ferret. PMID:24790231

  13. Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: A 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Trajkovic, Goran; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Dujmovic, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2015-11-15

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a common but often overlooked and undertreated symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of our longitudinal study was to explore the changes in the level of sexual functioning in MS cohort after a period of 3 and 6 years of follow-up, as well as to investigate the predictors of changes in SD during the period of observation. The study population comprise a cohort of 93 patients with MS (McDonald's criteria, 2001) who were assessed at three time points during the study (baseline, and at the 3- and 6-year follow-up). The presence and severity of SD was quantified by Szasz sexual functioning scale. Independent predictors of the ordinal-scaled measure of sexual problems were identified using a generalized linear mixed regression models. The number of reported SD symptoms increased markedly for both genders during the whole period of observation. Duration of follow-up, age, level of physical disability, depression and fatigue were identified as independent prognostic factors for deterioration of sexual functioning in patients with MS during the 6-year follow-up. Our study provides insight into dynamics of change in sexual function among patients with MS and predictors of change, over the period of 6 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Six-monthly vitamin A from 1 to 6 years of age DEVTA: cluster ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Six-monthly vitamin A from 1 to 6 years of age DEVTA: cluster-randomised trial in 1 million children in Northern India · Pre-school rural Northern India · DEVTA: cluster-randomised trial in 8000+ villages (ie, AWCs) in 72 clusters (ie, blocks) · DEVTA vitamin A schedule, 05/1999 - 04/2004 · DEVTA: biomedical monitoring.

  15. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  16. Financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults : a 6-year three-wave study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Jak, S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Meeuws, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the link between financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults (N = 1,258). Using three measurement waves that covered a time span of 6 years, we conducted cross-lagged panel analyses. Overall, we found evidence that financial problems increase the

  17. Review of 125 Children 6 Years of Age and under Who Were Sexually Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Marcellina; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors present a chart review of 125 children referred in 1981-1983 because of sexual abuse. Among findings were that 60 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. Of the preschoolers, 72.5 percent were victims of intrafamilial abuse. At school age there was a reversal with 73 percent of 6-year-olds being abused by extrafamilial offenders.…

  18. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  19. Attending to Relations: Proportional Reasoning in 3- to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A.; Cordes, Sara

    2018-01-01

    When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task…

  20. Grammatical Outcomes of 3- and 6-Year-Old Children Who Are Hard of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

  1. The motor development of 2 to 6-year old children infected with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the motor development of 2 to 6-year old children (53.74 months, sd 12.49) who were infected (Group 1, n = 17) with HIV and to compare their development with an affected (Group 2, n = 13) and unaffected group (Group 3, n = 12). The motor development of the group was determined ...

  2. Financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults : A 6-year three-wave study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Jak, Suzanne; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the link between financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults (N = 1,258). Using three measurement waves that covered a time span of 6 years, we conducted cross-lagged panel analyses. Overall, we found evidence that financial problems increase the

  3. Financial Problems and Delinquency in Adolescents and Young Adults : A 6-Year Three-Wave Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Jak, Suzanne; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Meeus, Wim H J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the link between financial problems and delinquency in adolescents and young adults (N = 1,258). Using three measurement waves that covered a time span of 6 years, we conducted cross-lagged panel analyses. Overall, we found evidence that financial problems increase the

  4. A rare case of Riedel's thyroiditis, 6 years after retroperitoneal fibrosis: two diseases with one pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, W. A.; van Coevorden, F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a 70-yr-old female patient in whom both a retroperitoneal fibrosis and 6 years later a Riedel's thyroiditis were diagnosed. Both diseases belong to the group of fibrotic diseases called "multifocal fibrosis". Retroperitoneal fibrosis is now known to be an auto-allergic reaction to lipid

  5. A 6 year-old boy was referred from a district hospital with congestive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presentantion of the case. A 6 year-old boy was referred from a district hospital with congestive cardiac failure. His mother reported that he had become progressively short of breath over the previous two months and in the last month he had developed swelling of his feet and abdomen. He had orthopnoea and a marked ...

  6. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P.; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M[subscript age] 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed…

  7. Cancer risk factors in Korean news media: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Shim, Minsun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu Won; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the news coverage of cancer risk factors in Korea. This study aimed to examine how the news media encompasses a wide array of content regarding cancer risk factors and related cancer sites, and investigate whether news coverage of cancer risk factors is congruent with the actual prevalence of the disease. A content analysis was conducted on 1,138 news stories covered during a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The news stories were selected from nationally representative media in Korea. Information was collected about cancer risk factors and cancer sites. Of various cancer risk factors, occupational and environmental exposures appeared most frequently in the news. Breast cancer was mentioned the most in relation to cancer sites. Breast, cervical, prostate, and skin cancer were overrepresented in the media in comparison to incidence and mortality cases, whereas lung, thyroid, liver, and stomach cancer were underrepresented. To our knowledge, this research is the first investigation dealing with news coverage about cancer risk factors in Korea. The study findings show occupational and environmental exposures are emphasized more than personal lifestyle factors; further, more prevalent cancers in developed countries have greater media coverage, not reflecting the realities of the disease. The findings may help health journalists and other health storytellers to develop effective ways to communicate cancer risk factors.

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after giardia infection: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Mørch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina

    2014-11-15

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue may follow acute infections. This study aimed to estimate the persistence, prevalence, and risk of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after Giardia infection. We performed a controlled prospective study of a cohort of 1252 individuals who had laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection during a waterborne outbreak in 2004. In total, 748 cohort cases (exposed) and 878 matched controls responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (in 2010). Responses were compared to data from the same cohort 3 years before (in 2007). The prevalences of irritable bowel syndrome (39.4%) by Rome III criteria and chronic fatigue (30.8%) in the exposed group 6 years after giardiasis were significantly elevated compared with controls, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.9) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3-3.4), respectively. In the exposed group, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome decreased by 6.7% (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, .77-.93]), whereas the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased by 15.3% from 3 to 6 years after Giardia infection (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, .62-.77]). Giardia exposure was a significant risk factor for persistence of both conditions, and increasing age was a risk factor for persisting chronic fatigue. Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. The prevalences of both conditions decrease over time, indicating that this intestinal protozoan parasite may elicit very long-term, but slowly self-limiting, complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D S; Glacken, M; Goggin, D

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland. Following training, School Public Health Nurses included the measurement of height and weight as part of the annual 'senior infants' school health check for 5453 6-year-old children in 189 schools between 2004 and 2007. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the International Obesity Taskforce cut-off points using lmsGrowth (a Microsoft Excel add-in), which uses a child's exact age. Kendall's Tau b was used to determine the reliability of measurements. Prevalence trends were tested using multinomial logistic regression. Pearson's chi-squared test was utilized to assess the statistical significance of differences in BMI by gender, school year, and to compare with similar other Irish studies. Out of the 5453 children measured, 3493 were aged 6 years old. A further 11 were excluded because of incomplete data. Data were analysed for 3482 6-year-old children. Overall, 27% of 6-year-olds were classified as either overweight or obese. A significantly greater proportion of girls are overweight or obese compared with boys (31% compared with 23%). Gender differences have remained relatively stable from 2004-2007. Overall, there have been no significant changes in the level of obesity from 2004-2007. In addition, when comparing with other Irish studies that collected data for 2001/2, there are no significant differences in obesity levels. There is a clear need to urgently prioritize the effective management of obesity. Resourses should now be targeted towards ensuring government policies in Ireland and elsewhere are implemented. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  11. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (-1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight

  12. Minor head injury in anticoagulated patients: a 6-year retrospective analysis in an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Riccardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management of minor head injury (MHI in patients receiving oral anticoagulant (OAC is unclear. In this retrospective study, we focused on elderly patients (>65 years treated with OAC, presented to our emergency department with MHI between 2004 and 2010. Three hundred and six patients with MHI were taking OAC: we documented 7.19% hemorrhages at the first computed tomography (C; 18.19% deaths; 50.1% spontaneous reabsorptions; 22.73% deteriorations of intracranial bleeding without surgical intervention (for clinical comorbidity, and 4.55% neurosurgical interventions. We documented a second positive CT scan in 2 patients (1.51% who had no symptoms and remained asymptomatic during observation. In both cases, intracranial bleeding resolved spontaneously. The mean international normalized ratio (INR value was 2.26, higher in the group of patients with bleeding (2.74 than in the group without bleeding (2.19. We found a significant increased risk in patients with posttraumatic loss of consciousness [odds ratio (OR 28.3], diffuse headache (OR 14.79, vomiting (OR 14.2 and neurological signs (OR 5.27. We did not reach significance in patients with post-traumatic amnesia. Our data confirm the need for a CT scan of any patients on OAC with MHI. None of our patients developed any symptoms or signs during observation, and only 2 patients developed an intracranial hemorrhage in the second CT scan with a favorable evolution. Our data need to be confirmed with an observational study, but we suggest that the second CT could be reserved for patients developing symptoms and signs during observation. We also underline the role of the INR in the stratification of risk.

  13. Family relationships versus learning: an analysis with children aged 5 and 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Claudia Jacometo Durante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first mediator between man and culture, the family constitutes the dynamic unity of affective, social and cognitive relations that are immersed in the material, historical and cultural conditions of a given social group. The overall objective of the study was to investigate whether family relationships can compromise children’s learning. Specifically, it was intended to: a Identify conflicts in family relationships; B To verify if the conflicts in the family relations can compromise the interpersonal relationship of the children in the literacy phase; C Analyze whether conflicts in family relationships interfere with children’s learning. A total of 219 families with children aged 5 and 6 participated in the study. The main results indicate that there is a distancing of the parents in relation to the school life of the children, as well as in the family relationships there is a mixture of conflict and affection. It is considered that the learning of children can be compromised by conflicts in family relationships because learning and school performance depend primarily on family interaction and later on the relationship between teacher-student.

  14. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  15. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  16. Pleiotropic Analysis of Lung Cancer and Blood Triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuber, V.; Marconett, C.N.; Shi, J.; Hua, X.; Wheeler, W.; Yang, C.; Song, L; Dale, A.M.; Laplana, M.; Risch, A.; Witoelar, A.; Thompson, W.K.; Schork, A.J.; Bettella, F.; Wang, Y; Djurovic, S.; Zhou, B.; Borok, Z.; Heijden, H.F.M. van der; Graaf, J. de; Swinkels, D.W.; Aben, K.K.H.; McKay, J.; Hung, R.J.; Bikeboller, H.; Stevens, V.L.; Albanes, D.; Caporaso, N.E.; Han, Y.; Wei, Y.; Panadero, M.A.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Christiani, D.C.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Andreassen, O.A.; Houlston, R.; Amos, C.I.; Chatterjee, N.; Laird-Offringa, I.A.; Mills, I.G.; Landi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologically related traits may share genetic risk factors, and pleiotropic analysis could identify individual loci associated with these traits. Because of their shared epidemiological associations, we conducted pleiotropic analysis of genome-wide association studies of lung cancer (12 160

  17. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  18. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact...... on lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...... ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...

  19. Development of auditory sensory memory from 2 to 6 years: an MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Elisabeth; Sachse, Steffi; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2008-08-01

    Short-term storage of auditory information is thought to be a precondition for cognitive development, and deficits in short-term memory are believed to underlie learning disabilities and specific language disorders. We examined the development of the duration of auditory sensory memory in normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years. To probe the lifetime of auditory sensory memory we elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the late auditory evoked potential, with tone stimuli of two different frequencies presented with various interstimulus intervals between 500 and 5,000 ms. Our findings suggest that memory traces for tone characteristics have a duration of 1-2 s in 2- and 3-year-old children, more than 2 s in 4-year-olds and 3-5 s in 6-year-olds. The results provide insights into the maturational processes involved in auditory sensory memory during the sensitive period of cognitive development.

  20. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2009-01-01

    follow-up data 6 years later (n = 169). Cardiometabolic risk profile was calculated using a continuous composite score derived from summing of 6 factors standardized to the sample means (Z scores): body mass index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total serum cholesterol to serum high...... adiponectin at baseline was inversely associated with metabolic risk score 6 years later (P = .04). In childhood, both hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia accompany a negative metabolic risk profile. In addition, circulating plasma adiponectin may be a useful biomarker to identify overweight children......Prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify children at increased cardiometabolic risk. The objective was to study whether markers of metabolism and inflammation, for example, circulating plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte growth factor, are associated with cardiometabolic...

  1. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  2. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  3. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in children aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Horoz, Duygu; Borlu, Arda; Altunay, Canan; Balcı, Elcin; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Understanding risk factors that may vary culturally can help improve preventive strategies for obesity. This is the first cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors for overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years in a central Anatolian city in Turkey. A total of 1582 children (1351 healthy, 231 overweight/obese) aged 2-6 years were included from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years database. Age, gender, birth weight, birth order, mother's age, mother's body mass index (BMI), weight gain of mothers during pregnancy, presence of gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, history of formula feeding, mother's and father's education, mother's job, monthly income, smoking at home and physical activity, sleep duration and duration of television (TV) watching of the children were evaluated as independent risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors for overweight/obesity. Having a high family income compared to bad [odds ratio (OR)=1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-3.106], increased the time of watching TV during the weekend (OR=1.094; 95% CI: 1.032-1.159), and similar physical activity level according to their peers compared to less (OR=2.957; 95% CI: 1.056-8.282) were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years old. The early childhood period seems to be important in the establishment of healthy behavioral patterns, especially limitation of TV watching and encouragement of physical activity. Obesogenic environment in families with high incomes need to be revealed.

  4. Surgical Stabilization of Rib Fractures in a 6-Year-Old Child After Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Ishitani, Michael B; Kim, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    When identified, rib fractures in children are associated with high-energy trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or both. Traditionally, the optimal management of rib fractures in children is supportive care. In this case report, we present a 6-year-old boy who underwent surgical rib fixation for multiple displaced and comminuted rib fractures after being stepped on by a horse. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful repeat transcatheter ablation of a mediastinal parathyroid adenoma 6 years after alcohol embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Gary J. R.; Fogelman, Ignac; Reidy, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Recurrent hyperparathyroidism is rare following transcatheter ablation of mediastinal parathyroid adenomas. When it occurs it is usually early and resistant to further attempts at ablation. We present a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism in whom two surgical attempts at cure had been unsuccessful. Subsequently, a mediastinal adenoma was demonstrated angiographically and embolized with absolute alcohol. Hyperparathyroidism recurred 6 years later and the mediastinal adenoma was subsequently successfully ablated a second time by angiographic embolization with ionic contrast medium

  6. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaas, T.; Kamphuis, D.J.; Witkamp, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.)

  7. Glass ionomer ART sealants in Chinese school children-6-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Christopher J; Lo, Edward C M; Hu, Deyu

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate longitudinally ART sealants placed in Chinese school children under field conditions. 191 ART sealants were placed in 140 children, aged 11-14 years, by five assistant dentists in four secondary schools in Deyang, Sichuan Province, China. Teeth selected for sealing were those with pits and fissures that were deep or showing early enamel caries. Teeth were excluded if there was obvious cavitation extending into dentine. Standard instruments and procedures for ART sealants were used. The material used was a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, 3MESPE) that was inserted into the pits and fissures with the "press-finger" technique. The status of the sealants was evaluated annually over 6 years after placement by the same examiner who was not involved in the placement of the sealants using explorers, mouth-mirrors and an intra-oral fibre-optic light. No missing sealants were replaced during the study. 107 sealants (56% of the original) were examined after 6 years. The cumulative survival rates of the sealants (partially or fully retained) after 2, 4 and 6 years were 79%, 68% and 59%, respectively. Caries prevention lagged the fall in sealant survival but remained high throughout the study period, being over 90% in the first 4 years and 85% after 6 years. ART sealants placed under field conditions in Chinese schoolchildren have a high retention rate. Missing sealants should be replaced to maintain their preventive efficacy. The sealing of pits and fissures can be an effective caries preventive approach. Resin-based sealants have the disadvantage in that they require an optimal level of moisture control during placement. In children and in outreach situations glass ionomer ART sealants, which are more moisture tolerant, can offer a viable alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5?6-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine whether parent-reported short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms among pre-school aged children. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 297 families with 5?6-year-old children. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for children was used to measure sleep duration and sleeping difficulties, and the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher?s Report Form were used to measure attention problems, and ...

  9. Distinct features of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries in children aged under 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Seok; Hong, Jin Heon; Sim, Jae Ang

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been growing about trampoline-related injuries among young children. Several published policy statements have repeatedly recommended that children younger than 6 years should not use trampolines. However, few studies have investigated the injuries caused by trampoline-related accidents among young children. This study aimed to identify the distinct features of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries in children younger than 6 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric patients aged between 0 and 16 years who visited our regional emergency center due to trampoline-related orthopedic injuries between 2012 and 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: a preschool group (younger than 6 years) and a school group (older than 6 years). We compared the features of the injuries in the two groups. Among 208 patients, 108 (52%) were male and 100 (48%) were female. The mean age was 5.4 years. The preschool group accounted for 66%. There were no seasonal variations. Fractures were sustained in 96 patients (46%). The anatomical locations of injuries differed significantly between the two age groups. Proximal tibia fractures were more frequent in the preschool group than the school group (34% and 6%, respectively). Distal tibia fractures were more prevalent in the school group than the preschool group (44% vs. 13%, respectively). Surgical treatment was needed more frequently in the school group (p = 0.035, hazard ratio 2.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-6.17). Most of the injuries (82%) occurred at trampoline parks. The anatomical locations of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries differed significantly between age groups. Fractures were more common around the knee in younger children and the ankle in older children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sand; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Maziarz, M

    2012-01-01

    To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.......To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D....

  11. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  12. Integrated Genomic Analysis of the Ubiquitin Pathway across Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Ge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic and reversible process of adding single ubiquitin molecules or various ubiquitin chains to target proteins. Here, using multidimensional omic data of 9,125 tumor samples across 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we perform comprehensive molecular characterization of 929 ubiquitin-related genes and 95 deubiquitinase genes. Among them, we systematically identify top somatic driver candidates, including mutated FBXW7 with cancer-type-specific patterns and amplified MDM2 showing a mutually exclusive pattern with BRAF mutations. Ubiquitin pathway genes tend to be upregulated in cancer mediated by diverse mechanisms. By integrating pan-cancer multiomic data, we identify a group of tumor samples that exhibit worse prognosis. These samples are consistently associated with the upregulation of cell-cycle and DNA repair pathways, characterized by mutated TP53, MYC/TERT amplification, and APC/PTEN deletion. Our analysis highlights the importance of the ubiquitin pathway in cancer development and lays a foundation for developing relevant therapeutic strategies. : Ge et al. analyze a cohort of 9,125 TCGA samples across 33 cancer types to provide a comprehensive characterization of the ubiquitin pathway. They detect somatic driver candidates in the ubiquitin pathway and identify a cluster of patients with poor survival, highlighting the importance of this pathway in cancer development. Keywords: ubiquitin pathway, pan-cancer analysis, The Cancer Genome Atlas, tumor subtype, cancer prognosis, therapeutic targets, biomarker, FBXW7

  13. [Influencing factors of malnutrition of the children within 6 years in pour rural areas of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Li, Juanjuan

    2012-07-01

    To analyze the status of malnutrition for the children within 6 years in pour rural areas of Yunnan during 2006 - 2009 and to study it's influencing factors. By the random cluster sampling and stratified sampling methods, 4873 children within 6 years in rural areas were selected from four poverty-stricken counties in Yunnan Province. The questionnaire survey including questionnaire, anthropometric measurement and dietary survey such as body height and weight were used respectively for the survey. Z scores were calculated to evaluate the nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated by statistics software. Multiple factors analysis were finished by non condition logistic regression in software. During 2006 - 2009, of all children under the age of 6 years, the underweight rate is 15.2%, stunted growth rate is 11.5% and emaciation rate is 7.1% in impoverished rural area of Yunnan Province. Removing other variables, the result indicated: (1) The children with breastfeeding in first six months are less possible to get malnutrition than the children with formula feeding or mixed breastfeeding and formula feeding. (2) The children who are complemented grains, eggs, fruits and zinc supplement are less possible to get malnutrition than those children who are not. (3) Comparing these children who are provided with calcium supplement, the children who are not are more possible to get malnutrition. (4) Supplying supplementary such as animal liver and blood in earlier period can decrease the possibility to get malnutrition among 2-5 years old children. The main influencing factors of Children malnutrition include feeding ways in first six months, increasing supplementary food in recent one month among the children younger than 2 years old, month age when supplementary food were introduced in 2-5 years old children, and the types and frequency of introducing supplementary food among 2-5 years old children.

  14. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-01-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment–related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals. PMID:28845677

  15. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Virginia S; Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-10-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment-related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals.

  16. Analysis of multiple primary cancer autopsy cases associated with breast cancer: 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Yukiko; Sugawara, Yumi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Hata, Shuko; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Tsuji, Ichiro; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer patients have a generally increased risk of developing second cancers. The object of this study was to clarify the increased as well as decreased incidence of cancers in breast cancer patients using autopsy cases. 164 211 autopsy cases in the Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan from 2002 to 2010 were analyzed for multiple primary cancer (MPC). Female MPC cases (4222 cases) were selected. We investigated the cancer incidence observed in breast cancer associated MPC. The Chi-squared test was used for analysis. All P-values were two-sided, and differences at P autopsy data on MPC which provide new evidence clinically and pathologically. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. P-MartCancer-Interactive Online Software to Enable Analysis of Shotgun Cancer Proteomic Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Bramer, Lisa M; Jensen, Jeffrey L; Kobold, Markus A; Stratton, Kelly G; White, Amanda M; Rodland, Karin D

    2017-11-01

    P-MartCancer is an interactive web-based software environment that enables statistical analyses of peptide or protein data, quantitated from mass spectrometry-based global proteomics experiments, without requiring in-depth knowledge of statistical programming. P-MartCancer offers a series of statistical modules associated with quality assessment, peptide and protein statistics, protein quantification, and exploratory data analyses driven by the user via customized workflows and interactive visualization. Currently, P-MartCancer offers access and the capability to analyze multiple cancer proteomic datasets generated through the Clinical Proteomics Tumor Analysis Consortium at the peptide, gene, and protein levels. P-MartCancer is deployed as a web service (https://pmart.labworks.org/cptac.html), alternatively available via Docker Hub (https://hub.docker.com/r/pnnl/pmart-web/). Cancer Res; 77(21); e47-50. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. High Throughput Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimens on the Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lin; Chen, Wenjin; Meer, Peter; Salaru, Gratian; Feldman, Michael D.; Foran, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer accounts for about 30% of all cancers and 15% of all cancer deaths in women in the United States. Advances in computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) holds promise for early detecting and staging disease progression. In this paper we introduce a Grid-enabled CAD to perform automatic analysis of imaged histopathology breast tissue specimens. More than 100,000 digitized samples (1200 × 1200 pixels) have already been processed on the Grid. We have analyzed results for 3744 breast tissue ...

  19. [Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, José R; Azurmendi Imaz, Aitziber; Fano Ardanaz, Eduardo; Braza Lloret, Francisco; Muñoz Sánchez, José M; Carreras de Alba, María R

    2009-02-01

    Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls. This study explores the relationship between androgen levels, parenting styles, and physical, verbal, and indirect aggression measures in 5-6-year-old children. 129 children (60 boys and 69 girls) were assessed in relation to their aggression levels using a peer-rating technique. Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, from which the different parenting styles were obtained. Testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured using an enzymoimmunoassay technique in saliva samples. A regression analysis indicated that the directive mother-androstenedione interaction at the age of 5 was predictive of physical aggression at the age of 6. In specific terms, the results showed that, in boys with high androstenedione levels, directive maternal behavior is associated with physical aggression. The results are subsequently discussed in light of postulates related to parenting characteristic of developmental psychology and we suggest a potential link of our results with the hypothesis of maternal dominance.

  20. Toothbrushing frequency among 4–6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Alipoor, Mikaeil; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Toothbrushing is an important aspect of children's oral health self-care. This study aimed to explore toothbrushing frequency among 4–6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 407 mother–child (aged 4–6 years) pairs through stratified random sampling in Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires including demographic characteristic, maternal attitude, and toothbrushing frequency of both mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the predicators of children's toothbrushing. Statistical significance was set at P brushed their teeth once daily. Nearly 38.7% of children started toothbrushing behavior regularly at 4 years of age, and 41% had dental visits. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that children's toothbrushing (once daily or more) was associated with maternal brushing frequency (odds ratio [OR] =2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.53–2.86), maternal attitude toward oral health (OR = 1.15, CI = 1.08–1.22), and children's age (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02–1.77). Conclusion: The descriptive results indicated that maternal and children toothbrushing behaviors are unfavorable. Furthermore, maternal toothbrushing behavior is a strong predicator of children's brushing behavior. Health promotional activities seem necessary for mothers to enhance oral health behavior of their children. PMID:28348618

  1. A 6-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN FEDERAL ALMAZOV NORTH-WEST MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shlyakhto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the results of 6-year experience of heart transplantation (HT in Federal Almazov North-West Medical Research Centre. Methods. From 2010 to 2015 we have performed 65 HT. Mean age was 44.3 ± 14 years old (from 10 to 64 years old. We used biventricular assist device (BIVAD, Berlin Heart Excor support in 7 heart transplant candidates before HT. 19 patients (29% received thymoglobulin, whereas 46 patients (71% had basiliximab to induce immunosuppression.Results. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines were implanted in 5 patients (7.7% after HT due to acute right ventricular failure. Suture annuloplasty (the Batista procedure for tricuspid valve repair was carried out in 3 cases (4.6%. Venovenous hemodiafi ltration was used in 11 patients (16.9%. A total of 598 endomyocardial biopsies (EMB were performed after HT. Evidence of cellular rejection (R1 and R2 was presented in 286 biopsies (48%. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. The 6-month survival rate after HT was 92%, 1-year – 91% and overall survival for the 6-year period of observation – 89.2%. Maximum observation period was 71 months.Conclusions. The 6-year experience of HT in our Center has shown a high level of survival. BIVAD Excor support can be effectively used as a «bridge» to HT. Prevention of graft loss due to acute rejection in heart transplant recipients can be achieved only through regular EMB monitoring. The rate of viral infection increased in 2 months after HT.

  2. A 6-year longitudinal study of predictors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelenboom, Merijn; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Smit, Johannes H

    2018-06-13

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), represent a major source of risk for suicidality. However, knowledge about risk factors for future suicide attempts (SAs) within MDD is limited. The present longitudinal study examined a wide range of putative non-clinical risk factors (demographic, social, lifestyle, personality) and clinical risk factors (depressive and suicidal indicators) for future SAs among persons with MDD. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between a number of significant predictors and the incidence of a future SA. Data are from 1713 persons (18-65 years) with a lifetime MDD at the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety who were subsequently followed up 2, 4 and 6 years. SAs were assessed in the face-to-face measurements. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine a wide range of possible non-clinical and clinical predictors for subsequent SAs during 6-year follow-up. Over a period of 6 years, 3.4% of the respondents attempted suicide. Younger age, lower education, unemployment, insomnia, antidepressant use, a previous SA and current suicidal thoughts independently predicted a future SA. The number of significant risk factors (ranging from 0 to 7) linearly predicted the incidence of future SAs: in those with 0 predictors the SA incidence was 0%, which increased to 32% incidence in those with 6+ predictors. Of the non-clinical factors, particularly socio-economic factors predicted a SA independently. Furthermore, preexisting suicidal ideation and insomnia appear to be important clinical risk factors for subsequent SA that are open to preventative intervention.

  3. 6-year-old girl with anorectal malformation: what is more important – anatomy or function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Morozov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available 6-year-old girl with first revealed anorectal malformation with perineal fistula was investigate. She did not have any complaints or history of constipation/soiling. Resting and squeeze anal pressure by anorectal manometry was normal. Recto-anal inhibitory reflex registered. There was no signs of dyssynergic defecation. The diameter of the colon by contrast enema was normal, megarectum did not detect, barium all came out after defecation. Muscles electro-identification confirmed external anal sphincter located posterior to the anus. After examination, council for Pediatric Surgery decided not to perform the surgery. Monitoring of the patient continued.

  4. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaas, T. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Maastricht, P0 Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Kamphuis, D.J. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  5. Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Oliveira de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants.

  6. Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Ani

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for writing my diploma thesis titled Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years came during arts and crafts course at the faculty when I made some didactic toys and took them to the kindergarten. There I observed how children eagerly examined the toys and asked me lots of questions about them with curiosity. Since there are not many good toys with which the children can play in the kindergarten, a thought sprang to mind that the children could acquire new knowledge ...

  7. Cost trend analysis of initial cancer treatment in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Yun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the high cost of initial cancer care, that is, care in the first year after diagnosis, limited information is available for specific categories of cancer-related costs, especially costs for specific services. This study purposed to identify causes of change in cancer treatment costs over time and to perform trend analyses of the percentage of cancer patients who had received a specific treatment type and the mean cost of care for patients who had received that treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of trends in initial treatment costs focused on cancer-related surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and treatments other than active treatments. For each cancer-specific trend, slopes were calculated for regression models with 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of patients diagnosed in 2007 showed that the National Health Insurance (NHI system paid, on average, $10,780 for initial care of a gastric cancer patient and $10,681 for initial care of a lung cancer patient, which were inflation-adjusted increases of $6,234 and $5,522, respectively, over the 1996 care costs. During the same interval, the mean NHI payment for initial care for the five specific cancers increased significantly (p<0.05. Hospitalization costs comprised the largest portion of payments for all cancers. During 1996-2007, the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy significantly increased in all cancer types (p<0.05. In 2007, NHI payments for initial care for these five cancers exceeded $12 billion, and gastric and lung cancers accounted for the largest share. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to the growing number of NHI beneficiaries with cancer, treatment costs and the percentage of patients who undergo treatment are growing. Therefore, the NHI must accurately predict the economic burden of new chemotherapy agents and radiation therapies and may need to develop programs for stratifying patients according to their potential benefit

  8. Pathway and network analysis of cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Reimand, Jueri; Haider, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Genomic information on tumors from 50 cancer types cataloged by the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) shows that only a few well-studied driver genes are frequently mutated, in contrast to many infrequently mutated genes that may also contribute to tumor biology. Hence there has been...

  9. Transcriptome analysis of recurrently deregulated genes across multiple cancers identifies new pan-cancer biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Tanaka, Yuji; Kawaji, Hideya

    2016-01-01

    Genes that are commonly deregulated in cancer are clinically attractive as candidate pan-diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. To globally identify such targets, we compared Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) profiles from 225 different cancer cell lines and 339 corresponding primary cell...

  10. Adaptive characteristics of main muscular groups’ static endurance in 6 years children in initial school period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bondarenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study adaptation of 6 years children’s muscular skeletal apparatus to learning work by indicators of static endurance dynamic. Material: in the research 6 years children participated (n=64, boys - n=36, girls- n=28. Indicators of main muscular groups’ static endurance were studied. Results: we determined comparative topography of 13 muscular groups’ static endurance and substantial sex dimorphism was found. In 9 muscular groups the boys advantage was 11.7 - 50.2% (р < 0.05 ÷ 0.01. The level and correlation of muscles-antagonists’ static endurance from the point of evolutionary and ontogeny development of muscular-skeletal apparatus were substantiated. At the end of semester we found significant (р < 0.001 reduction of static endurance indicators as well as the fact that torso muscles were the most sensitive to influence of learning work’s static component. The level of static endurance weakening, under which syndrome of static over-tension appears, was determined. Conclusions: the research results permit to balance the volumes of learning load at initial stage of school work. Organizational-methodic principles of learning and physical education system for children shall be oriented on overcoming muscular-skeletal apparatus’s dysfunctions.

  11. Clinical performance of a glass ionomer restorative system: a 6-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgan, Sevil; Kutuk, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Oztas, Sema Seval; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a glass ionomer (GI) restorative system in the restoration of posterior teeth compared with a micro-filled hybrid posterior composite. A total of 140 (80 Cl1 and 60 Cl2) lesions in 59 patients were restored with a GI system (Equia) or a micro hybrid composite (Gradia Direct). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and yearly during 6 years according to the modified-USPHS criteria. Negative replicas at each recall were observed under SEM to evaluate surface characteristics. Data were analyzed with Cohcran's Q and McNemar's tests (p evaluated in 47 patients with a recall rate of 79.6% at 6 years. Significant differences were found in marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration for both restorative materials for Cl1 and Cl2 restorations (p  0.05). A significant decrease in color match was observed in Equia restorations (p performance after 6 years. SEM evaluations were in accordance with the clinical findings. Both materials showed a good clinical performance for the restoration of posterior teeth during the 6-year evaluation. The clinical effectiveness of Equia and Gradia Direct Posterior was acceptable in Cl1 and Cl2 cavities subsequent to 6-year evaluation.

  12. The prominent 1.6-year periodicity in solar motion due to the inner planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Charvátová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar motion due to the inner (terrestrial planets (Mercury, Me; Venus, V; Earth, E; Mars, Ma has been calculated (here for the years 1868–2030. The author found these basic properties of this motion: the toroidal volume in which the Sun moves has the inner radius of 101.3 km and the outer radius of 808.2 km. The solar orbit due to the inner (terrestrial planets is "heart-shaped". The orbital points which are the closest to the centre lie at the time distance of 1.6 years (584 days, on the average, and approximately coincide with the moments of the oppositions of V and E. The spectrum of periods shows the dominant period of 1.6 years (V-E and further periods of 2.13 years (E-Ma (25.6 months, QBO, 0.91 years (V-Ma, 0.8 years ((V-E/2 and 6.4 years. All the periods are above the 99% confidence level. A possible connection of this solar motion with the mid-term quasi-periodicities (MTQP, i.e. 1.5–1.7 years in solar and solar-terrestrial indices can be proposed.

  13. VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT IN YOUNG CHILDREN - A LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN 4- TO 6-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Koren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschool children are intensively involved in the process of developing fundamental movement skills such as walking, running, jumping, climbing, crawling and other simple movements. We aimed to compare age- and gender- related trends in countermovement vertical jump (CMJ performance (jumping height measured with a means of ground force plate during a longitudinal study of 4- to 6-year old children (N=79; 43% boys. Furthermore, we classified children CMJ arm-leg coordination into poor, average, or excellent on the grounds of high speed video footage. We found that CMJ height progresses significantly with age when arms are used (P<.001, η2=.632 and without the use of arms (P<.001, η2=.620. There were no sex effects. After classification of CMJ arm - leg coordination we found that children with excellent CMJ coordination progress more intensively than those with average coordination, whereas poorly coordinated jumpers do not progress at all. After extrapolating our data with the data of others, we found logarithmic CMJ height trends until the age of 16 in both sexes, athlete boys jumping higher than the non-athletes after the ages of 14 or 15. It seems that the initial movement patterns level, in this case the observed jumping technic, develops and refines in 4- to 6-year old children at that age. We conclude that jumping coordination is a very important factor of CMJ performance in the studied age span.

  14. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children

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    Gabriela Oliveira BERTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007 criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4% was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor. There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

  15. Addressing the academic gap between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-10-15

    To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists' perceptions of preceptorship. We surveyed a convenience sample of 200 community pharmacists who graduated from a 4-year program who were participating in a continuing education program for clinical pharmacy as organized by the Daejeon branch of the Korea Pharmaceutical Association in 2011. Twenty-one questions were asked about the academic gap, needs for an education program, preceptorship, and medication therapy management services. International precedents were examined through a literature review to glean ideas of how to bridge the academic gap between the 4- and 6-year programs. In total, 132 pharmacists answered the survey (return rate=66.0%). The survey findings included problems caused by the academic gap, high need for an adequate education program, low acceptability of preceptorship, and the possibility of medication therapy management services. US-based, non-traditional PharmD programs and new curriculum-support training in Japan provided examples of how the academic gap has been successfully bridged. Nationwide efforts and government support are urgently required to close the academic gap, and experiential education should be included in transitional programs for 4-year pharmacy program pharmacists.

  16. Parenthood and separation in couples 6 years after their first infertility consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Magali; Sanchez, Emeline Teillet; Gatimel, Nicolas; Fajau, Carole; Lesourd, Florence; Bujan, Louis; Mieusset, Roger; Parinaud, Jean; Leandri, Roger

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the percentage of couples achieving parenthood and the rate of separation 6 years after their first consultation for infertility. Epidemiological study in the reproductive medicine department of a French university hospital. All first consulting couples (FCC) who had their first infertility consultation in the department in 2007 were contacted by phone and asked to respond to a questionnaire concerning their infertility treatments, parenthood and marital status 6 years after their first consultation. Of the 685 FCC, 94 could not be contacted, 34 refused to respond and 557 (86%) answered the questionnaire. Of 557 FCC who have responded, 361 (65%) have achieved parenthood: 166 (46%) after treatment, 98 (27%) after spontaneous conception, 38 (11%) after both spontaneous and treatment-induced conception and 59 (16%) through adoption. Parenthood was not influenced either by the causes or duration of infertility. Separation occurred in 53 (9.5%) of FCC, mainly in those without any children (28% vs 4% in FCC with at least one child; P<.0001). Six years after their primary consultation, 25% of couples remained childless and 28% of them were separated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloud Based Resource for Data Hosting, Visualization and Analysis Using UCSC Cancer Genomics Browser | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Analysis Virtual Machine (CAVM) project will leverage cloud technology, the UCSC Cancer Genomics Browser, and the Galaxy analysis workflow system to provide investigators with a flexible, scalable platform for hosting, visualizing and analyzing their own genomic data.

  18. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  19. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  20. Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: Uncommon Case Presentation in a 6-Year-Old Child with Review of the Literature

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    Anshad Mohamed Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibroodontoma is a benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm considered in patients with asymptomatic swelling and unerupted teeth that exhibit histologic features between ameloblastic fibroma and complex odontoma. Radiographically, this lesion appears as radiolucency admixed with focal radio opaque masses of irregular shapes and sizes. This lesion is confirmed by the presence of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme, and dental hard tissue formation on pathological analysis supplementing clinical and radiographic findings. As this tumour is less commonly seen in routine clinical practice, ameloblastic fibroodontoma with detailed orofacial features and periodic approach to its diagnosis is discussed. This paper reports a case of ameloblastic fibroodontoma of the mandible in a 6-year-old male patient with an uncommon case presentation and review of the literature.

  1. [Preparation of a "chronological table of main diseases in Japanese history" for pharmacy students of the 6-year program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Iida, Kotaro

    2005-01-01

    A chronological table of the main diseases that have appeared throughout Japanese history was prepared for pharmacy students, especially for students of clinical pharmacy in the new 6-year system. In ancient times (even in the 8th century), smallpox and measles prevailed in Japan. Japanese people prayed to gods and Buddha to cure the sick. New infectious diseases, like ruebella, pest, typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, leprosy, etc., prevailed with the increasing exchange of culture from foreign countries. After the vaccines and the toxides were prepared, these infectious diseases were gradually stamped out in Japan early in the Meiji Era. While, public nuisances like the Minamata disease (CH3HgCl), Itaiitai disease (Cd), and atmospheric pollution with sulfurous acid gas, drug-induced suffering (Thalidomide, Sumon, AIDS, etc.) and toxin contaminations in foods have recently increased and produced new diseases. However, these diseases can be prevented if the workers in factories and government officers keep in mind the medical ethics and the ethics for pharmacists to protect the health of people from diseases. Today, cancer, diseases of cerebral vessels, heart diseases, and pneumonia are the four most important causes of death related to aging.

  2. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Liang; Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has recently drawn considerable attention as a method of investigating the association between the overall whole diet and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the results have yielded conflicting findings. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis to identify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 40 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The highest category of 'healthy' dietary pattern compared with the lowest category was apparently associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.75; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.83; Pcolorectal cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest category of a 'western-style' dietary pattern (OR=1.40; CI: 1.26-1.56; Pcolorectal cancer in the highest compared with the lowest category of 'alcohol-consumption' pattern (OR=1.44; CI: 1.13-1.82; P=0.003). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that a 'healthy' dietary pattern may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas 'western-style' and 'alcohol-consumption' patterns may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

  3. Missed distal tracheal foreign body in consecutive bronchoscopies in a 6-year-old boy

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    Oghenevware Joel Eyekpegha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unusual but not uncommon for foreign bodies to be missed at bronchoscopy. This case report highlights the importance of the clinical history in the diagnosis of aspirated foreign bodies and the usefulness of chest imaging modalities. A 6-year-old boy presented with recurrent breathlessness and cough of 2 months. He was said to have aspirated the base cap of a pen at about the time symptoms started. He had two sessions of rigid bronchoscopy and a session of flexible bronchoscopy at three different hospitals. He had an initial rigid bronchoscopy which failed to show the foreign body (FB. A chest computerized tomographic scan demonstrated the FB, which was retrieved at combined flexible/rigid bronchoscopy. Although rigid bronchoscopy is the gold standard for managing airway foreign bodies, there remains a false negative rate for this procedure and where necessary, appropriate imaging may compliment rigid bronchoscopy, especially where there is some confusion.

  4. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients--6-year survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A

    2009-01-01

    disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental......OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...... problems on visual analogue scales (VAS-somatic and VAS-mental). Cardiac diagnosis, noncardiac comorbidity, history of mental disorder, and the number of daily social contacts were noted. Survival was followed for 6 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 33 (38.4%) patients had mental disorder, 6 dementia, 11 major...

  5. Ganglioneuroma of Posterior Mediastinum in a 6-year-old Girl: Imaging for Pediatric Intrathoracic Incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chin Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic tumor is a rare entity in the pediatric population and neurogenic tumors account for 40-50% of childhood intrathoracic tumors. They can cause severe symptoms, such as respiratory distress, neurological dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. Posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma (GN usually occurs in children and can be found accidentally. Precise preoperative diagnosis is very difficult and has a great influence on surgical intervention. Here, we report a 6-year-old girl with a posterior mediastinal GN that was found incidentally on chest radiography. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a right paraspinal tumor with punctuate calcification and intraspinal extension. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed low-grade fluorodeoxyglucose avidity of this tumor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can characterize GN and positron emission tomography is helpful for differentiating benign or malignant lesions.

  6. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent...... of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were......, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  7. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal Fish Oil Supplementation and Allergy: 6-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Karen P; Sullivan, Thomas; Palmer, Debra; Gold, Michael; Kennedy, Declan John; Martin, James; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials in early infancy suggest that prenatal supplementation with Ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) reduces the incidence of allergic disease characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. We aimed to determine whether protective effects were evident in the 6-year-old offspring of women supplemented with n-3 rich fish oil during pregnancy. Six-year follow-up of children (n = 706) with a family history of allergic disease from the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Women were randomly allocated to receive n-3 LCPUFA-rich fish oil capsules (800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid DHA and 100mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) or vegetable oil capsules (without n-3 LCPUFA). Allergic disease symptoms including eczema, wheeze, rhinitis, and rhino-conjunctivitis, were assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and sensitization to allergens was measured by skin prick test. There was no difference in the percentage of children with any IgE-associated allergic disease between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (116/367 [31.5%] vs 106/336 [31.5%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.33; P = .73). There was a reduction in the percentage of children sensitized to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (49/367 [13.4%] vs 68/336 [20.3%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.67, 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .0495). Prenatal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not reduce IgE-associated allergic disease at 6 years of age. Secondary outcomes were suggestive of a protective effect of the intervention on the incidence of D. farinae sensitization. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. [Epidemiological profile of Tinea capitis in Dakar (Senegal). A 6-year retrospective study (2008-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Diongue, K; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Diallo, M A; Deme, A B; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Diallo, S; Ndoye, N W; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-06-01

    Tinea capitis is considered as a public health problem in Senegal. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the incidence, the mycological and epidemiological aspects of tinea capitis diagnosed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Our work is a retrospective study concerning all scalp samples taken by the parasitology laboratory, over a 6-year period (2008-2013). A total of 1640 specimens were examined. Of these, 566 were positive with direct examination and after culture. We noted the reduction of patients and of the incidence of tineas during 6 years with variations of 147 (46.82%) to 37 (22.02%). The average incidence of the tineas during six years was 34.51%. Patients' age varied between 1 to 83 years with a mean of 27.33 years. Prevalence varied between age groups, with 10.61 % in adults between 20 to 29 years, 7.19% in children between 0 to 9 years, 6.04% between 10 to 19 years, and 5.91% in adults between 30 to 39 years. Women were more infected 469 (82.9%) than men 97 (17.1%). The main dermatophytes isolated were: T. soudanense in 318 cases (56.18%), T. rubrum in 104 cases (18.37%), M. langeronii in 72 cases (12.72%), M. canis in 36 cases (6.36%), and T. mentagrophytes in 26 cases (4.60%). Our study showed a decrease in the annual incidence of tinea capitis over the study period with an evident increase in trichophytic tinea. This study showed that tinea is endemic in Senegal mainly among women between 20 and 29 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A simulation study of spine biofidelity in the hybrid-III 6-year-old ATD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Hu, Jingwen

    2013-01-01

    Because of the lack of pediatric biomechanical data, Hybrid-III (HIII) child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) are essentially scaled from the mid-size male ATD based on the geometric considerations. These ATDs inherit a rigid thoracic spine from the adult HIII ATDs, which has been criticized as unrealistic. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore possible design modifications for improving the spine biofidelity of the HIII 6-year-old ATD. A previously developed and validated HIII 6-year-old MADYMO ATD model was used as the baseline model to investigate the effects of design modifications on the spine biofidelity of the current ATD. Several sets of child volunteer and cadaver test data were considered as the design targets, including child volunteer low-speed crash test data, pediatric cadaver cervical spine tensile test data, and child cadaver crash test data. ATD design modifications include adding an additional joint to the thoracic spine region and changing the joint characteristics at the cervical and lumbar spine regions. Optimization techniques were used to match simulation results to each set of test results. The results indicate that the translational characteristics of the cervical and lumbar spine in the current child ATD need to be reduced to achieve realistic spine flexibility. Adding an additional joint at the thoracic spine region with degree of freedom in both flexion/extension and tension would significantly improve the ATD biofidelity in terms of predicting the overall spine curvature and head excursion in frontal crashes. Future ATD spine modification should focus on reducing the neck and lumbar tension stiffness and adding additional flexibility both in flexion/extension and tension at the thoracic spine region. The child ATD model developed in this study can be used as an important tool to improve child ATD biofidelity and child restraint system design in motor vehicle crashes.

  11. Food consumption of children younger than 6 years according to the degree of food processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Volz Neitzke Karnopp

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate food intake according to the degree of processing, stratified by family income and age, in a representative sample of children younger than 6 years in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study carried out with 770 children aged 0-72 months of age living in the urban area of Pelotas. The dietary intake of children was assessed by 24-h recall administered to mothers or guardians. The energy intake was estimated and each food item was classified according to the food processing degree. Food consumption was stratified by age (younger than 24 months; 24 months or older and associations between quintiles of family income and relative contribution of each food to total energy were performed by linear regression. The Wald test was applied to test linear trend across groups. Results: The mean energy intake was 1725.7 kcal/day. The mean contribution of processed and ultraprocessed foods was 19.7% among children younger than 24 months and 37% in those aged 24 months or older, while the mean consumption of natural and minimally processed food was 61% and 44%, respectively. Among children aged 24 months or older, a greater consumption of canned foods, cheese and sweets was observed as family income quintiles increased, while breads were more consumed by those children belonging to the lower income quintiles. Conclusion: A high caloric contribution of ultraprocessed foods in detriment to a lower consumption of natural and minimally processed foods was observed in the diet of children younger than 6 years.

  12. The Seroepidemiology of Haemophilus Influenzae Type b in Children Under 6 Years Old in Khorramabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ansari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib is now recognized as an agent of bacterial meningitis in Asia. Polyribosil Ribitol Phosphate (PRP capsule are in all of the strains and IgG antibodies can be target. Due to limited studies on H. influenzae type b in the country and the lack of sufficient information on the status of carriers, achieve a comprehensive model of the spread of the bacteria in the carrier's most vulnerable children is the aim of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, 194 (49% female and 51% male serum samples were collected from children under 6 years old referred to medical centers in Korram Abad. The serological study of H. influenzae type b was carried using anti-H. influenzae PRP IgG antibodies kit by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Of 194 children under 6 years-old screened for H. influenzae-specific IgG antibodies with ELISA, 6 (3 percent were IgG seropositive. Prevalence of bacteria in children under 2 years was 67% that demonstrated no significant association between seropositivity in subjects and place of residence of children with the prevalence of bacteria. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. influenzae type b seropositivity in our study was 3% of the total sample. In current study, a higher percentage of males than females were seropositive and frequency of predominant bacteria in patients younger than 2 years. The age factor is a variable that positively affects serum. Regarding to non-Hib vaccination in children, the presence of the bacteria in children can be important.

  13. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

  14. POTENTIALITIES AND WEAKNESSES OF EACH ROBOT FOR KINDERGARTEN: 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Santos Miranda-Pinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta um estudo, no âmbito do projeto de investigação Kids Media Lab: Tecnologias e Aprendizagem de Programação em Idade Pré-escolar, sobre robôs para crianças em idade pré-escolar (3 a 6 anos. A análise a diversos robôs foi realizada durante três focus group, em diversos momentos, com especialistas de diversas áreas (Investigadores, Professores do ensino superior, Professores do ensino secundário da área de informática, Educadores de infância, Professores do 1.º e 2.º CEB e Professores de educação especial, a fim de observar as potencialidades e fragilidades dos robôs, com vista a decidir sobre sua utilização em contexto de jardim de infância. Eta investigação permitiu reconhecer características pertinentes dos robôs disponibilizados no mercado internacional e indicados como sendo para crianças a partir dos três anos. Deste processo de validação, reconhecemos que estão disponíveis robôs adequados e a ter em conta em atividades com crianças de idade pré-escolar.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Robótica; Pré-escolar; Robôs para o Pré-escolar; Projeto Kids Media Lab.     ABSTRACT In the context of the research project Kids Media Lab - Technology and Programming Learning in Preschool Age, this text presents a study about robots for preschool children (ages from 3 to 6 years. The analysis of several robots was carried out on three focus group, at different times, with specialists from different areas (researchers, teachers of higher education, teachers of secondary education in the area of informatics, teachers of 1st and 2nd school cycle, kindergarten educators and teachers of special education, in order to observe the potentialities and weaknesses of each robot, thus indicating their suitability or not in the context of the kindergarten. This research allowed us to recognize relevant characteristics of the available robots in the international market and indicated as suitable for children from the age

  15. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  17. A 6-year study of mammographic compression force: Practitioner variability within and between screening sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, Claire E.; Szczepura, Katy; Kelly, Judith; Millington, Sara R.; Denton, Erika R.E.; Borgen, Rita; Hilton, Beverley; Hogg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: The application of compression force in mammography is more heavily influenced by the practitioner rather than the client. This can affect client experience, radiation dose and image quality. This research investigates practitioner compression force variation over a six year screening cycle in three different screening units. Methods: Data were collected from three consecutive screening events in three breast screening sites. Recorded data included: practitioner code, applied compression force (N), breast thickness (mm), BI-RADS ® density category. Exclusion criteria included: previous breast surgery, previous/ongoing assessment and breast implants. 975 clients (2925 client visits, 11,700 mammogram images) met inclusion criteria across three sites. Data analysis assessed practitioner and site variation of compression force and breast thickness. Results: Practitioners across three breast screening sites behave differently in the application of compression force. Two of the three sites demonstrate variability within themselves though they demonstrated no significant difference in mean, first and third quartile compression force and breast thickness values CC (p > 0.5), MLO (p > 0.1) between themselves. However, in the third site, where mandate dictates a minimum compression force is applied, greater consistency was demonstrated between practitioners and clients; a significant difference in mean, first and third quartile compression force and breast thickness values (p < 0.001) was demonstrated between this site and the other two sites. Conclusion: Variability within these two sites and between the three sites could result in variations. Stabilisation of these variations may have a positive impact on image quality, radiation dose reduction, re-attendance levels and potentially cancer detection. The large variation in compression forces could negatively impact on client experience between the units and within a unit. Further research is required to

  18. Independent Pre-Transplant Recipient Cancer Risk Factors after Kidney Transplantation and the Utility of G-Chart Analysis for Clinical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrem, Harald; Schneider, Valentin; Kurok, Marlene; Goldis, Alon; Dreier, Maren; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Gwinner, Wilfried; Barthold, Marc; Liebeneiner, Jan; Winny, Markus; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Kleine, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify independent pre-transplant cancer risk factors after kidney transplantation and to assess the utility of G-chart analysis for clinical process control. This may contribute to the improvement of cancer surveillance processes in individual transplant centers. 1655 patients after kidney transplantation at our institution with a total of 9,425 person-years of follow-up were compared retrospectively to the general German population using site-specific standardized-incidence-ratios (SIRs) of observed malignancies. Risk-adjusted multivariable Cox regression was used to identify independent pre-transplant cancer risk factors. G-chart analysis was applied to determine relevant differences in the frequency of cancer occurrences. Cancer incidence rates were almost three times higher as compared to the matched general population (SIR = 2.75; 95%-CI: 2.33-3.21). Significantly increased SIRs were observed for renal cell carcinoma (SIR = 22.46), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (SIR = 8.36), prostate cancer (SIR = 2.22), bladder cancer (SIR = 3.24), thyroid cancer (SIR = 10.13) and melanoma (SIR = 3.08). Independent pre-transplant risk factors for cancer-free survival were age 62.6 years (p = 0.001, HR: 1.29), polycystic kidney disease other than autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) (p = 0.001, HR: 0.68), high body mass index in kg/m2 (pKaizen events and audits for root-cause analysis of relevant detection rate changes. Further, comparative G-chart analysis would enable benchmarking of cancer surveillance processes between centers.

  19. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  20. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  1. What does cancer treatment look like in consumer cancer magazines? An exploratory analysis of photographic content in consumer cancer magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Selene G; Della, Lindsay J; Sohn, Steve H

    2011-04-01

    In an exploratory analysis of several highly circulated consumer cancer magazines, the authors evaluated congruency between visual images of cancer patients and target audience risk profile. The authors assessed 413 images of cancer patients/potential patients for demographic variables such as age, gender, and ethnicity/race. They compared this profile with actual risk statistics. The images in the magazines are considerably younger, more female, and more White than what is indicated by U.S. cancer risk statistics. The authors also assessed images for visual signs of cancer testing/diagnosis and treatment. Few individuals show obvious signs of cancer treatment (e.g., head scarves, skin/nail abnormalities, thin body types). Most images feature healthier looking people, some actively engaged in construction work, bicycling, and yoga. In contrast, a scan of the editorial content showed that nearly two thirds of the articles focus on treatment issues. To explicate the implications of this imagery-text discontinuity on readers' attention and cognitive processing, the authors used constructs from information processing and social identity theories. On the basis of these models/theories, the authors provide recommendations for consumer cancer magazines, suggesting that the imagery be adjusted to reflect cancer diagnosis realities for enhanced message attention and comprehension.

  2. Factors associated with dental caries in children aged 4-6 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Widayati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental caries is one of the dental health problems. Dental caries are formed because there was leftover food that sticks to the teeth, which eventually lead to tooth calcification. Impact, teeth become brittle, hollow, even broken.Dental caries experience a loss of power to make a child chewing and digestive disruption, which resulted in growth of less than the maximum. This study aims to determine the relationship of parents’ behavior towards the maintenance of dental health of children (feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk, teeth maintenance, inspection tooth and mouth with dental caries in the TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun village Turi District of Lamongan. This study Analytics whose data is collected with a cross sectional sample of kindergarten children aged 4–6 years with a total sample of 49 children. The collection of primary data through interviews parents TK R.A Bustanussholihin student using questionnaires and secondary data obtained from the agency are in the region of the profile data TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun Village of Turi District of Lamongan. This study used a correlation coefficient of contingency. Based on the results of the contingency coefficient correlation test showed that the factors that have a strong relationship is the habit of feeding the sweet, sticky, and drink milk with a value of P = 0.504. While the factors that have a weak link is the habit of maintaining dental hygiene habits of children and child oral examination . From this study it can be concluded that there is a relationship or a strong correlation between feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk with the incidence of dental caries in children aged 4–6. So as to prevent dental caries severity we need to hold counseling on feeding sweet, soft and gooey on the effect of dental caries as well as how it should be formula feeding or breast milk to the child to prevent rampant caries. Keywords: dental caries, sweetened

  3. Analysis of metastasis associated signal regulatory network in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu; Ding, Yanqing

    2018-06-18

    Metastasis is a key factor that affects the survival and prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. To elucidate molecular mechanism associated with the metastasis of colorectal cancer, genes related to the metastasis time of colorectal cancer were screened. Then, a network was constructed with this genes. Data was obtained from colorectal cancer expression profile. Molecular mechanism elucidated the time of tumor metastasis and the expression of genes related to colorectal cancer. We found that metastasis-promoting and metastasis-inhibiting networks included protein hubs of high connectivity. These protein hubs were components of organelles. Some ribosomal proteins promoted the metastasis of colorectal cancer. In some components of organelles, such as proteasomes, mitochondrial ribosome, ATP synthase, and splicing factors, the metastasis of colorectal cancer was inhibited by some sections of these organelles. After performing survival analysis of proteins in organelles, joint survival curve of proteins was constructed in ribosomal network. This joint survival curve showed metastasis was promoted in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.0022939). Joint survival curve of proteins was plotted against proteasomes (P = 7 e-07), mitochondrial ribosome (P = 0.0001157), ATP synthase (P = 0.0001936), and splicing factors (P = 1.35e-05). These curves indicate that metastasis of colorectal cancer can be inhibited. After analyzing proteins that bind with organelle components, we also found that some proteins were associated with the time of colorectal cancer metastasis. Hence, different cellular components play different roles in the metastasis of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of NuMA variation in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aittomäki Kristiina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent genome wide case-control association study identified NuMA region on 11q13 as a candidate locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the variant Ala794Gly was suggested to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Methods In order to evaluate the NuMa gene for breast cancer susceptibility, we have here screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NuMa in 92 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the identified variants. Five missense variants were further screened in 341 breast cancer cases with a positive family history and 368 controls. We examined the frequency of Ala794Gly in an extensive series of familial (n = 910 and unselected (n = 884 breast cancer cases and controls (n = 906, with a high power to detect the suggested breast cancer risk. We also tested if the variant is associated with histopathologic features of breast tumors. Results Screening of NuMA resulted in identification of 11 exonic variants and 12 variants in introns or untranslated regions. Five missense variants that were further screened in breast cancer cases with a positive family history and controls, were each carried on a unique haplotype. None of the variants, or the haplotypes represented by them, was associated with breast cancer risk although due to low power in this analysis, very low risk alleles may go unrecognized. The NuMA Ala794Gly showed no difference in frequency in the unselected breast cancer case series or familial case series compared to control cases. Furthermore, Ala794Gly did not show any significant association with histopathologic characteristics of the tumors, though Ala794Gly was slightly more frequent among unselected cases with lymph node involvement. Conclusion Our results do not support the role of NuMA variants as breast cancer susceptibility alleles.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of NuMA variation in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpivaara, Outi; Rantanen, Matias; Tamminen, Anitta; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2008-01-01

    A recent genome wide case-control association study identified NuMA region on 11q13 as a candidate locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the variant Ala794Gly was suggested to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In order to evaluate the NuMa gene for breast cancer susceptibility, we have here screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NuMa in 92 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the identified variants. Five missense variants were further screened in 341 breast cancer cases with a positive family history and 368 controls. We examined the frequency of Ala794Gly in an extensive series of familial (n = 910) and unselected (n = 884) breast cancer cases and controls (n = 906), with a high power to detect the suggested breast cancer risk. We also tested if the variant is associated with histopathologic features of breast tumors. Screening of NuMA resulted in identification of 11 exonic variants and 12 variants in introns or untranslated regions. Five missense variants that were further screened in breast cancer cases with a positive family history and controls, were each carried on a unique haplotype. None of the variants, or the haplotypes represented by them, was associated with breast cancer risk although due to low power in this analysis, very low risk alleles may go unrecognized. The NuMA Ala794Gly showed no difference in frequency in the unselected breast cancer case series or familial case series compared to control cases. Furthermore, Ala794Gly did not show any significant association with histopathologic characteristics of the tumors, though Ala794Gly was slightly more frequent among unselected cases with lymph node involvement. Our results do not support the role of NuMA variants as breast cancer susceptibility alleles

  6. Comparative trace elemental analysis of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; Sarita, P.; Murthy, K. S. R.

    2017-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an accelerator based analytical technique has been employed in this work for the analysis of trace elements in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients. A beam of 3 MeV protons generated from 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Ion Beam Laboratory of Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used as projectile to excite the atoms present in the tissues samples. PIXE technique, with its capability to detect simultaneously several elements present at very low concentrations, offers an excellent tool for trace element analysis. The characteristic X-rays emitted by the samples were recorded by a high resolution Si (Li) detector. On the basis of the PIXE spectrum obtained for each sample, the elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Br were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectum. The levels of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and As were higher (p < 0.005) while the levels of Ca, Cr and Ni were lower (p < 0.005) in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues. The alterations in the levels of the trace elements observed in the present work are discussed in this paper with respect to their potential role in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer of the rectum.

  7. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Gagné Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  8. Sulphur XANES Analysis of Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Podgorczyk, M.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Balerna, A.; Kisiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men throughout the world. It is believed that changes to the structure of protein binding sites, altering its metabolism, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulphur, often present in binding sites, can influence such changes through its chemical speciation. Hence there is a need for precise investigation of coordination environment of sulphur. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy offers such possibility. Cell culture samples offer histologically well defined areas of good homogeneity, suitable for successful and reliable X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. This paper presents sulphur speciation data collected from three different human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145). Sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was performed on K-edge structure. The spectra of cells were compared with those of cancerous tissue and with organic substances as well as inorganic compounds. (authors)

  9. Balance, Proprioception, and Gross Motor Development of Chinese Children Aged 3 to 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gui-Ping; Jiao, Xi-Bian; Wu, Sheng-Kou; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Tong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hui-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing. The results are as follows: children had significant age differences in static balance, dynamic balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children had significant gender differences in static balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children's static balance, dynamic balance, and proprioception had a very significant positive correlation with GMD (p < .01), but no significant correlation with body mass index.

  10. Mental correlates of neuromotoric deviation in 6-year-olds at heightened risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Thomas F; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Blennow, Gösta

    2003-04-01

    The meaning and relevance of the increased rates of neuromotoric deviation (ND) observed in patients with schizophrenia and their biological relatives remain unclear. ND could represent free-floating, independent characteristics of individuals in these families vs. signs of an increased risk for current or future mental disorder. The co-temporaneous relationship between ND and mental disorder at 6 years of age was investigated among 31 children with an increased risk for schizophrenia and similar psychoses, defined as having a mother with a history of schizophrenia or unspecified functional psychosis. As compared with high-risk cases with a low level of ND, the subgroup of 10 high-risk offspring showing notably increased rates of ND had significantly more frequent psychiatric diagnoses (typically language disorders and enuresis), poor functioning on global assessment, poor interpersonal competency and high anxiety proneness. Neuromotoric items representing "overflow" (e.g., choreatic movements, tremor) were significantly positively related to each of these mental characteristics. Among high-risk offspring, an increased rate of ND is very clearly associated with increased rates of current mental disorder, and might potentially identify a subgroup with an especially high risk for serious mental disorder in the future.

  11. Nutritional intervention on malnutrition in 3-6 years old rural children in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshy, R; Noroozi, M; Jahanihashemi, H; Kiamiri, D

    2012-04-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Not only include acute effects on children's health, but also it has long-term effects on their cognitive development and economic growth in the society. Wasting (weight for height with Zmalnutrition indices in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a cooked meal for 175 days on the anthropometric indices of weight, height and weight for height (wasting) of 3-6 years old children in all the rural nursery of Qazvin province, in Iran. In this interventional study, 2385 children (48.8% female and 51.2% male) were recruited. Data were collected by a census in 2010. The children were received a cooked meal based on 360 +/- 20 kcal energy, 17% protein, 53% carbohydrate and 30% fat per day for 175 days at lunch time. The anthropometric indices were collected before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using paired t-test by SPSS V.16 software. Prevalence of wasting (mild and moderate) and (sever malnutrition) after intervention reduced from 14.2 and 0.95-12.6 and 0.5%, respectively (p children (p children.

  12. Possibility of implementation of 6-year fuel cycle at NPP with VVER-440 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heraltova, L., E-mail: lenka.heraltova@fjfi.cvut.cz [UJV Rez a.s., Hlavni 130, 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Possibility of extension of fuel cycle. • Increase of enrichment above 5% {sup 235}U. • Core properties calculated by diffusion code ANDREA. • Back end fuel cycle characteristic. - Abstract: This paper discusses possibility of an extension of a fuel cycle at a VVER-440 reactor for up to 6 years. The prolongation of a fuel cycle was realized by optimization of a fuel design and increasing of a fuel enrichment. The modified design of the fuel assembly covers change of pellet geometry, decreasing of parasitic absorption in construction materials, improved moderation of fuel pins and also increase of enrichment. Fuel assemblies with enrichment up to 7% {sup 235}U are considered for prolonged fuel batches. Three different batch lengths were considered for evaluation of core properties – 12, 18 and 24 months, and two types of burnable absorbers were included – Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Comparison of proposed fuel assemblies was realized by length of a batch, average burnup, maximal power of fuel assembly or fuel pin, control fuel assembly worth, reactivity coefficients, and effective delayed neutrons fraction. Comparison of characteristics of a burned fuel discharged from a reactor core is discussed in the last part of the paper.

  13. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kakishima

    Full Text Available Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  14. Psychomotor development index in children younger than 6 years from Argentine provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Kelmansky, Diana M; Masautis, Alicia; Nunes, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    To obtain a psychomotor development index (PDI) for each Argentine province. Using a national, probabilistic, and stratified sample of 13 323 male and female children younger than 6 years selected for the National Survey on Nutrition and Health (Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición y Salud, ENNyS 2004), we estimated the PDI per province based on compliance with 10 developmental milestones. The median age at attainment (median age) of each milestone was estimated adjusting a logistic regression. The PDI was estimated as 100* (1 + b), where "b" is the regression coefficient of y= a + b x, where "y" is the median age as per the national reference (x) minus the median age at attainment of a milestone. The theoretical value expected for the PDI was 100. The PDI per province ranged between 72.1 and 106.4. Most provinces showed a negative regression coefficient, which indicated a progressive increase of the delay in the age at attainment of milestones. The correlation coefficient between the PDI per province and infant mortality in 2005was extremely high: -0.85, suggesting that both indicators share similar biological and social determinants. The PDI was negative because the higher the mortality, the lower the PDI. We have now a positive health indicator available in Argentina: the psychomotor development index, which is a low-cost, easy to collect, and reliable tool that may be used in national health statistics. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  15. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE DURING THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize, evaluate and measure the maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate and to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be identified from the dimensional changes produced along the first six years of life, maxillary impressions were made in two groups of study, by means of standard trays and silicone impression materials. The maxillary casts resulted had been 3D scanned at Multinr, in Sf. Gheorghe. The study was carried on a number of 34 patients with cleft palate, 16 boys and 18 girls, with ages between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in “St. Mary” University Children Hospital of Iaşi, as well as on 60 normal children. Bivariate Student’s t test established statistically significant negative differences between the mean values of the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary alveolar arch, positive non significant differences for the length and positive differences for the depth of the dehiscent palate in the experimental group, comparatively with normal children. Cleft palate patients have narrowed and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and flattened palate. At least therapeutically, the cleft palate group, operated at different ages, from 2 to 4 years, could not react like other groups of study from important European Cleft Centers and benefit from a good residual growth.

  16. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations.

  17. Factors related to accelerometer-derived physical activity in Pacific children aged 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; Schluter, Philip J; Schofield, Grant M; Paterson, Janis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential factors related to Pacific children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A total of 393 Pacific children aged 6 years and their mothers were invited to participate. Participants wore accelerometers over 8 days; height, weight, and waist circumference were measured, and mothers reported on individual, social, and perceived environmental factors. Generalized estimation equation models were used to identify associates of children's daily MVPA. In all, 135 children and 91 mothers were included in analyses. Children spent 24% of time in MVPA; 99% of days had ≥60 minutes of MVPA. Higher maternal MVPA, male sex, longer sunlight hours, and rain-free days were associated with children's MVPA. Approaches for improving activity in Pacific children may be most efficacious if strategies for inclement weather and the encouragement of activity in mothers and, in particular, their daughters are included. Also, 60 minutes of daily MVPA may be insufficient to protect Pacific children from increased body size.

  18. The Role of Creative Drama in Improving the Creativity of 4-6 Years Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Momeni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the influence of creative drama on the creativity of 4 to 6 years old children. Accordingly, using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 52 children (21 girls and 31 boys, of district of Ahwaz city, were chosen and then randomly divided into two groups of experimental (33 people and control (19 people. The researched was directly involved in intervention as regarded the experimental group. The intervention group participated in creative drama activities for two months (15 sessions. The creativity level of the children in these two groups, before and after the intervention, was measured using the creativity test of Jean-Louis Cellier? This test includes verbal creativity, completing and interpreting the pictures that are determinative of creativity components, fluidity, extension, flexibility and originality. The data and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistical and inferential methods such as frequency, mean, standard deviation and non-parametric rank (Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon and the Spearman correlation. The results indicated that the creative drama significantly increased the creativity of children at the ages of 4 to 6.

  19. Prevalence of Hearing disorders in 3-6 year old Children of Kindergartens in Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hearing– impaired patient is defined as one with abnormal or reduced function in hearing resulting from an auditory disorder. The goal of any preschool and schools screening program should be to accurately indentify those children whose hearing has been impaired due to conductive and / or sensory– neural pathology. Methods: This cross– sectional descriptive study was done on 577 children (299 girls and 278 boys aged between 3–6 years at kindergartens of Yazd city from September 2005 to January 2006. The otoscopy examination, pure-tone screening and impedance study was conducted after completion of awareness form of the hearing loss existence by the parents. Results: In this study, there were 12.6% abnormal conditions of external ear canal, 34.2% abnormal tympanic membrane, 35.9% abnormal tympanograms and 13.4% hearing loss including 11.5% conductive hearing loss, 1.5% sensory-neural hearing loss and 0.5% mixed hearing loss. Conclusion: With respect to the high prevalence and negative effects of middle ear disorders in learning of preschool children, and also due to the importance of early identification and intervention of hearing loss in aural rehabilitation programs, increasing the awareness and education of people, especially parents about the effects of hearing disorders and its prevention and identification is very important

  20. Digital practices in everyday lives of 4 to 6 years old Romanian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyvér Tőkés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present some findings of a broader research called Digital literacy and multimodal practices of young children from Romania. The mentioned research was part of the EU COST Action IS1410 involving similar endeavours from over 30 countries (COST 2014; Bakó, 2016: p. 146. In our research we used several sources for data collection such as children and their parents, as well as kindergarten educators. We collected qualitative data using three methods: the visual method of drawing, semi-structured interviews and observation. In this study we present digital practices of 4 to 6 years old Romanian children based on interviews made with the children’s parents. We found similar results to other Romanian (Velicu, Mitarcă, 2016 and European (Chaudron, 2015 research such as: the access and use of digital technology is present but not dominant in the daily routines of Romanian young children; Romanian young children’s favourite digital devices are tablets and smartphones; Romanian young children’s familiar digital activities are watching YouTube videos, playing games, making or watching photos and videos about themselves and their families; Romanian young children learn the use of digital devices by observation and imitation, and through testing; the level of Romanian young children’s digital skills is basic; the digitally unexperienced Romanian parents are not supportive with children’s digital endeavours.

  1. Patterns of language and auditory dysfunction in 6-year-old children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selassie, Gunilla Rejnö-Habte; Olsson, Ingrid; Jennische, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we reported difficulty with expressive language and visuoperceptual ability in preschool children with epilepsy and otherwise normal development. The present study analysed speech and language dysfunction for each individual in relation to epilepsy variables, ear preference, and intelligence in these children and described their auditory function. Twenty 6-year-old children with epilepsy (14 females, 6 males; mean age 6:5 y, range 6 y-6 y 11 mo) and 30 reference children without epilepsy (18 females, 12 males; mean age 6:5 y, range 6 y-6 y 11 mo) were assessed for language and auditory ability. Low scores for the children with epilepsy were analysed with respect to speech-language domains, type of epilepsy, site of epileptiform activity, intelligence, and language laterality. Auditory attention, perception, discrimination, and ear preference were measured with a dichotic listening test, and group comparisons were performed. Children with left-sided partial epilepsy had extensive language dysfunction. Most children with partial epilepsy had phonological dysfunction. Language dysfunction was also found in children with generalized and unclassified epilepsies. The children with epilepsy performed significantly worse than the reference children in auditory attention, perception of vowels and discrimination of consonants for the right ear and had more left ear advantage for vowels, indicating undeveloped language laterality.

  2. A 6-year-old girl with fever, rash, and increased intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravish, Matthew E; Krowchuk, Daniel P; Zapadka, Michael; Shetty, Avinash K

    2013-08-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a well-described, potentially lethal, tick-borne zoonotic infection and has very effective therapy. However, the diagnosis might not be made early enough, often leading to worse outcomes. Our aim was to discuss the diagnostic dilemmas facing the physician when evaluating patients with suspected RMSF. We report a case of RMSF in a 6-year-old girl who presented to our hospital with a 7-day history of fever, headache, and a petechial rash. After blood cultures were obtained, the patient was treated empirically with doxycycline, vancomycin, and ceftriaxone. During the next 24 h, her clinical status worsened, with acute onset of altered mental status, posturing, and fixed and dilated pupils. A computed tomography scan of the brain demonstrated diffuse cerebral edema with evidence of tonsillar herniation. She died 24 h after admission. A serum specimen tested positive for immunoglobulin G to Rickettsia rickettsii at a titer of 128 dilutions, confirming recent infection. We present this case to raise awareness of RMSF in patients who present with a nonspecific febrile illness in tick-endemic areas in the United States. Early diagnosis and treatment with doxycycline before day 5 of illness is essential and can prevent morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Articulation Speaks to Executive Function: An Investigation in 4- to 6-Year-Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Netelenbos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF and language learning play a prominent role in early childhood development. Empirical research continues to point to a concurrent relation between these two faculties. What has been given little attention, however, is the association between EF and speech articulation abilities in children. This study investigated this relation in children aged 4–6 years. Significant correlations indicated that children with better EF [via parental report of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF inventory] exhibited stronger speech sound production abilities in the articulation of the “s” and “sh” sounds. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that the Global Executive Composite (GEC of EF as measured by the BRIEF, served as a predictor for speech sound proficiency and that speech sound proficiency served as a predictor for the GEC. Together, these results demonstrate the imbricated nature of EF and speech sound production while bearing theoretical and practical implications. From a theoretical standpoint, the close link between EF and speech articulation may indicate a common ontogenetic pathway. From a practical perspective, the results suggest that children with speech difficulties could be at higher risk for EF deficits.

  4. Testicular cancer in twins: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, R E; Carrière, P; Murphy, M F G; Baade, P D

    2008-01-15

    In a meta-analysis of testicular cancer in twins, twins had a 30% increased risk (estimate 1.31, 95% CI 1.1-1.6), providing indirect support for the hypothesis that in utero hormone variations influence risk of testicular cancer. The summary-estimate for dizygotic twins was 1.3 (1.0-1.7) and for monozygotic or same sex twins 1.4 (1.2-1.8).

  5. Taxonomical analysis of the Cancer cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, J.; Olmo, A. del; Moles, M.

    1986-01-01

    A description is presented of the Cancer cluster of galaxies, based on a taxonomical analysis in (α,delta, Vsub(r)) space. Earlier results by previous authors on the lack of dynamical entity of the cluster are confirmed. The present analysis points out the existence of a binary structure in the most populated region of the complex. (author)

  6. Pleiotropic Analysis of Lung Cancer and Blood Triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Verena; Marconett, Crystal N; Shi, Jianxin; Hua, Xing; Wheeler, William; Yang, Chenchen; Song, Lei; Dale, Anders M; Laplana, Marina; Risch, Angela; Witoelar, Aree; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J; Bettella, Francesco; Wang, Yunpeng; Djurovic, Srdjan; Zhou, Beiyun; Borok, Zea; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Swinkels, Dorine; Aben, Katja K; McKay, James; Hung, Rayjean J; Bikeböller, Heike; Stevens, Victoria L; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Han, Younghun; Wei, Yongyue; Panadero, Maria Angeles; Mayordomo, Jose I; Christiani, David C; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Andreassen, Ole A; Houlston, Richard; Amos, Christopher I; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Mills, Ian G; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiologically related traits may share genetic risk factors, and pleiotropic analysis could identify individual loci associated with these traits. Because of their shared epidemiological associations, we conducted pleiotropic analysis of genome-wide association studies of lung cancer (12 160 lung cancer case patients and 16 838 control subjects) and cardiovascular disease risk factors (blood lipids from 188 577 subjects, type 2 diabetes from 148 821 subjects, body mass index from 123 865 subjects, and smoking phenotypes from 74 053 subjects). We found that 6p22.1 (rs6904596, ZNF184) was associated with both lung cancer (P = 5.50x10(-6)) and blood triglycerides (P = 1.39x10(-5)). We replicated the association in 6097 lung cancer case patients and 204 657 control subjects (P = 2.40 × 10(-4)) and in 71 113 subjects with triglycerides data (P = .01). rs6904596 reached genome-wide significance in lung cancer meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.21 ,: Pcombined = 5.20x10(-9)). The large sample size provided by the lipid GWAS data and the shared genetic risk factors between the two traits contributed to the uncovering of a hitherto unidentified genetic locus for lung cancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  7. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serumselenium (≥121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61–1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70–3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79–1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. Conclusions Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in this context. PMID:22073154

  8. MRI Texture Analysis Reflects Histopathology Parameters in Thyroid Cancer - A First Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Schob, Stefan; Höhn, Anne Kathrin; Surov, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    Thyroid cancer represents the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system with an increasing incidence worldwide. Novel imaging techniques are able to further characterize tumors and even predict histopathology features. Texture analysis is an emergent imaging technique to extract extensive data from an radiology images. The present study was therefore conducted to identify possible associations between texture analysis and histopathology parameters in thyroid cancer. The radiological database was retrospectively reviewed for thyroid carcinoma. Overall, 13 patients (3 females, 23.1%) with a mean age of 61.6 years were identified. The MaZda program was used for texture analysis. The T1-precontrast and T2-weighted images were analyzed and overall 279 texture feature for each sequence was investigated. For every patient cell count, Ki67-index and p53 count were investigated. Several significant correlations between texture features and histopathology were identified. Regarding T1-weighted images, S(0;1)Sum Averg correlated the most with cell count (r=0.82). An inverse correlations with S(5;0)AngScMom, S(5;0)DifVarnc S(5;0), DiffEntrp and GrNonZeros (r=-0.69, -0.66, -0.69 and -0.63, respectively) was also identified. For T2-weighted images, Variance with r=0.63 was the highest coefficient, WavEnLL_S3 correlated inversely with cell count (r=-0.57). WavEnLL_S2 derived from T1-weighted images was the highest coefficient r=-0.80, S(0;5)SumVarnc was positively with r=0.74. Regarding T2-weighted images WavEnHL_s-1 was inverse correlated with Ki67 index (r=-0.77). S(1;0)Correlat was with r=0.75 the best correlation with Ki67 index. For T1-weighed images S(5;0)SumofSqs was the best with r=0.65 with p53 count. For T2-weighted images S(1;-1)SumEntrp was the inverse correlation with r=-0.72, whereas S(0;4)AngScMom correlated positively with r=0.63. MRI texture analysis derived from conventional sequences reflects histopathology features in thyroid cancer. This technique

  9. Analysis and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Poulami Das; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir K. Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductalepithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also ...

  10. Network analysis of cancer PSB 2014 Poster

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is, in general, a complex disease; it operates on pathways and systems, not solely on the individual components of those systems (genes or proteins). We have gathered global proteomic and phosphoproteomic data from a set of tumors with existing genomic data (sequencing, methylation, miRNA and mRNA expression) associated with a range of survival phenotypes. We report on our recent progress in analyzing proteomic, phosphoproteomic, and accompanying genomic data in terms of pathways that ...

  11. Lessons learned and way forward from 6 years of Aerosol_cci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve and qualify algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, several validated (multi-) decadal time series of different aerosol parameters from complementary sensors are available: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), stratospheric extinction profiles, a qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI), fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD; absorption information and aerosol layer height are in an evaluation phase and the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used for selected regions. Validation (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account in an iterative evolution cycle. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. The use of an ensemble method was tested, where several algorithms are applied to the same sensor. The presentation will summarize and discuss the lessons learned from the 6 years of intensive collaboration and highlight major achievements (significantly improved AOD quality, fine mode AOD, dust AOD, pixel level uncertainties, ensemble approach); also limitations and remaining deficits shall be discussed. An outlook will discuss the way forward for the continuous algorithm improvement and re-processing together with opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products.

  12. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon J. Baez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  13. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  14. Attending to relations: Proportional reasoning in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-03-01

    When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task in which the proportional information was presented either continuously (units cannot be counted) or discretely (countable units; numerical information available). In the discrete conditions, older children showed numerical interference-responding based on the number of pieces instead of the proportion of pieces. However, older children easily overcame this poor strategy selection on discrete trials if they first had some experience with continuous, proportional strategies, suggesting this prevalent reliance on numerical information may be malleable. Younger children, on the other hand, showed difficulty with the proportion task, but showed evidence of proportional reasoning in a simplified estimation-style task, suggesting that younger children may still be developing their proportional and numerical skills in task-dependent ways. Lastly, across both age groups, performance on the proportional reasoning task in continuous contexts, but not discrete contexts, was related to more general analogical reasoning skills. Findings suggest that children's proportional reasoning abilities are actively developing between the ages of 3 and 6 and may depend on domain general reasoning skills. We discuss the implications for this work for both cognitive development and education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Biomass and volume yield after 6 years in multiclonal hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Julien [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gagnon, Daniel [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada); Truax, Benoit; Lambert, France [Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper the potential of five hybrid poplar clones (Populus spp.) to provide biomass and wood volume in the riparian zone is assessed in four agroecosystems of southern Quebec (Canada). For all variables measured, significant Site effects were detected. Survival, biomass yield and volume yield were highest at the Bromptonville site. After 6 years of growth, total aboveground biomass production (stems + branches + leaves) reached 112.8 tDM/ha and total leafless biomass production (stems + branches) reached 101.1 tDM/ha at this site, while stem wood volume attained 237.5 m{sup 3}/ha. Yields as low as 14.2 tDM/ha for total biomass and 24.8 m{sup 3}/ha for total stem volume were also observed at the Magog site. Highest yields were obtained on the most fertile sites, particularly in terms of NO{sub 3} supply rate. Mean stem volume per tree was highly correlated with NO{sub 3} supply rate in soils (R{sup 2} = 0.58, p < 0.001). Clone effects were also detected for most of the variables measured. Total aboveground biomass and total stem volume production were high for clone 3729 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) (73.1 tDM/ha and 134.2 m{sup 3}/ha), although not statistically different from clone 915311 (P. maximowiczii x P. balsamifera). However, mean whole-tree biomass (including leaves) was significantly higher for clone 3729 (38.8 kgDM/tree). Multifunctional agroforestry systems such as hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips are among the most sustainable ways to produce a high amount of biomass and wood in a short time period, while contributing to alleviate environmental problems such as agricultural non-point source pollution. (author)

  16. Bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Dujmovic Basuroski, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Bladder dysfunction (BD) is the most common autonomic disturbance in multiple sclerosis, but often overlooked and undertreated. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the changes in the frequency of BD symptoms in MS cohort after a period of 3 and 6 years of follow-up, as well as to investigate the correlations between the presence of BD symptoms and both clinical characteristics and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at each subsequent point of estimation. The study population comprises a cohort of 93 patients with MS (McDonald's criteria, 2001). At each time point (baseline, and at the 3- and 6-year follow-up) of estimation, Expanded Disability Status Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Fatigue Severity Scale, Szasz Sexual Functioning Scale and HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54) were assessed. The proportion of patients with at least one symptom of BD significantly increased over time, for both men and women (from 48.1% at baseline to 51.9% after 3 years and to 71.4% after 6 years of follow-up for males and from 45.5% at baseline to 50.0% after 3 years and to 66.7% after 6 years of follow-up for females). The most common BD problem was urgency of urination. The presence of BD was statistically significantly associated with higher level of physical disability, sexual dysfunction and HRQoL at each point of follow-up, for both men and women. Our results suggested outstanding frequency of BD in patients with MS, with increasing tendency over time.

  17. TIPS stent migration into the heart with 6-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehervari, Imre; Szonyi, Laszlo; Fazakas, Janos; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Lazar, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is widely used for the treatment of portal hypertension in adults, but no studies have defined the best approach to treat portal hypertension in pediatric patients. Pediatric use of TIPS is rare even in large centers of adult practice. The migration of stents has also been reported as a complication in adults. There is no standard way to treat this type of complication, and it is not always clear whether immediate removal or watchful waiting is safer for the patient. We report the case of an 11-year-old patient who underwent urgent TIPS implantation due to variceal bleeding, after unsuccessful sclerotherapy. During the procedure, due to the deep impact of the stent, a second, telescopic, stent was inserted. The portal pressure decreased, no further bleeding occurred, and the patient was listed for transplantation. Three weeks later a routine chest X-ray discovered the migration of the second stent into the right ventricle. No interventional radiological removal or open heart surgery was available for the transplant waiting list patient. The patient underwent uneventful combined liver-kidney transplantation. During the 6-year follow-up period the child had no signs of hemodynamic instability, and his somatic and mental development were appropriate. To our knowledge this case is the first publication on a heart-impacted TIPS stent in a child. The watchful waiting was justified by uneventful combined liver-kidney transplantation and long-term follow-up. This case also underlines the need for best practice guidelines in pediatric portal hypertension.

  18. Progression of motor subtypes in Huntington's disease: a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M; Hart, E P; van Zwet, E W; Bentivoglio, A R; Burgunder, J M; Craufurd, D; Reilmann, R; Saft, C; Roos, R A C

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the progression of predominantly choreatic and hypokinetic-rigid signs in Huntington's disease (HD) and their relationship with cognitive and general functioning over time. The motor signs in HD can be divided into predominantly choreatic and hypokinetic-rigid subtypes. It has been reported in cross-sectional studies that predominantly choreatic HD patients perform better on functional and cognitive assessments compared to predominantly hypokinetic-rigid HD patients. The course of these motor subtypes and their clinical profiles has not been investigated longitudinally. A total of 4135 subjects who participated in the European HD Network REGISTRY study were included and classified at baseline as either predominantly choreatic (n = 891), hypokinetic-rigid (n = 916), or mixed-motor (n = 2328), based on a previously used method. The maximum follow-up period was 6 years. The mixed-motor group was not included in the analyses. Linear mixed models were constructed to investigate changes in motor subtypes over time and their relationship with cognitive and functional decline. Over the 6-year follow-up period, the predominantly choreatic group showed a significant decrease in chorea, while hypokinetic-rigid symptoms slightly increased in the hypokinetic-rigid group. On the Total Functional Capacity, Stroop test, and Verbal fluency task the rate of change over time was significantly faster in the predominantly choreatic group, while on all other clinical assessments the decline was comparable for both groups. Our results suggest that choreatic symptoms decrease over time, whereas hypokinetic-rigid symptoms slightly increase in a large cohort of HD patients. Moreover, different motor subtypes can be related to different clinical profiles.

  19. Helical CTPA in the investigation of pulmonary embolism: a 6-year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, J.M.; Wright, L.; Murchison, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the change in practice and resulting diagnostic outcome in the radiological investigation of pulmonary embolism (PE) since the introduction of helical CTPA in a large teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of all radiological investigations performed over a 6-year period before and after the introduction of CTPA (protocols 1 and 2, respectively) as an integral part of the imaging protocol in the investigation of clinically suspected PE. The total numbers and results of all investigations are assessed for each protocol. RESULTS: A substantial increase in both the total number of patients and the number of investigations performed for the investigation of PE since the introduction of CTPA occurred. Five hundred and twenty-six patients underwent 617 investigations in 1995-1996, and 760 patients underwent 805 investigations in 2001-2002. There was a significant decrease in the number of investigations per patient, 1.17 in 1995-1996 versus 1.06 in 2001-2002. Primary investigation showed a significant decrease in indeterminate examinations from 25.7 to 8.5% and an increase in positive results for PE from 18 to 24%. CONCLUSION: In the study population there was a significant increase in the number of patients being investigated for PE, with a decrease in both the number of non-diagnostic investigations and the total investigations per patient since the introduction of helical CTPA. This is probably due to the ready availability of a new imaging technique and physicians awareness that CTPA has significantly improved specificity, which encourages the referral of patients for investigation

  20. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, physical and mental consequences: a 6-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa-Oana Bălălău

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH is performed for massive postpartum hemorrhage following a cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, in order to save the patient’s life. The current study was performed on a sample of 13.162 patients, which underwent cesarean or vaginal delivery during a period of 6 years, from 2010 to 2015, in Bucur Maternity Hospital. There were two subsequential groups consisting in: 6593 patients with cesarean operations and 6569 patients with vaginal delivery. In 12 cases occurred one or more of the risk factors that lead to EPH, divided equally across the two groups above. The main two types of surgery are a more frequent subtotal hysterectomy, which is the preferred type of EPH as it takes less time and is associated with fewer complications, and a total hysterectomy. The majority of procedures were performed at patients over 35 years old (9 of 12, with a median age of 31,16 (ranging from 21 to 44 years old. The most important risk factor present across the lot was multiparity (11 from 12, with cicatricial uterus being the second one (4 of 12. ICU median time was 4,5 days (ranging from 3 to 15 days, with a median blood transfusion necessity of around 2,4 I.U per patient. There were no mother or newborn reported deaths, neither PTSD following EPH.EPH is a procedure performed as last-resort, life-saving surgery, leaving no time for mental preparation of the patients. This may predispose to negative psychological outcomes, especially because they are not part of decision-making process due to the emergency character of hysterectomy.

  1. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  2. Quantifying cortical development in typically developing toddlers and young children, 1-6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Justin; Croteau-Chonka, Elise; Dean, Douglas C; D'Arpino, Sara; Dirks, Holly; Whiley, Dannielle; Deoni, Sean C L

    2017-06-01

    Cortical maturation, including age-related changes in thickness, volume, surface area, and folding (gyrification), play a central role in developing brain function and plasticity. Further, abnormal cortical maturation is a suspected substrate in various behavioral, intellectual, and psychiatric disorders. However, in order to characterize the altered development associated with these disorders, appreciation of the normative patterns of cortical development in neurotypical children between 1 and 6 years of age, a period of peak brain development during which many behavioral and developmental disorders emerge, is necessary. To this end, we examined measures of cortical thickness, surface area, mean curvature, and gray matter volume across 34 bilateral regions in a cohort of 140 healthy children devoid of major risk factors for abnormal development. From these data, we observed linear, logarithmic, and quadratic patterns of change with age depending on brain region. Cortical thinning, ranging from 10% to 20%, was observed throughout most of the brain, with the exception of posterior brain structures, which showed initial cortical thinning from 1 to 5 years, followed by thickening. Cortical surface area expansion ranged from 20% to 108%, and cortical curvature varied by 1-20% across the investigated age range. Right-left hemisphere asymmetry was observed across development for each of the 4 cortical measures. Our results present new insight into the normative patterns of cortical development across an important but under studied developmental window, and provide a valuable reference to which trajectories observed in neurodevelopmental disorders may be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Body size and intelligence in 6-year-olds: are offspring of teenage mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Willford, Jennifer A; Leech, Sharon L; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2009-11-01

    Children born to teenage mothers are at risk for more physical and cognitive problems than those born to adult mothers. Our objective was to examine differences in size and intelligence between two cohorts of offspring born to adolescent (n = 357) and adult mothers (n = 668) who attended the same prenatal clinic. Two prospective study cohorts assessed children from gestation through age 6 years. The adult cohort was studied in the mid-1980's and the teen cohort was evaluated in the mid-1990's. Both samples were of low socio-economic status. The same study design and measures allowed us to adjust for the covariates of size and IQ. Offspring of adolescent mothers had a significantly smaller mean head circumference (5 mm) (HC) and higher body mass index (BMI) than offspring of adult mothers. Offspring of adolescent mothers scored significantly lower than the offspring of adult mothers on the Stanford-Binet (SBIS) composite score (4 points), and the quantitative (6.2 points), verbal reasoning (4.8 points), and short-term memory (3.9 points) area scores. Additional predictors of child IQ were maternal IQ, home environment, race, and number of siblings. When child HC was entered into our final regression model for the SBIS, maternal age and HC significantly predicted the composite score, the verbal reasoning, and short-term memory area scores. A 1 cm decrease in HC predicted a 1 point decrease in the SBIS composite score. Compared to offspring of adult women, children of adolescent mothers have lower mean scores on cognitive measures, smaller head circumference, and higher BMI. These differences were significant after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Adolescent mothers and their children would benefit from interventions such as parenting support, education about nutritional needs, and advice on enriching the environments of their children.

  4. Quantitative CT scans of lung parenchymal pathology in premature infants ages 0-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, David R; Walkup, Laura L; Stein, Jill M; Crotty, Eric J; Rattan, Mantosh S; Hossain, Md Monir; Brody, Alan S; Woods, Jason C

    2018-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common, heterogeneous disease in premature infants. We hypothesized that quantitative CT techniques could assess lung parenchymal heterogeneity in BPD patients across a broad age range and demonstrate how pathologies change over time. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of children age 0-6 years with non-contrast chest CT scans was conducted. BPD subjects met NICHD/NHLBI diagnostic criteria for BPD and were excluded for congenital lung/airway abnormalities or other known/suspected pulmonary diagnoses; control subjects were not premature and had normal CT scan findings. Radiologic opacities, lucencies, and spatial heterogeneity were quantified via: 1) thresholding using CT-attenuation (HU); 2) manual segmentation; and 3) Ochiai reader-scoring system. Clinical outcomes included BPD severity by NICHD/NHLBI criteria, respiratory support at NICU discharge, wheezing, and respiratory exacerbations. Heterogeneity (standard deviation) of lung attenuation in BPD was significantly greater than in controls (difference 36.4 HU [26.1-46.7 HU], P < 0.001); the difference between the groups decreased 0.58 HU per month of age (0.08-1.07 HU per month, P = 0.02). BPD patients had greater amounts of opacities and lucencies than controls except with automated quantification of lucencies. Cross-sectionally, lucencies per Ochiai score and opacities per manual segmentation decreased with time. No approach measured a statistically significant relationship to BPD clinical severity. Opacities, lucencies, and overall heterogeneity of lungs via quantitative CT can distinguish BPD patients from healthy controls, and these abnormalities decrease with age across BPD patients. Defining BPD severity by clinical outcomes such as respiratory support at several time points (vs a single time point, per current guidelines) may be meaningful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianhong Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods: In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI in children aged 3–6 years. Results: A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001 in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001. Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29. The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76 in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions: Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity.

  6. Effect of Sibling Birth on BMI Trajectory in the First 6 Years of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Kaciroti, Niko; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between birth of a sibling and changes in body mass index z-score (BMIz) trajectory during the first 6 years of life. Children (n = 697) were recruited across 10 sites in the United States at the time of birth. Sibship composition was assessed every 3 months. Anthropometry was completed when the child was age 15 months, 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, and in first grade. Children were classified based on the timing of their sibling's birth. A piecewise quadratic regression model adjusted for potential confounders examined the association of the birth of a sibling with subsequent BMIz trajectory. Children whose sibling was born when they were 24 to 36 months or 36 to 54 months old, compared with children who did not experience the birth of a sibling by first grade, had a lower subsequent BMIz trajectory and a significantly lower BMIz at first grade (0.27 vs 0.51, P value = 0.04 and 0.26 vs 0.51, P value = 0.03, respectively). Children who did not experience the birth of a sibling by the time they were in first grade had 2.94 greater odds of obesity (P value = 0.046) at first grade compared with children who experienced the birth of a sibling when they were between 36 to 54 months old. A birth of a sibling when the child is 24 to 54 months old is associated with a healthier BMIz trajectory. Identifying the underlying mechanism of association can help inform intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Ewing sarcoma of the bone in children under 6 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta De Ioris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. METHODS: The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23% patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58-83% and 72% (95% CI 57-83% for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17-60% and 21% (95% CI 5-45% for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01, while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P = 0.002. In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000-2008 were 89% (95% CI 71-96% and 86% (95% CI 66-94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome.

  8. [A 6-year evaluation of dyslipidemia in a health center: Importance of improvement actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-García, F; Correcher-Salvador, E; Rodríguez-Lagos, F A; González-Caminero, S

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially an increased LDL-cholesterol, has been shown to be one of the most important risk factors in the genesis of coronary involvement. The prevalence of dyslipidemias in Spain is high. The objective of this study is to assess the progress of dyslipidemic patients in our health center over a 6-year period, and see if there has been any improvement in its control after the presentation of the evaluation of the first 3 years, as well as an updated dyslipidemia protocol. Assessment Period 1 (2006-2008): 267 patients with dyslipidemia. Assessment Period 2 (2009-2011): 222 patients, excluding exitus and address changes. age, sex, personal history of CVD, vascular risk factors, lipids, drug treatment, risk levels, and percentages of CV control objectives. Mean age was 66.2 years (SD 13.4), 66.3% women. Period 1-Period 2: Total cholesterol: 221.9-196.6 mg/dl (P=.000); LDL-cholesterol: 147.9-115.8 mg/dl (P=.000). In high risk patients, therapeutic targets: 14-50.5% (P=.024); medium risk: 35-68.1% (P=.038); low risk: 44-68.2% (P=NS). Pharmacotherapy 68-77% (P=.000). Changing treatment: 30-43% (P=.001). Adherence: 75-86% (P=.003). Untreated high risk: 15.4-16.3% (P=NS). There was a significant improvement in Period 2, especially in high-risk patients, after presenting the results of the evaluation for Period 1 and with the updated dyslipidemia protocol. There are high risk patients without lipid-lowering treatment to be detected and reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Independent Pre-Transplant Recipient Cancer Risk Factors after Kidney Transplantation and the Utility of G-Chart Analysis for Clinical Process Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Schrem

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify independent pre-transplant cancer risk factors after kidney transplantation and to assess the utility of G-chart analysis for clinical process control. This may contribute to the improvement of cancer surveillance processes in individual transplant centers.1655 patients after kidney transplantation at our institution with a total of 9,425 person-years of follow-up were compared retrospectively to the general German population using site-specific standardized-incidence-ratios (SIRs of observed malignancies. Risk-adjusted multivariable Cox regression was used to identify independent pre-transplant cancer risk factors. G-chart analysis was applied to determine relevant differences in the frequency of cancer occurrences.Cancer incidence rates were almost three times higher as compared to the matched general population (SIR = 2.75; 95%-CI: 2.33-3.21. Significantly increased SIRs were observed for renal cell carcinoma (SIR = 22.46, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (SIR = 8.36, prostate cancer (SIR = 2.22, bladder cancer (SIR = 3.24, thyroid cancer (SIR = 10.13 and melanoma (SIR = 3.08. Independent pre-transplant risk factors for cancer-free survival were age 62.6 years (p = 0.001, HR: 1.29, polycystic kidney disease other than autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD (p = 0.001, HR: 0.68, high body mass index in kg/m2 (p<0.001, HR: 1.04, ADPKD (p = 0.008, HR: 1.26 and diabetic nephropathy (p = 0.004, HR = 1.51. G-chart analysis identified relevant changes in the detection rates of cancer during aftercare with no significant relation to identified risk factors for cancer-free survival (p<0.05.Risk-adapted cancer surveillance combined with prospective G-chart analysis likely improves cancer surveillance schemes by adapting processes to identified risk factors and by using G-chart alarm signals to trigger Kaizen events and audits for root-cause analysis of relevant detection rate changes

  10. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers.

  11. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  12. Scientist, Single Cell Analysis Facility | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR).  The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and nextGen sequencing. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR).  CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES We are seeking a highly motivated Scientist II to join the newly established Single Cell Analysis Facility (SCAF) of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at NCI. The SCAF will house state of the art single cell sequencing technologies including 10xGenomics Chromium, BD Genomics Rhapsody, DEPPArray, and other emerging single cell technologies. The Scientist: Will interact with close to 200 laboratories within the CCR to design and carry out single cell experiments for cancer research Will work on single cell isolation/preparation from various tissues and cells and related NexGen sequencing library preparation Is expected to author publications in peer reviewed scientific journals

  13. The feeling of hope in cancer patients: an existential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Aparecida Sales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at unveiling the feeling of hope in people who experience cancer in their existence. Qualitative study based on Heidegger’s phenomenology, performed with eight cancer patients assisted in a philanthropic organization, between December 2013 and February 2014, in a northwestern city in Paraná, Brazil, using the following guiding question: “How do you perceive the feeling of hope at this time in your life?” The analysis resulted in the ontological themes: searching for hope in dealing with cancer, and experiencing feelings of hope and despair in being with others. Patients revealed mixed feelings, going from the lack of hope at the time of diagnosis to a rekindling of hope, as well as those who never lost the will to live. We conclude that living with cancer causes extreme feelings; and hope emerges as a feeling capable of influencing and causes an expressive impact in coping with that.

  14. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Yu, Wanqi; Fan, Wenjie; Wang, Shan; Shen, Ning; Wu, Pengcheng; Li, Xiuyang; Wang, Fudi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between selenium exposure and cancer risk. We identified 69 studies and applied meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response analysis to obtain available evidence. The results indicated that high selenium exposure had a protective effect on cancer risk (pooled OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.73–0.83). The results of linear and nonlinear dose-response analysis indicated that high serum/plasma selenium and toenail selenium had the efficacy on cancer prevention. However, we did not find a protective efficacy of selenium supplement. High selenium exposure may have different effects on specific types of cancer. It decreased the risk of breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but it was not associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and skin cancer. PMID:26786590

  15. meta-analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng LU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Analysis of mammographic findings of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Joo; Han, Heon; Yang, Dal Mo; Chung, Hyo Sun; Kim, Jee Eun; Kim, Young Chae

    1995-01-01

    This study is to describe authors' experience on mammographic findings of breast cancer and to know if there is difference between 35 years of age or younger and older groups. Mammograms of 72 patients with breast cancer detected from January, 1991 to December, 1993 were retrospectively analysed. Mammographic findings were classified into mass only, mass with microcalcifications, microcalcifications only and others. Marginal characteristics of mass were classified into spiculated, poorly marginated and well marginated. Shape of microcalcifications were classified into casting, granular and mixed types. These findings were compared between 35 years of age or younger and older groups. Mammogram showed mass only in 33 patients (46%), mass with microcalcifications in 26 patients (36%), microcalcifications only in seven (10%) and other findings in six (8%). Other findings were architectural distortion, asymmetric high density and incidental breast carcinoma from paraffinoma in one patient respectively, and dense breast in three patients. The margins of the breast mass were spiculated in ten (17%). poorly marginated in 30 (51%), well-marginated in 19 (32%). Shape of microcalcifications were casting type in 13 (40%). granular in 14 (42%) and mixed in six (18%) cases. 3 patients had dense breast with which mammography did not demonstrate the lesion. 3 patients without mammographically demonstrable lesions due to dense breasts were under 35 years in age, and there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (ρ -value < 0.05). Microcalcifications only was more common findings in 35 years of age or younger. The most important mammographic findings of breast cancer were mass and microcalcifications. Architectural distortion and asymmetric high density were additional findings. In 35 years of age or younger, microcalcifications only was an important finding because mass lesions are frequently masked by dense breast. Thus other imaging modalities, such as

  17. Analysis results of thyroid cancer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the results of the thyroid screening test of the 'Fukushima citizens' health survey' that were published by the prefecture on February 15, 2016. The subjects of the 'prior survey' were the residents who were born in Fukushima Prefecture between April 2, 1992 and April 1, 2011, namely, Fukushima residents of approximately 0-year-old to 18-year-old at the time of the Fukushima nuclear accident on March 11, 2011. The subjects of the 'full-scale survey' included the subjects of the prior survey and about one-year residents after March 11, 2011. The annual thyroid cancer incidence of persons between 0-year-old to 19-year-old all over Japan was set at annually three person per millions at the prior survey on the basis of the data (2003 - 2007) published by the Japan National Cancer Center, but it was change to five per millions according to the full-scale survey. The thyroid cancer external comparable incidence ratio in the prior survey was 20 to 50 times, an order of magnitude higher, and it was low at 6 to 38 times in the full-scale survey. Due to the change of the setting of the standard rate of incidence, the incidence in the full-scale survey was underestimated. By the way, the aggregated data of diagnostic results in the full-scale survey is in the middle stage. There is a need for the announcement that links the scientifically valid results from Fukushima Prefecture to the effective measures in the future. In addition, the comprehension of leukemia cases, and radiation protection measures with a priority on pregnant women and young people are desired. (A.O.)

  18. Familial pathways to early-onset suicide attempt: a 5.6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A; Melhem, Nadine M; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J John

    2015-02-01

    Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75-13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37-12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94-16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29-56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder. Parental history of a suicide attempt conveys a nearly 5-fold increased odds of suicide attempt

  19. Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeilstra DJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dick J Zeilstra,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block3 1Bergman Clinics, Naarden and NedSpine, Ede, The Netherlands; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF. Methods: A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months. Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results: No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001. Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ≥30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001. Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0% patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10, total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3, facet screw fixation (n = 3, facet screw removal (n = 1, and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1. Eight (6.1% reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion: Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Keywords: Axia

  20. Cerebellar Liponeurocytoma: A Novel Report from Nigeria in a 6-Year-Old Girl, and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzegwu, Martin A; Ohegbulam, Samuel; Ndubuisi, Chika; Okwunodulu, Okwuoma; Okorie, Emeka; Nkwerem, Sunday; Okonkwo, Onyiye; Aniume, Onyeka; Nnamani, Sunday; Nwokoro, Onyekachi; Eni, Anthony; Nwideyi, Isaiah; Nzegwu, Victor

    2016-09-05

    Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature.

  1. Concept analysis of cancer survivorship and contributions to oncological nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rafaela Azevedo Abrantes; da Conceição, Vander Monteiro; Araujo, Jeferson Santos; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to analyse the concept of cancer survivorship using Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis model. The lack of a consensus definition as well as the confusion and debate concerning the definitions of "survivor" and "cancer survivorship" hinder an understanding of the intrinsic needs associated with the latter. Concept analysis. A systematic literature search was performed using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, and PsycINFO with studies published between 2000 and 2014. The final sample contained 39 studies that were analysed on the basis of Rodgers' model and inductive thematic analysis, discussed through the lens of the medical anthropology concept of culture. Cancer survivorship is a broad concept that can be understood using 8 themes: changes in life plans, positive and negative aspect dualities, life reflections, identity change, individual experiences, symptom control, the need for support, and quality of care. These themes are summarized using 2 attributes: liminality process and culturally congruent care. This article contributes to understanding of cancer survivorship and the processes that are intrinsic to this concept. It calls for future investigations to enhance cancer survivorship across its 2 domains at the personal (patient's life) and clinical (nursing practice) levels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Patient characteristics and cancer prevalence in the Danish cancer patient pathway for patients with serious non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer-A nationwide, population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, E; Lindhardt, B Ø

    2017-01-01

    of included patients who were diagnosed with cancer after completing a NSSC-CPP diagnostic course. Associations between patient characteristics and cancer diagnosis were estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: The mean age of the 23,934 patients included in the analysis was 64.6 years...

  3. Integrative Analysis of Prognosis Data on Multiple Cancer Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Yawei; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    Summary In cancer research, profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for genes/SNPs associated with prognosis. Cancer is diverse. Examining the similarity and difference in the genetic basis of multiple subtypes of the same cancer can lead to a better understanding of their connections and distinctions. Classic meta-analysis methods analyze each subtype separately and then compare analysis results across subtypes. Integrative analysis methods, in contrast, analyze the raw data on multiple subtypes simultaneously and can outperform meta-analysis methods. In this study, prognosis data on multiple subtypes of the same cancer are analyzed. An AFT (accelerated failure time) model is adopted to describe survival. The genetic basis of multiple subtypes is described using the heterogeneity model, which allows a gene/SNP to be associated with prognosis of some subtypes but not others. A compound penalization method is developed to identify genes that contain important SNPs associated with prognosis. The proposed method has an intuitive formulation and is realized using an iterative algorithm. Asymptotic properties are rigorously established. Simulation shows that the proposed method has satisfactory performance and outperforms a penalization-based meta-analysis method and a regularized thresholding method. An NHL (non-Hodgkin lymphoma) prognosis study with SNP measurements is analyzed. Genes associated with the three major subtypes, namely DLBCL, FL, and CLL/SLL, are identified. The proposed method identifies genes that are different from alternatives and have important implications and satisfactory prediction performance. PMID:24766212

  4. A clinical analysis of maxillary sinus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumatsu, Ryuji; Nakashima, Torahiko; Ayada, Toranoshin; Shiratsuchi, Hideki; Toh, Satoshi; Komune, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-two patients (23 males, 9 females) with maxillary sinus cancer were treated at Kyushu University Hospital during 2000-2008. They were classified by T classification as 5 cases with T2, 13 with T3, 12 with T4a, and 2 with T4b. Between 2000 and 2003, 16 patients were given irradiation, intra-arterial 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion chemotherapy, maxillectomy and postoperative irradiation. After 2004, two patients with T4b maxillary sinus cancer were treated by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy with Cisplatin (CDDP) and Docetaxel (DOC) and irradiation. Other patients were given irradiation and chemotherapy with S-1 and intra-arterial infusion of 5-FU. The 3-year survival rate was 68.3% for all patients. The 3-year survival rate was 74.6% for patients treated after 2004, whereas it was 62.5% for patients treated between 2000 and 2003. Chemotherapy with S-1 or superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy with CDDP and DOC improved cause-specific survival rates. (author)

  5. Maternal Anxiety and Separation Anxiety in Children Aged Between 3 and 6 Years: The Mediating Role of Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Penosa, Patricia; Morales, Alexandra; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Espada, José P

    2018-06-04

    Maternal anxiety is known to be associated with childhood separation anxiety. However, there is little research on the mediating factors of this relationship, despite the possible consequences separation anxiety might have for children's development and autonomy. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible mediating effects of 4 parenting styles (overprotective, assertive, punitive, and inhibited) on the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety. Participants were 235 mothers with children aged 3 to 6 years, recruited from 6 preschools in the southeast of Spain. Maternal trait anxiety, maternal parenting style, and child separation anxiety were evaluated. A parallel multiple-mediation analysis revealed that the overprotective parenting style was a significant mediator of the relationship between maternal trait anxiety and child separation anxiety. In addition, mothers with higher trait anxiety scores exhibited a greater likelihood of using an overprotective, punitive, or less assertive parenting style. Younger mothers were more likely to use an overprotective parenting style, and compared with girls, boys were more exposed to the assertive style. This study provides initial evidence that parenting style acts as a mediator of the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety.

  6. Evaluation of Hand Stereognosis Level in 3-6 years Old Children with Spastic Hemiplegia and Diplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minou Kalantari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most prevalent sensory problems in cerebral palsy is Astereognosis which has special importance in daily manual functions. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of hand stereognosis using common objects and geometric shapes in children with spastic hemiplegia and diplegia. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 20 children with cerebral palsy between 3-6 years old (9 males, 11 females with mean age (hemiplegya: 55months, diplegya: 57months were selected through nonrandomized convinience sampling referd to Occupational Therapy centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Stereognosis was evaluated using geometric shapes (square, circle, rectangular, triangle and common objects (pencil, key, coin, nail, teaspoon and screw and test special board. The data were analyzed by Mixed Analysis of Variance and Regression statistical tests. Results: There was no significant regression between common objects stereognosis score and age in hemiplegic childrenbut this regression was significant for stereognosis score of geometric shapes (P=0.027. There was no significant regression between stereognosis score of common objects and geometric shapes in diplegic children. The Main effects of gender was not significant in stereognosis of children with spastic hemiplegia and diplegia, also main effects of hand were not significant in two groups. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between stereognosis of affected and unaffected hand in hemiplegic childrenand between right and left hands in diplegic children. Also There was no significant regression between age and stereognosis score of geometric shapes in diplegic children .

  7. Knowledge and behaviour of parents in relation to the oral and dental health of children aged 4-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children. Following ethical approval, six urban and rural schools were identified. Questionnaires were distributed to the parents of pupils (children aged 4-6 years). The questionnaire included several questions evaluating parental knowledge and behaviour of oral and dental health issues in their children. Each question was assigned a score of either 0 or 1 being inconsistent or consistent with current paediatric guidelines giving a maximum score of 6 for knowledge and 7 for behaviour. Chi-square analysis was used to analyse associations among variables. Parental knowledge varied widely among parents and across questions; however, 70.2 % of parents had scores greater than 3 (range 0-6). The majority of parents (65.8 %) also had scores greater than 3 (range 0-7) for behaviour. Deficiencies were noted in oral hygiene practices; very few parents brushed their child's teeth and were not aware of the recommended age of the first dental visit at 1 year (Age 1 visit). Parents without free medical care demonstrated high levels of knowledge (P parents thought that the information available to them on the oral health of their young children was insufficient. Parents appeared to have limited knowledge regarding the dental and oral health of their young children. This study indicates a need for improved education for parents, particularly in toothbrushing behaviour and use of toothpaste. Education strategies tailored to the Irish population should be explored.

  8. Prenatal stress and balance of the child's cardiac autonomic nervous system at age 5-6 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. METHODS: Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12-20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5-6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP, heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. RESULTS: 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17. Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07. CONCLUSION: Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years.

  9. Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System in Rural Western Honduras: A 6-Year Report on Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Ordonez, Dagoberto; Dewan, Michael C; Feldman, Michael J; Montalvan-Sanchez, Eleazar E; Montalvan-Sanchez, Daniela M; Rodriguez-Murillo, Aida A; Urrutia-Argueta, Samuel A; Cherry, Charlotte B; Morgan, Douglas R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Roberto; Bonfield, Christopher M

    2017-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) malformations, including neural tube defects (NTDs), are the second most common type of birth defects worldwide and are major causes of childhood disability and mortality. We report the first analysis of birth prevalence in Western Honduras of CNS malformations including NTDs over 6 consecutive years. Data from all patients with congenital CNS malformations and total live births for the period 2010-2015 were obtained through institution and regional registries from all 3 public referral hospitals in Western Honduras, representing 67 municipalities. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision CNS malformation codes. Birth prevalence was calculated as cases per 10,000 live births. From 123,903 live births, 275 cases of CNS malformations were identified (54% females, 58% NTDs). Six-year birth prevalence of CNS malformations was 13.9-31.1. Spina bifida variants and anencephaly represented 80% and 19% of reported NTDs, respectively. Total 6-year prevalence of NTDs in Western Honduras was 7.0-17.4 over years studied. In 6 municipalities, average prevalence was >30 (maximum 49.0). This is the first study reporting disease burden of CNS malformations in Western Honduras. The nationwide birth prevalence of NTDs in rural Honduras may have decreased since the implementation of prenatal health policies in 2005. However, we identified regions with unexpectedly elevated prevalence, indicating high regional prevalence that could be targeted for improved preventive efforts, ultimately decreasing the burden of these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vaginocutaneous fistula and inguinal abcess presented 6 years after tension-free vaginal tape sling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Feyzullah Sahin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI has become very pop- ular after respectable success with minimal invasive surgeries. This is the first report of long term vaginocutaneous fistula (VCF plus inguinal abcess after tension-free vaginal tape (TVT. A 67 year-old woman with vaginal discharge lasting more than 3 years complained with a painful swelling in the left inguinal area for the last three months. She had a medical history of TVT sling procedure for SUI six years ago. She had no history of pelvic surgery, cancer treatment or pelvic irradiation before or after TVT sling. No urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula was found in physical examination and cystocopy. MRI showed a vaginocutenaous fistula and inguinal abcess. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for VCF after TVT.

  11. Analysis of Content Shared in Online Cancer Communities: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenbergen, Mies C; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Krahmer, Emiel; Verberne, Suzan; Mols, Floortje

    2018-04-03

    The content that cancer patients and their relatives (ie, posters) share in online cancer communities has been researched in various ways. In the past decade, researchers have used automated analysis methods in addition to manual coding methods. Patients, providers, researchers, and health care professionals can learn from experienced patients, provided that their experience is findable. The aim of this study was to systematically review all relevant literature that analyzes user-generated content shared within online cancer communities. We reviewed the quality of available research and the kind of content that posters share with each other on the internet. A computerized literature search was performed via PubMed (MEDLINE), PsycINFO (5 and 4 stars), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ScienceDirect. The last search was conducted in July 2017. Papers were selected if they included the following terms: (cancer patient) and (support group or health communities) and (online or internet). We selected 27 papers and then subjected them to a 14-item quality checklist independently scored by 2 investigators. The methodological quality of the selected studies varied: 16 were of high quality and 11 were of adequate quality. Of those 27 studies, 15 were manually coded, 7 automated, and 5 used a combination of methods. The best results can be seen in the papers that combined both analytical methods. The number of analyzed posts ranged from 200 to 1,500,000; the number of analyzed posters ranged from 75 to 90,000. The studies analyzing large numbers of posts mainly related to breast cancer, whereas those analyzing small numbers were related to other types of cancers. A total of 12 studies involved some or entirely automatic analysis of the user-generated content. All the authors referred to two main content categories: informational support and emotional support. In all, 15 studies reported only on the content, 6 studies explicitly reported on content and social

  12. Vaccine-Induced Anti-HBs Level in 5-6 Year-Old Malnourished Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehran; Raee, Ali; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Malnutrition is the most common cause of immune deficiency. It results in reduced secretion of T-cells and B-cell-stimulating factors leading to declining of special immunoglobulins. On the other hand, hepatitis B, as a major world health problem, can be prevented effectively by vaccination. Three doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine induce protective levels of anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) in 95% of healthy children. This level decreases gradually over time. The goal of this study was to assess anti-HBs in malnourished children, who confronted to some degrees of immune deficiency. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during May to August 2010 in therapeutic clinics of Yazd, Iran. Samples were selected simply and consecutively among 5-6 year-old children with a history of three doses of HBV vaccine in infancy. On the basis of World Health Organization's definition on malnutrition, which considers anthropometric measurements, malnourished children entered the study. Totally 83 cases (37 boys and 46 girls) were gathered and classified into three groups of mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition. One milliliter of venous blood was taken and anti-HBs were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Overall, seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-HBs were 60.2% and 15.47 ± 10.92 mIU/mL, respectively. Seroprotection rate was 71.4%, 55.2%, and 72.7% in mild, moderate, and severe malnourished children, respectively. GMT was 30.78 mIU/mL, 12.15 mIU/mL, and 22.95 mIU/mL in these groups, respectively. None of these two indices were significant in these groups (P = 0.471, P = 0.364). Seroprotection rate and GMT were 54.1% and 13.26 ± 11.59 mIU/mL in boys, and 65.2% and 17.5 ± 10.59 mIU/mL in girls, respectively, showing no significant relationship with gender (P = 0.302, P = 0.602). Lowest seroprotection rate was in stunted cases (47.1%) and highest in wasted children (77.8%). This difference also was not significant (P = 0

  13. Mutational analysis and clinical correlation of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea L; Borger, Darrell R; Szymonifka, Jackie; Ryan, David P; Wo, Jennifer Y; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Kwak, Eunice L; Allen, Jill N; Wadlow, Raymond C; Zhu, Andrew X; Murphy, Janet E; Faris, Jason E; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Haigis, Kevin M; Ellisen, Leif W; Iafrate, Anthony J; Hong, Theodore S

    2014-05-15

    Early identification of mutations may guide patients with metastatic colorectal cancer toward targeted therapies that may be life prolonging. The authors assessed tumor genotype correlations with clinical characteristics to determine whether mutational profiling can account for clinical similarities, differences, and outcomes. Under Institutional Review Board approval, 222 patients with metastatic colon adenocarcinoma (n = 158) and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 64) who underwent clinical tumor genotyping were reviewed. Multiplexed tumor genotyping screened for >150 mutations across 15 commonly mutated cancer genes. The chi-square test was used to assess genotype frequency by tumor site and additional clinical characteristics. Cox multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of genotype on overall survival. Broad-based tumor genotyping revealed clinical and anatomic differences that could be linked to gene mutations. NRAS mutations were associated with rectal cancer versus colon cancer (12.5% vs 0.6%; P colon cancer (13% vs 3%; P = .024) and older age (15.8% vs 4.6%; P = .006). TP53 mutations were associated with rectal cancer (30% vs 18%; P = .048), younger age (14% vs 28.7%; P = .007), and men (26.4% vs 14%; P = .03). Lung metastases were associated with PIK3CA mutations (23% vs 8.7%; P = .004). Only mutations in BRAF were independently associated with decreased overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.27; P = .029). The current study suggests that underlying molecular profiles can differ between colon and rectal cancers. Further investigation is warranted to assess whether the differences identified are important in determining the optimal treatment course for these patients. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  14. "Textural analysis of multiparametric MRI detects transition zone prostate cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Harbir S; Benigno, Salvatore; Ganeshan, Balaji; Dikaios, Nikos; Johnston, Edward W; Allen, Clare; Kirkham, Alex; Groves, Ashley M; Ahmed, Hashim U; Emberton, Mark; Taylor, Stuart A; Halligan, Steve; Punwani, Shonit

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate multiparametric-MRI (mpMRI) derived histogram textural-analysis parameters for detection of transition zone (TZ) prostatic tumour. Sixty-seven consecutive men with suspected prostate cancer underwent 1.5T mpMRI prior to template-mapping-biopsy (TPM). Twenty-six men had 'significant' TZ tumour. Two radiologists in consensus matched TPM to the single axial slice best depicting tumour, or largest TZ diameter for those with benign histology, to define single-slice whole TZ-regions-of-interest (ROIs). Textural-parameter differences between single-slice whole TZ-ROI containing significant tumour versus benign/insignificant tumour were analysed using Mann Whitney U test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by receiver operating characteristic area under curve (ROC-AUC) analysis cross-validated with leave-one-out (LOO) analysis. ADC kurtosis was significantly lower (p Textural features of the whole prostate TZ can discriminate significant prostatic cancer through reduced kurtosis of the ADC-histogram where significant tumour is included in TZ-ROI and reduced T1 entropy independent of tumour inclusion. • MR textural features of prostate transition zone may discriminate significant prostatic cancer. • Transition zone (TZ) containing significant tumour demonstrates a less peaked ADC histogram. • TZ containing significant tumour reveals higher post-contrast T1-weighted homogeneity. • The utility of MR texture analysis in prostate cancer merits further investigation.

  15. Breast cancer metastasis to thyroid: a retrospective analysis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Retrospective analysis of data from breast cancer patients with thyroid metastasis (TM). Methods: The ... parenchyma with gathering of calcification that reduced in size, revealing the sensitiveness of TM to chemotherapy. Conclusion: US ..... patients.16-18. Most common sites of primary tumors are renal cell car-.

  16. Genomic analysis and selected molecular pathways in rare cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Stephen V; Lenkiewicz, Elizabeth; Evers, Lisa; Holley, Tara; Kiefer, Jeffrey; Demeure, Michael J; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Barrett, Michael T; Ruiz, Christian; Glatz, Katharina; Bubendorf, Lukas; Eng, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many cancers arise as a result of an acquired genomic instability and the subsequent evolution of tumor cells with variable patterns of selected and background aberrations. The presence and behaviors of distinct neoplastic cell populations within a patient's tumor may underlie multiple clinical phenotypes in cancers. A goal of many current cancer genome studies is the identification of recurring selected driver events that can be advanced for the development of personalized therapies. Unfortunately, in the majority of rare tumors, this type of analysis can be particularly challenging. Large series of specimens for analysis are simply not available, allowing recurring patterns to remain hidden. In this paper, we highlight the use of DNA content-based flow sorting to identify and isolate DNA-diploid and DNA-aneuploid populations from tumor biopsies as a strategy to comprehensively study the genomic composition and behaviors of individual cancers in a series of rare solid tumors: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, anal carcinoma, adrenal leiomyosarcoma, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. We propose that the identification of highly selected genomic events in distinct tumor populations within each tumor can identify candidate driver events that can facilitate the development of novel, personalized treatment strategies for patients with cancer. (paper)

  17. Does colon cancer ever metastasize to bone first? a temporal analysis of colorectal cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Eira S; Fetzer, David T; Barron, Bruce J; Joseph, Usha A; Gayed, Isis W; Wan, David Q

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that colorectal cancer does not frequently metastasize to bone. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish whether colorectal cancer ever bypasses other organs and metastasizes directly to bone and whether the presence of lung lesions is superior to liver as a better predictor of the likelihood and timing of bone metastasis. We performed a retrospective analysis on patients with a clinical diagnosis of colon cancer referred for staging using whole-body 18 F-FDG PET and CT or PET/CT. We combined PET and CT reports from 252 individuals with information concerning patient history, other imaging modalities, and treatments to analyze disease progression. No patient had isolated osseous metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and none developed isolated bone metastasis without other organ involvement during our survey period. It took significantly longer for colorectal cancer patients to develop metastasis to the lungs (23.3 months) or to bone (21.2 months) than to the liver (9.8 months). Conclusion: Metastasis only to bone without other organ involvement in colorectal cancer patients is extremely rare, perhaps more rare than we previously thought. Our findings suggest that resistant metastasis to the lungs predicts potential disease progression to bone in the colorectal cancer population better than liver metastasis does

  18. Trade-off of cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional networks for planning in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Judy A; Margulies, Daniel S; Eickhoff, Simon B; Lee, Annie; Qiu, Anqi

    2018-05-03

    Childhood is a critical period for the development of cognitive planning. There is a lack of knowledge on its neural mechanisms in children. This study aimed to examine cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional connectivity in association with planning skills in 6-year-olds (n = 76). We identified the cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional networks related to cognitive planning using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on existing functional imaging studies on spatial planning, and data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) of children's resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). We investigated associations of cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional connectivity with planning ability in 6-year-olds, as assessed using the Stockings of Cambridge task. Long-range functional connectivity of two cerebellar networks (lobules VI and lateral VIIa) with the prefrontal and premotor cortex were greater in children with poorer planning ability. In contrast, cortico-cortical association networks were not associated with the performance of planning in children. These results highlighted the key contribution of the lateral cerebello-frontal functional connectivity, but not cortico-cortical association functional connectivity, for planning ability in 6-year-olds. Our results suggested that brain adaptation to the acquisition of planning ability during childhood is partially achieved through the engagement of the cerebello-cortical functional connectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The formation of bases of culture of movement at children of 3–6 years old by means of rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Riabchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to open the versatility of a concept of culture as a phenomena and as a process which course provides the preservation of the most significant viable social relations conformably to a concept of culture of movements of children of 3-6 years old. Material and Methods: the analysis of special scientific literature in which theoretical and practical aspects of the creation of physical culture are stated. Results: questions of the creation of physical training of children of 3–6 years old taking into account their individual physical developments are considered. The most important provisions are noted in the structure of physical culture which doesn’t allow solving this problem with a full scientific validity now. Conclusions: the basic provisions are allocated which decision is a paramount task for the creation of the evidence-based system of physical training of children of the advanced preschool age.

  20. Parents' socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population......-based registers from Statistics Denmark. SETTING: Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: High use of antibiotics identified by number...... of antibiotic prescriptions (≥ 3 prescriptions per year) and defined daily doses (DDD). A multinomial logistic regression analysis estimating the association between high antibiotic use and parents' education, employment status, income, child's sex, and ethnic background. RESULTS: Ten percent of children...

  1. Persistence of Breakage in Specific Chromosome Bands 6 Years after Acute Exposure to Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Francés

    Full Text Available The identification of breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage could help to detect genes involved in genetic disorders, most notably cancer. Until now, only one published study, carried out by our group, has identified chromosome bands affected by exposure to oil from an oil spill. In that study, which was performed two years after the initial oil exposure in individuals who had participated in clean-up tasks following the wreck of the Prestige, three chromosomal bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31 were found to be especially prone to breakage. A recent follow-up study, performed on the same individuals, revealed that the genotoxic damage had persisted six years after oil exposure.To determine whether there exist chromosome bands which are especially prone to breakages and to know if there is some correlation with those detected in the previous study. In addition, to investigate if the DNA repair problems detected previously persist in the present study.Follow-up study performed six years after the Prestige oil spill.Fishermen cooperatives in coastal villages.Fishermen highly exposed to oil spill who participated in previous genotoxic study six years after the oil.Chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes. For accurate identification of the breakpoints involved in chromosome damage of circulating lymphocytes, a sequential stain/G-banding technique was employed. To determine the most break-prone chromosome bands, two statistical methods, the Fragile Site Multinomial and the chi-square tests (where the bands were corrected by their length were used. To compare the chromosome lesions, structural chromosome alterations and gaps/breaks between two groups of individuals we used the GEE test which takes into account a possible within-individual correlation. Dysfunctions in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosome damage, were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin by the GEE test.Cytogenetic analyses were performed in 47 exposed individuals. A total of

  2. Spatial and temporal variability in aerosol properties over the Mediterranean basin based on 6-year (2000-2006) MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimas, C. D.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Querol, X.; Vardavas, I.

    2008-06-01

    The temporal variability of aerosol optical properties is investigated over the broader Mediterranean basin, with emphasis on aerosol optical depth (AOD) that is an effective measure of aerosol load. The study is performed using Collection 005 Level-3 mean daily spectral aerosol data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites, which cover the 6-year period from 2000 to 2006. The results of our analysis reveal a significant interannual variability of AOD in the study region. Specifically, the regional mean visible AOD over land and ocean has decreased over the period 2000-2006 by 20% in relative percentage terms (or by 0.04 in absolute terms). This tendency is statistically significant according to the Man-Kendall test. However, the decreasing tendency of AOD is not uniform over the whole basin. It appears mainly in the western parts of Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas (and coastal areas), as well as in the southern Anatolian peninsula. The analysis for summer (June to September) and winter (November to March) seasons revealed different tendencies in both AOD and precipitation. The summer-period AOD has decreased by 0.04 (or by 14%) probably due to decreased emission rates of anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, the winter AOD has increased by 0.03 (or 19%) mainly related to decreased precipitation (associated with an increasing tendency in the NAO index). The decreasing tendency in MODIS AOD is in good agreement with corresponding AOD tendencies based on data from Aerobot Robotic Network (AERONET) stations in the study region and ground based PM10 measurements at selected stations.

  3. Cervical vertebral maturation: An objective and transparent code staging system applied to a 6-year longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Bianchet, Alberto; Franchi, Lorenzo; Contardo, Luca

    2017-05-01

    To date, little information is available regarding individual cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) morphologic changes. Moreover, contrasting results regarding the repeatability of the CVM method call for the use of objective and transparent reporting procedures. In this study, we used a rigorous morphometric objective CVM code staging system, called the "CVM code" that was applied to a 6-year longitudinal circumpubertal analysis of individual CVM morphologic changes to find cases outside the reported norms and analyze individual maturation processes. From the files of the Oregon Growth Study, 32 subjects (17 boys, 15 girls) with 6 annual lateral cephalograms taken from 10 to 16 years of age were included, for a total of 221 recordings. A customized cephalometric analysis was used, and each recording was converted into a CVM code according to the concavities of cervical vertebrae (C) C2 through C4 and the shapes of C3 and C4. The retrieved CVM codes, either falling within the reported norms (regular cases) or not (exception cases), were also converted into the CVM stages. Overall, 31 exception cases (14%) were seen. with most of them accounting for pubertal CVM stage 4. The overall durations of the CVM stages 2 to 4 were about 1 year, even though only 4 subjects had regular annual durations of CVM stages 2 to 5. Whereas the overall CVM changes are consistent with previous reports, intersubject variability must be considered when dealing with individual treatment timing. Future research on CVM may take advantage of the CVM code system. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Research Data | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course will be held on April 5-6, 2018 from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. at the National Institutes of Health's Natcher Conference Center, Balcony C on the Bethesda Campus. SARD is designed to provide an overview on the general principles of statistical analysis of research data.  The first day will feature univariate data analysis, including descriptive statistics, probability distributions, one- and two-sample inferential statistics.

  5. Proteome profiling analysis of human ovarian cancer serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognetti, F.; Citro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry represents a powerful tool in cancer research to discovery of potential bio markers through peak identification from serum profiling. By using high resolution MALDITOF and bioinformatic analysis almost 400 serum sample homogeneously distributed between biopsy confirmed ovarian cancer and high risk serum samples were analyzed. Each serum sample run in duplicate and whole serum sample preparation procedure has been performed by Hamilton Star Robot in order to reduce bias and the replicates with a low Pearson coefficient are removed. After automated reverse phase magnetic beads separation the samples were tested in MALDI-TOF

  6. Tissue preservation with mass spectroscopic analysis: Implications for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, O Morgan; Peer, Cody J; Figg, William D

    2018-05-17

    Surgical intervention is a common treatment modality for localized cancer. Post-operative analysis involves evaluation of surgical margins to assess whether all malignant tissue has been resected because positive surgical margins lead to a greater likelihood of recurrence. Secondary treatments are utilized to minimize the negative effects of positive surgical margins. Recently, in Science Translational Medicine, Zhang et al describe a new mass spectroscopic technique that could potentially decrease the likelihood of positive surgical margins. Their nondestructive in vivo tissue sampling leads to a highly accurate and rapid cancer diagnosis with great precision between healthy and malignant tissue. This new tool has the potential to improve surgical margins and accelerate cancer diagnostics by analyzing biomolecular signatures of various tissues and diseases.

  7. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Lubeck, Deborah; Lalla, Deepa; Paton, Virginia; Dueck, Amylou; Perez, Edith A

    2007-08-01

    Adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy provides significant clinical benefit in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to assess clinical and economic implications of adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy, based upon joint analysis of NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831 trials. A Markov model with 4 health states was used to estimate the cost utility for a 50-year-old woman on the basis of trial results through 4 years and estimates of long-term recurrence and death based on a meta-analysis of trials. From 6 years onward, rates of recurrence and death were assumed to be the same in both trastuzumab and chemotherapy-only arms. Incremental costs were estimated for diagnostic and treatment-related costs. Analyses were from payer and societal perspectives, and these analyses were projected to lifetime and 20-year horizons. Over a lifetime, the projected cost of trastuzumab per quality-adjusted life year (QALY; discount rate 3%) gained was 26,417 dollars (range 9,104 dollars-69,340 dollars under multiway sensitivity analysis). Discounted incremental lifetime cost was 44,923 dollars, and projected life expectancy was 3 years longer for patients who received trastuzumab (19.4 years vs 16.4 years). During a 20-year horizon, the projected cost of adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy was 34,201 dollars per QALY gained. Key cost-effectiveness drivers were discount rate, trastuzumab price, and probability of metastasis. The cost-effectiveness result was robust to sensitivity analysis. Trastuzumab for adjuvant treatment of early stage breast cancer was projected to be cost effective over a lifetime horizon, achieving a cost-effectiveness ratio below that of many widely accepted oncology treatments. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  9. A clinical analysis of maxillary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Haruhiko; Amatsu, Mutsuo [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-03-01

    Forty-five patients with maxillary cancer were treated at Kobe University Hospital during the years 1990-1999. We analyzed 35 of there cases that had undergone curative treatment. They were classified by T the classification (UICC, 1997) as two cases with T1, seven with T2, eight with T3, and 18 with T4. The two patients with T1 were treated with radiation alone, and four of the other patients were treated with surgery alone. Eight patients were given irradiation, intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, and curettage of necotic tumor (combined therapy group); 10 received preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, irradiation, and maxillectomy or extended maxillectomy (preoperative treatment group), and 11 underwent extended surgery and postoperative chemotherapy and/or irradiation (postoperative treatment group). The five-year survival rates were 65.1% for all patients, 83.3% for T3 cases, and 41.6% for T4 cases. The five-year survival rates were 48.6% for the combined therapy group, 80% for the preoperative treatment group, and 54.6% for the postoperative treatment group. Although the four cases with T2 who underwent combined therapy all remained disease-free, all three cases with T3 and T4 died of the disease. On the other hand, six of the seven patients with T3 and T4 in the preoperative treatment group remained disease-free. Based on these results, we believe that maxillectomy or extended maxillectomy following intra-arterial chemotherapy and irradiation is the most effective treatment modality for T3 and T4 cases. (author)

  10. A clinical analysis of maxillary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Haruhiko; Amatsu, Mutsuo

    2001-01-01

    Forty-five patients with maxillary cancer were treated at Kobe University Hospital during the years 1990-1999. We analyzed 35 of there cases that had undergone curative treatment. They were classified by T the classification (UICC, 1997) as two cases with T1, seven with T2, eight with T3, and 18 with T4. The two patients with T1 were treated with radiation alone, and four of the other patients were treated with surgery alone. Eight patients were given irradiation, intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, and curettage of necotic tumor (combined therapy group); 10 received preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy, irradiation, and maxillectomy or extended maxillectomy (preoperative treatment group), and 11 underwent extended surgery and postoperative chemotherapy and/or irradiation (postoperative treatment group). The five-year survival rates were 65.1% for all patients, 83.3% for T3 cases, and 41.6% for T4 cases. The five-year survival rates were 48.6% for the combined therapy group, 80% for the preoperative treatment group, and 54.6% for the postoperative treatment group. Although the four cases with T2 who underwent combined therapy all remained disease-free, all three cases with T3 and T4 died of the disease. On the other hand, six of the seven patients with T3 and T4 in the preoperative treatment group remained disease-free. Based on these results, we believe that maxillectomy or extended maxillectomy following intra-arterial chemotherapy and irradiation is the most effective treatment modality for T3 and T4 cases. (author)

  11. Risk-benefit analysis of 18FDG PET cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murano, Takeshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Terauchi, Takashi; Iinuma, Takeshi; Tateno, Yukio; Tateishi, Ukihide; Kato, Kazuaki; Inoue, Tomio

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening are expected to include a large population of examinees and are intended for a healthy group. Therefore, we attempted to determine the benefit/risk ratio, estimated risk of radiation exposure, and benefit of cancer detection. We used software that embodied the method of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to calculate the average duration of life of radiation exposure. We calculated the lifesaving person years of benefit to be obtained by 18 FDG PET cancer screening detection. We also calculated the benefit/risk ratio using life-shortening and lifesaving person years. According to age, the benefit/risk ratio was more than 1 at 35-39 years old for males and 30-34 years old for females. 18 FDG PET cancer screening also is effective for examinees older than this. A risk-benefit analysis of 18 FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) cancer screening will be necessary in the future. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A.; Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B.; Vinnicombe, S.; Martin, P.; Thompson, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  13. Consortium analysis of 7 candidate SNPs for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, S.J.; Vierkant, R.A.; Johnatty, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium selected 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), for which there is evidence from previous studies of an association with variation in ovarian cancer or breast cancer risks. The SNPs selected for analysis were F31I (rs2273535) in AURKA, N372H...... (rs144848) in BRCA2, rs2854344 in intron 17 of RB1, rs2811712 5' flanking CDKN2A, rs523349 in the 3' UTR of SRD5A2, D302H (rs1045485) in CASP8 and L10P (rs1982073) in TGFB1. Fourteen studies genotyped 4,624 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 8,113 controls of white non-Hispanic origin...... was suggestive although no longer statistically significant (ordinal OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). This SNP has also been shown to have an association with decreased risk in breast cancer. There was a suggestion of an association for AURKA, when one study that caused significant study heterogeneity was excluded...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  15. Lumboaortic irradiation in uterine cervical cancer: Analysis of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini B, Alejandro; Becerra S, Sergio; Bianchi G, Benjamin; Gayan G, Patricio; Carcamo I, Marcela; Seelmann G, Daniela; Silva P, Gonzalo; Besio H, Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Uterine cancer is a prevalent disease in Chile and it is one of the most frequent cancer locations treated in the National Chilean Cancer Institute. It is also common to receive young patients that have advanced tumors in stages IIB and IIIB with high risks of compromises of lymphatic nodes of pelvis and aortic-lumbar zones. The treatment for these kinds of cancers is radio-chemotherapy. Aims: Determinate if the radiotherapy of aortic-lumbar lymph nodes lowers the chance of relapsing or increase the survival rate in patients with evident compromise of aortic-lumbar lymph nodes and in those with high risk of compromise in that level. Method: Exhaustive analysis of the literature about the indication of radiotherapy of aortic-lumbar lymph nodes in cervix cancer which is classified in those where the radiotherapy treatment is done in patients with evident compromise of aortic-lumbar lymph-nodes, and those where de radiotherapy is done in patients with high risk of compromise in that level. Results: In patients with small cervix tumors and positive lymphoid nodes the LA lymphatic nodes treatment would be beneficial. However, patients that suffer massive pelvic disease (IIIB) or that have evidence of the disease, the benefit would not be so important. Conclusion: Patients with controllable pelvic disease and with high risk of having aortic-lumbar lymph nodes compromise are the most benefit of radiotherapy in aortic-lumbar lymph nodes (stages IA-B, IIA-B with positive lymph nodes)

  16. Elevated Eosinophil Protein X in Urine from Healthy Neonates Precedes Development of Atopy in the First 6 Years of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    -prostaglandin-F2a was associated with any of the atopic phenotypes. Conclusion Eosinophil protein-X in urine from asymptomatic neonates is a biomarker significantly associated with later development of allergic sensitization, nasal eosinophilia and eczema during the first 6 years of life. These findings suggest...... D2 metabolite) assessed in urine from healthy at-risk neonates precede development of atopic disease during the first 6 years of life. Methods We measured eosinophil protein-X (N=369), leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 (N=367), and 11ß-prostaglandin-F2a (N=366) in urine from 1-month-old children participating...... untill age 6 years. Associations between urinary biomarkers and development of atopic traits were investigated using general estimating equations, logistic regression and Cox regression. Measurements and Main Results Eosinophil protein-X in the urine of the asymptomatic 1-month-old neonates...

  17. Increase in waist circumference over 6 years predicts subsequent cardiovascular disease and total mortality in nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingberg, Sofia; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lanfer, Anne

    2015-01-01

    -shaped association. Associations between increase in WC and outcomes were restricted to women with normal weight at baseline and to ever-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to changes in HC which did not predict mortality and CVD, a 6-year increase in WC is strongly predictive, particularly among initially lean women...... and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women but that gain or loss in HC was unrelated to these outcomes. This study examines whether a 6-year change in waist circumference (WC) predicts mortality and CVD in the same study sample. METHODS: Baseline WC and 6-year change in WC as predictors of mortality and CVD...... were analyzed in 2,492 women from the Danish MONICA study and the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden. RESULTS: Increase in WC was significantly associated with increased subsequent mortality and CVD adjusting for BMI and other covariates, with some evidence of a J...

  18. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  19. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, J.S.; Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O.; Vik, T.; Brubakk, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  20. Management of Sjogren’s Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Mendonça Invernici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS.

  1. Management of Sjogren's Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Invernici, Marcos; Vale Nicolau, Gastão; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; Soares de Lima, Antônio Adilson

    2014-01-01

    Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS. PMID:25478245

  2. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Castetbon Katia; Andreyeva Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2...

  3. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Vahab; Sima Shahim; Mohammad Majid Oryadizanjani; Salime Jafari; Maryam Faham

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 ...

  4. Next-generation sequence analysis of cancer xenograft models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J Rossello

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS studies in cancer are limited by the amount, quality and purity of tissue samples. In this situation, primary xenografts have proven useful preclinical models. However, the presence of mouse-derived stromal cells represents a technical challenge to their use in NGS studies. We examined this problem in an established primary xenograft model of small cell lung cancer (SCLC, a malignancy often diagnosed from small biopsy or needle aspirate samples. Using an in silico strategy that assign reads according to species-of-origin, we prospectively compared NGS data from primary xenograft models with matched cell lines and with published datasets. We show here that low-coverage whole-genome analysis demonstrated remarkable concordance between published genome data and internal controls, despite the presence of mouse genomic DNA. Exome capture sequencing revealed that this enrichment procedure was highly species-specific, with less than 4% of reads aligning to the mouse genome. Human-specific expression profiling with RNA-Seq replicated array-based gene expression experiments, whereas mouse-specific transcript profiles correlated with published datasets from human cancer stroma. We conclude that primary xenografts represent a useful platform for complex NGS analysis in cancer research for tumours with limited sample resources, or those with prominent stromal cell populations.

  5. Gene expression analysis of FABP4 in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim Yasin Karim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Gastric cancer has high incidence and mortality rate in several countries and is still one of the most frequent and lethal disease. In this study, we aimed to determine diagnostic markers in gastric cancer by molecular techniques; include mRNA expression analysis of FABP4 gene. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in adipocytes. The protein encoded by FABP4 are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. Material and Methods: Total RNA were extracted from paired tumor and normal tissues of 47 gastric cancer. The mRNA expression level of FABP4 was measured employing semi- quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR. Results: The mRNA expression level of FABP4 was significantly decreased (down- regulated. Conclusion: Down-regulation of FABP4 gene seems to occur at the initial steps of gastric cancer development. In order to confirm the relationship between the gastric tumor and FABP4 gene, further analysis like immunohistochemistry and epigenetc techniques are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 248-252

  6. Breath analysis based on micropreconcentrator for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We are developing micropreconcentrators based on micro/nanotechnology to detect trace levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases contained in human and canine exhaled breath. The possibility of using exhaled VOC gases as biomarkers for various cancer diagnoses has been previously discussed. For early cancer diagnosis, detection of trace levels of VOC gas is indispensable. Using micropreconcentrators based on MEMS technology or nanotechnology is very promising for detection of VOC gas. A micropreconcentrator based breath analysis technique also has advantages from the viewpoints of cost performance and availability for various cancers diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce design, fabrication and evaluation results of our MEMS and nanotechnology based micropreconcentrators. In the MEMS based device, we propose a flower leaf type Si microstructure, and its shape and configuration are optimized quantitatively by finite element method simulation. The nanotechnology based micropreconcentrator consists of carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. As a result, we achieve ppb level VOC gas detection with our micropreconcentrators and usual gas chromatography system that can detect on the order of ppm VOC in gas samples. In performance evaluation, we also confirm that the CNT based micropreconcentrator shows 115 times better concentration ratio than that of the Si based micropreconcentrator. Moreover, we discuss a commercialization idea for new cancer diagnosis using breath analysis. Future work and preliminary clinical testing in dogs is also discussed.

  7. Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging for breast cancer analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its biological composition, both structural and functional. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. However, determination of the Mueller matrix requires tissue analysis under many different states of polarized light; a time consuming and measurement intensive process. Here we address this limitation with a new rapid polarimetry system, and use this polarimetry platform to investigate a variety of tissue changes associated with breast cancer. We have recently developed a rapid polarimetry imaging platform based on four photoelastic modulators (PEMs). The PEMs generate fast polarization modulations that allow the complete sample Mueller matrix to be imaged over a large field of view, with no moving parts. This polarimetry system is then demonstrated to be sensitive to a variety of tissue changes that are relevant to breast cancer. Specifically, we show that changes in depolarization can reveal tumor margins, and can differentiate between viable and necrotic breast cancer metastasized to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, the polarimetric property of linear retardance (related to birefringence) is dependent on collagen organization in the extracellular matrix. These findings indicate that our polarimetry platform may have future applications in fields such as breast cancer diagnosis, improving the speed and efficacy of intraoperative pathology, and providing prognostic information that may be beneficial for guiding treatment.

  8. Perspective on Cancer Therapeutics Utilizing Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yeong Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Various methods are available for cancer screening, and the methods are performed depending on the origin site of cancer. Among these methods, biopsy followed by medical imaging is the most common. After cancer progression is determined, an optimal treatment—such as surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy—is selected. A new assay has been developed that detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs. Tracking changes in CTCs may reveal important tumoral sensitivity information or resistance patterns to specific regimens and prompt changes in therapy on a personalized basis. Characterization of CTCs at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels is important for gaining insight for clinical applications. A small number of CTCs can be analyzed to obtain genome information such as the progression of cancer including metastasis, even in a single cluster. Although many clinical studies, particularly CTC enumeration and detection of specific oncogene expression, have increased the success rate of diagnosis and predicting prognosis, there is no consensus regarding the technical approaches and various aspects of the methodology, making it difficult to standardize optimal methods for CTC analysis. However, ongoing technological advances are currently being achieved and large-scale clinical studies are being conducted. Applying CTC analysis in the clinic would be very useful for advancing diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and therapeutics.

  9. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer (MACH-NC): A comprehensive analysis by tumour site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Pierre; Baujat, Bertrand; Holostenco, Victoria; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Baey, Charlotte; Bourhis, Jean; Pignon, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The recently updated meta-analysis of chemotherapy in head and neck cancer (MACH-NC) demonstrated the benefit of the addition of chemotherapy in terms of overall survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The magnitude of the benefit according to tumour site is unknown as well as their potential interactions with patient or trial characteristics. Methods: Eighty seven randomized trials performed between 1965 and 2000 were included in the present analysis. Patients were divided into four categories according to tumour location: oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. Patients with other tumour location were excluded (999, 5.7%). For each tumour location and chemotherapy timing, the logrank-test, stratified by trial, was used to compare treatments. The hazard ratios of death or relapse were calculated. Interactions between patient or trial characteristics and chemotherapy effect were studied. Results: Individual patient data of 16,192 patients were analysed, with a median follow-up of 5.6 years. The benefit of the addition is consistent in all tumour locations, with hazard ratios between 0.87 and 0.88 (p-value of interaction = 0.99). Chemotherapy benefit was higher for concomitant administration for all tumour locations, but the interaction test between chemotherapy timing and treatment effect was only significant for oropharyngeal (p < 0.0001) and laryngeal tumours (p = 0.05), and not for oral cavity (p = 0.15) and hypopharyngeal tumours (p = 0.30). The 5-year absolute benefits associated with the concomitant chemotherapy are 8.9%, 8.1%, 5.4% and 4% for oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx tumours, respectively. Conclusion: The benefit of the addition of chemotherapy to locoregional treatment is consistent in all tumour locations of HNSCC. The higher benefit of concomitant schedule was demonstrated only for oropharyngeal and laryngeal tumours but this may be only a consequence of a lack of power.

  10. Protein expression based multimarker analysis of breast cancer samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presson, Angela P; Horvath, Steve; Yoon, Nam K; Bagryanova, Lora; Mah, Vei; Alavi, Mohammad; Maresh, Erin L; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K; Goodglick, Lee; Chia, David

    2011-01-01

    Tissue microarray (TMA) data are commonly used to validate the prognostic accuracy of tumor markers. For example, breast cancer TMA data have led to the identification of several promising prognostic markers of survival time. Several studies have shown that TMA data can also be used to cluster patients into clinically distinct groups. Here we use breast cancer TMA data to cluster patients into distinct prognostic groups. We apply weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to TMA data consisting of 26 putative tumor biomarkers measured on 82 breast cancer patients. Based on this analysis we identify three groups of patients with low (5.4%), moderate (22%) and high (50%) mortality rates, respectively. We then develop a simple threshold rule using a subset of three markers (p53, Na-KATPase-β1, and TGF β receptor II) that can approximately define these mortality groups. We compare the results of this correlation network analysis with results from a standard Cox regression analysis. We find that the rule-based grouping variable (referred to as WGCNA*) is an independent predictor of survival time. While WGCNA* is based on protein measurements (TMA data), it validated in two independent Affymetrix microarray gene expression data (which measure mRNA abundance). We find that the WGCNA patient groups differed by 35% from mortality groups defined by a more conventional stepwise Cox regression analysis approach. We show that correlation network methods, which are primarily used to analyze the relationships between gene products, are also useful for analyzing the relationships between patients and for defining distinct patient groups based on TMA data. We identify a rule based on three tumor markers for predicting breast cancer survival outcomes

  11. Long-term experience with Enovid among clinic patients: results after 2 and one-half to 6 years of individual patient use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, R P

    1970-08-01

    64 women clients of Planned Parenthood of Evansville (Indiana) used Enovid (5 mg norethynodrel and .075 mg mestranol, combined) for 2 1/2 to 6 years. A "25-Month Club" card and free pills were given to encourage continuation in the study, and 33 women (52%) remained until study termination. The group ranged in age from 18-40 years, mean 27 years, and in parity 0 to 12, mean 4. No pregnancies, cancer of reproductive organs or thromboembolism occurred. Side effects, recorded by interview according to a standard form, included: cervicitis 48%, vaginal discharge 42%; dysmenorrhea 61% pretreatment, 42% improved, 11% new symptoms; breast complaints 33%; 2-15 lb weight gain 19%. 12% reported no side effects, although the author commented that the 25-Month Club policy might have discouraged reporting of side effects.

  12. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Juliane; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Kemming, Dirk; Alpers, Iris; Joosse, Simon A; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus; Brandt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  13. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  14. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  15. The Effect of Coordinated Teaching Method Practices on Some Motor Skills of 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkok, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the effects of Coordinated Teaching Method activities applied for 10 weeks on 6-year-old children, and to examine the effects of these activities on the development of some motor skills in children. Research Methods: The "Experimental Research Model with Pre-test and Post-test Control Group"…

  16. Association between infancy BMI peak and body composition and blood pressure at age 5-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and

  17. Systemic Hypertension and Transient Ischemic Attack in a 6-Year-Old Girl with Fibromuscular Dysplasia Treated with Percutaneous Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foa-Torres, Gustavo; Ganame, Javier; Juaneda, Ernesto; Peirone, Alejandro; Barcudi, Maria Silvina; Achaval, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 6-year-old girl with arterial hypertension secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia with stenoses of both renal arteries and transient ischemic attack due to extracranial right internal carotid artery subtotal occlusion as well as left internal carotid artery stenosis. She was treated with percutaneous angioplasty of both renal and both carotid arteries.

  18. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  19. Long-term degradation of enamel and dentin bonds: 6-year results in vitro vs. in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Godoy, F.; Krämer, N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Frankenberger, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate marginal integrity of direct resin composite restorations before and after thermo-mechanical loading in vitro, and before and after 6 years of clinical service in a prospective clinical trial. Methods For the in vitro part, MO cavities with the proximal box beneath the

  20. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Beatrice; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frederic; Gonthier, Regis

    Methods: nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued

  1. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frédéric; Gonthier, Régis

    2011-03-01

    preservation of cognitive abilities is required to have a good quality of life. The predictive value of cognitive functioning at 65 years old on successful ageing 6 years later is not established. nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT), the Benton visual retention test and the similarities subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised) and a subjective one (Goldberg's anxiety scale, Mac Nair's scale and a Visual Analogue Scale to evaluate memory abilities change in the last 5 years). six hundred and eighty-six questionnaires could be analysed. The mean age was 72.9 ± 1.2 years old with 59% of women and 99% lived at home. Well-being was negatively correlated with the FCSRT (r = -0.08, P = 0.0318) but positively related with the Benton (r = 0.09, P = 0.0125) and the similarities tests (r = 0.09, P = 0.0118). There is a negative correlation between anxious and cognitive complaints measured at baseline, and successful ageing indicators 6 years later. preservation of cognitive abilities at the age of retirement can predict a successful ageing 6 years later. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00759304.

  2. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deleflie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2, supposed to be constant (secular, and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular variation. We use our theory of mean orbital motion, dedicated to studies of the long period effects on the orbital motion. We build one single arc of LAGEOS-1 from 1980 to 2002, which provides a continuous description of the orbital parameters. This is the great originality of our approach. We focus our attention on the ascending node of LAGEOS-1, and we show that the change observed in j2 cannot be attributed to a statistical error due to a correlation, in short arcs results, between the secular variation of J2 and the 18.6 year tide. The proof is based on the adjustment of amplitudes and phases of the long period tides, and on the shape of the residuals.Key words. secular variation of J2, 18.6 year tide, mean orbital motione

  3. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  4. Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

  5. Clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Chen

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells is an important cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years. These patients usually have a low insulin reserve and severe ketoacidosis upon diagnosis. A high index of suspicion in the presence of classic symptoms of diabetes in young children is important to prevent complications.

  6. Phonological processing skills in 6 year old blind and sighted Persian speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Momen Vaghefi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phonological processing skills include the abilities to restore, retrieve and use memorized phonological codes. The purpose of this research is to compare and evaluate phonological processing skills in 6-7 year old blind and sighted Persian speakers in Tehran, Iran.Methods: This research is an analysis-comparison study. The subjects were 24 blind and 24 sighted children. The evaluation test of reading and writing disorders in primary school students, linguistic and cognitive abilities test, and the naming subtest of the aphasia evaluation test were used as research tools.Results: Sighted children were found to perform better on phoneme recognition of nonwords and flower naming subtests; and the difference was significant (p<0.001. Blind children performed better in words and sentence memory; the difference was significant (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in other subtests.Conclusion: Blind children's better performance in memory tasks is due to the fact that they have powerful auditory memory.

  7. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H. F.; Wijnen, J. T.; Menko, F. H.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Taal, B. G.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. H.; Bertario, L.; Varesco, L.; Bisgaard, M. L.; Mohr, J.; Fodde, R.; Khan, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers. The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of carriers within

  8. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Wijnen, JT; Menko, FH; Kleibeuker, JH; Taal, BG; Griffioen, G; Nagengast, FM; MeijersHeijboer, EH; Bertario, L; Varesco, L; Bisgaard, ML; Mohr, J; Fodde, R; Khan, PM

    Background & Aims: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers, The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of

  9. The Fate of Meniscus Tears Left in situ at the time of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A 6-year Follow-up Study from the MOON Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchman, Kyle R.; Westermann, Robert W.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Reinke, Emily K.; Huston, Laura J.; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of meniscus tears identified at the time of primary ACL reconstruction is highly variable and includes repair, meniscectomy, and non-treatment. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the reoperation rate for meniscus tears left untreated at the time of ACL reconstruction with minimum follow-up of 6 years. We hypothesize that small, peripheral tears identified at the time of ACL reconstruction managed with “no treatment” will have successful clinical outcomes. Study Design Retrospective study of a prospective cohort; Level of Evidence, 3 Methods Patients with meniscus tears left untreated at the time of primary ACL reconstruction were identified from a multicenter study group with minimum 6-year follow-up. Patient, tear, and reoperation data were obtained for analysis. Need for reoperation was used as the primary endpoint, with analysis performed to determine patient and tear characteristics associated with reoperation. Results There were 194 patients with 208 meniscus tears (71 medial; 137 lateral) left in situ without treatment with complete follow-up for analysis. Of these, 97.8% of lateral and 94.4% of medial untreated tears required no reoperation. Sixteen tears (7.7%) left in situ without treatment underwent subsequent reoperation: 9 tears (4.3%) underwent reoperation in the setting of revision ACL reconstruction and 7 tears (3.4%) underwent reoperation for isolated meniscus pathology. Patient age was significantly lower in patients requiring reoperation, while tears measuring ≥ 10 mm more frequently required reoperation. Conclusions Lateral and medial meniscus tears left in situ at the time of ACL reconstruction did not require reoperation at minimum 6-year follow-up for 97.8% and 94.4% of tears, respectively. These findings reemphasize the low reoperation rate following non-treatment of small, peripheral lateral meniscus tears while noting less predictable results for medial meniscus tears left without

  10. [Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in children less than 6 years-old: long-term progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colino, Esmeralda; Martín Frías, María; Roldán, Belén; Álvarez, María Ángeles; Yelmo, Rosa; Barrio, Raquel

    2017-11-01

    The aims of the study are to evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treatment in pre-school children with type I diabetes, and to assess whether the criteria of good metabolic control are achieved. A review was performed on the medical charts of patient's180mg/dl), and hypoglycaemia (<70mg/dl), mean blood glucose, standard deviation and coefficient of variation (SD/mean glucose ×100). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. HbA1c decreased from 6.9% (6.7-7.5) to 6.8% (6.4-7.1) after one year of CSII. Afterwards, it remained under 6.8% during the follow-up (median 5 years [3-6]). Prior to CSII, 74% of children had HbA1c levels < 7.5%. It increased to 96% after one year of CSII. Median blood glucose measurements /day was 10 (9-11). Total insulin dose did not change significantly. During the follow-up, there was one episode of DKA and one episode of HS. I/HC at breakfast were higher than at other meals (0.92 vs. 0.55, 0.6 and 0.5, respectively). CSII is effective and safe in pre-school children. It allows good metabolic control (based on Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes / American Diabetes Association criteria) to be achieved and maintained for long periods of time without an increase in adverse events. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental correlates of undernutrition among children of 3–6 years of age, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalak Rameshbhai Matariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are lots of studies focusing on the role of reproductive and child health factors and dietary factors on the nutrition status of the child. The present study is an attempt to highlight the role of macro- and micro-environmental factors in predicting the occurrence of undernutrition in children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in field practice area of Community Medicine Department, PDU Medical College, Rajkot. The nutrition status of children was assessed using the weight for age WHO reference standards, 2006. Children below two standard deviation of the reference median (weight for age were considered as malnourished. Data were collected for sociodemographic factors, sanitation, hygiene, and attitude of mother toward her child, etc., Data were entered in MS excel, and logistic regression was used. Results: Analysis of 495 selected children showed 24% prevalence of undernutrition. Employment status of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.65, drinking water quality (AOR 1.53, and cleanliness of mother's hands and clothes (AOR 1.91 significantly affected the nutrition status of the child. Children classified in fair or poor category for Briscoe's sanitation scale had 1.34 and1.92 times higher odds of being undernourished (P > 0.05, respectively. Children classified in fair or poor category for Elizabeth's microenvironment scale had 2.05 and 2.41 times higher odds of being undernourished (P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Water, sanitation, and hygiene-related factors, as well as microenvironmental factors, significantly affected the nutrition status of the children.

  12. Sparse Group Penalized Integrative Analysis of Multiple Cancer Prognosis Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Xie, Yang; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In cancer research, high-throughput profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with prognosis. Because of the “large d, small n” characteristic, results generated from the analysis of a single dataset can be unsatisfactory. Recent studies have shown that integrative analysis, which simultaneously analyzes multiple datasets, can be more effective than single-dataset analysis and classic meta-analysis. In most of existing integrative analysis, the homogeneity model has been assumed, which postulates that different datasets share the same set of markers. Several approaches have been designed to reinforce this assumption. In practice, different datasets may differ in terms of patient selection criteria, profiling techniques, and many other aspects. Such differences may make the homogeneity model too restricted. In this study, we assume the heterogeneity model, under which different datasets are allowed to have different sets of markers. With multiple cancer prognosis datasets, we adopt the AFT (accelerated failure time) model to describe survival. This model may have the lowest computational cost among popular semiparametric survival models. For marker selection, we adopt a sparse group MCP (minimax concave penalty) approach. This approach has an intuitive formulation and can be computed using an effective group coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation study shows that it outperforms the existing approaches under both the homogeneity and heterogeneity models. Data analysis further demonstrates the merit of heterogeneity model and proposed approach. PMID:23938111

  13. Arsenic metabolism and cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Cebrián, Mariano E; Franco-Marina, Francisco; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2017-07-01

    To describe the studies that have reported association measures between risk of cancer and the percentage distribution of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolites by anatomical site, in non-ecological epidemiological studies. Studies were identified in the PubMed database in the period from 1990 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were: non-ecological epidemiological study, with histologically confirmed cancer cases, reporting the percentage distribution of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated (MMA) and dimethylated (DMA) metabolites, as well as association measures with confidence intervals (CI) between cancer and %iAs and/or %MMA and/or %DMA. A descriptive meta-analysis was performed by the method of the inverse of the variance for the fixed effects model and the DerSimonian and Laird's method for the random effects model. Heterogeneity was tested using the Q statistic and stratifying for epidemiological design and total As in urine. The possibility of publication bias was assessed through Begg's test. A total of 13 eligible studies were found, most of them were performed in Taiwan and focused on skin and bladder cancer. The positive association between %MMA and various types of cancer was consistent, in contrast to the negative relationship between %DMA and cancer that was inconsistent. The summary risk of bladder (OR=1.79; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.26, n=4 studies) and lung (OR=2.44; 95% CI: 1.57, 3.80, n=2 studies) cancer increased significantly with increasing %MMA, without statistical heterogeneity. In contrast, lung cancer risk was inversely related to %DMA (OR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.93, n=2 studies), also without significant heterogeneity. These results were similar after stratifying by epidemiological design and total As in urine. No evidence of publication bias was found. These findings provide additional support that methylation needs to be taken into account when assessing the potential iAs carcinogenicity risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  15. Coping with breast cancer: a qualitative analysis of reflective journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lois O; Lengacher, Cecile A

    2007-05-01

    Non-disclosure of emotions has been shown to inhibit individuals' adjustment to illness and formulation of adequate coping mechanisms. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine responses to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and patterns of coping through an analysis of written reflective journals. Eight women submitted their journals to the researchers for analysis. Issues identified were (1) the assumption of an adaptive position; (2) the need for tangible evidence of love and support with three divergent responses, and (3) the need for something more. Specific patterns were identified within each issue.

  16. Breast cancer data analysis for survivability studies and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Nagesh; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Win, Khin Than; Yang, Jack

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting females worldwide. Breast cancer survivability prediction is challenging and a complex research task. Existing approaches engage statistical methods or supervised machine learning to assess/predict the survival prospects of patients. The main objectives of this paper is to develop a robust data analytical model which can assist in (i) a better understanding of breast cancer survivability in presence of missing data, (ii) providing better insights into factors associated with patient survivability, and (iii) establishing cohorts of patients that share similar properties. Unsupervised data mining methods viz. the self-organising map (SOM) and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) is used to create patient cohort clusters. These clusters, with associated patterns, were used to train multilayer perceptron (MLP) model for improved patient survivability analysis. A large dataset available from SEER program is used in this study to identify patterns associated with the survivability of breast cancer patients. Information gain was computed for the purpose of variable selection. All of these methods are data-driven and require little (if any) input from users or experts. SOM consolidated patients into cohorts of patients with similar properties. From this, DBSCAN identified and extracted nine cohorts (clusters). It is found that patients in each of the nine clusters have different survivability time. The separation of patients into clusters improved the overall survival prediction accuracy based on MLP and revealed intricate conditions that affect the accuracy of a prediction. A new, entirely data driven approach based on unsupervised learning methods improves understanding and helps identify patterns associated with the survivability of patient. The results of the analysis can be used to segment the historical patient data into clusters or subsets, which share common variable values and

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  18. DNA adducts and cancer risk in prospective studies: a pooled analysis and a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veglia, Fabrizio; Loft, Steffen; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    in which bulky DNA adducts have been measured in blood samples collected from healthy subjects (N = 1947; average follow-up 51-137 months). In addition, we have performed a meta-analysis by identifying all articles on the same subject published up to the end of 2006, including case-control studies......). The association was evident only in current smokers and was absent in former smokers. Also the meta-analysis, which included both lung and bladder cancers, showed a statistically significant association in current smokers, whereas the results in never smokers were equivocal; in former smokers, no association......Bulky DNA adducts are biomarkers of exposure to aromatic compounds and of the ability of the individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Their ability to predict cancer onset is uncertain. We have performed a pooled analysis of three prospective studies on cancer risk...

  19. Role of postoperative radiotherapy for celiac lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer: analysis on 63 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jing; Sun Yihong; Qin Xinyu; Zeng Mengsu; Wang Minhua; Zeng Zhaochong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy for celiac lymph node (LN) metastasis from gastric cancer in the past 6 years. Methods: Sixty-three patients with abdominal LN metastasis after curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics was colleeted including age, gender, status of primary tumor of stomach (size, location and grade), and the number of LN dissected and involved. Of the 63 patients, 36 received local external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as salvage therapy and were classified as the EBRT group. The irradiation target was local-regional LN. The radiation dose ranged from 40 to 60 Gy in daily 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions, 5 times weekly. The other 27 patients who received chemotherapy were classified as the non-EBRT group. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival rates, and the Cox regression model was used to identify the predictors of prognosis. Results: After EBRT, complete response and partial response were observed in 31% and 58% of patients, respectively. The clinical obstruction symptoms induced by LN pressure in 18 patients were completely relieved after EBRT. The median survival was 339 clays for the EBRT group and 136 days for the non- EBRT group, the survival rate at 1 and 2 years for patients treated with EBRT vs. without EBRT was 40% vs. 17% and 20% vs. 6%, respectively (P=0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that the level of relative risk (RR) in the EBRT group was reduced to 0.299 (P=0.002). The incidence of death resulting from LN-related complications was lower in the EBRT group. The main cause of death in both groups was distant metastasis. The gastro-intestinal toxicities were the most common side effects during and after EBRT. The RTOG grade 0,1,2 and 3 toxicities were found in 7,17,11 and 1 patients, respectively. No hematologic and hepatic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Postoperative lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer is sensitive to external beam

  20. Analysis of interventional therapy for progressing stage gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingde; Zhang Zijing; Ji Hongsheng; Ge Chenlin; Hao Gang; Wei Kongming; Yuan Yuhou; Zhao Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interventional therapy and its curative effect for progressing stage gastric cancer. Methods: two hundred and twelve patients with progressing stage gastric cancer were treated with arterial perfusion and arterial embolization. Gastric cardia cancer was treated through the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery or splenic artery. Cancers of lesser and greater gastric curvature was treated either through the left and right gastric arteries or common hepatic artery or through gastroduodenal artery, right gastroomental artery or splenic artery. Gastric antrum cancers were perfused through gastroduodenal artery or after the middle segmental embolization of right gastroomental artery. Results: One hundred and ninety three cases undergone interventional management were followed up. The CR + PR of gastric cardia cancer was 53.13%; gastric body cancer 44.44%; gastric antrum cancer 10%; recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer 0. There was no significant difference in outcome between gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer (P>0.05) but significant differences were shown both between gastric cardia cancer and gastric antrum cancer, and between gastric body cancer and gastric antrum cancer (P<0.05), with 1 year and 2 years survival rates of 81% and 56% respectively. Conclusion: The interventional therapeutic effect of progressing stage gastric cancers is different due to the different sites of the lesions in the gastric tissue. The curative effect of gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer is better than that of gastric antrum cancer, recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer. (authors)

  1. Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Analysis of Lung, Ovary, Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Reveals Novel Pleiotropic Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehringer, Gordon; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul D; Eeles, Rosalind A; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Lindström, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Houlston, Richard S; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Risch, Angela; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Berndt, Sonja I; Giovannucci, Edward L; Grönberg, Henrik; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ma, Jing; Muir, Kenneth; Stampfer, Meir J; Stevens, Victoria L; Wiklund, Fredrik; Willett, Walter C; Goode, Ellen L; Permuth, Jennifer B; Risch, Harvey A; Reid, Brett M; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Chan, Andrew T; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hudson, Thomas J; Kocarnik, Jonathan K; Newcomb, Polly A; Schoen, Robert E; Slattery, Martha L; White, Emily; Adank, Muriel A; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Czene, Kamila; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eliassen, A Heather; Figueroa, Jonine D; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Johnson, Nichola; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Lichtner, Peter; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L; Rahman, Nazneen; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schmutzler, Rita K; Southey, Melissa C; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth C; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S; Yang, Xiaohong R; Zheng, Wei; Buchanan, Daniel D; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V; Edlund, Christopher K; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Jenkins, Mark; Le Marchand, Loïc; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralene M; Schmit, Stephanie L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Woods, Michael O; Rafnar, Thorunn; Gudmundsson, Julius; Stacey, Simon N; Stefansson, Kari; Sulem, Patrick; Chen, Y Ann; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Christiani, David C; Wei, Yongyue; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shiraishi, Kouya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Nickle, David; Timens, Wim; Freedman, Matthew L; Li, Qiyuan; Seminara, Daniela; Chanock, Stephen J; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Gruber, Stephen B; Amos, Christopher I; Sellers, Thomas A; Easton, Douglas F; Hunter, David J; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Hung, Rayjean J

    2016-09-01

    Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-stage approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820 controls) to identify pleiotropic loci. Findings were replicated in independent association studies (55,789 cases, 330,490 controls). We identified a novel pleiotropic association at 1q22 involving breast and lung squamous cell carcinoma, with eQTL analysis showing an association with ADAM15/THBS3 gene expression in lung. We also identified a known breast cancer locus CASP8/ALS2CR12 associated with prostate cancer, a known cancer locus at CDKN2B-AS1 with different variants associated with lung adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer, and confirmed the associations of a breast BRCA2 locus with lung and serous ovarian cancer. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across multiple cancer-associated loci, identifying common mechanisms of cancer development and progression. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5103-14. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. CASAS: Cancer Survival Analysis Suite, a web based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupji, Manali; Zhang, Xinyan; Kowalski, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    We present CASAS, a shiny R based tool for interactive survival analysis and visualization of results. The tool provides a web-based one stop shop to perform the following types of survival analysis:  quantile, landmark and competing risks, in addition to standard survival analysis.  The interface makes it easy to perform such survival analyses and obtain results using the interactive Kaplan-Meier and cumulative incidence plots.  Univariate analysis can be performed on one or several user specified variable(s) simultaneously, the results of which are displayed in a single table that includes log rank p-values and hazard ratios along with their significance. For several quantile survival analyses from multiple cancer types, a single summary grid is constructed. The CASAS package has been implemented in R and is available via http://shinygispa.winship.emory.edu/CASAS/. The developmental repository is available at https://github.com/manalirupji/CASAS/.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis: demonstration of progression between 1 and 6 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Neal R. [Auckland Hospital, Department of Radiology, Private Bag 92024, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Radiology Group, Auckland (New Zealand); Crabbe, Jeffrey P. [Auckland Radiology Group, Auckland (New Zealand); McQueen, Fiona M. [Auckland Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2004-12-01

    To describe the changes seen in the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging obtained at 1 year and 6 years. A cohort of patients with RA has been studied prospectively from symptom onset. MR scans of the dominant wrist in 31 patients obtained at 1 year and 6 years were compared for bone erosions, marrow signal change (oedema), synovial thickness and tenosynovitis. Twenty-two patients had an increase in erosion score in the interval and three patients showed a decrease in erosion score suggesting erosion healing. Fourteen patients had an increase in oedema score in the interval and eight patients had a decrease in oedema score. Synovial thickness increased in 13 patients and decreased in eight. Tenosynovitis increased in 15 patients and decreased in five. Bone erosions developed immediately adjacent to the tenosynovitis in two patients. MR imaging is useful in following the progress of bone erosions, marrow oedema, synovitis and tenosynovitis in RA. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis: demonstration of progression between 1 and 6 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Neal R.; Crabbe, Jeffrey P.; McQueen, Fiona M.

    2004-01-01

    To describe the changes seen in the wrist in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging obtained at 1 year and 6 years. A cohort of patients with RA has been studied prospectively from symptom onset. MR scans of the dominant wrist in 31 patients obtained at 1 year and 6 years were compared for bone erosions, marrow signal change (oedema), synovial thickness and tenosynovitis. Twenty-two patients had an increase in erosion score in the interval and three patients showed a decrease in erosion score suggesting erosion healing. Fourteen patients had an increase in oedema score in the interval and eight patients had a decrease in oedema score. Synovial thickness increased in 13 patients and decreased in eight. Tenosynovitis increased in 15 patients and decreased in five. Bone erosions developed immediately adjacent to the tenosynovitis in two patients. MR imaging is useful in following the progress of bone erosions, marrow oedema, synovitis and tenosynovitis in RA. (orig.)

  5. Determinants of incident hyperglycemia 6 years after delivery in young rural Indian mothers: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Smita R; Fall, Caroline H D; Joshi, Niranjan V; Lubree, Himangi G; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Pasarkar, Rashmi V; Bhat, Dattatray S; Naik, Sadanand S; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2007-10-01

    To study determinants of incident hyperglycemia in rural Indian mothers 6 years after delivery. The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study collected information in six villages near Pune on prepregnant characteristics and nutrition, physical activity, and glucose tolerance during pregnancy. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was repeated 6 years after delivery. A total of 597 mothers had an OGTT at 28 weeks' gestation; 3 had gestational diabetes (by World Health Organization 1999 criteria). Six years later, 42 of 509 originally normal glucose-tolerant mothers were hyperglycemic (8 diabetic, 20 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 with impaired fasting glucose). The hyperglycemic women had shorter legs and thicker skinfolds before pregnancy (P predispose to hyperglycemia in young rural Indian women. International cut points of diabetes risk factors are largely irrelevant in these women.

  6. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Studies have indicated that many initial proximal caries lesions progress and are eventually restored even if the patients have been under comprehensive preventive programmes. The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the 1996-year baseline caries status of male Danish conscripts and (2......) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal......-surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal...

  7. ANALYSIS OF RELAPSE RATE AND METASTASES OF HIGH DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savenok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  Analysis of rate of relapses and metastases with well-differentiated thyroid cancer was performed for patients in 2009 to 2013. The study involved 189 patients with thyroid cancer including 98 (51.9 % patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer, 77 (40.7 % patients suffering from follicular thyroid cancer, and 14 (7.4 % patients suffering from medullary thyroid cancer. 2.04 % of the 98 patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer manifested a relapse, and lymphogenic metastases of cancer were revealed with 1.0 % of patients. With follicular thyroid cancer (n = 77, lymphogenic metastases were registered in 7.8 % of cases, relapses were revealed in 1.3 % of cases. This analysis demonstrated that observation of patients for 5 years revealed a higher percentage of metastases with patients that suffered from follicular thyroid cancer.

  8. Clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years: A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Tung, Yi-Ching; Liu, Shih-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    Cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children aged younger than 6 years in Taiwan has increased in the past 10 years. This retrospective study aimed to review the management experience of such patients in a single center. From January 2004 to June 2015, 52 newly diagnosed diabetic children younger than 6 years who had regular follow-up for > 1 year were enrolled, as well as 94 older diabetic children for comparison. Their medical records were thoroughly reviewed. The most common symptoms and signs were polyuria, polydipsia, dry lips, weight loss, and nocturia. Among the children younger than 6 years, 87% had ketoacidosis upon diagnosis-significantly higher than that of the older age group-and 88% had at least one islet cell autoantibody detected. Their serum C-peptide levels were significantly lower and the frequency of insulin autoantibodies detected was significantly higher compared with the older age group (37% vs. 10%). The remission rate of the young diabetic patients was significantly lower than that of the older age group (40% vs. 59%), but there was no difference in time of onset and duration of remission between the two groups. Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells is an important cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years. These patients usually have a low insulin reserve and severe ketoacidosis upon diagnosis. A high index of suspicion in the presence of classic symptoms of diabetes in young children is important to prevent complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...... corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results....

  10. Effect of compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy on levels of bacteria associated with periodontitis: A 6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Vieira, Thaís Riberal; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Costa, José Eustáquio; Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira; Cortelli, José Roberto

    2018-05-01

    It is well established that regular compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) maintains the stability of periodontal clinical parameters obtained after active periodontal therapy (APT). However, compliance during PMT has not yet been related to subgingival bacterial levels. Thus, this study followed individuals in PMT over 6 years and longitudinally evaluated the effects of compliance on periodontitis-associated bacterial levels and its relation to periodontal status. From a 6-year prospective cohort study with 212 individuals in PMT, 91 were determined to be eligible. From this total, 28 regular compliers (RC) were randomly selected and matched for age and sex with 28 irregular compliers (IC). Complete periodontal examination and microbiological samples were obtained 5 times: T1 (prior to APT), T2 (after APT), T3 (2 years), T4 (4 years), and T5 (6 years). Total bacteria counts and levels of Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were evaluated through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RC had less tooth loss and better clinical and microbiological conditions over time when compared with IC. IC had higher total bacterial counts and higher levels of T. denticola. Moreover, among IC, total bacterial counts were positively associated with plaque index and bleeding on probing, while levels of A. naeslundii, T. forsythia, and T. denticola were negatively associated with clinical attachment loss (4 to 5 mm) among RC. Compliance positively influenced subgingival microbiota and contributed to stability of periodontal clinical status. Regular visits during PMT sustained microbiological benefits provided by APT over a 6-year period. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  11. Management of Sjogren's Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    de Mendonça Invernici, Marcos; Finger Stadler, Amanda; Vale Nicolau, Gastão; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; Soares de Lima, Antônio Adilson; Compagnoni Martins, Marilia

    2014-01-01

    Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluat...

  12. Integrative Analysis of Cancer Diagnosis Studies with Composite Penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2013-01-01

    Summary In cancer diagnosis studies, high-throughput gene profiling has been extensively conducted, searching for genes whose expressions may serve as markers. Data generated from such studies have the “large d, small n” feature, with the number of genes profiled much larger than the sample size. Penalization has been extensively adopted for simultaneous estimation and marker selection. Because of small sample sizes, markers identified from the analysis of single datasets can be unsatisfactory. A cost-effective remedy is to conduct integrative analysis of multiple heterogeneous datasets. In this article, we investigate composite penalization methods for estimation and marker selection in integrative analysis. The proposed methods use the minimax concave penalty (MCP) as the outer penalty. Under the homogeneity model, the ridge penalty is adopted as the inner penalty. Under the heterogeneity model, the Lasso penalty and MCP are adopted as the inner penalty. Effective computational algorithms based on coordinate descent are developed. Numerical studies, including simulation and analysis of practical cancer datasets, show satisfactory performance of the proposed methods. PMID:24578589

  13. Tracking food consumption frequency of children from age 4 to 6 years: the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savila, Fa'asisila; Obolonkin, Victor; Rush, Elaine

    2015-08-21

    To report longitudinal food frequency consumption and evaluate tracking of food frequency among a cohort of New Zealand-born Pacific children. Identify the most commonly consumed foods and estimate tracking among Pacific children aged 4 and 6 years. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to n>1,000 caregivers of children aged 4 and 6 years. Consumption scores were developed from averaged frequency of daily food. Foods and food groups were examined for tracking. Caregivers completed questionnaires for 646 children at both ages. Twelve most frequently consumed foods were identified, accounting for up to 25% of all food consumed daily. Across ages 4 and 6, the association for frequency of the most frequently consumed foods was moderate (r(2)=0.53). Food groups: breads and cereals; meat and alternates; and vegetables and fruit constituted approximately 72% of all foods consumed daily. The association of frequency of consumption within food groups across the two measurement periods was strong (r(2)=0.96). Pacific children consume similar foods that track from age 4 through age 6 years.

  14. MRI Texture Analysis Reflects Histopathology Parameters in Thyroid Cancer – A First Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jonas Meyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECT: Thyroid cancer represents the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system with an increasing incidence worldwide. Novel imaging techniques are able to further characterize tumors and even predict histopathology features. Texture analysis is an emergent imaging technique to extract extensive data from an radiology images. The present study was therefore conducted to identify possible associations between texture analysis and histopathology parameters in thyroid cancer. METHODS: The radiological database was retrospectively reviewed for thyroid carcinoma. Overall, 13 patients (3 females, 23.1% with a mean age of 61.6 years were identified. The MaZda program was used for texture analysis. The T1-precontrast and T2-weighted images were analyzed and overall 279 texture feature for each sequence was investigated. For every patient cell count, Ki67-index and p53 count were investigated. RESULTS: Several significant correlations between texture features and histopathology were identified. Regarding T1-weighted images, S(0;1Sum Averg correlated the most with cell count (r = 0.82. An inverse correlations with S(5;0AngScMom, S(5;0DifVarnc S(5;0, DiffEntrp and GrNonZeros (r = −0.69, −0.66, −0.69 and −0.63, respectively was also identified. For T2-weighted images, Variance with r = 0.63 was the highest coefficient, WavEnLL_S3 correlated inversely with cell count (r = −0.57. WavEnLL_S2 derived from T1-weighted images was the highest coefficient r = −0.80, S(0;5SumVarnc was positively with r = 0.74. Regarding T2-weighted images WavEnHL_s-1 was inverse correlated with Ki67 index (r = −0.77. S(1;0Correlat was with r = 0.75 the best correlation with Ki67 index. For T1-weighed images S(5;0SumofSqs was the best with r = 0.65 with p53 count. For T2-weighted images S(1;−1SumEntrp was the inverse correlation with r = −0.72, whereas S(0;4AngScMom correlated positively with r = 0.63. CONCLUSIONS: MRI texture analysis

  15. Analysis of the publication rate of the abstracts presented at a national gastroenterology meeting after 6 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Divyangkumar; Mclean, Richard W.; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Abstract presentations at scientific meetings provide an opportunity to convey the results of important research. Unfortunately, many abstracts are not eventually published as full manuscripts. We evaluated factors associated with publication of abstracts as manuscripts up to 6.5 years after presentation at the 73rd scientific meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology in 2008. Methods All abstracts, excluding case reports, presented at the meeting were evaluated. We systematically searched for matching manuscripts indexed in PubMed or EMBASE up till May 2015. We used logistic regression models to determine factors associated with manuscript publication and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Of included 791 abstracts, 249 (31.5%) were published as manuscripts within 6.5 years. Oral presentation (OR=2.11; 95%CI: 1.15-3.87), multicenter studies (OR=2.67; 95%CI: 1.44-4.95), abstracts by University-based authors (OR=1.80; 95%CI: 1.20-2.72), and funded research (OR=2.15; 95%CI: 1.43-3.23) were more likely to be published. Winning an award at the meeting was not associated with manuscript publication (OR=1.09; 95%CI: 0.57-2.06). Conclusions There is an urgent need to improve dissemination of scientific knowledge through publication of abstracts presented at gastroenterology meetings as manuscripts. Mentors should endeavor to encourage their mentees to complete this final stage of their scholarly activities. PMID:27931019

  16. A Study to Determine the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections in Infants and Children Ages 4 Months to 6 Years With Febrile Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. This was a prospective institutional review board-approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age) were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more) and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number). The patients were evaluated for state of hydration, and also urine samples were collected. For those children not toilet trained, urine specimens were collected by bladder catheterization, and for those children toilet trained, urine specimens were obtained by midstream collection method. The urine samples obtained were sent for analysis and culture. Eighty patients were enrolled in the study. The number of specimens obtained by clean catch midstream was 20, and by bladder catheterization was 60. None of the urine specimens obtained by both methods of collection grew any organism. There was no increased incidence of infections in male children whether circumcised (10/60) or uncircumcised (50/60). The mean temperature was 102.8°F (range = 101°F to 105°F). Using in silico online 2 × 2 χ(2) test by comparing both the positive and negative urine culture results, 2-tailed P value is <.0001. Our prospective randomized study concluded that there is no increased incidence of UTIs in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea.

  17. A Study to Determine the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections in Infants and Children Ages 4 Months to 6 Years With Febrile Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD, FAAP, FAAEM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. Methods: This was a prospective institutional review board–approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number. The patients were evaluated for state of hydration, and also urine samples were collected. For those children not toilet trained, urine specimens were collected by bladder catheterization, and for those children toilet trained, urine specimens were obtained by midstream collection method. The urine samples obtained were sent for analysis and culture. Results: Eighty patients were enrolled in the study. The number of specimens obtained by clean catch midstream was 20, and by bladder catheterization was 60. None of the urine specimens obtained by both methods of collection grew any organism. There was no increased incidence of infections in male children whether circumcised (10/60 or uncircumcised (50/60. The mean temperature was 102.8°F (range = 101°F to 105°F. Statistics: Using in silico online 2 × 2 χ2 test by comparing both the positive and negative urine culture results, 2-tailed P value is <.0001. Conclusions: Our prospective randomized study concluded that there is no increased incidence of UTIs in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age with febrile diarrhea.

  18. Large-Scale Analysis of Network Bistability for Human Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tetsuya; Matsuyama, Shinako; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interaction and gene regulatory networks are likely to be locked in a state corresponding to a disease by the behavior of one or more bistable circuits exhibiting switch-like behavior. Sets of genes could be over-expressed or repressed when anomalies due to disease appear, and the circuits responsible for this over- or under-expression might persist for as long as the disease state continues. This paper shows how a large-scale analysis of network bistability for various human cancers can identify genes that can potentially serve as drug targets or diagnosis biomarkers. PMID:20628618

  19. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...... the translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  20. The role of prostatitis in prostate cancer: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. SELECTION CRITERIA: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62, and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98. Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29, compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45. Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990's: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000's: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010's: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990's: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000's: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010's: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical

  1. Metallothionein - immunohistochemical cancer biomarker: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Gumulec

    Full Text Available Metallothionein (MT has been extensively investigated as a molecular marker of various types of cancer. In spite of the fact that numerous reviews have been published in this field, no meta-analytical approach has been performed. Therefore, results of to-date immunohistochemistry-based studies were summarized using meta-analysis in this review. Web of science, PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL databases were searched (up to April 30, 2013 and the eligibility of individual studies and heterogeneity among the studies was assessed. Random and fixed effects model meta-analysis was employed depending on the heterogeneity, and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's tests. A total of 77 studies were included with 8,015 tissue samples (4,631 cases and 3,384 controls. A significantly positive association between MT staining and tumors (vs. healthy tissues was observed in head and neck (odds ratio, OR 9.95; 95% CI 5.82-17.03 and ovarian tumors (OR 7.83; 1.09-56.29, and a negative association was ascertained in liver tumors (OR 0.10; 0.03-0.30. No significant associations were identified in breast, colorectal, prostate, thyroid, stomach, bladder, kidney, gallbladder, and uterine cancers and in melanoma. While no associations were identified between MT and tumor staging, a positive association was identified with the tumor grade (OR 1.58; 1.08-2.30. In particular, strong associations were observed in breast, ovarian, uterine and prostate cancers. Borderline significant association of metastatic status and MT staining were determined (OR 1.59; 1.03-2.46, particularly in esophageal cancer. Additionally, a significant association between the patient prognosis and MT staining was also demonstrated (hazard ratio 2.04; 1.47-2.81. However, a high degree of inconsistence was observed in several tumor types, including colorectal, kidney and prostate cancer. Despite the ambiguity in some tumor types, conclusive results are provided in the tumors of

  2. Pan-Cancer Analysis of lncRNA Regulation Supports Their Targeting of Cancer Genes in Each Tumor Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Sheng Chiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are commonly dysregulated in tumors, but only a handful are known to play pathophysiological roles in cancer. We inferred lncRNAs that dysregulate cancer pathways, oncogenes, and tumor suppressors (cancer genes by modeling their effects on the activity of transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins, and microRNAs in 5,185 TCGA tumors and 1,019 ENCODE assays. Our predictions included hundreds of candidate onco- and tumor-suppressor lncRNAs (cancer lncRNAs whose somatic alterations account for the dysregulation of dozens of cancer genes and pathways in each of 14 tumor contexts. To demonstrate proof of concept, we showed that perturbations targeting OIP5-AS1 (an inferred tumor suppressor and TUG1 and WT1-AS (inferred onco-lncRNAs dysregulated cancer genes and altered proliferation of breast and gynecologic cancer cells. Our analysis indicates that, although most lncRNAs are dysregulated in a tumor-specific manner, some, including OIP5-AS1, TUG1, NEAT1, MEG3, and TSIX, synergistically dysregulate cancer pathways in multiple tumor contexts. : Chiu et al. present a pan-cancer analysis of lncRNA regulatory interactions. They suggest that the dysregulation of hundreds of lncRNAs target and alter the expression of cancer genes and pathways in each tumor context. This implies that hundreds of lncRNAs can alter tumor phenotypes in each tumor context. Keywords: lncRNA, regulation, modulation, cancer gene, pan-cancer, noncoding RNA, microRNA, RNA-binding proteins, interactome

  3. Molecular analysis of precursor lesions in familial pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic

    Full Text Available With less than a 5% survival rate pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC is almost uniformly lethal. In order to make a significant impact on survival of patients with this malignancy, it is necessary to diagnose the disease early, when curative surgery is still possible. Detailed knowledge of the natural history of the disease and molecular events leading to its progression is therefore critical.We have analysed the precursor lesions, PanINs, from prophylactic pancreatectomy specimens of patients from four different kindreds with high risk of familial pancreatic cancer who were treated for histologically proven PanIN-2/3. Thus, the material was procured before pancreatic cancer has developed, rather than from PanINs in a tissue field that already contains cancer. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling using such unique specimens was performed. Bulk frozen sections displaying the most extensive but not microdissected PanIN-2/3 lesions were used in order to obtain the holistic view of both the precursor lesions and their microenvironment. A panel of 76 commonly dysregulated genes that underlie neoplastic progression from normal pancreas to PanINs and PDAC were identified. In addition to shared genes some differences between the PanINs of individual families as well as between the PanINs and PDACs were also seen. This was particularly pronounced in the stromal and immune responses.Our comprehensive analysis of precursor lesions without the invasive component provides the definitive molecular proof that PanIN lesions beget cancer from a molecular standpoint. We demonstrate the need for accumulation of transcriptomic changes during the progression of PanIN to PDAC, both in the epithelium and in the surrounding stroma. An identified 76-gene signature of PDAC progression presents a rich candidate pool for the development of early diagnostic and/or surveillance markers as well as potential novel preventive/therapeutic targets for both familial and sporadic

  4. Statin use and kidney cancer outcomes: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Madhur; Finelli, Antonio; Jewett, Michael A S; Juurlink, David N; Austin, Peter C; Kulkarni, Girish S; Hamilton, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Studies evaluating the association between statin use and survival outcomes in renal cell carcinoma have demonstrated conflicting results. Our objective was to evaluate this association in a large clinical cohort by using propensity score methods to reduce confounding from measured covariates. We performed a retrospective review of 893 patients undergoing nephrectomy for unilateral, M0 renal cell carcinoma between 2000 and 2014 at a tertiary academic center. Inverse probability of treatment weights were derived from a propensity score model based on clinical, surgical, and pathological characteristics. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between statin use and disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival in the sample weighted by the inverse probability of treatment weights. A secondary analysis was performed matching statin users 1:1 to statin nonusers on the propensity score. Of the 893 patients, 259 (29%) were on statins at the time of surgery. Median follow-up was 47 months (interquartile range: 20-80). Statin use was not significantly associated with disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.65-1.81), cancer-specific survival (HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.40-2.01), or overall survival (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.55-1.44). Similar results were observed when using propensity score matching. The present study found no significant association between statin use and kidney cancer outcomes. Population-based studies are needed to further evaluate the role of statins in kidney cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis of lung cancer screening by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Mass screening of lung cancer has been widely performed using indirect chest X-ray method in Japan. However reduction of the mortality for lung cancer is questioned. We have proposed that recently developed spiral CT should be adopted for the screening of lung cancer, since CT has an excellent detectability for small nodule. Lung Cancer Screening CT (LSCT) has been developed by author's group using spiral CT with low dose and light weight in order to make a mobile unit. In this paper risk-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis are described for the LSCT screening of lung cancer. As a risk, radiation carcinogenesis due to exposure from LSCT are compared with gain of life-expectancy by screening and men of 40 years or more and women of 45 years or more are justified. The cost per person-year is estimated for LSCT screening which is better than that of present method, although total cost is higher. The LSCT screening could be recommended if total cost is affordable. (author)

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of Cancer-Proteogenome to Identify Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Hem D

    2017-10-25

    During the past century, our understanding of cancer diagnosis and treatment has been based on a monogenic approach, and as a consequence our knowledge of the clinical genetic underpinnings of cancer is incomplete. Since the completion of the human genome in 2003, it has steered us into therapeutic target discovery, enabling us to mine the genome using cutting edge proteogenomics tools. A number of novel and promising cancer targets have emerged from the genome project for diagnostics, therapeutics, and prognostic markers, which are being used to monitor response to cancer treatment. The heterogeneous nature of cancer has hindered progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to abnormal cellular growth. Since, the start of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the International Genome consortium projects, there has been tremendous progress in genome sequencing and immense numbers of cancer genomes have been completed, and this approach has transformed our understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancers. By employing Genomics and proteomics technologies, an immense amount of genomic data is being generated on clinical tumors, which has transformed the cancer landscape and has the potential to transform cancer diagnosis and prognosis. A complete molecular view of the cancer landscape is necessary for understanding the underlying mechanisms of cancer initiation to improve diagnosis and prognosis, which ultimately will lead to personalized treatment. Interestingly, cancer proteome analysis has also allowed us to identify biomarkers to monitor drug and radiation resistance in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Further, TCGA-funded studies have allowed for the genomic and transcriptomic characterization of targeted cancers, this analysis aiding the development of targeted therapies for highly lethal malignancy. High-throughput technologies, such as complete proteome, epigenome, protein-protein interaction, and pharmacogenomics

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of Cancer-Proteogenome to Identify Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem D. Shukla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past century, our understanding of cancer diagnosis and treatment has been based on a monogenic approach, and as a consequence our knowledge of the clinical genetic underpinnings of cancer is incomplete. Since the completion of the human genome in 2003, it has steered us into therapeutic target discovery, enabling us to mine the genome using cutting edge proteogenomics tools. A number of novel and promising cancer targets have emerged from the genome project for diagnostics, therapeutics, and prognostic markers, which are being used to monitor response to cancer treatment. The heterogeneous nature of cancer has hindered progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to abnormal cellular growth. Since, the start of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, and the International Genome consortium projects, there has been tremendous progress in genome sequencing and immense numbers of cancer genomes have been completed, and this approach has transformed our understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancers. By employing Genomics and proteomics technologies, an immense amount of genomic data is being generated on clinical tumors, which has transformed the cancer landscape and has the potential to transform cancer diagnosis and prognosis. A complete molecular view of the cancer landscape is necessary for understanding the underlying mechanisms of cancer initiation to improve diagnosis and prognosis, which ultimately will lead to personalized treatment. Interestingly, cancer proteome analysis has also allowed us to identify biomarkers to monitor drug and radiation resistance in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Further, TCGA-funded studies have allowed for the genomic and transcriptomic characterization of targeted cancers, this analysis aiding the development of targeted therapies for highly lethal malignancy. High-throughput technologies, such as complete proteome, epigenome, protein–protein interaction

  8. Significant Axial Elongation with Minimal Change in Refraction in 3- to 6-Year-Old Chinese Preschoolers: The Shenzhen Kindergarten Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxing; Fu, Min; Ding, Xiaohu; Morgan, Ian G; Zeng, Yangfa; He, Mingguang

    2017-12-01

    To document the distribution of ocular biometry and to evaluate its associations with refraction in a group of Chinese preschoolers. Population-based cross-sectional study. A total of 1133 preschoolers 3 to 6 years of age from 8 representative kindergartens. Biometric measurements including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal radius of curvature (CR) were obtained from partial-coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) before cycloplegia. Lens power (LP) and AL-to-CR ratio were calculated. Cycloplegic refraction (3 drops of 1% cyclopentolate) was measured using an autorefractor (KR8800; Topcon Corp., Tokyo, Japan), and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was calculated. Biometric and refractive parameters were assessed as a function of age and gender. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associations between refraction and ocular biometry. Ocular biometric distributions and their relationships to refraction. Among the 1127 children (99.5%) with successful cycloplegic refraction, mean SER was 1.37±0.63 diopters (D). Prevalence of myopia increased from 0% at 3 years of age to 3.7% (95% confidence interval, 1.0%-6.5%) at 6 years of age. Biometric parameters followed Gaussian distributions with means of 22.39±0.68 mm for AL, 7.79±0.25 mm for CR, and 24.61±1.42 D for calculated LP; and non-Gaussian distributions with means of 3.34±0.24 mm for ACD and 2.88±0.06 for AL-to-CR ratio. Axial length, ACD, and AL-to-CR ratio increased from 3 to 6 years of age, CR remained stable, whereas LP declined. Overall, SER declined slightly. For the SER variance, AL explained 18.6% and AL-to-CR ratio explained 39.8%, whereas AL, CR, and LP accounted for 80.0% after adjusting for age and gender. Young Chinese children are predominantly mildly hyperopic, with a low prevalence of myopia by the age of 6 years. An increase of 1 mm in AL was associated with only 0.45 D of myopic change. Decreases in

  9. Cancer-Related Analysis of Variants Toolkit (CRAVAT) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRAVAT is an easy to use web-based tool for analysis of cancer variants (missense, nonsense, in-frame indel, frameshift indel, splice site). CRAVAT provides scores and a variety of annotations that assist in identification of important variants. Results are provided in an interactive, highly graphical webpage and include annotated 3D structure visualization. CRAVAT is also available for local or cloud-based installation as a Docker container. MuPIT provides 3D visualization of mutation clusters and functional annotation and is now integrated with CRAVAT.

  10. Subjective Cognitive Impairment Is a Predominantly Benign Condition in Memory Clinic Patients Followed for 6 Years: The Gothenburg-Oslo MCI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hessen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the quest for prevention or treatment, there is a need to find early markers for preclinical dementia. This study observed memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI and normal cognitive function at baseline. The primary aim was to address SCI as a potential risk factor for cognitive decline. The secondary aim was to address a potential relation between (1 baseline cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and (2 a decline in memory performance over the first 2 years of follow-up, with a possible cognitive decline after 6 years. Methods: Eighty-one patients (mean age 61 years were recruited from university memory clinics and followed up for 6 years. Results: Eighty-six percent of the cohort remained cognitively stable or improved, 9% developed mild cognitive impairment, and only 5% (n = 4 developed dementia. Regression analysis revealed that low levels of Aβ42 at baseline and memory decline during the first 2 years predicted dementia. When combined, these variables were associated with a 50% risk of developing dementia. Conclusions: Cognitive stability for 86% of the cohort suggests that SCI is predominantly a benign condition with regard to neuropathology. The low number of individuals who developed dementia limits the generalizability of the results and discussion of progression factors.

  11. Subjective Cognitive Impairment Is a Predominantly Benign Condition in Memory Clinic Patients Followed for 6 Years: The Gothenburg-Oslo MCI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik; Eckerström, Marie; Nordlund, Arto; Selseth Almdahl, Ina; Stålhammar, Jacob; Bjerke, Maria; Eckerström, Carl; Göthlin, Mattias; Fladby, Tormod; Reinvang, Ivar; Wallin, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In the quest for prevention or treatment, there is a need to find early markers for preclinical dementia. This study observed memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and normal cognitive function at baseline. The primary aim was to address SCI as a potential risk factor for cognitive decline. The secondary aim was to address a potential relation between (1) baseline cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and (2) a decline in memory performance over the first 2 years of follow-up, with a possible cognitive decline after 6 years. Eighty-one patients (mean age 61 years) were recruited from university memory clinics and followed up for 6 years. Eighty-six percent of the cohort remained cognitively stable or improved, 9% developed mild cognitive impairment, and only 5% ( n = 4) developed dementia. Regression analysis revealed that low levels of Aβ 42 at baseline and memory decline during the first 2 years predicted dementia. When combined, these variables were associated with a 50% risk of developing dementia. Cognitive stability for 86% of the cohort suggests that SCI is predominantly a benign condition with regard to neuropathology. The low number of individuals who developed dementia limits the generalizability of the results and discussion of progression factors.

  12. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Hau Chong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia, a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7% and vegetables (15.8%. Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  13. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1–6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1–6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children’s anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children’s micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children. PMID:28758956

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Patterns and Their Associations with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Anthropometric Status and Nutrient Intake Profiles among Malaysian Children Aged 1-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Lee, Shoo Thien; Ng, Swee Ai; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-07-31

    This study aimed to assess fruit and vegetable intake patterns and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric status and nutrient intake profiles among Malaysian children aged 1-6 years. Using the Malaysian dataset of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS Malaysia), a total of 1307 children aged 1-6 years with complete datasets were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using age-specific, validated food frequency questionnaires. On average, Malaysian children consumed 0.91 and 1.07 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, respectively. Less than one-fifth of the children achieved the daily recommended servings of fruits (11.7%) and vegetables (15.8%). Fruit intake was associated with age, parental educational level and geographical region, and vegetable intake was associated with ethnicity and geographical region. There was little evidence of an association between fruit and vegetable intake and children's anthropometric status, but an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables contributed significantly and differently to children's micronutrient intake. Future nutrition interventions should focus on addressing the sociodemographic determinants and be tailored to the needs of the low consumers to more effectively promote and encourage the adequate intake of fruit and vegetables among young children.

  15. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5-6 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  17. Is Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Sufficient for Routine Dental Treatment in 4- to 6-year-old Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkazemi, Maryam; Erfanparast, Leila; Sheykhgermchi, Sanaz; Ghanizadeh, Milad

    2017-01-01

    Pain control is one of the most important aspects of behavior management in children. The most common way to achieve pain control is by using local anesthetics (LA). Many studies describe that the buccal nerve innervates the buccal gingiva and mucosa of the mandible for a variable extent from the vicinity of the lower third molar to the lower canine. Regarding the importance of appropriate and complete LA in child-behavior control, in this study, we examined the frequency of buccal gingiva anesthesia of primary mandibular molars and canine after inferior alveolar nerve block injection in 4- to 6-year-old children. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 220 4- to 6-year-old children were randomly selected and entered into the study. Inferior alveolar nerve block was injected with the same method and standards for all children, and after ensuring the success of block injection, anesthesia of buccal mucosa of primary molars and canine was examined by stick test and reaction of child using sound, eye, motor (SEM) scale. The data from the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The area that was the highest nonanesthetized was recorded as in the distobuccal of the second primary molars. The area of the lowest nonanesthesia was also reported in the gingiva of primary canine tooth. According to this study, in 15 to 30% of cases, after inferior alveolar nerve block injection, the primary mandibular molars' buccal mucosa is not anesthetized. How to cite this article: Pourkazemi M, Erfanparast L, Sheykhgermchi S, Ghanizadeh M. Is Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Sufficient for Routine Dental Treatment in 4- to 6-year-old Children? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):369-372.

  18. Metabolome analysis for discovering biomarkers of gastroenterological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Matsubara, Atsuki; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2014-09-01

    Improvements in analytical technologies have made it possible to rapidly determine the concentrations of thousands of metabolites in any biological sample, which has resulted in metabolome analysis being applied to various types of research, such as clinical, cell biology, and plant/food science studies. The metabolome represents all of the end products and by-products of the numerous complex metabolic pathways operating in a biological system. Thus, metabolome analysis allows one to survey the global changes in an organism's metabolic profile and gain a holistic understanding of the changes that occur in organisms during various biological processes, e.g., during disease development. In clinical metabolomic studies, there is a strong possibility that differences in the metabolic profiles of human specimens reflect disease-specific states. Recently, metabolome analysis of biofluids, e.g., blood, urine, or saliva, has been increasingly used for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. Mass spectrometry-based techniques have been extensively used for metabolome analysis because they exhibit high selectivity and sensitivity during the identification and quantification of metabolites. Here, we describe metabolome analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the findings of studies that attempted to discover biomarkers of gastroenterological cancer are also outlined. Finally, we discuss metabolome analysis-based disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SPORT-RECREATIVE ACTIVITIES 5-6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN IN KINDERGARDEN ’’CVRČAK’’ IN NIŠ

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Petrović; Zoran Jonić; Jadranka Kocić

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that body activities are needed in child such as food and drink. Nowadays way of life causes reduced movement in whole population, such as in preeschool children. Reducing movement in preeschool children can result many postural disturbances and body deformities. In that case it was made systematic medical chackup in children 5-6 years old from ’’Cvrčak’’- Niš kindergarden on food deformities during last seven years (2004-2010). Received results showed desastrous level on foo...

  20. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  1. Machine Learning for the Evolutionary Analysis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mackenzie Rivero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of machine learning allows the creation of a predictive data model, as a result of the analysis in a data set with 286 instances and nine attributes belonging to the Institute of Oncology of the University Medical Center. Ljubljana. Based on this situation, the data are preprocessed by applying intelligent data analysis techniques to eliminate missing values as well as the evaluation of each attribute that allows the optimization of results. We used several classification algorithms including J48 trees, random forest, bayes net, naive bayes, decision table, in order to obtain one that given the characteristics of the data, would allow the best classification percentage and therefore a better matrix of confusion, Using 66 % of the data for learning and 33 % for validating the model. Using this model, a predictor with a 71,134 % e effectiveness is obtained to estimate or not the recurrence of breast cancer.

  2. Cross-cancer genome-wide analysis of lung, ovary, breast, prostate and colorectal cancer reveals novel pleiotropic associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehringer, Gordon; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul D.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Schumacher, Fred; Schildkraut, Joellen; Lindström, Sara; Brennan, Paul; Bickeböller, Heike; Houlston, Richard S.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Risch, Angela; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Berndt, Sonja I; Giovannucci, Edward; Grönberg, Henrik; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Ma, Jing; Muir, Kenneth; Stampfer, Meir; Stevens, Victoria L.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Willett, Walter; Goode, Ellen L.; Permuth, Jennifer; Risch, Harvey A.; Reid, Brett M.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hudson, Thomas J.; Kocarnik, Jonathan K.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Schoen, Robert E.; Slattery, Martha L.; White, Emily; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Czene, Kamila; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Johnson, Nichola; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tamimi, Rulla; Travis, Ruth C.; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Zheng, Wei; Rafnar, Thorunn; Gudmundsson, Julius; Stacey, Simon N.; Stefansson, Kari; Sulem, Patrick; Chen, Y. Ann; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Christiani, David C.; Wei, Yongyue; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shiraishi, Kouya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma’en; Nickle, David; Timens, Wim; Freedman, Matthew L.; Li, Qiyuan; Seminara, Daniela; Chanock, Stephen J.; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike; Gruber, Stephen B.; Amos, Christopher I.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hunter, David J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-staged approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820 controls) to identify pleiotropic loci. Findings were replicated in independent association studies (55,789 cases, 330,490 controls). We identified a novel pleiotropic association at 1q22 involving breast and lung squamous cell carcinoma, with eQTL analysis showing an association with ADAM15/THBS3 gene expression in lung. We also identified a known breast cancer locus CASP8/ALS2CR12 associated with prostate cancer, a known cancer locus at CDKN2B-AS1 with different variants associated with lung adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer and confirmed the associations of a breast BRCA2 locus with lung and serous ovarian cancer. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across multiple cancer-associated loci, identifying common mechanisms of cancer development and progression. PMID:27197191

  3. Pathway analysis of kidney cancer using proteomics and metabolic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and is responsible for 11,000 deaths per year in the US. Approximately one-third of patients present with disease which is already metastatic and for which there is currently no adequate treatment, and no biofluid screening tests exist for RCC. In this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive proteomic analysis and subsequently a pathway and network approach to identify biological processes involved in clear cell RCC (ccRCC. We have used these data to investigate urinary markers of RCC which could be applied to high-risk patients, or to those being followed for recurrence, for early diagnosis and treatment, thereby substantially reducing mortality of this disease. Results Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, we identified 31 proteins which were differentially expressed with a high degree of significance in ccRCC as compared to adjacent non-malignant tissue, and we confirmed some of these by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and comparison to published transcriptomic data. When evaluated by several pathway and biological process analysis programs, these proteins are demonstrated to be involved with a high degree of confidence (p values Conclusion Extensive pathway and network analysis allowed for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of clear cell RCC samples. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to novel assays identifying their proteomic and/or metabolomic signatures in biofluids of patient at high risk for this disease; we provide pilot data for such a urinary bioassay. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the knowledge of networks, processes, and pathways altered in kidney cancer may be used to influence the choice of optimal therapy.

  4. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoum, Manar F.; Al-Kayed, Sameer A.

    2004-01-01

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  5. Rural factors and survival from cancer: analysis of Scottish cancer registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N C; Elliott, A M; Sharp, L; Ritchie, L D; Cassidy, J; Little, J

    2000-06-01

    In this survival study 63,976 patients diagnosed with one of six common cancers in Scotland were followed up. Increasing distance from a cancer centre was associated with less chance of diagnosis before death for stomach, breast and colorectal cancers and poorer survival after diagnosis for prostate and lung cancers.

  6. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan T Jones

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of

  7. Using Twitter for breast cancer prevention: an analysis of breast cancer awareness month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background One in eight women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. The best-known awareness event is breast cancer awareness month (BCAM). BCAM month outreach efforts have been associated with increased media coverage, screening mammography and online information searching. Traditional mass media coverage has been enhanced by social media. However, there is a dearth of literature about how social media is used during awareness-related events. The purpose of this research was to understand how Twitter is being used during BCAM. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. We collected breast cancer- related tweets from 26 September - 12 November 2012, using Twitter’s application programming interface. We classified Twitter users into organizations, individuals, and celebrities; each tweet was classified as an original or a retweet, and inclusion of a mention, meaning a reference to another Twitter user with @username. Statistical methods included ANOVA and chi square. For content analysis, we used computational linguistics techniques, specifically the MALLET implementation of the unsupervised topic modeling algorithm Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Results There were 1,351,823 tweets by 797,827 unique users. Tweets spiked dramatically the first few days then tapered off. There was an average of 1.69 tweets per user. The majority of users were individuals. Nearly all of the tweets were original. Organizations and celebrities posted more often than individuals. On average celebrities made far more impressions; they were also retweeted more often and their tweets were more likely to include mentions. Individuals were more likely to direct a tweet to a specific person. Organizations and celebrities emphasized fundraisers, early detection, and diagnoses while individuals tweeted about wearing pink. Conclusions Tweeting about breast cancer was a singular event. The majority of tweets did not promote any specific preventive behavior. Twitter is being used

  8. Using Twitter for breast cancer prevention: an analysis of breast cancer awareness month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Burton, Scott H; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Rollins, Stephen; Draper, Catherine R

    2013-10-29

    One in eight women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. The best-known awareness event is breast cancer awareness month (BCAM). BCAM month outreach efforts have been associated with increased media coverage, screening mammography and online information searching. Traditional mass media coverage has been enhanced by social media. However, there is a dearth of literature about how social media is used during awareness-related events. The purpose of this research was to understand how Twitter is being used during BCAM. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. We collected breast cancer- related tweets from 26 September - 12 November 2012, using Twitter's application programming interface. We classified Twitter users into organizations, individuals, and celebrities; each tweet was classified as an original or a retweet, and inclusion of a mention, meaning a reference to another Twitter user with @username. Statistical methods included ANOVA and chi square. For content analysis, we used computational linguistics techniques, specifically the MALLET implementation of the unsupervised topic modeling algorithm Latent Dirichlet Allocation. There were 1,351,823 tweets by 797,827 unique users. Tweets spiked dramatically the first few days then tapered off. There was an average of 1.69 tweets per user. The majority of users were individuals. Nearly all of the tweets were original. Organizations and celebrities posted more often than individuals. On average celebrities made far more impressions; they were also retweeted more often and their tweets were more likely to include mentions. Individuals were more likely to direct a tweet to a specific person. Organizations and celebrities emphasized fundraisers, early detection, and diagnoses while individuals tweeted about wearing pink. Tweeting about breast cancer was a singular event. The majority of tweets did not promote any specific preventive behavior. Twitter is being used mostly as a one-way communication tool. To

  9. The Breast-Thyroid Cancer Link: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sarah M.; White, Michael G.; Hong, Susan; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kaplan, Edwin L.; Angelos, Peter; Kulkarni, Swati A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Grogan, Raymon H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of thyroid cancer in women with a history of breast cancer are higher than expected. Similarly, rates of breast cancer in those with a history of thyroid cancer are increased. Explanations for these associations include detection bias, shared hormonal risk factors, treatment effect, and genetic susceptibility. With increasing numbers of breast and thyroid cancer survivors clinicians should be particularly cognizant of this association. Here we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature utilizing PubMed and Scopus search engines to identify all publications studying the incidence of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following a diagnosis of thyroid cancer or thyroid cancer following a diagnosis of breast cancer. This demonstrated an increased risk of thyroid cancer as a secondary malignancy following breast cancer (OR=1.55, 95% CI [1.44,1.67]) and an increased risk of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following thyroid cancer (OR= 1.32, 95% CI [1.23,1.42]). There is a clear increase in the odds of developing either thyroid or breast cancer as a secondary malignancy after diagnosis with the other. Here we review this association and current hypothesis as to the cause of this correlation. PMID:26908594

  10. Prevalence of high blood pressure and association with obesity in Spanish schoolchildren aged 4-6 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Rivero-Merino, Irene; Lucas-De La Cruz, Lidia; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of high blood pressure in children is increasing worldwide, largely, but not entirely, driven by the concurrent childhood obesity epidemic. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in 4-to-6-year-old Spanish schoolchildren, and to evaluate the association between different blood pressure (BP) components with different adiposity indicators. Cross-sectional study including a sample of 1.604 schoolchildren aged 4-to-6-years belonging to 21 schools from the provinces of Ciudad Real and Cuenca, Spain. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (%FM), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. The estimates of prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 12.3% and 18.2%, respectively. In both sexes, adiposity indicators were positively and significantly associated with all BP components (phigh blood pressure in Spanish children. Moreover, high levels of adiposity are associated with high blood pressure in early childhood, which support that it could be related to cardiovascular risk later in life.

  11. A Retrospective Evaluation of Echocardiograms to Establish Normative Inferior Vena Cava and Aortic Measurements for Children Younger Than 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Erin K; Punn, Rajesh; Ramsi, Musaab; Kache, Saraswati

    2018-02-26

    The ability to plot the inferior vena cava (IVC) size on a normal curve for pediatric patients may prove beneficial. First, in patients with normal cardiac anatomy who present in shock, assessing IVC size may be valuable for evaluating the degree of dehydration. Second, in children with heart disease, understanding how a child's IVC size compares to normal could be particularly beneficial for patients with right heart disease. We sought to create normal curves for the IVC and aorta in children younger than 6 years. Data were gathered from 347 echocardiograms of healthy children younger than 6 years in a retrospective study at a quaternary care children's hospital. From the subcostal long- and short-axis images, maximum diameters in the transverse and longitudinal views were obtained for both the IVC and the aorta. Both IVC and aortic dimensions increased in a linear fashion and had excellent correlations with the body surface area, body mass, and height (IVC, r = 0.78-0.81; P pediatric patient's hydration status or right heart function in patients with congenital heart disease. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  13. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relationship between age, sex and body mass index with fundamental motor skills among 3 to 6 years-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vameghi Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem. This problem is a multi-component disease and several factors are involved in its development. The childhood obesity led to poor mastery of fundamental motor skills (FMS and failure to develop in specialized skills that required in organized sports and activities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age, sex and body mass index (BMI with FMS in 3 to 6 years-old children. A total of 600 preschool children (300 boys and 300 girls between the ages of 3 to 6 years old participated in this research. Subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling in five regions in Tehran. Using the Ohio State University Scale of Intra Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA FMS were assess. Body mass index (BMI was directly measured from height (m2/weight (kg for each child. The results showed that the negative correlations between jumping, skipping, hopping and throwing skills and BMI in any 3 groups children were significant (P0.05. The boys were performed better than girls in all FMS except hopping and skipping skills. In these skills the girls were better performed in all ages. These results highlight the need to provide organized opportunities which facilitate FMS and decreased high BMI levels in preschool children.

  15. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  16. Biomarker Identification and Pathway Analysis by Serum Metabolomics of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, for which no validated tumor biomarker is sufficiently accurate to be useful for diagnosis. Additionally, the metabolic alterations associated with the disease are unclear. In this study, we investigated the construction, interaction, and pathways of potential lung cancer biomarkers using metabolomics pathway analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database and the Human Metabolome Database to identify the top altered pathways for analysis and visualization. We constructed a diagnostic model using potential serum biomarkers from patients with lung cancer. We assessed their specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves, which could be used to distinguish patients with lung cancer from normal subjects. The pathway analysis indicated that sphingolipid metabolism was the top altered pathway in lung cancer. ROC curve analysis indicated that glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (GpAEA and sphingosine were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Compared with the traditional lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment, GpAEA and sphingosine were as good or more appropriate for detecting lung cancer. We report our identification of potential metabolic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of lung cancer and clarify the metabolic alterations in lung cancer.

  17. Systematic co-operation between employer, occupational health service and social insurance office: a 6-year follow-up of vocational rehabilitation for people on sick-leave, including economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärrholm, Jenny; Ekholm, Karolina; Ekholm, Jan; Bergroth, Alf; Ekholm, Kristina Schüldt

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of systematic co-operation among municipal employees on the number of sick-leave days per month and the type of benefit granted by the Social Insurance Office. A further aim was to evaluate the economic consequences for society. A 6-year follow-up study with a matched-pairs design. Days on sick-leave were calculated for each subject one year before the intervention started and yearly for the following 6-year period. Statistical mixed-model analysis was used. The economic benefit of the intervention was estimated as the increased production stemming from fewer days on sick-leave. Sixty-four employees on long-term sick-leave were individually matched with controls from another Social Insurance Office in a county with a socioeconomic structure similar to that of the study group. The study group had 5.7 fewer days on sick-leave per month and person over the 6-year period (p=0.003). The estimated average economic benefit of the intervention was euro36,600 per person over the 6-year period. In conclusion, those who received systematic co-operation in vocational rehabilitation had fewer days on sick-leave than their "treatment-as-usual" peers. This effect persisted over 6 years, generating substantial net economic gains for society.

  18. Studies on retrospective analysis of leading primary cancers and improvement of cancer treatment method in Korea cancer center hospital

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    Lee, Jong In; Lee, Kang Hyun; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    2000-12-01

    a. Retrospective studies included cancers of the stomach, breast, bladder, salivary gland, thyroid, esophagus, endometrium and ovary. (1) Study cancers were analyzed about clinical characteristics, prognostic factors influenced on survival time, survival rate, etc. (2) Among 5,305 study patients, 1,405(26.5%) were identified with death, 3,485(65.7%) were alive and 415(7.8%) were not identified. b. Prospective studies included 10 subjects such as bladder cancer, retinoblastoma, malignant patients, gastric cancer, uterine cervix cancer and ovary cancer. We are continuing registering eligible study patients. c. Results for 11 papers were published at the journal. d. We established follow-up system in order to identify the survival for study subjects through National Statistical Office, Government Provincial Office and Cancer Registration System at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. e. At present, we are establishing computerized registration system about case report form for study cancers.

  19. Studies on retrospective analysis of leading primary cancers and improvement of cancer treatment method in Korea cancer center hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Lee, Kang Hyun; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    2000-12-01

    a. Retrospective studies included cancers of the stomach, breast, bladder, salivary gland, thyroid, esophagus, endometrium and ovary. (1) Study cancers were analyzed about clinical characteristics, prognostic factors influenced on survival time, survival rate, etc. (2) Among 5,305 study patients, 1,405(26.5%) were identified with death, 3,485(65.7%) were alive and 415(7.8%) were not identified. b. Prospective studies included 10 subjects such as bladder cancer, retinoblastoma, malignant patients, gastric cancer, uterine cervix cancer and ovary cancer. We are continuing registering eligible study patients. c. Results for 11 papers were published at the journal. d. We established follow-up system in order to identify the survival for study subjects through National Statistical Office, Government Provincial Office and Cancer Registration System at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. e. At present, we are establishing computerized registration system about case report form for study cancers

  20. Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0080 TITLE: Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer . PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer . 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER GRANT11489...institutional, NIH-funded study of genetic and epigenetic alterations of pre-invasive DCIS that did or did not progress to invasive breast cancer , with an

  1. Hyperspectral microscopy and cluster analysis for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Anneliese; Manickavasagam, Arunthathi; Hosny, Neveen; Festy, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Oral cancer incidences have been increasing in recent years and late detection often leads to poor prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has been identified has a valuable diagnostic tool for cancer but its time consuming nature has prevented its clinical use. For Raman to become a realistic aid to histopathology, a rapid pre-screening technique is required to find small regions of interest on tissue sections [1]. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging in the visible spectral range as a fast imaging technique before Raman is performed. We have built a hyperspectral microscope which captures 300 focused and intensity corrected images with wavelength ranging from 450- 750 nm in around 30 minutes with sub-micron spatial resolution and around 10 nm spectral resolution. Hyperstacks of known absorbing samples, including fluorescent dyes and dried blood droplets, show excellent results with spectrally accurate transmission spectra and concentration-dependent intensity variations. We successfully showed the presence of different components from a non-absorbent saliva droplet sample. Data analysis is the greatest hurdle to the interpretation of more complex data such as unstained tissue sections.

  2. Limitations in the Activity of Mobility at Age 6 Years After Difficult Birth at Term: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Patricia A M; Algra, Annechien M; Bakker, Saskia C M; Jonker, Arnold J H; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-08-01

    A difficult birth at term (DBAT) may manifest as fetal acidosis and low Apgar scores and is often referred to as "perinatal asphyxia," especially when infants show signs of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). In contrast to DBAT resulting in moderate-to-severe NE, which is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, little is known about the prognosis of less severe forms of DBAT, with or without NE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children & Youth Version activity "mobility" and other neurodevelopmental sequelae in infants with DBAT at age 6 years. The index cohort (n=62; 35 boys, 27 girls) consisted of consecutive term infants with DBAT based on clinical criteria in a Dutch nonacademic hospital from 1999 to 2005. Neonatal encephalopathy was assessed according to the Sarnat grading system and excluded infants with severe NE. The matched reference cohort (n=81; 49 boys, 32 girls) consisted of healthy term infants. The primary outcome at 6 years was limited mobility (Movement Assessment Battery for Children score ≤15th percentile). Secondary outcomes included learning and behavioral problems and the presence of minor neurological dysfunction. Three children developed cerebral palsy and were excluded from analyses. Children with DBAT more often had limited mobility than children without DBAT (risk ratio [RR]=2.44; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.16, 5.14). The risk of limited mobility rose with increasing severity of NE (mild NE: RR=3.38; 95% CI=1.40, 8.16; moderate NE: RR=4.00; 95% CI=1.54, 10.40), and manual abilities especially were affected (RR=4.12; 95% CI=1.40, 12.14). Learning problems, need for physical therapy, and complex minor neurological dysfunction were more common in children with DBAT than in children without DBAT. Term infants who develop mild or moderate NE following DBAT are at increased risk for limited mobility at age 6 years. Routine monitoring of neuromotor

  3. Pan-Cancer Analysis of lncRNA Regulation Supports Their Targeting of Cancer Genes in Each Tumor Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hua-Sheng; Somvanshi, Sonal; Patel, Ektaben; Chen, Ting-Wen; Singh, Vivek P; Zorman, Barry; Patil, Sagar L; Pan, Yinghong; Chatterjee, Sujash S; Sood, Anil K; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Sumazin, Pavel

    2018-04-03

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are commonly dysregulated in tumors, but only a handful are known to play pathophysiological roles in cancer. We inferred lncRNAs that dysregulate cancer pathways, oncogenes, and tumor suppressors (cancer genes) by modeling their effects on the activity of transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins, and microRNAs in 5,185 TCGA tumors and 1,019 ENCODE assays. Our predictions included hundreds of candidate onco- and tumor-suppressor lncRNAs (cancer lncRNAs) whose somatic alterations account for the dysregulation of dozens of cancer genes and pathways in each of 14 tumor contexts. To demonstrate proof of concept, we showed that perturbations targeting OIP5-AS1 (an inferred tumor suppressor) and TUG1 and WT1-AS (inferred onco-lncRNAs) dysregulated cancer genes and altered proliferation of breast and gynecologic cancer cells. Our analysis indicates that, although most lncRNAs are dysregulated in a tumor-specific manner, some, including OIP5-AS1, TUG1, NEAT1, MEG3, and TSIX, synergistically dysregulate cancer pathways in multiple tumor contexts. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidental Radiographic Discovery of a Screw in a Primary Molar: An Unusual Case Report in a 6 Year Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentists often find foreign bodies in the primary dentition of children who habitually place objects in their mouths. The objects are frequently embedded in exposures that result from carious or traumatic lesions or from endodontic procedures that have been left open for drainage. Such bodies are often detected on routine radiographs and, less frequently, during clinical examination. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who had inadvertently embedded a screw in his mandibular right first primary molar and had forgotten about it until it became symptomatic. The screw was impacted in the exposed pulp chamber due to a large carious lesion in the affected molar. This case report considers the possible medical and dental consequences of placing foreign bodies in the mouth.

  5. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters.

  6. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihai Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters.

  7. Immediate Implant Placement in Single-Tooth Molar Extraction Sockets: A 1- to 6-Year Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Francesco; Polara, Giorgio

    The aim of this study was to investigate the survival rate of implants immediately placed in fresh extraction sockets of molars in the maxilla and mandible with a single-stage procedure. A total of 102 patients were treated, and 107 implants (53 in the maxilla and 54 in the mandible) were placed in a fresh molar extraction socket and connected to a healing abutment. After a mean follow-up of 3 years (range: 1 to 6 years) 1 implant failed, for a cumulative success rate of 99.06% (98.11% for the mandible and 100% for the maxilla). The results of this study support placement of an implant immediately after the extraction of a molar, applying a single-stage procedure.

  8. Diode laser versus scalpel in the treatment of hereditary gingival fibromatosis in a 6-year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Aboujaoude

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF is a rare disease characterized by a benign enlargement of the gingiva involving both the mandible and the maxilla. This case is about a 6-year-old child with non syndromic HGF showing a severe gingival enlargement covering almost all surfaces of the teeth, in both arches, hence causing major aesthetic, phonetic and masticatory problems. The aim of the present article is to compare the outcomes of two therapeutical approaches: i classical surgical removal with scalpel; and ii diode laser resection. Compared to the surgical approach, the clinical results show that the main advantages of the diode laser technique are a better visibility during the intervention, minimal postoperative discomfort combined to a better gingival recontouring. However, the time consumption and the high cost of the laser equipment remain the main disadvantages of the systematic use of this technique.

  9. All that wheezes is not asthma: a 6-year-old with foreign body aspiration and no suggestive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Amy; Gopalakaje, Saikiran; Eastham, Katherine

    2012-12-12

    The authors report the case of a 6-year-old girl, presenting with a 4-month history of wheeze associated with barking cough which frequently became wet requiring antibiotics. Her care was transferred to a paediatrician with specialist interest in paediatric respiratory medicine when she had continued symptoms despite bronchodilators and oral steroids for suspected asthma. Spirometry showed a forced expiratory volume 1 of 79% with no evidence of reversibility. The child was investigated for chronic wet cough. Immunoglobulins, sweat test and chest x-ray were all normal. There was no history suggestive of foreign body aspiration (FBA). Tracheomalacia was considered in view of the nature of the cough. The recurrence of an unusual inspiratory noise prompted referral for bronchoscopy. A small piece of plastic tube was removed from the bronchus intermedius. All symptoms resolved. The importance of clinical assessment to ascertain 'wheeze' when acutely unwell is emphasised. Current literature concerning FBA is reviewed.

  10. How Universal Are Free Will Beliefs? Cultural Differences in Chinese and U.S. 4- and 6-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wente, Adrienne O; Bridgers, Sophie; Zhao, Xin; Seiver, Elizabeth; Zhu, Liqi; Gopnik, Alison

    2016-05-01

    This study explores the development of free will beliefs across cultures. Sixty-seven Chinese 4- and 6-year-olds were asked questions to gauge whether they believed that people could freely choose to inhibit or act against their desires. Responses were compared to those given by the U.S. children in Kushnir, Gopnik, Chernyak, Seiver, and Wellman (). Results indicate that children from both cultures increased the amount of choice they ascribed with age. For inhibition questions, Chinese children ascribed less choice than the U.S. children. Qualitative explanations revealed that the U.S. children were also more likely to endorse notions of autonomous choice. These findings suggest both cultural differences and similarities in free will beliefs. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-05-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pronounced lipoatrophy in HIV-infected men receiving HAART for more than 6 years compared with the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, AB; Lindegaard, B; Obel, N

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence and quantify the severity of body fat redistribution and dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected men after long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with the background population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 87 HIV......-infected men who had received HAART for at least 6 years and 34 HIV-negative men. Regional body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting metabolic parameters were obtained. Associations between regional body fat distribution and metabolic parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: HIV......-infected patients and controls did not differ with regard to height and lean body mass. Compared with controls, HIV-infected men had reduced total fat mass (median 12.3 versus 19.2 kg, P

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells in cardiac regeneration: a detailed progress report of the last 6 years (2010-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aastha; Singh, Abhishek; Sen, Dwaipayan

    2016-06-04

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been used for cardiovascular regenerative therapy for decades. These cells have been established as one of the potential therapeutic agents, following several tests in animal models and clinical trials. In the process, various sources of mesenchymal stem cells have been identified which help in cardiac regeneration by either revitalizing the cardiac stem cells or revascularizing the arteries and veins of the heart. Although mesenchymal cell therapy has achieved considerable admiration, some challenges still remain that need to be overcome in order to establish it as a successful technique. This in-depth review is an attempt to summarize the major sources of mesenchymal stem cells involved in myocardial regeneration, the significant mechanisms involved in the process with a focus on studies (human and animal) conducted in the last 6 years and the challenges that remain to be addressed.

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Association between Mir-196a-2 Polymorphism and Cancer Susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huan; Su, Yu-liang; Yu, Herbert; Qian, Bi-yun

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA plays a vital role in gene expression, and microRNA dysregulation is involved in carcinogenesis. The miR-196a-2 polymorphism rs11614913 is reportedly associated with cancer susceptibility. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the overall association of miR-196a-2 with cancer risk. A total of 27 independent case-control studies involving 10,435 cases and 12,075 controls were analyzed for the rs11614913 polymorphism. A significant association was found between rs11614913 polymorphism and cancer risk in four genetic models (CT vs. TT, OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.05–1.27; CC vs. TT, OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.08–1.39; Dominant model, OR=1.17, 95%CI=1.06–1.30; Additive model, OR=1.08, 95%CI=1.01–1.14). In the subgroup analysis of different tumor types, the C allele was associated with increased risk of lung, breast, and colorectal cancer, but not with liver, gastric, or esophageal cancer. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significantly increased risk of cancer was found among Asians in all genetic models, but no associations were found in the Caucasian subgroup. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the miR-196a-2 polymorphism is associated with cancer susceptibility, especially lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer among Asian populations

  15. Subjective experience analysis in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Belber-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the psychological experience and needs shown in the discourse of women diagnosed with breast cancer in a psychological group intervention was analyzed. The sessions are transcribed and a discourse analysis is performed, selecting the most prevailing topics. The main psychological difficulties perceived by the participants are the following: body identity change, sexuality changes, new quality of interpersonal relationships, implications of positive thinking culture, fear of recurrence, the relationship with the hospital staff and change after diagnosis. The aspects of the group considered to be helpful are also addressed, i.e. feeling understood by the others, seeing the rest of participants as coping models, changing their relationship with the illness. Several clinical implications are highlighted in order to improve a comprehensive care.

  16. Work Incapacity and Treatment Costs After Severe Accidents: Standard Versus Intensive Case Management in a 6-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan M; Andermatt, Peter; Tobler, Benno L; Spinnler, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Case management is widely accepted as an effective method to support medical rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims with musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates whether more intensive case management improves outcomes such as work incapacity and treatment costs for severely injured patients. Methods 8,050 patients were randomly allocated either to standard case management (SCM, administered by claims specialists) or intensive case management (ICM, administered by case managers). These study groups differ mainly by caseload, which was approximately 100 cases in SCM and 35 in ICM. The setting is equivalent to a prospective randomized controlled trial. A 6-year follow-up period was chosen in order to encompass both short-term insurance benefits and permanent disability costs. All data were extracted from administrative insurance databases. Results Average work incapacity over the 6-year follow-up, including contributions from daily allowances and permanent losses from disability, was slightly but insignificantly higher under ICM than under SCM (21.6 vs. 21.3 % of pre-accident work capacity). Remaining work incapacity after 6 years of follow-up showed no difference between ICM and SCM (8.9 vs. 8.8 % of pre-accident work incapacity). Treatment costs were 43,500 Swiss Francs (CHF) in ICM compared to 39,800 in SCM (+9.4 %, p = 0.01). The number of care providers involved in ICM was 10.5 compared to 10.0 in ICM (+5.0 %, p accident victims.

  17. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Intervention in 6-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Sally J; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-07-01

    We prospectively examined evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18 to 30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. This group of children was assessed at age 6 years, 2 years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naive to previous intervention group status. The ESDM group, on average, maintained gains made in early intervention during the 2-year follow-up period in overall intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, symptom severity, and challenging behavior. No group differences in core autism symptoms were found immediately posttreatment; however, 2 years later, the ESDM group demonstrated improved core autism symptoms and adaptive behavior as compared with the community-intervention-as-usual (COM) group. The 2 groups were not significantly different in terms of intellectual functioning at age 6 years. Both groups received equivalent intervention hours during the original study, but the ESDM group received fewer hours during the follow-up period. These results provide evidence that gains from early intensive intervention are maintained 2 years later. Notably, core autism symptoms improved in the ESDM group over the follow-up period relative to the COM group. This improvement occurred at the same time that the ESDM group received significantly fewer services. This is the first study to examine the role of early ESDM behavioral intervention initiated at less than 30 months of age in altering the longer-term developmental course of autism. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre- and postnatal determinants of deciduous molar hypomineralisation in 6-year-old children. The generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies E C Elfrink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH and Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH are common developmental disturbances in pediatric dentistry. Their occurrence is related. The same determinants as suggested for MIH are expected for DMH, though somewhat earlier in life. Perinatal medical problems may influence the prevalence of DMH but this has not been studied sufficiently. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify possible determinants of DMH in a prospective cohort study among 6-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The the data were used to identify the determinants of DMH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6690 children (mean age 6.2 years; 49.9% girls. Data on possible determinants that had occurred during pregnancy and/or the child's first year of life were on the basis of manual standardized measurements (like length and weight and questionnaires. Multivariate analyse with backward and forward selection was performed. RESULTS: A number of factors in the pre-, peri- and postnatal phase were found to be associated with DMH. After multivariate logistic regression analyses, Dutch ethnic background, low birth weight, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and fever episodes in the first year of the child's life were found to play a role in the development of DMH in 6-year-old children. CONCLUSION: This study shows that Dutch ethnicity, low birth weight, alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy and any fever in the first year of the child's life are associated with DMH. Not only childhood factors but also prenatal lifestyle factors need to be taken into account when studying determinants for DMH.

  19. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight. PMID:22420636

  20. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castetbon Katia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100 and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700. Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p p Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  1. A Retrospective Study of Epidemiological and Clinical Patterns of ACDRs in Goa Medical College over a 6 Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Ghodge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions (ACDRs account for 3% of all hospitalizations. The spectrum of drug reactions can be varied from mild to life threatening forms. Since the diagnosis of ACDR is purely clinical, early and prompt identification and withdrawal of drug (s is life saving for the patient. Aim and Objectives: To study the epidemiological and common clinical patterns and drugs causing ACDRs in tertiary care hospital of Goa Medical College, Goa over a 6 year period. Material and Methods:This was a retrospective study conducted over a period of 6 years. The medical records were analyzed for demographic profiles, morphology of drug eruptions, common groups of drugs involved, presence of co-morbid factors, systemic and mucosal involvement, common haematological abnormalities encountered, time interval between drug intake and onset of rash and mortality. Results: Our study population had 256 patients and the age group of 21-40 years was commonly affected. Maculopapular rash followed by angioedema were the commonest morphology of drug rash patterns encountered in our study. The time interval between consumption of drugs and onset of ACDR varied with interval of 1-7 days being the commonest group in having 158 (61.7% patients. Antibiotics followed by anticonvulsants and antiretrovirals were the commonest groups of drugs causing ACDR. We found that significant proportion of our patients had haematological, renal and hepatic system involvement. Conclusion: Early identification and withdrawal of the culprit drug remains the cornerstone in prevention of mortalities in ACDRs. A prior knowledge about the reaction patterns and common offending drugs in the population by the treating physician cannot be overemphasized.

  2. SU-F-T-101: Insight into Dosimetry Workload and Planning Timelines: A 6 Year Review at One Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardan, R; Popple, R; Smith, H; Fiveash, J [The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To elucidate realistic clinical treatment planning workload and timelines to improve understanding for patients, payers, and other institutions involved in radiotherapy processes. Methods: A web based tool was developed using Oracle Express (Oracle Corp, Redwood City, CA) which allowed communication between the physicians and staff about the current state of the patient plan. For 6 years, all patient courses were logged and time-stamped in 22 discreet steps which detailed start and stop times for simulation, contouring, and treatment planning tasks. This data was combined with the treatment planning database (TPDB) using the Eclipse Scripting API (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) to cross-identify plans between the two systems. This time data was analyzed across our dosimetry staff and treatment modality. Results: In 6 years, 110,477 patient statuses were time-logged for 9683 courses of treatment using our internal software. The courses contained 8305 unique patients who were binned into one of 11 diagnosis site categories. 8253 courses could be reconciled against the TPDB using timestamp data from patient statuses. The average planning volume per dosimetrist was 375.8 ± 142.4 plans per year with the average number of planning revisions per dosimetrist of 71.0 ± 27.1 plans per year. The median treatment planning times by modality ranged from to 48.3 hours for IMRT plans 5 fields or less to 119.6 hours for IMRT with 8 or more fields. Two arc VMAT, three arc VMAT, and 3D plans median times were 89.1 hours, 113.8 hours, and 50.9 hours respectively. Conclusion: Using our web based tool, we have demonstrated the ability to quantify treatment planning timelines and workloads which could help in setting appropriate expectations for patients, payers, and hospital administration. COI: Author received monies from Varian Medical Systems for research and teaching honorarium.

  3. Influence of the Diameter of Dental Implants Replacing Single Molars: 3- to 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Jose Alfredo; Senna, Plinio Mendes; Francischone, Carlos Eduardo; Francischone Junior, Carlos Eduardo; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the implant diameter on marginal bone remodeling around dental implants replacing single molars after a follow-up period of 3 to 6 years. Patients who received dental implants with an external hexagon platform in healed sites to support a single metal-ceramic crown in the molar region were recalled to the office. The implantation sites and implant length information were recorded, and the implants were divided according to the implant diameter: regular (RP) or wide (WP). Each implant was assessed by digital periapical radiography, using a sensor holder for the paralleling technique. The marginal bone remodeling was determined as the distance from the implant platform to the first bone-to-implant contact, and the known implant length was used to calibrate the images in the computer software. The follow-up measurements were compared with those obtained from the radiograph taken at the time of prosthetic loading to determine the late bone remodeling. The independent t test was used to compare data. A total of 67 implants from 46 patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up period of 4.5 ± 1.0 years. The RP group comprised 36 implants from 29 patients (mean age: 58.3 ± 10.6 years), while 31 implants from 17 patients (mean age: 56.9 ± 11.5 years) were included in the WP group. The RP group presented lower survival rates (86.1%) than the WP group (100.0%). Similar marginal bone loss (P implants exhibited lower incidence failures, the bone levels were similar after the prosthetic loading around regular- and wide-diameter implants supporting single molar crowns.

  4. Pre- and Postnatal Determinants of Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation in 6-Year-Old Children. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfrink, Marlies E. C.; Moll, Henriette A.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; ten Cate, Jacob M.; Veerkamp, Jaap S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) are common developmental disturbances in pediatric dentistry. Their occurrence is related. The same determinants as suggested for MIH are expected for DMH, though somewhat earlier in life. Perinatal medical problems may influence the prevalence of DMH but this has not been studied sufficiently. Objective This study aimed to identify possible determinants of DMH in a prospective cohort study among 6-year-old children. Study Design This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The the data were used to identify the determinants of DMH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6690 children (mean age 6.2 years; 49.9% girls). Data on possible determinants that had occurred during pregnancy and/or the child's first year of life were on the basis of manual standardized measurements (like length and weight) and questionnaires. Multivariate analyse with backward and forward selection was performed. Results A number of factors in the pre-, peri- and postnatal phase were found to be associated with DMH. After multivariate logistic regression analyses, Dutch ethnic background, low birth weight, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and fever episodes in the first year of the child's life were found to play a role in the development of DMH in 6-year-old children. Conclusion This study shows that Dutch ethnicity, low birth weight, alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy and any fever in the first year of the child's life are associated with DMH. Not only childhood factors but also prenatal lifestyle factors need to be taken into account when studying determinants for DMH. PMID:24988443

  5. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the United States: nationally-representative surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castetbon, Katia; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-03-15

    Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p Obese girls could jump 1.6-1.7 inches shorter than normal weight peers (p motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  6. Refractive errors in 3-6 year-old Chinese children: a very low prevalence of myopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Lan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors in children aged 3-6 years in China. METHODS: Children were recruited for a trial of a home-based amblyopia screening kit in Guangzhou preschools, during which cycloplegic refractions were measured in both eyes of 2480 children. Cycloplegic refraction (from 3 to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate to ensure abolition of the light reflex was measured by both autorefraction and retinoscopy. Refractive errors were defined as followed: myopia (at least -0.50 D in the worse eye, hyperopia (at least +2.00 D in the worse eye and astigmatism (at least 1.50 D in the worse eye. Different definitions, as specified in the text, were also used to facilitate comparison with other studies. RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent refractive error was at least +1.22 D for all ages and both genders. The prevalence of myopia for any definition at any age was at most 2.5%, and lower in most cases. In contrast, the prevalence of hyperopia was generally over 20%, and declined slightly with age. The prevalence of astigmatism was between 6% and 11%. There was very little change in refractive error with age over this age range. CONCLUSIONS: Previous reports of less hyperopic mean spherical equivalent refractive error, and more myopia and less hyperopia in children of this age may be due to problems with achieving adequate cycloplegia in children with dark irises. Using up to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate may be necessary to accurately measure refractive error in paediatric studies of such children. Our results suggest that children from all ethnic groups may follow a similar pattern of early refractive development, with little myopia and a hyperopic mean spherical equivalent over +1.00 D up to the age of 5-6 years in most conditions.

  7. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 boys and 47 girls who had all the specific criteria for normality were randomly selected from several preschools in Shiraz, Iran. During the first stage of testing, test of language development (TOLD was administered to investigate language development of participants; later, the social skills rating system (SSRS including the teachers' and parents' forms were completed by the parents and teachers of participants. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients.Results: The correlations between expressive language and dimensions of social skills were significant (p<0.001, but teachers' form had a greater correlation with language development (p=0.031. Besides, Pearson's correlations between teachers' and parents' forms was not significant (p=0.27.Conclusion: According to our results, expressive language develops along with social skills development. On the other hand, these results are based on the differences between home and educational environment in social skills achievements of children. These findings are to be considered to provide crucial training in both environments for the children to improve the development of their expressive language.

  8. The Role of Prostatitis in Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhang; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Junjiang; Pumill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Use systematic review methods to quantify the association between prostatitis and prostate cancer, under both fixed and random effects model. Evidence Acquisition Case control studies of prostate cancer with information on prostatitis history. All studies published between 1990-2012, were collected to calculate a pooled odds ratio. Selection criteria: the selection criteria are as follows: human case control studies; published from May 1990 to July 2012; containing number of prostatitis, and prostate cancer cases. Evidence Synthesis In total, 20 case control studies were included. A significant association between prostatitis and prostate cancer was found, under both fixed effect model (pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.39-1.62), and random effects model (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 1.36-1.98). Personal interview based case control studies showed a high level of association (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.47-1.73, random effects model: pooled OR= 1.87, 95%CI: 1.52-2.29), compared with clinical based studies (fixed effect model: pooled OR=1.05, 95%CI: 0.86-1.28, random effects model: pooled OR= 0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.45). Additionally, pooled ORs, were calculated for each decade. In a fixed effect model: 1990’s: OR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.84; 2000’s: OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.40-1.79; 2010’s: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.56. In a random effects model: 1990’s: OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; 2000’s: OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.23-2.19; 2010’s: OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.73. Finally a meta-analysis stratified by each country was conducted. In fixed effect models, U.S: pooled OR =1.45, 95%CI: 1.34-1.57; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90. In random effects model, U.S: pooled OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.25-1.80; China: pooled OR =4.67, 95%CI: 3.08-7.07; Cuba: pooled OR =1.43, 95%CI: 1.00-2.04; Italy: pooled OR =0.61, 95%CI: 0.13-2.90.CONCLUSIONS: the present meta-analysis provides the statistical evidence that

  9. Safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of 14 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azim, Hatem A; Santoro, Luigi; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rising trend of delaying pregnancy to later in life, more women are diagnosed with breast cancer before completing their families. Therefore, enquiry into the feasibility and safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis is on the rise. Available evidence suggests that women...... with a history of breast cancer are frequently advised against future conception for fear that pregnancy could adversely affect their breast cancer outcome. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to understand the effect of pregnancy on overall survival of women with a history of breast cancer....

  10. Safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of 14 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azim, Hatem A; Santoro, Luigi; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    with a history of breast cancer are frequently advised against future conception for fear that pregnancy could adversely affect their breast cancer outcome. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to understand the effect of pregnancy on overall survival of women with a history of breast cancer.......Due to the rising trend of delaying pregnancy to later in life, more women are diagnosed with breast cancer before completing their families. Therefore, enquiry into the feasibility and safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis is on the rise. Available evidence suggests that women...

  11. Diagnostic markers of urothelial cancer based on DNA methylation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Yoshitomo; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Kanai, Yae; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugano, Kokichi; Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Liang, Gangning; Jones, Peter A; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Early detection and risk assessment are crucial for treating urothelial cancer (UC), which is characterized by a high recurrence rate, and necessitates frequent and invasive monitoring. We aimed to establish diagnostic markers for UC based on DNA methylation. In this multi-center study, three independent sample sets were prepared. First, DNA methylation levels at CpG loci were measured in the training sets (tumor samples from 91 UC patients, corresponding normal-appearing tissue from these patients, and 12 normal tissues from age-matched bladder cancer-free patients) using the Illumina Golden Gate methylation assay to identify differentially methylated loci. Next, these methylated loci were validated by quantitative DNA methylation by pyrosequencing, using another cohort of tissue samples (Tissue validation set). Lastly, methylation of these markers was analyzed in the independent urine samples (Urine validation set). ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these 12 selected markers. Of the 1303 CpG sites, 158 were hyper ethylated and 356 were hypo ethylated in tumor tissues compared to normal tissues. In the panel analysis, 12 loci showed remarkable alterations between tumor and normal samples, with 94.3% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Similarly, corresponding normal tissue could be distinguished from normal tissues with 76.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy for UC of these markers determined in urine samples was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Based on these preliminary findings, diagnostic markers based on differential DNA methylation at specific loci can be useful for non-invasive and reliable detection of UC and epigenetic field defect

  12. Relationship of detection rate of PET cancer screening examinees and risk factors. Analysis of background of examinees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Koji; Uno, Kimiichi; Arai, Masami; Matsuura, Masaaki; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Momose, Toshimitsu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening is performed widely in Japan as opportunistic screening, but no study has focused on the correlation with various cancer risk factors and the seeking bias of examinees and cancer detection rate. Analyzing our large series of PET cancer screening data, correlations with cancer detection rates according to general cancer risk factors and PET detection survey were reviewed, and the selection bias of the medical examinees was determined. 19189 examinees who underwent PET cancer screening were enrolled. Using logistic-regression analysis, we analyzed correlations between smoking history/drinking history/cancer family history and detection rates of thyroid cancer/breast cancer/colorectal cancer/lung cancer, which are the main malignancies detected in PET cancer screening. In addition, we evaluated seeking bias of examinees, analyzing correlations between the presence of cancer risk factors and prior screening checkups at other institutions to our PET cancer screening using a matched case-control study. Cancer detection rates by FDG-PET were 1.17% (224/19189), being much higher than those of standard cancer mass screenings. In males, statistically significant correlations were seen between lung cancer and smoking, and between prostate cancer and a family history of prostate cancer, but not between the detection rates of three other types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer) and other cancer risk factors. In females, detection rates of four types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer/breast cancer) were significantly higher in the examinees without cancer risks, and subgroup analysis according to types of cancer did not indicate significant correlations either. The matched case-control study evaluating seeking bias indicated that a significant proportion of the examinees with cancer risks had undergone prior cancer screening at other institutions. Our study indicated that there was

  13. Electron Microscopy-Data Analysis Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for

  14. Association of OPN rs11730582 polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He LL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lanlan He,1,* Yong Wang2,* 1Emergency Department, Zhenjiang First People’s Hospital, Zhenjiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *Both authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Several molecular epidemiological studies have investigated the association between OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the association of this polymorphism with cancer risk. Materials and methods: The related articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. A random-effects model or fixed-effects model was employed depending on the heterogeneity. Results: A total of ten case-control studies involving 2,749 cancer cases and 3,398 controls were included in the meta-analysis. In overall analysis, OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism was not associated with cancer risk. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, no significant association was found between OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism and the risk of glioma, gastric cancer, and other cancers. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility. Keywords: osteopontin, polymorphism, cancer, risk 

  15. A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of providing free fluoride toothpaste from the age of 12 months on reducing caries in 5-6 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G M; Worthington, H V; Ellwood, R P; Bentley, E M; Blinkhorn, A S; Taylor, G O; Davies, R M

    2002-09-01

    To assess the impact of regularly supplying free fluoride toothpaste regularly to children, initially aged 12 months, and living in deprived areas of the north west of England on the level of caries in the deciduous dentition at 5-6 years of age. A further aim was to compare the effectiveness of a programme using a toothpaste containing 440 ppmF (Colgate 0-6 Gel) with one containing 1,450 ppmF (Colgate Great Regular Flavour) in reducing caries. Randomised controlled parallel group clinical trial. Clinical data were collected from test and control groups when the children were 5-6 years old. A programme of posting toothpaste with dental health messages to the homes of children initially aged 12 months. Clinical examinations took place in primary schools. 7,422 children born in 3-month birth cohorts living in high caries areas in nine health districts in north west England. Within each district children were randomly assigned to test or control groups. Toothpaste, containing either 440 ppmF or 1450 ppmF, and dental health literature posted at three monthly intervals to children in test groups until they were aged 5-6 years. The dmft index, missing teeth and the prevalence of caries experience. An analysis of 3,731 children who were examined and remained in the programme showed the mean dmft to be 2.15 for the group who had received 1,450 ppmF toothpaste and 2.49 for the 440 ppmF group. The mean dmft for the control group was 2.57. This 16% reduction between the 1,450 ppmF and control group was statistically significant (Pcontrol was not significant. Further analyses to estimate the population effect of the programme also confirmed this relationship. This study demonstrates that a programme distributing free toothpaste containing 1,450 ppmF provides a significant clinical benefit for high caries risk children living in deprived, non-fluoridated districts.

  16. Does digital mammography suppose an advance in early diagnosis? Trends in performance indicators 6 years after digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Maria; Domingo, Laia; Macià, Francesc; Comas, Mercè; Burón, Andrea; Castells, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    To provide a complete evaluation of the long-term impact of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on the improvement of early diagnosis in a population-based screening program. We included 82,961 screen-film mammograms (SFM) and 79,031 FFDM from women aged 50-69 screened biennially from 1995-2010 in Spain and followed-up to 2012. The first screening round of the program was excluded. Rates of cancer detection, interval cancer, tumoral characteristics and other quality indicators were compared between SFM and FFDM periods using the Chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. Detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) significantly increased with FFDM (0.05 % vs 0.09 %; p = 0.010), along with the proportion of small invasive cancers (Digitalization has supposed an improvement in early diagnosis because DCIS and small invasive cancers increased without a change in detection rate. Moreover, false-positive reduction without an increase in the interval cancer rate was confirmed.

  17. Expanding Local Cancer Clinical Trial Options: Analysis of the Economic Impact of the Midwest Cancer Alliance in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafford, J Atlee; Gurley-Calvez, Tami; Krebill, Hope; Lai, Sue Min; Christiadi; Doolittle, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    Patients benefit from receiving cancer treatment closer to home when possible and at high-volume regional centers when specialized care is required. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the economic impact of retaining more patients in-state for cancer clinical trials and care, which might offset some of the costs of establishing broader cancer trial and treatment networks. Kansas Cancer Registry data were used to estimate the number of patients retained in-state for cancer care following the expansion of local cancer clinical trial options through the Midwest Cancer Alliance based at the University of Kansas Medical Center. The 2014 economic impact of this enhanced local clinical trial network was estimated in four parts: Medical spending was estimated on the basis of National Cancer Institute cost-of-care estimates. Household travel cost savings were estimated as the difference between in-state and out-of-state travel costs. Trial-related grant income was calculated from administrative records. Indirect and induced economic benefits to the state were estimated using an economic impact model. The authors estimated that the enhanced local cancer clinical trial network resulted in approximately $6.9 million in additional economic activity in the state in 2014, or $362,000 per patient retained in-state. This estimate includes $3.6 million in direct spending and $3.3 million in indirect economic activity. The enhanced trial network also resulted in 45 additional jobs. Retaining patients in-state for cancer care and clinical trial participation allows patients to remain closer to home for care and enhances the state economy.

  18. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.R.; Morgenstern, H.; Greenland, S.; Chang, S.C.; Lazarus, P.; Teare, M.D.; Woll, P.J.; Orlow, I.; Cox, B.; Brhane, Y.; Liu, G.; Hung, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled usin...

  19. Prognostic and survival analysis of 837 Chinese colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Li, Mo-Dan; Hu, Han-Guang; Dong, Cai-Xia; Chen, Jia-Qi; Li, Xiao-Fen; Li, Jing-Jing; Shen, Hong

    2013-05-07

    To develop a prognostic model to predict survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Survival data of 837 CRC patients undergoing surgery between 1996 and 2006 were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression model to reveal the prognostic factors for CRC. All data were recorded using a standard data form and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, United States). Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess differences in survival. Univariate hazard ratios and significant and independent predictors of disease-specific survival and were identified by Cox proportional hazard analysis. The stepwise procedure was set to a threshold of 0.05. Statistical significance was defined as P analysis suggested age, preoperative obstruction, serum carcinoembryonic antigen level at diagnosis, status of resection, tumor size, histological grade, pathological type, lymphovascular invasion, invasion of adjacent organs, and tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging were positive prognostic factors (P analysis showed a significant statistical difference in 3-year survival among these groups: LNR1, 73%; LNR2, 55%; and LNR3, 42% (P analysis results showed that histological grade, depth of bowel wall invasion, and number of metastatic lymph nodes were the most important prognostic factors for CRC if we did not consider the interaction of the TNM staging system (P < 0.05). When the TNM staging was taken into account, histological grade lost its statistical significance, while the specific TNM staging system showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001). The overall survival of CRC patients has improved between 1996 and 2006. LNR is a powerful factor for estimating the survival of stage III CRC patients.

  20. Sedentary behavior and incident cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shen

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior is ubiquitous in modern adults' daily lives and it has been suggested to be associated with incident cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to clarify the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer.PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to March 2014. All prospective cohort studies on the association between sedentary behavior and incident cancer were included. The summary relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using random effect model.A total of 17 prospective studies from 14 articles, including a total of 857,581 participants and 18,553 cases, were included in the analysis for sedentary behavior and risk of incident cancer. The overall meta-analysis suggested that sedentary behavior increased risk of cancer (RR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.12-1.28, with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I(2 = 7.3%, P = 0.368. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that there were statistical associations between sedentary behavior and some cancer types (endometrial cancer: RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.53; colorectal cancer: RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49; breast cancer: RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.03-1.33; lung cancer: RR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.06-1.52. However, there was no association of sedentary behavior with ovarian cancer (RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.87-1.82, renal cell carcinoma (RR = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.87-1.41 or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (RR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.82-1.43.The present meta-analysis suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior was independently associated with an increased risk of incident endometrial, colorectal, breast, and lung cancers, but not with ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms.

  1. The effect of XPD polymorphisms on digestive tract cancers risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haina; Guo, Nannan; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zhipeng; Lu, Kai; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    The Xeroderma pigmento-sum group D gene (XPD) plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in its functional region may alter DNA repair capacity phenotype and cancer risk. Many studies have demonstrated that XPD polymorphisms are significantly associated with digestive tract cancers risk, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and digestive tract cancers risk. The digestive tract cancers that our study referred to, includes oral cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. We searched PubMed and EmBase up to December 31, 2012 to identify eligible studies. A total of 37 case-control studies including 9027 cases and 16072 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata software (version 11.0, USA). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. The results showed that XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of digestive tract cancers (homozygote comparison (GlnGln vs. LysLys): OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.24, P = 0.029, P heterogeneity = 0.133). We found no statistical evidence for a significantly increased digestive tract cancers risk in the other genetic models. In the subgroup analysis, we also found the homozygote comparison increased the susceptibility of Asian population (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.63, P = 0.045, P heterogeneity = 0.287). Stratified by cancer type and source of control, no significantly increased cancer risk was found in these subgroups. Additionally, risk estimates from hospital-based studies and esophageal studies were heterogeneous. Our meta-analysis suggested that the XPD 751Gln/Gln genotype was a low-penetrate risk factor for developing digestive tract cancers, especially in Asian populations.

  2. The effect of XPD polymorphisms on digestive tract cancers risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Xeroderma pigmento-sum group D gene (XPD plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP located in its functional region may alter DNA repair capacity phenotype and cancer risk. Many studies have demonstrated that XPD polymorphisms are significantly associated with digestive tract cancers risk, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and digestive tract cancers risk. The digestive tract cancers that our study referred to, includes oral cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. METHODS: We searched PubMed and EmBase up to December 31, 2012 to identify eligible studies. A total of 37 case-control studies including 9027 cases and 16072 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata software (version 11.0, USA. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of the association. RESULTS: The results showed that XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of digestive tract cancers (homozygote comparison (GlnGln vs. LysLys: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.24, P = 0.029, P heterogeneity = 0.133. We found no statistical evidence for a significantly increased digestive tract cancers risk in the other genetic models. In the subgroup analysis, we also found the homozygote comparison increased the susceptibility of Asian population (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.63, P = 0.045, P heterogeneity = 0.287. Stratified by cancer type and source of control, no significantly increased cancer risk was found in these subgroups. Additionally, risk estimates from hospital-based studies and esophageal studies were heterogeneous. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggested that the XPD 751Gln/Gln genotype was a low-penetrate risk factor for developing digestive tract cancers, especially in Asian populations.

  3. Cancer Incidence in Patients with Acromegaly: A cohort study and meta-analysis of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Jakob; Leisner, Michelle Z; Hermansen, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    -2010) including 529 acromegaly cases was performed. Incident cancer diagnoses and mortality were compared to national rates estimating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). A meta-analysis of cancer SIRs from 23 studies (including the present one) was performed. Results: The cohort study identified 81 cases...... in acromegaly (SIR 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.6]), cancer-specific mortality was not. The meta-analysis yielded a SIR of overall cancer of 1.5 [95% CI: 1.2-1.8]. SIRs were elevated for colorectal cancer: 2.6 [95% CI: 1.7-4.0], thyroid cancer: 9.2 [95% CI: 4.2-19.9], breast cancer: 1.6 [1.1-2.3], gastric cancer: 2.0 [95......% CI: 1.4-2.9], and urinary tract cancer: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.0-2.3]). In general, cancer SIR was higher in single-center studies and in studies with meta-analysis...

  4. [Epidemiological analysis on mortality of cancer in China, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L; Zhao, F; Cai, Y; Wu, R X; Meng, Q

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the distribution of cancer deaths in China in 2015 and provide reference for the prevention and control of cancer. Methods: Based on the results of Global Burden of Disease 2015, the cancer death distributions in different age groups, sex groups, provinces or by different malignant tumor in Chinese were described. Results: The age-standardized mortality rate of cancer was 159.01/100 000 in China in 2015. The mortality rate was highest in age group ≥70 years (1 102.73/100 000), and lowest in age group 5-14 years (5.40/100 000). The mortality rate in males was 2.15 times higher than that in females. The first 5 provinces with high cancer mortality rate were Anhui, Qinghai, Sichuan, Guangxi and Henan. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer ranked 1-5 in term of mortality rate. Conclusion: The cancer mortality differed with age, gender, area and different malignant tumors, suggesting the necessity to develop targeted prevention and control strategies.

  5. Application of the cultured epidermal autograft "JACE(®") for treatment of severe burns: Results of a 6-year multicenter surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hajime; Matsushima, Asako; Ueyama, Masashi; Kumagai, Norio

    2016-06-01

    In the 1970s, Green et al. developed a method that involved culturing keratinocyte sheets and used for treatment of burns. Since then, the take rate of cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) onto fascia, granulation tissue, or allografts has been extensively reported, while that on an artificial dermis in a large case series is not. Moreover, the contribution of CEA to patient survival has not been analyzed in a multicenter study. We conducted a 6-year multicenter surveillance on the application of the CEA "JACE(®") for treatment of burns >30% total body surface area (TBSA) across 118 Japanese hospitals. This surveillance included 216 patients and 718 graft sites for efficacy analysis. The CEA take rate at 4 weeks after grafting was evaluated, and safety was monitored until 52 weeks. In addition, the survival curve obtained in this study and the data obtained from the Tokyo Burn Unit Association (TBUA) were compared. The mean CEA take rates at week 4 were 66% (sites) and 68% (patients), and the rate on the artificial dermis was 65% for 226 sites. CEA application combined with wide split-thickness auto or patch autograft increased the CEA take rate. On comparison with the data obtained from the TBUA, which included data on individuals with burns of the same severity, CEA application was found to contribute to patient survival until 7 weeks after burn. We reported the take rate of CEA based on a 6-year multicenter surveillance. From our results, we found that the application of CEA is a useful treatment for the patients with extensive burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Examination of the Relationship between the Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Mathematics and the Mathematical Development in 6-Year-Old Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether there is a relationship between the preschool teachers' attitudes towards mathematics and mathematical development in 6-year-old preschool children. The sampling of the study was consisted of 30 teachers working with 6 years old children and their 120 students in public kindergartens and independent…

  7. Synchronous Onset of Breast and Pancreatic Cancers: Results of Germline and Somatic Genetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synchronous cancers have occasionally been detected at initial diagnosis among patients with breast and ovarian cancer. However, simultaneous coexistence and diagnosis of breast and pancreas cancer has not previously been reported. Case Report: Paternal transmission of a germline BRCA2 mutation to a patient who was diagnosed at age 40 with locally advanced breast and pancreas cancer is presented. Somatic genomic analysis of both cancers with next-generation DNA sequencing confirmed the germline result and reported a variety of variants of unknown significance alterations, of which two were present in both the breast and pancreas cancers. Discussion: The possibility that genomic alterations could have been responsible for modulating the phenotypic or clinical expression of this rare presentation is considered. The authors call attention to the practice of privatizing the clinicogenetic information gained from genetic testing and call for health policy that will facilitate sharing in order to advance the outcomes of patients diagnosed with hereditary cancers.

  8. Who's talking about breast cancer? Analysis of daily breast cancer posts on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Edel M; Corrigan, Mark A; McHugh, Seamus M; Murphy, David; O'Mullane, John; Hill, Arnold D; Redmond, Henry Paul

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the cancer most commonly searched for on the internet. Our aim was to assess daily new breast cancer related posting on the internet. We analyzed numbers of new daily posts for common cancers for one month and subsequently analyzed content of 1426 breast cancer related posts. We also assessed use of online discussion forums for breast cancer related dialogue. Breast related topics had significantly more posts per day compared to others (mean 66.7, p Anonymous posts were common (55%) and less likely to be accurate (p internet has become a primary forum within which health information, particularly relating to breast cancer, is both sought and shared. Increasingly information is provided by patients themselves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression analysis of cancer-testis genes in prostate cancer reveals candidates for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Sepideh; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2017-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disorder among men with a heterogeneous etiological background. Several molecular events and signaling perturbations have been found in this disorder. Among genes whose expressions have been altered during the prostate cancer development are cancer-testis antigens (CTAs). This group of antigens has limited expression in the normal adult tissues but aberrant expression in cancers. This property provides them the possibility to be used as cancer biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets. Several CTAs have been shown to be immunogenic in prostate cancer patients and some of the have entered clinical trials. Based on the preliminary data obtained from these trials, it is expected that CTA-based therapeutic options are beneficial for at least a subset of prostate cancer patients.

  10. Thermometric analysis of intra-cavitary hyperthermia for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C; Li, D J

    1999-01-01

    Thermometric analysis was carried out in 51 patients with esophageal cancer treated with intra-cavitary hyperthermia combined with radio chemotherapy, to test whether temperature index (T20, T50) and T90) could be used as an indicator for tumour control. Hyperthermia was administered by intra-cavitary microwave applicator. The T20, T50 and T90 were deducted from the temperature sensors T0 and T3 situated at the center of the tumour surface and 3cm from it. Eighteen patients with local control > or =36 months were named long term control patients (LC), 24 patients with local recurrence within 24 months (LR) (there were no events occurring between 24 and 36 months) and nine patients died of metastasis without local recurrence (DM). The overall survival rates were 80.4 +/- 5.6% at 1 year, 38.3 +/- 6.9% at 3 years and 31 +/- 6.7% at 5 years, respectively. Chi-square test showed no influence of the number of hyperthermia sessions on the local control (p > 0.25). The 5-year local control rate was 18.8% for the patients with T90 or = 43 degrees C (p < 0.01). The average T90 was 43.76 +/- 0.74 degrees C for the LC patients and 43.17 +/- 0.57 degrees C for those LR (p = 0.024). The mean T90 was higher than 43 degrees C in 94.4% of LC, whereas in 58.8% of LR. The study suggested that T90 was a good parameter for thermal dose in the intracavitary hyperthermia for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  11. Asthma and posttraumatic stress symptoms 5 to 6 years following exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M; Hadler, James L; DiGrande, Laura; Ekenga, Christine C; Farfel, Mark R; Friedman, Stephen; Perlman, Sharon E; Stellman, Steven D; Walker, Deborah J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2009-08-05

    The World Trade Center Health Registry provides a unique opportunity to examine long-term health effects of a large-scale disaster. To examine risk factors for new asthma diagnoses and event-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among exposed adults 5 to 6 years following exposure to the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack. Longitudinal cohort study with wave 1 (W1) enrollment of 71,437 adults in 2003-2004, including rescue/recovery worker, lower Manhattan resident, lower Manhattan office worker, and passersby eligibility groups; 46,322 adults (68%) completed the wave 2 (W2) survey in 2006-2007. Self-reported diagnosed asthma following September 11; event-related current PTS symptoms indicative of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed using the PTSD Checklist (cutoff score > or = 44). Of W2 participants with no stated asthma history, 10.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9%-10.5%) reported new asthma diagnoses postevent. Intense dust cloud exposure on September 11 was a major contributor to new asthma diagnoses for all eligibility groups: for example, 19.1% vs 9.6% in those without exposure among rescue/recovery workers (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.7]). Asthma risk was highest among rescue/recovery workers on the WTC pile on September 11 (20.5% [95% CI, 19.0%-22.0%]). Persistent risks included working longer at the WTC site, not evacuating homes, and experiencing a heavy layer of dust in home or office. Of participants with no PTSD history, 23.8% (95% CI, 23.4%-24.2%) reported PTS symptoms at either W1 (14.3%) or W2 (19.1%). Nearly 10% (9.6% [95% CI, 9.3%-9.8%]) had PTS symptoms at both surveys, 4.7% (95% CI, 4.5%-4.9%) had PTS symptoms at W1 only, and 9.5% (95% CI, 9.3%-9.8%) had PTS symptoms at W2 only. At W2, passersby had the highest rate of PTS symptoms (23.2% [95% CI, 21.4%-25.0%]). Event-related loss of spouse or job was associated with PTS symptoms at W2. Acute and prolonged exposures were both

  12. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p < 0.001 than normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p < 0.05. In addition, normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor

  13. A 2 to 6 year postoperative evaluation of tension-free vaginal tape (tvt: a questionnaire based study

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    Marijan Lužnik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this article is to show the long-term subjective cure rate of urinary incontinence in patients after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure and eventual correlation of some factors with this cure rate.Methods: From December 1999 to July 2004 we performed one hundred and fifty TVT procedures at our Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. In April 2006, a 2 to 6 year postoperatively, 149 questionnaires were sent to our patients for self-estimation of the cure rate. The subjective evaluation of results of the operation was based on definition of the improvement of continence in percents, with 13 possibilities ranging from –20 % to 100 %. With tests of correlation we wish to establish eventual connection between the cure rate of urinary incontinence and the age of women at the time of operation and the number of postoperative years. Statistical significance of eventual influence of independent variables on cure rate was analyzed using nonparametric tests in Statistical Program Package for Social Sciences (SPSS.Results: Of 119 answers, in 40 cases (33.6 % patients confirmed that they are completely healthy, and 87 women (73.1 % confirmed at least 70 % cure rate. 100 answers confirmed that 87.6 % patients had benefited by TVT procedure even 2 to 6 years postoperatively. Correlation between the long-term cure rate and the patient’s age at time of operation had Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = –0.335 and was statistically significant (p = 0.01. Statistically significantly different success was still in the groups with regard to the previous hysterectomy (p = 0.005 and the previous surgical procedure for urinary incontinence (p = 0.001. There was no statistically significant difference between the cure rate and the number of postoperative years (p = 0.236.Conclusions: 150 TVT procedures were performed very safely as solo intervention or as connected with other repair of pelvic organ prolapse at our

  14. Integrative analysis to select cancer candidate biomarkers to targeted validation

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    Heberle, Henry; Domingues, Romênia R.; Granato, Daniela C.; Yokoo, Sami; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Winck, Flavia V.; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P.; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Filgueiras, Paulo R.; Cruz, Karen S. P.; Barbuto, José Alexandre; Poppi, Ronei J.; Minghim, Rosane; Telles, Guilherme P.; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Fox, Jay W.; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted proteomics has flourished as the method of choice for prospecting for and validating potential candidate biomarkers in many diseases. However, challenges still remain due to the lack of standardized routines that can prioritize a limited number of proteins to be further validated in human samples. To help researchers identify candidate biomarkers that best characterize their samples under study, a well-designed integrative analysis pipeline, comprising MS-based discovery, feature selection methods, clustering techniques, bioinformatic analyses and targeted approaches was performed using discovery-based proteomic data from the secretomes of three classes of human cell lines (carcinoma, melanoma and non-cancerous). Three feature selection algorithms, namely, Beta-binomial, Nearest Shrunken Centroids (NSC), and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Features Elimination (SVM-RFE), indicated a panel of 137 candidate biomarkers for carcinoma and 271 for melanoma, which were differentially abundant between the tumor classes. We further tested the strength of the pipeline in selecting candidate biomarkers by immunoblotting, human tissue microarrays, label-free targeted MS and functional experiments. In conclusion, the proposed integrative analysis was able to pre-qualify and prioritize candidate biomarkers from discovery-based proteomics to targeted MS. PMID:26540631

  15. Rural physicians' perspectives on cervical and breast cancer screening: a gender-based analysis.

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    Ahmad, F; Stewart, D E; Cameron, J I; Hyman, I

    2001-03-01

    Several studies highlight the role of physicians in determining cervical and breast cancer screening rates, and some urban studies report higher screening rates by female physicians. Rural women in North America remain underscreened for breast and cervical cancers. This survey was conducted to determine if there were significant gender differences in practices and perceptions of barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening among rural family physicians in Ontario, Canada. One hundred ninety-one family physicians (response rate 53.1%) who practiced in rural areas, small towns, or small cities completed a mail questionnaire. The physicians' mean age was 44.4 years (SD 9.9), and mean number of years in practice was 16.6 years (SD 10.3). Over 90% of physicians reported that they were very likely to conduct a Pap test and clinical breast examination (CBE) during a periodic health examination, and they had high levels of confidence and comfort in performing these procedures. Male (68%) and female (32%) physicians were similar in their likelihood to conduct screening, levels of confidence and comfort, and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines. However, the self-reported screening rates for Pap tests and CBE performed during last year were higher for female than male physicians (p gender differences were observed in screening rates or related barriers to mammography referrals. These findings suggest that physicians' gender plays a role in sex-sensitive examination, such as Pap tests and CBE. There is a need to facilitate physician-patient interactions for sex-sensitive cancer screening examinations by health education initiatives targeting male physicians and women themselves. The feasibility of providing sex-sensitive cancer screening examinations by a same-sex health provider should also be explored.

  16. Relevance analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Rendong; Lv Xiangyang; Li Shaolin; Gao Ming; Miao Liqiong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Discussing the relativity of Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer, implementing the intervention treatment and regularly traces to the breast high dangerous crowd, in order to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer and the mortality rate. Methods: Mammary gland type was marked according to X ray on 500 breast cancer subjects and 1000 control subjects. Peri-cancer histological sections of the subtypes of the breast cancer group and histological section of the subtypes of the control group were studied contrastively to analyze the breast cancer risk index in every subtype and the occurrence rate in every age group. The types and the occurrence rates were counted. Results: (1)The lowest risk group: the subtypes with OR 0.3 and the cancer incidence rate ranging from 5% to 10% were IV b, II b, III b. (4)High-risk group: the subtypes with OR> 1 and the cancer incidence rate above 10% were III c, IV c. High dangerous age sections of breast cancer: 35 to 55 years old in IVc and IIIc (the age section of IIIc may lengthen to 60 years old), 31 to 50 years old in IVb, 50 to 60 years old in IIIb and IIb. Conclusion: IIIc and IVc belong to the high dangerous subtypes. People of these subtypes reach 67.4% of all breast cancer examples, so these people are the main subjects of the mammary gland general survey and tracing. Patient aged from 35 to 55 should be reexamined once a year. When necessary, the intervention treatment may be carried out to prevent breast cancer and to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer. Discovery and treatment in early phase can improve the breast cancer's survival quality, and reduce the mortality rate. (authors)

  17. Insulin glargine and cancer risk in patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis.

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    Xulei Tang

    Full Text Available AIM: The role of insulin glargine as a risk factor for cancer is controversial in human studies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between insulin glargine and cancer incidence. METHODS: All observational studies and randomized controlled trials evaluating the relationship of insulin glargine and cancer risk were identified in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biomedical Medical Literature Database, through March 2012. Odds ratios (ORs with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated with a random-effects model. Confidence in the estimates of the obtained effects (quality of evidence was assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies including 448,928 study subjects and 19,128 cancer patients were finally identified for the meta-analysis. Insulin glargine use was associated with a lower odds of cancer compared with non-glargine insulin use (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98, P = 0.03; very low-quality evidence. Glargine did not increase the odds of breast cancer (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.46, P = 0.966; very low-quality evidence. Compared with non-glargine insulin, no significant association was found between insulin glargine and prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and respiratory tract cancer. Insulin glargine use was associated with lower odds of other site-specific cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the meta-analysis don't support the link between insulin glargine and an increased risk of cancer and the confidence in the estimates of the effects is very low. Further studies are needed to examine the relation between insulin glargine and cancer risk, especially breast cancer.

  18. Cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors: an evolutionary concept analysis

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    Vo JB

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline B Vo,1 Timiya S Nolan,1 David E Vance,1 Patricia A Patrician,2 Karen Meneses1 1Office of Research and Scholarship, 2Department of Family, Community Health, and Systems, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: More than 3.5 million breast cancer survivors are living in the US, and the overall five-year survival rate is approaching 90%. With increased survival and cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicities, there has been a rise in cardiovascular diseases among breast cancer survivors. Yet, cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors has not been well conceptualized. The purpose of this article was to analyze and define the concept of cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors. Methods: The databases CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed were used to identify articles that explored cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors. The search yielded 357 articles, which were reviewed for eligibility. Thirty articles were selected based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The concept of cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors was analyzed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis method. Results: The analysis suggests that cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors consists of several attributes: cancer treatment (chemotherapy, targeted therapies, radiation therapy, and endocrine therapy, modifiable risk factors (obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet, and smoking, and nonmodifiable risk factors (age, family history, and race. The antecedent identified includes breast cancer diagnosis and the consequence identified includes the development of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Findings suggest the need for increased education and understanding of ­cardiovascular disease risk among health care providers and patients. Survivorship care plans can incorporate cardiovascular disease risk monitoring and screening. Future research

  19. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000–2013: a systematic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000–2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Design Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Setting and participants Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000–2013. Main outcome measures Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Results We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded—the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Conclusions Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies

  20. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

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    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas sp. causing infections in trauma patients: A 6 year experience from a south asian country

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    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR, cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%. The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001 and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001 and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003. Of the total, 1,692 (74.6% isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75% were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.

  2. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

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    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  3. Co-occurring motor, language and emotional-behavioral problems in children 3-6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Dowling, Sara; Missiuna, Cheryl; Rodriguez, M Christine; Greenway, Matt; Cairney, John

    2015-02-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) has been shown to co-occur with behavioral and language problems in school-aged children, but little is known as to when these problems begin to emerge, or if they are inherent in children with DCD. The purpose of this study was to determine if deficits in language and emotional-behavioral problems are apparent in preschool-aged children with movement difficulties. Two hundred and fourteen children (mean age 4years 11months, SD 9.8months, 103 male) performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd Edition (MABC-2). Children falling at or below the 16th percentile were classified as being at risk for movement difficulties (MD risk). Auditory comprehension and expressive communication were examined using the Preschool Language Scales 4th Edition (PLS-4). Parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Preschool children with diminished motor coordination (n=37) were found to have lower language scores, higher externalizing behaviors in the form of increased aggression, as well as increased withdrawn and other behavior symptoms compared with their typically developing peers. Motor coordination, language and emotional-behavioral difficulties tend to co-occur in young children aged 3-6years. These results highlight the need for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

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    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  5. Improvement of an anterior infrabone defect using combined periodontal and orthodontic therapy: A 6-year follow-up case report.

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    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Kim, Yeon Jung; Dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Cirelli, Joni Augusto

    2014-07-01

    Extensive intraosseous lesions represent a clinical challenge for the periodontist. Sites with bone defects have been shown to be at higher risk of periodontitis progression in patients who had not received periodontal therapy. Thus, the aim of this case report was to describe a novel approach for the treatment of 1-walled intraosseous defect by combining nonsurgical periodontal therapy and orthodontic movement toward the bone defect, avoiding regenerative and surgical procedures. A 47-year-old woman underwent the proposed procedures for the treatment of her left central incisor with 9 mm probing depth and 1-walled intraosseous defect in its mesial aspect. Initially, basic periodontal therapy with scaling and root planning was accomplished. Two months later, an orthodontic treatment was planned to eliminate the intraosseous lesion and to improve the interproximal papillary area. Orthodontic root movement toward the osseous defect was performed for 13 months with light forces. After 6 years postoperative it was concluded that combined basic periodontal therapy and orthodontic movement was capable of eliminating the intraosseous defect and improve the esthetics in the interproximal papillary area between the central incisors.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach on rehabilitation of primary teeth traumatism repercussion on the permanent successor: 6-year follow-up case report

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    Mello-Moura ACV

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic lesions in primary teeth are frequent in pediatric patients and can cause problems both to the deciduous tooth and permanent successor. The impact strength on deciduous tooth can reach the growing permanent tooth, affecting its morphology, structure and position, or even hampering its proper development. This report describes an aesthetic-functional rehabilitation process in an 8 year 10 month old boy during a multidisciplinary treatment held at the Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth of the Pediatric Dentistry of Dental College of University of São Paulo, Brazil. The patient presented bilateral posterior cross bite and the permanent left upper central incisor with ectopic eruption and enamel hypoplasy, preceded by avulsion of element 61, occurred when the patient was 1.6 years old. After diagnosis and treatment planning, a quick expansion of jaws was recommended with Hass-type rapid expander and orthodontic leveling with fixed braces. Due to the ectopic eruption, the gingival contour had been altered and hypertrophia was found, compromising aesthetics and avoiding local hygienic procedures. Gingivoplasty was carried out with high-intensity Diode Laser, followed by aesthetic restoration with compound resin. It was concluded that after deciduous teeth traumatism it is important that the patient undergoes clinic and radiographic assistance until the permanent teeth erupt so that an adequate multidisciplinary treatment can be offered to the patient.

  7. Low Spigelian hernia in a 6-year-old boy presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia: a case report

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    Christianakis Efstratios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lower Spigelian hernia is a very rare entity. The clinical findings are similar to those of inguinal hernias and in many cases may be misdiagnosed. In the literature, only a few references to this entity have been reported in children. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a lower Spigelian hernia in a child who presented with an acute painful scrotum. Case presentation We discuss the case of a 6-year-old Greek boy who presented to our emergency department complaining of severe pain in the left inguinal area and scrotum. The acute painful swelling started suddenly, without any obvious cause. The initial diagnosis was incarcerated inguinal hernia which was reduced with difficulty. Five days later, the patient still experienced mild pain during palpation and he was operated on. During the operation, a large lower Spigelian hernia was revealed and reconstructed. Conclusion Although Spigelian hernias are rare in children and difficult to diagnose, physicians should be aware of them and include them in the differential diagnosis.

  8. Reading skill related to left ventral occipitotemporal cortex during a phonological awareness task in 5–6-year old children

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    Jin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5–6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task. Two experimental conditions: onset word pairs that shared the first phoneme and rhyme word pairs that shared the final biphone/triphone, were compared to allow a measurement of vOT’s activation to small (i.e., onsets and large grain sizes (i.e., rhymes. We found that higher reading ability was associated with better accuracy of the onset, but not the rhyme, condition. In addition, higher reading ability was only associated with greater sensitivity in the posterior left vOT for the contrast of the onset versus rhyme condition. These results suggest that acquisition of reading results in greater specialization of the posterior vOT to smaller rather than larger grain sizes in young children. Keywords: Left vOT, Grain size, Phonological awareness, Spoken language

  9. Acute ethanol poisoning in a 6-year-old girl following ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizer at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Madeline Matar; Zeretzke, Cristina; Reader, Sara; Sollee, Dawn R

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) have been widely used in homes, workplaces and schools to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. We report a young child unintentionally ingested ABHS at a school, resulting in intoxication. The child was a 6-year-old girl who had been brought to the emergency department (ED) for hypothermia, altered mental status (AMS), periods of hypoventilation, hypothermia and vomiting. Computed tomography of her head revealed nothing abnormal in intracranial pathology. Urine drug screening was negative. Alcohol level was 205 mg/dL on admission. Other abnormal values included potassium of 2.8 mEq/L, osmolality of 340 mOsm/kg and no hypoglycemia. Further investigation revealed that the patient had gone frequently to the class restroom for ingestion of unknown quantities of ABHSs during the day. The patient was admitted for one day for intravenous fluid hydration and close observation of her mental status. The patient was discharged from the hospital the next day without any complications. Despite the large safety margin of ABHSs, emergency physicians need to be aware of the potential risk of ingestion of a large amount of such products in children and consider it in the assessment and management of school-age children with acute AMS.

  10. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions: clinical pattern and causative agents--a 6 year series from Chandigarh, India.

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    Sharma V

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the different clinical spectrum of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADR and to determine the causative drugs. MATERIALS & METHODS: A prospective, hospital based study was carried out over a period of 6 years recording various cutaneous ADR. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients with cutaneous ADR were enrolled in the study. The most common types of cutaneous ADR patterns were maculopapular rash (34.6%, fixed drug eruption (FDE (30% and urticaria (14%. The drugs most often incriminated for the various cutaneous ADR were antimicrobials (42.6%, anticonvulsants (22.2% and NSAIDs (18%. Anticonvulsants were implicated in 41.6% of maculopapular rashes. Sulfonamides accounted for 43.3% and NSAIDs for 30.7% of FDE. Urticaria was caused mainly by NSAIDs(24.3% and penicillins(20%. Anticonvulsants were responsible for 43.8% of life-threatening toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens Johnson syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical pattern and drugs causing cutaneous ADR are similar to those observed in other countries except for minor variations. Cutaneous ADR patterns and the drugs causing various reactions are changing every year, which may be due to the emergence of newer molecules and changing trends in the use of drugs.

  11. Relation Between Percent Body Fat and Fundamental Motor Skills in Pre-School Children age 3-6 years

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    Martin Musalek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite well known that excessive body fat in children is interpreted as a marker of inhibited physical activity and motor performance. This study aimed to establish whether severe impairment of fundamental motor skills (defined as performance under 5th centile of norms will be significantly more frequently identified in pre-schoolers age 3-6 years with amount of body fat higher than 85th centile of norms. Research sample consisted of 496 (females=241, males=255 pre-schoolers selected from specific district of Prague, Czech Republic. The MABC-2 was used for the assesment fundamental motor skills. Equations for body fat estimation in children identified 35.8% children with body fat˃85th centile of norms, 61.7% within 15th–85th centile, and 2.5% of children˂15th centile of norms. Results revealed that children whose body fat was higher than 85th centile of norms or lower than 15th centile had double the frequency of severe motor problems. Interestingely on the other hand we found no signficant differences in the frequency of high above average performances˃90th centile in MABC-2 between fat 8.4% and non fat children 10.7%. We suggest that amount of body fat is not a clear predictor for the degree of fundamental motor skills.

  12. Presentation and outcome of eclampsia at a tertiary center in South East Nigeria--a 6-year review.

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    Eke, Ahizechukwu Chigoziem; Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu Uzoma; Okafor, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of eclamptic patients treated in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, over a 6-year period (2004-2009). It was a retrospective study. The case notes of 212 patients with eclampsia were analyzed with respect to age, parity, type of eclampsia, gestational age, booking status, mode of delivery, and outcome of the babies and mothers. There were 212 cases of eclampsia out of a total of 13,536 deliveries, giving a prevalence of 1.57%. One hundred and sixty (24.5%) of the women were unbooked. Antepartum eclampsia constituted 160 (75.5%) of all types of eclampsia. Nulliparous teenagers were the most commonly affected women--128 (60.4%). Cesarean delivery was higher than vaginal delivery, accounting for 160 (75.5%) of all deliveries. There was a statistically significant relationship between the route of delivery and the parity of the women (χ(2) = 3.60; d = 5; p = 0.035). There were 16 maternal deaths, giving a case fatality rate of 7.5%. There were 12 neonatal and 8 perinatal deaths. Puerperal sepsis occurred in 9.4% of the patients. Eclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality in Nnewi, rural South East Nigeria. Teenage nulliparous women are most susceptible.

  13. A 6-year update of the health policy and advocacy priorities of the Society of Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Bennett, Gary G; Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; Pagoto, Sherry L; Sallis, James F; Wilson, Dawn K; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2017-12-01

    Government policy affects virtually every topic of interest to health behavior researchers, from research funding to reimbursement for clinical services to application of evidence to impact health outcomes. This paper provides a 6-year update on the expansion of Society of Behavioral Medicine's (SBM) public policy and advocacy agenda and proposed future directions. SBM's Health Policy Council is responsible for ensuring coordination of the policy-related activities of the Health Policy Committee (HPC), the Civic and Public Engagement Committee (CPEC), and the Scientific and Professional Liaison Council (SPLC). These committees and councils have written letters to Congress, signed onto advocacy letters with hundreds of organizations, and developed and disseminated 15 health policy briefs, the majority of which have been presented to legislative staffers on Capitol Hill. With the assistance of the SPLC, SBM has collaborated on policy efforts with like-minded organizations to increase the impact of the Society's policy work. Moving forward, SBM plans to continue to increase efforts to disseminate policy work more broadly and develop long-term relationships with Congressional staffers. SBM leadership realizes that to remain relevant, demonstrate impact, and advance the role of behavioral medicine, we must advance a policy agenda that reflects our mission of better health through behavior change.

  14. The prevalence and risk factors of gingivitis in a population of 6-year-old children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gingivitis is a reversible inflammation of gingival tissue. The prevalence of gingivitis is different in various communities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gingivitis among 6-year-old (± 3 months children of Rayen, Kerman, Iran. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 279 children (129 boys and 150 girls from all Rayen’s nursery schools and primary schools were selected. Data collected through clinical examination with the consent of parents and teachers. Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI was measured by using light and dental probe pressure. RESULTS: The prevalence of gingivitis was 37.8. There was statistically significant association between gender and gingivitis. Mouth breathing and toothbrush frequency were factors associated with gingivitis. CONCLUSION: This study showed relatively similar prevalence of gingivitis compared to other studies. The prevalence of gingivitis was more in boys than girls. Health educators and parents should have a more active role in children’s oral health education.

  15. Transfer of Problem Solving Skills from Touchscreen to 3D Model by 3- to 6-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuik, Joanne; Demaria, Ana; Kaufman, Jordy

    2017-01-01

    Although much published research purports that young children struggle to solve problems from screen-based media and to transfer learning from a virtual to a physical modality, Huber et al. (2016)'s recent study on children solving the Tower of Hanoi (ToH) problem on a touchscreen app offers a clear counter example. Huber et al. (2016) reported that children transferred learning from media to the physical world. As this finding arguably differs from that of prior research in this area, the current study tests whether the Huber et al. (2016) results could be replicated. Additionally, we extended the scope of the Huber et al. (2016) work by testing a broader age range, including children as young as 3 years, and using a culturally distinct participant pool. The results of the current study verified Huber et al.'s (2016) conclusion that 4- to 6-year-old children are capable of transferring the ToH learning from touchscreen devices to the physical version of the puzzle. Children under 4 years of age, in contrast, showed little ability to improve at the ToH problem regardless of the practice modality-suggesting that a different problem-solving task is required to probe very young children's ability to learn from touchscreen apps.

  16. Obesity-associated Breast Cancer: Analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Several studies show that a significantly stronger association is obvious between increased body mass index (BMI) and higher breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, obese women are at higher risk of all-cause and breast cancer specific mortality when compared to non-obese women with breast cancer. In this context, increased levels of estrogens due to excessive aromatization activity of the adipose tissue, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways, adipocyte-derived adipokines, hypercholesterolemia and excessive oxidative stress contribute to the development of breast cancer in obese women. While higher breast cancer risk with hormone replacement therapy is particularly evident among lean women, in postmenopausal women who are not taking exogenous hormones, general obesity is a significant predictor for breast cancer. Moreover, increased plasma cholesterol leads to accelerated tumor formation and exacerbates their aggressiveness. In contrast to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women with high BMI are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Nevertheless, life-style of women for breast cancer risk is regulated by avoiding the overweight and a high-fat diet. Estrogen-plus-progestin hormone therapy users for more than 5 years have elevated risks of both invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer. Additionally, these cases are more commonly node-positive and have a higher cancer-related mortality. Collectively, in this chapter, the impacts of obesity-related estrogen, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, aromatase activity, leptin and insulin resistance on breast cancer patients are evaluated. Obesity-related prognostic factors of breast cancer also are discussed at molecular basis.

  17. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtarevic, Amel; Ager, Clemens; Pienz, Martin; Klieber, Martin; Schwarz, Konrad; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Filipiak, Wojciech; Denz, Hubert; Fiegl, Michael; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Weiss, Wolfgang; Lukas, Peter; Jamnig, Herbert; Hackl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive...

  18. Gene set analysis of purine and pyrimidine antimetabolites cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Brooke L; Batzler, Anthony; Li, Liang; Li, Fang; Matimba, Alice; Jenkins, Gregory D; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Liewei; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2011-11-01

    Responses to therapies, either with regard to toxicities or efficacy, are expected to involve complex relationships of gene products within the same molecular pathway or functional gene set. Therefore, pathways or gene sets, as opposed to single genes, may better reflect the true underlying biology and may be more appropriate units for analysis of pharmacogenomic studies. Application of such methods to pharmacogenomic studies may enable the detection of more subtle effects of multiple genes in the same pathway that may be missed by assessing each gene individually. A gene set analysis of 3821 gene sets is presented assessing the association between basal messenger RNA expression and drug cytotoxicity using ethnically defined human lymphoblastoid cell lines for two classes of drugs: pyrimidines [gemcitabine (dFdC) and arabinoside] and purines [6-thioguanine and 6-mercaptopurine]. The gene set nucleoside-diphosphatase activity was found to be significantly associated with both dFdC and arabinoside, whereas gene set γ-aminobutyric acid catabolic process was associated with dFdC and 6-thioguanine. These gene sets were significantly associated with the phenotype even after adjusting for multiple testing. In addition, five associated gene sets were found in common between the pyrimidines and two gene sets for the purines (3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid catabolic process) with a P value of less than 0.0001. Functional validation was attempted with four genes each in gene sets for thiopurine and pyrimidine antimetabolites. All four genes selected from the pyrimidine gene sets (PSME3, CANT1, ENTPD6, ADRM1) were validated, but only one (PDE4D) was validated for the thiopurine gene sets. In summary, results from the gene set analysis of pyrimidine and purine therapies, used often in the treatment of various cancers, provide novel insight into the relationship between genomic variation and drug response.

  19. Potential microRNA-mediated oncogenic intercellular communication revealed by pan-cancer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2014-11-01

    Carcinogenesis consists of oncogenesis and metastasis, and intriguingly microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in both processes. Although aberrant miRNA activities are prevalent in diverse tumor types, the exact mechanisms for how they regulate cancerous processes are not always clear. To this end, we performed a large-scale pan-cancer analysis via a novel probabilistic approach to infer recurrent miRNA-target interactions implicated in 12 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We discovered ~20,000 recurrent miRNA regulations, which are enriched for cancer-related miRNAs/genes. Notably, miRNA 200 family (miR-200/141/429) is among the most prominent miRNA regulators, which is known to be involved in metastasis. Importantly, the recurrent miRNA regulatory network is not only enriched for cancer pathways but also for extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and ECM-receptor interactions. The results suggest an intriguing cancer mechanism involving miRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication, which possibly involves delivery of tumorigenic miRNA messengers to adjacent cells via exosomes. Finally, survival analysis revealed 414 recurrent-prognostic associations, where both gene and miRNA involved in each interaction conferred significant prognostic power in one or more cancer types. Together, our comprehensive pan-cancer analysis provided not only biological insights into metastasis but also brought to bear the clinical relevance of the proposed recurrent miRNA-gene associations.

  20. Causes of death in long-term lung cancer survivors: a SEER database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2017-07-01

    Long-term (>5 years) lung cancer survivors represent a small but distinct subgroup of lung cancer patients and information about the causes of death of this subgroup is scarce. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1988-2008) was utilized to determine the causes of death of long-term survivors of lung cancer. Survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate analysis was conducted using a Cox proportional hazard model. Clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were assessed for the whole cohort. A total of 78,701 lung cancer patients with >5 years survival were identified. This cohort included 54,488 patients surviving 5-10 years and 24,213 patients surviving >10 years. Among patients surviving 5-10 years, 21.8% were dead because of primary lung cancer, 10.2% were dead because of other cancers, 6.8% were dead because of cardiac disease and 5.3% were dead because of non-malignant pulmonary disease. Among patients surviving >10 years, 12% were dead because of primary lung cancer, 6% were dead because of other cancers, 6.9% were dead because of cardiac disease and 5.6% were dead because of non-malignant pulmonary disease. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with longer cardiac-disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis include younger age at diagnosis (p death from primary lung cancer is still significant among other causes of death even 20 years after diagnosis of lung cancer. Moreover, cardiac as well as non-malignant pulmonary causes contribute a considerable proportion of deaths in long-term lung cancer survivors.

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF CANCER INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY AMONG THE POPULATION OF THE MOSCOW REGION IN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Analysis of the cancer incidence and mortality in the population is of major importance for planning of measures aimed at improvement of organization of medical care to cancer patients, ensuring high quality and availability of this type of medical care.Aim: To evaluate cancer-related incidence and mortality rates and structure among the population of the Moscow Region depending on patient gender and tumor localization.Materials and methods: The estimation and analysis of incidence and mortality rates was performed based on the Reporting Form of the Federal Statistic Surveillance #7 “Information on disorders related to malignant tumors” in the Moscow Region in 2014. For mortality analysis, including that among pediatric patients, we used data from the State Statistics Service of the Moscow Region.Results: In 2014, there were 25 600 new cases of malignancies diagnosed in the Moscow Region, that corresponded to the incidence rate of 363.2 per 100,000 of the population. The leading types of newly diagnosed tumors in men were prostate cancer, as well as tracheal, bronchial and lung cancers (54.2 and 47.0 per 100,000 of male population, respectively. In women, the highest incidence rates were found for breast and skin cancers (86.0 and 58.9 per 100,000 of female population, respectively. According to the data from Rosstat, in 2014, the overall cancer mortality rate in the Moscow Region was 228.1 per 100,000 of the population. Among the causes of cancer mortality in men, the leading one was tracheal, bronchial and lung cancer (22.2%, followed by stomach cancer (13.3% and prostate cancer (8.1%. In women, the leading cause of cancer mortality was breast cancer (16.6%, followed by ovarian, uterine and cervical cancers (14.1% and stomach cancer (11.4%.Conclusion: Based on the results of medical and statistical analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates, the main direction of improvement of medical care to cancer patients and the ways

  2. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    OpenAIRE

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer ri...

  3. Clinical analysis of lung cancer complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Keishi; Homma, Sakae; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Takaya, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Kawabata, Masateru; Kishi, Kazuma; Tsuboi, Eiyasu; Yoshimura, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristic clinical features of lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Among 1,028 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis admitted in our hospital between 1985 and 2005, 17 (15 men, 2 women; mean age 73±8) were diagnosed as having lung cancer. Patient characteristics, clinical features, radiographic images, treatment and prognosis were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were classified into 2 groups: group A (n=5), lung cancer complicated by active tuberculosis, and group B (n=12), lung cancer with tuberculosis sequelae. All patients in group A and 8 patients (33%) in group B had either stage III or IV lung cancer, whereas 4 patients in group B had stage I lung cancer. Coexistence of lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis in the same segment or lobe was seen in 80% (n=4) or 60% (n=3) of group A cases, respectively, and in 67% (n=8) or 8% (n=1) respectively, in group B. Mean survival in group A and group B was 9.2 months and 26.8 months, respectively. More attention should be paid to the possibility of development of lung cancer in individuals with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis or who have had tuberculosis sequelae revealed by chest radiography. Also, the possible coexistence of lung cancer must be carefully examined in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  4. Integrative Analysis of Complex Cancer Genomics and Clinical Profiles Using the cBioPortal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianjiong; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Dresdner, Gideon; Gross, Benjamin; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Jacobsen, Anders; Sinha, Rileen; Larsson, Erik; Cerami, Ethan; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    The cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics (http://cbioportal.org) provides a Web resource for exploring, visualizing, and analyzing multidimensional cancer genomics data. The portal reduces molecular profiling data from cancer tissues and cell lines into readily understandable genetic, epigenetic, gene expression, and proteomic events. The query interface combined with customized data storage enables researchers to interactively explore genetic alterations across samples, genes, and pathways and, when available in the underlying data, to link these to clinical outcomes. The portal provides graphical summaries of gene-level data from multiple platforms, network visualization and analysis, survival analysis, patient-centric queries, and software programmatic access. The intuitive Web interface of the portal makes complex cancer genomics profiles accessible to researchers and clinicians without requiring bioinformatics expertise, thus facilitating biological discoveries. Here, we provide a practical guide to the analysis and visualization features of the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics. PMID:23550210

  5. Whole-Lesion Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for the Assessment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Shi, Hua; Chen, Ying; Liu, Song; Li, Weifeng; Jiang, Zhuoran; Wang, Huanhuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Ge, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the application of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical cancer. A total of 54 women (mean age, 53 years) with cervical cancers underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm prospectively. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of ADC values was performed. Paired sample t test was used to compare differences in ADC histogram parameters between cervical cancers and normal cervical tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to identify the optimal threshold of each parameter. All histogram parameters in this study including ADCmean, ADCmin, ADC10%-ADC90%, mode, skewness, and kurtosis of cervical cancers were significantly lower than those of normal cervical tissues (all P histogram analysis of ADC maps is useful in the assessment of cervical cancer.

  6. Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Meng, Qingyang; Xi, Qiulei; Zhuang, Qiulin; Han, Yusong; Gao, Ying; Ding, Qiurong; Wu, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Consumption of dietary fat has been reported to be associated with gastric cancer risk, but the results of epidemiologic studies remain inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence regarding the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates between dietary fat and gastric cancer risk. Random effects model was used to calculate the summary relative risk(SRR) in the highest versus lowest analysis. Categorical dose-response analysis was conducted to quantify the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using I2 and tau2(between study variance)statistics. Subgroup analysis and publication bias analysis were also performed. Results Twenty-two articles were included in the meta-analysis. The SRR for gastric cancer was 1.18 for individuals with highest intake versus lowest intake of total fat (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.999–1.39; n = 28; Pgastric cancer risk were observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that intake of total fat is potentially positively associated with gastric cancer risk, and specific subtypes of fats account for different effects. However, these findings should be confirmed by further well-designed cohort studieswith detailed dietary assessments and strict control of confounders. PMID:26402223

  7. Identification of Genetic Susceptibility to Childhood Cancer through Analysis of Genes in Parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plon, Sharon E.; Wheeler, David A.; Strong, Louise C.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Pirics, Michael; Meng, Qingchang; Cheung, Hannah C.; Begin, Phyllis R.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lewis, Lora; Biegel, Jaclyn A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical cancer genetic susceptibility analysis typically proceeds sequentially beginning with the most likely causative gene. The process is time consuming and the yield is low particularly for families with unusual patterns of cancer. We determined the results of in parallel mutation analysis of a large cancer-associated gene panel. We performed deletion analysis and sequenced the coding regions of 45 genes (8 oncogenes and 37 tumor suppressor or DNA repair genes) in 48 childhood cancer patients who also (1) were diagnosed with a second malignancy under age 30, (2) have a sibling diagnosed with cancer under age 30 and/or (3) have a major congenital anomaly or developmental delay. Deleterious mutations were identified in 6 of 48 (13%) families, 4 of which met the sibling criteria. Mutations were identified in genes previously implicated in both dominant and recessive childhood syndromes including SMARCB1, PMS2, and TP53. No pathogenic deletions were identified. This approach has provided efficient identification of childhood cancer susceptibility mutations and will have greater utility as additional cancer susceptibility genes are identified. Integrating parallel analysis of large gene panels into clinical testing will speed results and increase diagnostic yield. The failure to detect mutations in 87% of families highlights that a number of childhood cancer susceptibility genes remain to be discovered. PMID:21356188

  8. Breast implants and the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noels, Eline C.; Lapid, Oren; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Bastiaannet, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of cosmetic breast augmentation and the incidence of breast cancer have been increasing worldwide. It has been hypothesized that the risk of breast cancer may be greater among patients who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the

  9. Statistical methods for site-specific analysis of cancer among the A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.A.; Preston, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical methods are presented for joint, or simultaneous, analysis of the risks of several types of cancer for the A-bomb survivors. Previous analyses have been made either for all cancers except leukemia together, or have been done separately by cancer type. Either of these approaches has serious limitations, and the aim of joint analysis is to overcome these, while taking advantage of the strengths of each. The primary advantage of joint analysis is that models for risks of various cancer types can have some parameters in common, and others which are type-specific. This serves to overcome difficulties due to the limited data on specific cancer types. It also provides for significant tests comparing both type-specific risks and type-specific effects of modifying factors such as sex and age. These methods are exemplified here by joint analysis of three classes of cancer considered by the BEIR-V committee: (i) respiratory, (ii) digestive, and (iii) other cancers, excluding leukemia and breast cancer. The primary aim is to illustrate the general advantages of joint analyses, but in addition some comparison is made between the results of such joint analyses and the conclusions drawn by BEIR-V committee from separate analyses. (author)

  10. Management and performance features of cancer centers in Europe: A fuzzy-set analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anke; Lobo, Mariana Fernandes; van Dijk, Joris; Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Laranja-Pontes, Jose; da Conceicao Goncalves, Vitor; van Harten, Willem H.; Rocha-Goncalves, Francisco Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The specific aim of this study is to identify the performance features of cancer centers in the European Union by using a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The fsQCA method represents cases (cancer centers) as a combination of explanatory and outcome conditions. This study uses

  11. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, leukemia and brain cancer: update of two meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This new meta-analysis found a slight increase in the risk of brain cancer and of leukemia in populations occupationally exposed to electromagnetic fields. it does not, however, support the hypothesis that electromagnetic fields have an effect on these cancers. (author)

  12. Qualitative Improvement Methods Through Analysis of Inquiry Contents for Cancer Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yoo-Kyung; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Beom; Won, Young-Joo

    2017-06-25

    Background: In Korea, the national cancer database was constructed after the initiation of the national cancer registration project in 1980, and the annual national cancer registration report has been published every year since 2005. Consequently, data management must begin even at the stage of data collection in order to ensure quality. Objectives: To determine the suitability of cancer registries’ inquiry tools through the inquiry analysis of the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR), and identify the needs to improve the quality of cancer registration. Methods: Results of 721 inquiries to the KCCR from 2000 to 2014 were analyzed by inquiry year, question type, and medical institution characteristics. Using Stata version 14.1, descriptive analysis was performed to identify general participant characteristics, and chi-square analysis was applied to investigate significant differences in distribution characteristics by factors affecting the quality of cancer registration data. Results: The number of inquiries increased in 2005–2009. During this period, there were various changes, including the addition of cancer registration items such as brain tumors and guideline updates. Of the inquirers, 65.3% worked at hospitals in metropolitan cities and 60.89% of hospitals had 601–1000 beds. Tertiary hospitals had the highest number of inquiries (64.91%), and the highest number of questions by type were 353 (48.96%) for histological codes, 92 (12.76%) for primary sites, and 76 (10.54%) for reportable. Conclusions: A cancer registration inquiry system is an effective method when not confident about codes during cancer registration, or when confronting cancer cases in which previous clinical knowledge or information on the cancer registration guidelines are insufficient. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Gene expression signature analysis identifies vorinostat as a candidate therapy for gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Claerhout

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future.Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer-specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern.We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment.

  14. Self-care Concept Analysis in Cancer Patients: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is a frequently used concept in both the theory and the clinical practice of nursing and is considered an element of nursing theory by Orem. The aim of this paper is to identify the core attributes of the self-care concept in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We used Rodgers’ evolutionary method of concept analysis. The articles published in English language from 1980 to 2015 on nursing and non-nursing disciplines were analyzed. Finally, 85 articles, an MSc thesis, and a PhD thesis were selected, examined, and analyzed in-depth. Two experts checked the process of analysis and monitored and reviewed the articles. Results: The analysis showed that self-care concept is determined by four attributes of education, interaction, self-control, and self-reliance. Three types of antecedents in the present study were client-related (self-efficacy, self-esteem), system-related (adequate sources, social networks, and cultural factors), and healthcare professionals-related (participation). Conclusion: The self-care concept has considerably evolved among patients with chronic diseases, particularly cancer, over the past 35 years, and nurses have managed to enhance their knowledge about self-care remarkably for the clients so that the nurses in healthcare teams have become highly efficient and able to assume the responsibility for self-care teams. PMID:27803559

  15. Self-care Concept Analysis in Cancer Patients: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Self-care is a frequently used concept in both the theory and the clinical practice of nursing and is considered an element of nursing theory by Orem. The aim of this paper is to identify the core attributes of the self-care concept in cancer patients. We used Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis. The articles published in English language from 1980 to 2015 on nursing and non-nursing disciplines were analyzed. Finally, 85 articles, an MSc thesis, and a PhD thesis were selected, examined, and analyzed in-depth. Two experts checked the process of analysis and monitored and reviewed the articles. The analysis showed that self-care concept is determined by four attributes of education, interaction, self-control, and self-reliance. Three types of antecedents in the present study were client-related (self-efficacy, self-esteem), system-related (adequate sources, social networks, and cultural factors), and healthcare professionals-related (participation). The self-care concept has considerably evolved among patients with chronic diseases, particularly cancer, over the past 35 years, and nurses have managed to enhance their knowledge about self-care remarkably for the clients so that the nurses in healthcare teams have become highly efficient and able to assume the responsibility for self-care teams.

  16. Visual exposure and categorization performance positively influence 3- to 6-year-old children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Camille; Lafraire, Jérémie; Picard, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    The present research focuses on the effectiveness of visual exposure to vegetables in reducing food neophobia and pickiness among young children. We tested the hypotheses that (1) simple visual exposure to vegetables leads to an increase in the consumption of this food category, (2) diverse visual exposure to vegetables (i.e., vegetables varying in color are shown to children) leads to a greater increase in the consumption of this food category than classical exposure paradigms (i.e. the same mode of presentation of a given food across exposure sessions) and (3) visual exposure to vegetables leads to an increase in the consumption of this food category through a mediating effect of an increase in ease of categorization. We recruited 70 children aged 3-6 years who performed a 4-week study consisting of three phases: a 2-week visual exposure phase where place mats with pictures of vegetables were set on tables in school cafeterias, and pre and post intervention phases where willingness to try vegetables as well as cognitive performances were assessed for each child. Results indicated that visual exposure led to an increased consumption of exposed and non-exposed vegetables after the intervention period. Nevertheless, the exposure intervention where vegetables varying in color were shown to children was no more effective. Finally, results showed that an ease of categorization led to a larger impact after the exposure manipulation. The findings suggest that vegetable pictures might help parents to deal with some of the difficulties associated with the introduction of novel vegetables and furthermore that focusing on conceptual development could be an efficient way to tackle food neophobia and pickiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inferential comprehension of 3-6 year olds within the context of story grammar: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault-Veilleux, Paméla; Bouchard, Caroline; Trudeau, Natacha; Desmarais, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make inferences plays a crucial role in reading comprehension and the educational success of school-aged children. However, it starts to unfold much earlier than school entry and literacy. Given that it is likely to be targeted in speech language therapy, it would be useful for clinicians to have access to information about a developmental sequence of inferential comprehension. Yet, at this time, there is no clear proposition of the way in which this ability develops in young children prior to school entry. To reduce the knowledge gap with regards to inferential comprehension in young children by conducting a scoping review of the literature. The two objectives of this research are: (1) to describe typically developing children's comprehension of causal inferences targeting elements of story grammar, with the goal of proposing milestones in the development of this ability; and (2) to highlight key elements of the methodology used to gather this information in a paediatric population. A total of 16 studies from six databases that met the inclusion criteria were qualitatively analysed in the context of a scoping review. This methodological approach was used to identify common themes and gaps in the knowledge base to achieve the intended objectives. Results permit the description of key elements in the development of six types of causal inference targeting elements of story grammar in children between 3 and 6 years old. Results also demonstrate the various methods used to assess this ability in young children and highlight particularly interesting procedures for use with this younger population. These findings point to the need for additional studies to understand this ability better and to develop strategies to stimulate an evidence-based developmental sequence in children from an early age. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Speech and

  18. Breastfeeding, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Colostrum and Child Intelligence Quotient at Age 5-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; Armand, Martine; Peyre, Hugo; Garcia, Cyrielle; Forhan, Anne; De Agostini, Maria; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relationship of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in breast milk with children's IQ. In the French Etude des Déterminants pré- et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'Enfant (EDEN) mother-child cohort, colostrum samples were collected at the maternity unit. Colostrum omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were analyzed by gas chromatography. At age 5-6 years, the IQs of 1080 children were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. The relationships of breastfeeding duration and PUFA levels with children's IQs were examined by linear regression. Full scale IQ of ever breastfed children was 4.5 (95% CI: 2.7, 6.2) higher than never breastfed children in the unadjusted model, but this was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (1.3 points higher [-0.4, 3.0]). Any breastfeeding duration was associated with full scale (0.20 [0.00, 0.41] points/month) and verbal (0.31 [0.09, 0.52]) IQ. Colostrum linoleic acid (LA) levels were negatively associated with Verbal IQ (-0.6 [-1.1, 0.0] points per 1% level increase). Children exposed to colostrum high in LA and low in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had lower IQs than those exposed to colostrum high in DHA (3.0 [0.5, 5.5] points) and those exposed to colostrum low in LA and DHA (4.4 [1.6, 7.3] points). Finally, the association between breastfeeding duration and child IQ was stronger when LA levels were high. Duration of breastfeeding and colostrum PUFA levels were associated with children's IQs in the EDEN cohort. These data support breastfeeding and add evidence for the role of early PUFA exposure on childhood cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence of Complications Developed after the Insertion of Ventilation Tube in Children under 6 years old in 2008-2009

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    Nader Saki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the main treatments of chronic otitis media with effusion is ventilation of the middle ear with a ventilation tube (VT. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and the types of VT complications in children with otitis media with effusion in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, the medical records of 208 children (52 male and 35 female in Imam Khomeini and Apadana hospitals were reviewed. The children were between 10 months and 6 years old. The patients were followed up 12-18 months after ventilation tube insertion. We reviewed age, sex, postoperative otorrhea, eardrum atrophy, tympanosclerosis and persistent perforation. In all these patients, the indication for surgery was chronic middle ear effusion. The data were analyzed and presented as numbers and percentages using SPSS17.0. Results: Transient otorrhea occurred in 12.5% and delayed otorrhea in 8.2%. Otorrhea non-responsive to medical treatment was seen in 1.9%. Complications after tympanostomy tube extrusion included atrophy (27.8% myringosclerosis (37.9%, and persistent perforation (2.4%.The average extrusion time was 10.5 ±5 months (ranging between 3-22 months. Conclusion: After extrusion of the ventilation tube, patients should be followed up regularly for recurrence of OME. Myringosclerosis, tympanic membrane atrophy and otorrhea are the most common complications of otitis media with effusion. However, they are generally insignificant. Consequently, in the majority of these complications, there is no need for any treatment.

  20. SPORT-RECREATIVE ACTIVITIES 5-6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN IN KINDERGARDEN ’’CVRČAK’’ IN NIŠ

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    Mirjana Petrović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that body activities are needed in child such as food and drink. Nowadays way of life causes reduced movement in whole population, such as in preeschool children. Reducing movement in preeschool children can result many postural disturbances and body deformities. In that case it was made systematic medical chackup in children 5-6 years old from ’’Cvrčak’’- Niš kindergarden on food deformities during last seven years (2004-2010. Received results showed desastrous level on food arch, reduced function of food muscules. The idea was that reason for that was childs` reduced body activities, from 2008. year it was made and start to realize the project „komunication and culture in sport“, in regard to grow up sport culture level in children, parents and teachers. As all of us is born having some predispozitions, it was given chance to sport clubs to present to children, teachers and parents all of sport-recreative bases. In cooperation with physical education expert service Office and coatches from sport clubs in Niš, it was made the sport-recreative Project. In one cyclus during one year children are included in next sports: rhythmic gymnastics, judo, tennis, basketball, vollyball, foodball, athledics, skating, skiing. The project gave wonderfull results: a great number of children joined sport clubs, more sport-recreative activities in children, growing right mind about body exercises needs, such as better statistic results after childrens` systematic medical chackup in 2009. and 2010. year. Mentioned Project is lasted till now.

  1. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  2. Does gender discrimination transformed its face over few generations? exploring gender inequalities among under-6 year children in rural Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvi Selvaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender differences can be in any stage in the life cycle including before birth (feticide/sex selective abortions which have been objectively documented. This study tries to identify the gender differentials among the children which is a basic step in cascade process of female discrimination in the society. Objective: To study the gender differentials among children under 6 years in households of rural Ballabgarh, Haryana in terms of nutrition, health care seeking, social aspects and to see whether they differ by socio economic status. Methods: Two hundred households were selected purposively from four villages (50 households each by multi stage sampling during Mar – June 2010. Pre tested interview schedule was used to assess gender differences in nutrition (breast feeding, 'z' score; in health care seeking and in social aspects (Expenditure on birth related ceremonies and toys and dresses. Differences are measured in means or proportions. Determinants of Gender differentials were identified by logistic regression. Results: Girls were breast fed for five months lesser than boys (P < 0.02. Even though occurrences of common childhood illnesses were equal between the two, expenditures incurred to treat these illnesses were more among the boys (Boys Vs girls: Rs 181.3 Vs Rs 123.9. Proportion of illnesses treated from health facilities located outside the villages was higher among the boys [boys (22.2%, girls (11.4%]. Expenditures incurred during birth related social ceremonies were higher for boys (Rs 20311 and Rs 2487.5 respectively for boys and girls. Conclusion: In this patriarchal society, socio cultural norms have produced the gender gap which can have adverse impact on health of the female children.

  3. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis–Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from childhood to adolescence in the context of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis which can be considered a substantial methodological progress. In summary, gross motor coordination problems represent a serious issue for a healthy transition from childhood to adolescence which substantiates respective early movement

  4. [Plasma vitamin D levels in native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years of different ethnic origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Muro, J M; Yeste Fernández, D; Marín Muñoz, A; Fernández Cancio, M; Audí Parera, L; Carrascosa Lezcano, A

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional rickets is an emergent disease in Spain, and occurs particularly in black and dark-skinned infants and children from immigrant populations. The aim of this work was to ascertain the vitamin D reserve in a population of native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years. A prospective study was conducted at a Primary Healthcare Centre in Salt (Girona). 307 children with the following origin and race distribution: Caucasian (n=85; 28%), Sub-Saharan (n=101; 32.5%); Maghrebí (n=87, 28.0%); Central-American (n=20; 6.4%) and Indo-Pakistani (n=14; 4.5%). The biochemistry blood parameters studied were: calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxivitamin D, and parathormone. A nutritional survey was used to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake and degree of sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was detected in Caucasians (8%), Sub-Saharans (18%), Central-Americans (20%), Maghrebís (34.5%), and Indo-Pakistanis (64%). Of the children studied (n=9), 2.9% had serious vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml); only one child of Sub-Saharan origin met the biochemical criteria for classical rickets. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children not receiving vitamin D supplements in the first year of life. Plasma vitamin D concentrations were deficient in 22.5% of children under the age of six, being more prevalent in children of Indo-Pakistani and Maghrebí origin. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi Texture Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Continuum Using Multispectral Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chaddad

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to characterize the continuum of colorectal cancer (CRC using multiple texture features extracted from multispectral optical microscopy images. Three types of pathological tissues (PT are considered: benign hyperplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma.In the proposed approach, the region of interest containing PT is first extracted from multispectral images using active contour segmentation. This region is then encoded using texture features based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LoG filter, discrete wavelets (DW and gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM. To assess the significance of textural differences between PT types, a statistical analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test is performed. The usefulness of texture features is then evaluated quantitatively in terms of their ability to predict PT types using various classifier models.Preliminary results show significant texture differences between PT types, for all texture features (p-value < 0.01. Individually, GLCM texture features outperform LoG and DW features in terms of PT type prediction. However, a higher performance can be achieved by combining all texture features, resulting in a mean classification accuracy of 98.92%, sensitivity of 98.12%, and specificity of 99.67%.These results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of combining multiple texture features for characterizing the continuum of CRC and discriminating between pathological tissues in multispectral images.

  6. Vaginal cancer, an analysis of stages 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, G.J.; Tripcony, L.; Otten, G.; Nicklin, J.

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed of 70 patients with stages 1 and 2 vaginal cancer seen between 1982 and 1998 at the Royal Brisbane and Royal Women's Hospitals, Queensland. Forty three patients had previously had a hysterectomy. Stage, histology and grade were the most important prognostic factors. The 5 year survival rate for stage 1 was 71%, compared to 48% for stage 2. The majority (61 patients) had squamous cell carcinoma with a 68% survival compared to 22% for adenocarcinoma. Those with histological grade 1 and 2 had a 69% survival compared to 40% for grade 3 disease. Age, whether the patient had a previous hysterectomy, tumour site and size were not significant prognostic factors. The majority of patients were treated with radiotherapy alone. However those that had surgery alone or surgery combined with radiotherapy had a significantly improved survival compared to the radiotherapy alone group. The majority of tumours recurred in the loco-regional area and the median time to recurrence was 12 months

  7. Sirolimus effects on cancer incidence after kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Siddiqui, Kulsoom; Engels, Eric A

    2015-09-01

    Sirolimus, an immunosuppressant option for kidney transplant recipients, may reduce cancer risk by interrupting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. However, studies of sirolimus and cancer incidence in kidney recipients have not been definitive, and have had limited ability to examine specific cancer types. The literature was systematically reviewed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of kidney recipients that compared sirolimus users to sirolimus nonusers. Meta-analytic methods were used to obtain pooled estimates of the association between sirolimus use and incidence of total cancer and specific cancer types. Estimates were stratified by study type (RCT vs. observational) and use of cyclosporine (an immunosuppressant that affects DNA repair). Twenty RCTs and two observational studies were eligible for meta-analysis, including 39,039 kidney recipients overall. Sirolimus use was associated with lower overall cancer incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90), driven by a reduction in incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, IRR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.76). The protective effect of sirolimus on NMSC risk was most notable in studies comparing sirolimus against cyclosporine (IRR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04-0.84). After excluding NMSCs, there was no overall association between sirolimus and incidence of other cancers (IRR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.69-1.63). However, sirolimus use had associations with lower kidney cancer incidence (IRR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.20-0.81), and higher prostate cancer incidence (IRR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.17-2.91). Among kidney recipients, sirolimus users have lower NMSC risk, which may be partly due to removal of cyclosporine. Sirolimus may also reduce kidney cancer risk but did not appear protective for other cancers, and it may actually increase prostate cancer risk. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Detection of Mercury in Human Organs and Hair in a Case of a Homicidal Poisoning of a Woman Autopsied 6 Years After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In the described case of the death of a 53-year-old woman, no toxicological examination was performed directly after death (only an anatomopathological autopsy), although symptoms of serious gastrointestinal disturbances had been present (the woman had been hospitalized twice in the course of several months). It was assumed that the cause of death was myocardial infarction. Five years later, some new circumstances came to light which suggested that somebody could have administered some poison (metals, cyanides) to the woman. Toxicological analysis of postmortem samples from the corpse, exhumed 6 years after death by order of the public prosecutor's office, revealed high tissue mercury contents in biological material (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry): small intestine, 1516 ng/g; large intestine, 487 ng/g; liver, 1201 ng/g; heart muscle, 1023 ng/g; and scalp hair, 227 ng/g. In samples of soil from places near the coffin, negligible traces of mercury were found (0.5-1.5 ng/g); contamination by mercury from the environment was ruled out. The presented case is a rare example of recognition of mercury poisoning on the basis of the results of analysis of biological material from an exhumed cadaver.

  9. Self-care Concept Analysis in Cancer Patients: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is a frequently used concept in both the theory and the clinical practice of nursing and is considered an element of nursing theory by Orem. The aim of this paper is to identify the core attributes of the self-care concept in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We used Rodgers? evolutionary method of concept analysis. The articles published in English language from 1980 to 2015 on nursing and non-nursing disciplines were analyzed. Finally, 85 articles, an MSc thesis,...

  10. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer in Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani-Navai, Versa; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Yahyapour, Yousef; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Abediankenari, Saeid; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Toghani, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most common cancers and account for nearly half of all cancer-related deaths in Iran. There was a strong association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and urogenital cancers, in particular the cervix. However, there is no clear causal relationship in all types of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, the present study as a systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the prevalence and relation of HPV in GI cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis study assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus in GI cancers in Iran. Data were collected by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID and Iranmedex by English and Persian key words up to August 2016. Key words included: Human Papillomavirus, HPV, Cancer, Neoplasm, Carcinoma, Esophageal, colorectal, Gastrointestinal and Iran articles were entered in the EndNote software and duplicate papers were excluded. Data were extracted and analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software, Version 2 (CMA.V2) and random effects model. Finally, we included 17 studies in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of HPV in Iranian patients with GI cancers was 16.4% (CI95%: 10.4-24.9). Considering all HPV types, the odds ratio of GI cancers in positive patients was 3.03 (CI95%: 1.42-6.45) while in patients with HPV-16 was 3.62 (CI: 1.43-4.82). The results show a strong relationship between HPV infection especially high-risk HPV type 16 and GI cancers in Iranian population.

  11. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Au