WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer 1975-2004 featuring

  1. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  2. Features of triple-negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Plasilova, Magdalena L.; Hayse, Brandon; Killelea, Brigid K.; Horowitz, Nina R; Chagpar, Anees B.; Donald R. Lannin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using a large national database. TNBC is known to be an aggressive subtype, but national epidemiologic data are sparse. All patients with invasive breast cancer and known molecular subtype diagnosed in 2010 to 2011 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with and without TNBC were compared with respect to their sociodemographic and clinicopathologic features. TNBC w...

  3. Trends in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields in streams in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins, California, 1975-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.; Kent, Robert; Seleh, Dina K.; Knifong, Donna L.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Orlando, James L.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive database was assembled for the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Ana Basins in California on nutrient concentrations, flows, and point and nonpoint sources of nutrients for 1975-2004. Most of the data on nutrient concentrations (nitrate, ammonia, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus) were from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System database (35.2 percent), the California Department of Water Resources (21.9 percent), the University of California at Davis (21.6 percent), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STOrage and RETrieval database (20.0 percent). Point-source discharges accounted for less than 1 percent of river flows in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, but accounted for close to 80 percent of the nonstorm flow in the Santa Ana River. Point sources accounted for 4 and 7 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the Sacramento River at Freeport for 1985-2004. Point sources accounted for 8 and 17 percent of the total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, respectively, in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis for 1985-2004. The volume of wastewater discharged into the Santa Ana River increased almost three-fold over the study period. However, due to improvements in wastewater treatment, the total nitrogen load to the Santa Ana River from point sources in 2004 was approximately the same as in 1975 and the total phosphorus load in 2004 was less than in 1975. Nonpoint sources of nutrients estimated in this study included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application, manure production, and tile drainage. The estimated dry deposition of nitrogen exceeded wet deposition in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and in the basin area of the Santa Ana Basin, with ratios of dry to wet deposition of 1.7, 2.8, and 9.8, respectively. Fertilizer application increased appreciably from 1987 to 2004 in all three California basins, although manure production increased in the

  4. Elastographic features of triple negative breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džoić Dominković, Martina; Ivanac, Gordana; Kelava, Tomislav; Brkljačić, Boris

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate shear-wave elastographic (SWE) features of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) and determine useful discriminators from other types of invasive breast cancers. SWE features of 26 TNBC were reviewed and compared to 32 non-TNBC. Qualitative SWE features of lesion colour appearance, shape and homogeneity were analysed. Quantitative features were measured: mean (El mean), maximum (El max) and minimum (El min) elasticity value of the stiffest portion of the mass, mean elasticity of the surrounding tissue (El mean surr) and lesion to fat elasticity ratio (E ratio). TNBC are more often regularly shaped (57.7 % vs. 6.2 %), while non-TNBC are more commonly red (93.7 % vs 42.3 %) and heterogeneous (68.7 % vs 42.3 %). The stiffness of TNBC is significantly lower compared to non-TNBC. The two groups could be distinguished on the basis of El max (p = 0.001), El mean (p = 0.001), El min (p = 0.001) and E ratio (p = 0.0017). Lesion to fat elasticity ratio in TNBC group was statistically significantly lower than in the non-TNBC control group (p = 0.009). TNBC often demonstrate benign morphological features, are softer on SWE and have a lower lesion to fat stiffness ratio compared to the other, more common types of invasive breast cancers. • TNBC often demonstrate benign morphological features on SWE. • TNBC present on elastography mostly as red, regularly shaped, heterogeneous lesions. • TNBC are less stiff compared to other invasive breast cancers. • TNBC have lower lesion to fat stiffness ratio than other breast cancers.

  5. Epidemiological features of the skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlena Oshyvalova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of the study of oncological pathology of the skin is due to the annual increase of morbidity rate of skin cancer and significantly high mortality rate among patients. The research of epidemiological features of skin cancer will identify risk groups and those who need primary medical care.The basis for the research of the epidemiological features of skin cancer among the contingent of SIS – State Institution of Science “Research and Practical Centre of Preventive and Clinical Medicine” of the State Administrative Department (SIS “RPC PCM” SAD is personalized information on patients that's stored in the database of the SIS since 1996. For the retrospective epidemiological analysis were used data from 2005 to 2014. The obtained results were compared with corresponding figures among patients from Kyiv and Ukraine.Results: The morbidity rate of melanoma and NMCS (Non-melanoma cancers of the skin is higher than the corresponding figures of the population of Kyiv and Ukraine, despite the decline in the incidence of melanoma in 2014 by 14 % compared to the year 2013. The mortality rate of patients with skin cancer, mainly due to patients with melanoma, among the contingent of SIS is also higher than the corresponding figures of the population of Kyiv and Ukraine. The majority of patients with skin cancer were men of the 2nd period of middle age and elderly age. The highest morbidity rate of skin cancer was registered in age groups of 65–74 years old and 75 years old and older regardless of gender. The recurrence and prolongation of oncological process were registered among patients with melanoma in 2.3 %, and among patients with NMCS– 1.1 % annually.Conclusions: The obtained results showed a significant prevalence of skin cancer among the contingent of SIS compared with the morbidity rate of melanoma among the population of Kyiv and Ukraine. The analysis of epidemiological characteristics show the need for raising

  6. FEATURES OF BILATERAL BREAST CANCER NODAL METASTASIS

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    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    hyalinosis of the stroma.The observed features of nodal metastasis associated with the morphological characteristics of the tumor tissue, may act as prognostic markers in determining the risk of lymph node metastases in women with bilateral breast cancer, which would have a significant aid in determining the prognosis of an individual patient, and, therefore, mean individual approach to the tactics of treatment of such patients.

  7. Posterior breast cancer: Mammographic and ultrasonographic features

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    Janković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Posterior breast cancers are located in the prepectoral region of the breast. Owing to this distinctive anatomical localization, physical examination and mammographic or ultrasonographic evaluation can be difficult. The purpose of the study was to assess possibilities of diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasonography in detection and differentiation of posterior breast cancers. Methods. The study included 40 women with palpable, histopathological confirmed posterior breast cancer. Mammographic and ultrasonographic features were defined according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. Results. Based on standard two-view mammography 87.5%, of the cases were classified as BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories, while after additional mammographic views all the cases were defined as BIRADS 4 and 5 categories. Among 96 mammographic descriptors, the most frequent were: spiculated mass (24.0%, architectural distortion (16.7%, clustered microcalcifications (12.6% and focal asymmetric density (12.6%. The differentiation of the spiculated mass was significantly associated with the possibility to visualize the lesion at two-view mammography (p = 0.009, without the association with lesion diameter (p = 0.083 or histopathological type (p = 0.055. Mammographic signs of invasive lobular carcinoma were significantly different from other histopathological types (architectural distortion, p = 0.003; focal asymmetric density, p = 0.019; association of four or five subtle signs of malignancy, p = 0.006. All cancers were detectable by ultrasonography. Mass lesions were found in 82.0% of the cases. Among 153 ultrasonographic descriptors, the most frequent were: irregular mass (15.7%, lobulated mass (7.2%, abnormal color Doppler signals (20.3%, posterior acoustic attenuation (18.3%. Ultrasonographic BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were defined in 72.5% of the cases, without a significant difference among various histopathological types (p = 0

  8. Cancer: The Future Features in Iran

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    Mohammad Hasan lotfi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, cancer is the main reason of the 12 % of mortality around the world. It is the second most important reason of death in the developed countries and the third most important one in the developing countries. The frequency of cancer cases in the developed countries is much higher than that of the developing countries, but statistics signify that the rate of cancer incidence is increasing faster in the developing countries and it is predicted that in the oncoming decades, there will be more fluctuations in the frequency and incidence within these two poles of world countries; put another way, the developed countries will be supplanted by the developing ones. Considering this rate, there will be 15 million cases of cancer in 2020, 6 million (40% of whom in the developed countries and 9 million (60% of whom in the developing ones(1. Comparing the statistics, we will clearly feel the imminent danger: unbeknown to us, the cancer is spreading fast. The annual statistics show that incidence is increasing in our country according to the epidemiological transition, change in the appearance of diseases, and the lifestyle. Each year, 90000 cases are recorded in our country; it is forecast that this number will amount to 154000 cases in the next 15 years (70% increase(2. Currently, 205 out of 100000 men and 164 out of 100000 women contract cancer in the developed countries. In Iran, this number is as follows 134 out of 100000 for men and 128 out of 100000 for women, namely there is a 60 or 70 out of 100000 distance between the cancer incidence in Iran and that of the developed countries. In Iran, the rate of death to cancer incidence is 73% in a year, while the global average is 58 % and the average in the developed countries goes less than 50%. This high number, accompanied by exorbitant treatment expenditure, shows that there is not a well-established approach in Iran for planning and taking actions with regard to cancer. Generally, the change in

  9. Clinical Features of Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Complicated by Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Iijima, Yuki; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Sawahata, Michiru; Nakayama, Masayuki; Bando, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Objective For lung cancer complicated with sarcoidosis, there are no exact features that indicate whether lymphadenopathy is metastatic. This makes the validity of surgery uncertain for clinicians. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features of pulmonary sarcoidosis complicated by lung cancer, especially from the viewpoint of evaluating lymphadenopathy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records from 2004 to 2013 at our institution, and 18 patients who were diagnosed w...

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER IN SLOVENIA

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    Vera Pompe-Kirn

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Slovenia laryngeal cancer incidence increased in men in the 50s, 60s and 70s and was rather stable afterwards, while in women the increase was more evident in the 80s and 90s. In order to better understand the trends in incidence in the 80s and 90s as well as the survival of laryngeal cancer patients, we analyzed the data by subsites (glottis and other parts of larynx, and considered the phenomenon of field cancerisation. In addition, projection of laryngeal cancer incidence till the year 2009 was calculated.Methods. The basic source of information was the data of the Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Standard and special methods of descriptive epidemiology were used (the APC model, the person-years approach, Hakulinen’s package for the survival analysis.Results. In the period 1980–1999, in men there was an increase of glottic carcinoma incidence during the whole 20 years, a decrease of supraglottic carcinoma in the period 1996– 1999, and no change in the incidence of not defined subsites. The ratio supraglottis vs. glottis has been changing in favor of glottis carcinoma. The percentage of localized diseases at diagnosis of all subsites is slightly improving. For patients with glottic carcinoma diagnosed in 1993–1997 the relative fiveyear survival was 87% while for patients with cancer of other defined subsites of the larynx (in 86% supraglottis, 4% subglottis and 10% overlapping lesions it was 41%.Conclusions. Our prediction till 2009 is a small increase of the incidence in laryngeal cancer in men as well as in women. But also a better survival of patients could be expected. Further efforts for a more efficient primary as well as secondary prevention are needed.

  11. Prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: features and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To present the clinical features and outcome of management of patients with prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with prostate cancer managed in 14 years at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Results: Of 154,594 men above 40 years old who ...

  12. Epidemiology and histopathological features of esophageal cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... frequent site of origin of these tumors. Squamus cell carcinoma was commonest histologic type of tumor. In 15.2% of cases tumor was metastasis to other organs. In 46.6% were in advanced stage at diagnosis. Discussion: Based on result of present study, esophageal cancer in our country more presented in Squamus cell ...

  13. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity-specific markers of prostate...cancer Primary Aim #3: Identify methylation Quantitative Trait Loci In the U.S., there are pronounced racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence...vary by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity-specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  14. [Diagnosis characteristics features in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, Virgilia; Ghelase, St M; Badea, P; Ghelase, F; Vilcea, V

    2003-01-01

    Representing about 20% of all woman's cancers in all the world, breast cancer is a multifactorial disease with unknown mechanism facts which may explain the significant growth of incidence and mortality in the last few years. In the absence of screening program in majority cases the diagnosis is discovered too late. In this present study we have made a retrospective study on 487 patients during 1996-2000 at the 1st Surgical Clinic from Craiova. The purpose of this study was the defining of the population with an increased risk which has to be monitorized. In order to accomplish it, we have carefully supervised some of clinical parameters: sex, age, social environment, physiological and pathological antecedents, heredocolateral antecedents, and the constitutional type. The study method was the comparative analysis, and the evaluation according to the modern statistical methods. The risk factors, which can be surely used in defining the groups of population with an increased risk, which should be supervised for an active discover of breast cancer, as the resulted from our study, are: the age decades V, VI, and VII with maximum incidence in subgroups 45-49 and 60-64 years old; early monarch (67.15%); delayed menopause, over 50 years old (84.4%); long exposure to sexual hormones during the reproductive period (the period of menstrual cyclicity over 32 years old); the pathology of the benign tumor, the biggest risk belonging to the proliferative tumours (intraductal papiloma); hyperestrogenism. The only improving method of the therapeutical results in breast cancer is an early discover of it, which can be accomplished only by the implementation of a national program of active discover, in which the essential part belongs to the primary care helped by a widely-broadcast medical education.

  15. Clinical and Biological Features of Interval Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Mi; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2017-05-01

    Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC) is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the "mean sojourn time." It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) share many genomic and colonic site characteristics with I-CRCs. The clinical and biological features of I-CRC should be elucidated to prevent the development of interval colon cancer.

  16. Breast cancer molecular subtype classifier that incorporates MRI features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth J; Dashevsky, Brittany Z; Oh, Jung Hun; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Apte, Aditya P; Thakur, Sunitha B; Morris, Elizabeth A; Deasy, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    To use features extracted from magnetic resonance (MR) images and a machine-learning method to assist in differentiating breast cancer molecular subtypes. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. We identified 178 breast cancer patients between 2006-2011 with: 1) ERPR + (n = 95, 53.4%), ERPR-/HER2 + (n = 35, 19.6%), or triple negative (TN, n = 48, 27.0%) invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and 2) preoperative breast MRI at 1.5T or 3.0T. Shape, texture, and histogram-based features were extracted from each tumor contoured on pre- and three postcontrast MR images using in-house software. Clinical and pathologic features were also collected. Machine-learning-based (support vector machines) models were used to identify significant imaging features and to build models that predict IDC subtype. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to avoid model overfitting. Statistical significance was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Each support vector machine fit in the LOOCV process generated a model with varying features. Eleven out of the top 20 ranked features were significantly different between IDC subtypes with P machine-learning-based predictive model using features extracted from MRI that can distinguish IDC subtypes with significant predictive power. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:122-129. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clinicopathological Features and Management of Cancers in Lynch Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Aarnio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS is characterized by an autosomal dominant inheritance of the early onset of colorectal cancer (CRC and endometrial cancer, as well as increased risk for several other cancers including gastric, urinary tract, ovarian, small bowel, biliary tract, and brain tumors. The syndrome is due to a mutation in one of the four DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. The majority of LS patients and families can now be identified, and the underlying mutation detected using genetic diagnostics. Regular surveillance for CRC and endometrial cancer has proved beneficial for mutation carriers. However, screening for other tumors is also recommended even though experiences in the screening of these tumors is limited. Prophylactic colectomy, prophylactic hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy may be reasonable options for selected patients with LS. This paper describes the features and management of LS.

  18. Histomorphological features of combined forms of tuberculosis and lung cancer

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    Savenkov Y.F.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The were studied pathological features of combined forms of tuberculosis and non-small cell lung cancer in 72 patients who underwent radical surgical resection interventions from transsternal access with mediastinal lymph node dissection, with predominance of pneumonectomy - 63.9%. There were identified three main categories of pathological changes: cancer on the background of post-tuberculosis changes, cancer in tuberculoma, cancer in the wall of the active cavity. Post-tuberculosis changes were presented by dense centers, fibrosis, cirrhosis areas, sanitized cavities with histological predominance of coarse fiber connective tissue with giant cell granulomas, with areas characterized by the appearance of the lung tissue with atypical proliferation and metaplasia of bronchopulmonary epithelium, which is a precancerous condition. This malignant tumor process was presented mainly by adenocarcinomas and squamous cell cancer and differred by polymorphic macro- and microscopic picture. Cancer in tuberculoma and fibrous wall cavity differed by pronounced activity of tuberculosis process in the form of lymphohistiocytic infiltration, foci of caseous necrosis and presence of expressed granulation layer of Pirogov-Langhans’ cells. The basic morphological causes of carcinogenesis due to secondary changes of lung tissue in patients with tuberculosis were determined. The features of metastasis of malignant tumors on the background of specific tuberculous and post-tuberculosis changes in regional lymph nodes and the interrelation between the frequency of metastatic lesions with severity of tuberculosis and post-tuberculosis changes in them were studied; this has clinical significance in the surgical treatment of patients with concomitant forms of tuberculosis and lung cancer.

  19. Neural network feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Catherine M.; Rogers, Steven K.; Bauer, Kenneth W., Jr.; Steppe, Jean M.; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W.

    1995-04-01

    More than 50 million women over the age of 40 are currently at risk for breast cancer in the United States. Computer-aided diagnosis, as a second opinion to radiologists, will aid in decreasing the number of false readings of mammograms. Neural network benefits are exploited at both the classification and feature selection stages in the development of a computer-aided breast cancer diagnostic system. The multilayer perceptron is used to classify and contrast three features (angular second moment, eigenmasses, and wavelets) developed to distinguish benign from malignant lesion in a database of 94 difficult-to-diagnose digitized microcalcification cases. System performance of 74 percent correct classifications is achieved. Feature selection techniques are presented which further improve performance. Neural and decision boundary-based methods are implemented, compared, and validated to isolate and remove useless features. The contribution from this analysis is an increase to 88 percent correct classification in system performance. These feature selection techniques can also process risk factor data.

  20. Clinical Features of Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Complicated by Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yuki; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Sawahata, Michiru; Nakayama, Masayuki; Bando, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Objective For lung cancer complicated with sarcoidosis, there are no exact features that indicate whether lymphadenopathy is metastatic. This makes the validity of surgery uncertain for clinicians. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features of pulmonary sarcoidosis complicated by lung cancer, especially from the viewpoint of evaluating lymphadenopathy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records from 2004 to 2013 at our institution, and 18 patients who were diagnosed with sarcoidosis and lung cancer were thus found to be eligible. We investigated the relationship between the clinical and pathological findings of their swollen lymph nodes. Results Of 18 patients, 11 conducted surgery, and the postoperative pathological evaluation of swollen lymph nodes was done in 8 of the patients. Postoperative N factor in all these patients was 0, even though lymphatic metastasis had been suspected preoperatively because of the unbalanced distribution of lymphadenopathy or the accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose. Conclusion In patients with lung cancer complicated by sarcoidosis, the clinical assessment of the state of lymphadenopathy is difficult to make. However, as many of them tend to be benign, we suggest that surgical resection should be considered for a complete cure in the absence of any remote metastasis.

  1. Prostate cancer characterization on MR images using fractal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R; Ayache, A; Makni, N; Puech, P; Villers, A; Mordon, S; Betrouni, N

    2011-01-01

    Computerized detection of prostate cancer on T2-weighted MR images. The authors combined fractal and multifractal features to perform textural analysis of the images. The fractal dimension was computed using the Variance method; the multifractal spectrum was estimated by an adaptation of a multifractional Brownian motion model. Voxels were labeled as tumor/nontumor via nonlinear supervised classification. Two classification algorithms were tested: Support vector machine (SVM) and AdaBoost. Experiments were performed on images from 17 patients. Ground truth was available from histological images. Detection and classification results (sensitivity, specificity) were (83%, 91%) and (85%, 93%) for SVM and AdaBoost, respectively. Classification using the authors' model combining fractal and multifractal features was more accurate than classification using classical texture features (such as Haralick, wavelet, and Gabor filters). Moreover, the method was more robust against signal intensity variations. Although the method was only applied to T2 images, it could be extended to multispectral MR.

  2. Review of Histopathological and Molecular Prognostic Features in Colorectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouk, Ola; Schofield, John, E-mail: john.schofield@nhs.net [Department of Cellular Pathology, Maidstone Hospital, Hermitage Lane, Maidstone, Kent ME16 9QQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Prediction of prognosis in colorectal cancer is vital for the choice of therapeutic options. Histopathological factors remain paramount in this respect. Factors such as tumor size, histological type and subtype, presence of signet ring morphology and the degree of differentiation as well as the presence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement are well known factors that influence outcome. Our understanding of these factors has improved in the past few years with factors such as tumor budding, lymphocytic infiltration being recognized as important. Likewise the prognostic significance of resection margins, particularly circumferential margins has been appreciated in the last two decades. A number of molecular and genetic markers such as KRAS, BRAF and microsatellite instability are also important and correlate with histological features in some patients. This review summarizes our current understanding of the main histopathological factors that affect prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  3. Review of Histopathological and Molecular Prognostic Features in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schofield

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of prognosis in colorectal cancer is vital for the choice of therapeutic options. Histopathological factors remain paramount in this respect. Factors such as tumor size, histological type and subtype, presence of signet ring morphology and the degree of differentiation as well as the presence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement are well known factors that influence outcome. Our understanding of these factors has improved in the past few years with factors such as tumor budding, lymphocytic infiltration being recognized as important. Likewise the prognostic significance of resection margins, particularly circumferential margins has been appreciated in the last two decades. A number of molecular and genetic markers such as KRAS, BRAF and microsatellite instability are also important and correlate with histological features in some patients. This review summarizes our current understanding of the main histopathological factors that affect prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  4. Breast Cancer Detection with Gabor Features from Digital Mammograms

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    Yufeng Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new breast cancer detection algorithm, named the “Gabor Cancer Detection” (GCD algorithm, utilizing Gabor features is proposed. Three major steps are involved in the GCD algorithm, preprocessing, segmentation (generating alarm segments, and classification (reducing false alarms. In preprocessing, a digital mammogram is down-sampled, quantized, denoised and enhanced. Nonlinear diffusion is used for noise suppression. In segmentation, a band-pass filter is formed by rotating a 1-D Gaussian filter (off center in frequency space, termed as “Circular Gaussian Filter” (CGF. A CGF can be uniquely characterized by specifying a central frequency and a frequency band. A mass or calcification is a space-occupying lesion and usually appears as a bright region on a mammogram. The alarm segments (suspicious to be masses/calcifications can be extracted out using a threshold that is adaptively decided upon the histogram analysis of the CGF-filtered mammogram. In classification, a Gabor filter bank is formed with five bands by four orientations (horizontal, vertical, 45 and 135 degree in Fourier frequency domain. For each mammographic image, twenty Gabor-filtered images are produced. A set of edge histogram descriptors (EHD are then extracted from 20 Gabor images for classification. An EHD signature is computed with four orientations of Gabor images along each band and five EHD signatures are then joined together to form an EHD feature vector of 20 dimensions. With the EHD features, the fuzzy C-means clustering technique and k-nearest neighbor (KNN classifier are used to reduce the number of false alarms. The experimental results tested on the DDSM database (University of South Florida show the promises of GCD algorithm in breast cancer detection, which achieved TP (true positive rate = 90% at FPI (false positives per image = 1.21 in mass detection; and TP = 93% at FPI = 1.19 in calcification detection.

  5. [Feature extraction for breast cancer data based on geometric algebra theory and feature selection using differential evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hong, Wenxue

    2014-12-01

    The feature extraction and feature selection are the important issues in pattern recognition. Based on the geometric algebra representation of vector, a new feature extraction method using blade coefficient of geometric algebra was proposed in this study. At the same time, an improved differential evolution (DE) feature selection method was proposed to solve the elevated high dimension issue. The simple linear discriminant analysis was used as the classifier. The result of the 10-fold cross-validation (10 CV) classification of public breast cancer biomedical dataset was more than 96% and proved superior to that of the original features and traditional feature extraction method.

  6. Imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis according to molecular subtype: association with breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Chu, A Jung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. This was an institutional review board--approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review. DBT features and the cancer detectability score according to molecular subtype were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Of 288 invasive cancers, 194 were hormone receptor (HR)-positive, 48 were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and 46 were triple negative breast cancers. The most common DBT findings were irregular spiculated masses for HR-positive cancer, fine pleomorphic or linear branching calcifications for HER2 positive cancer and irregular masses with circumscribed margins for triple negative breast cancers (p Cancer detectability on DBT was not significantly different according to molecular subtype (p = 0.213) but rather affected by tumour size, breast density and presence of mass or calcifications. Breast cancers showed different imaging features according to molecular subtype; however, it did not affect the cancer detectability on DBT. Advances in knowledge: DBT showed characteristic imaging features of breast cancers according to molecular subtype. However, cancer detectability on DBT was not affected by molecular subtype of breast cancers.

  7. Feature Subset Selection for Cancer Classification Using Weight Local Modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guodong; Wu, Yan

    2016-10-05

    Microarray is recently becoming an important tool for profiling the global gene expression patterns of tissues. Gene selection is a popular technology for cancer classification that aims to identify a small number of informative genes from thousands of genes that may contribute to the occurrence of cancers to obtain a high predictive accuracy. This technique has been extensively studied in recent years. This study develops a novel feature selection (FS) method for gene subset selection by utilizing the Weight Local Modularity (WLM) in a complex network, called the WLMGS. In the proposed method, the discriminative power of gene subset is evaluated by using the weight local modularity of a weighted sample graph in the gene subset where the intra-class distance is small and the inter-class distance is large. A higher local modularity of the gene subset corresponds to a greater discriminative of the gene subset. With the use of forward search strategy, a more informative gene subset as a group can be selected for the classification process. Computational experiments show that the proposed algorithm can select a small subset of the predictive gene as a group while preserving classification accuracy.

  8. Systematic analysis of breast cancer morphology uncovers stromal features associated with survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Andrew H.; Sangoi, Ankur R.; Leung, Samuel; Marinelli, Robert J.; Nielsen, Torsten O.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; West, Robert B.; van de Rijn, Matt; Koller, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    The morphological interpretation of histologic sections forms the basis of diagnosis and prognostication for cancer. In the diagnosis of carcinomas, pathologists perform a semiquantitative analysis of a small set of morphological features to determine the cancer's histologic grade. Physicians use

  9. Features of ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAMURA, KANAKO; Banno, Kouji; YANOKURA, MEGUMI; Iida, Miho; Adachi, Masataka; MASUDA, KENTA; UEKI, ARISA; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Akira; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary ovarian cancer with a prevalence of 0.9–2.7%. Lynch syndrome accounts for 10–15% of hereditary ovarian cancers, while hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome accounts for 65–75% of these cancers. The lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in families with Lynch syndrome is ~8%, which is lower than colorectal and endometrial cancers, and ovarian cancer is not listed in the Amsterdam Criteria II. More than half of sporadic ovarian cancers are diagnosed in stage II...

  10. [Epidemiological and pathological features of cancer in Fez Boulemane region, Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chbani, L; Hafid, I; Berraho, M; Mesbahi, O; Nejjari, C; Amarti, A

    2013-03-01

    In Fez-Boulemane, Morocco, there is no cancer registry so there is a lack of information about the incidence and characteristics of cancer in the region. In this retrospective study we examined the epidemiological and pathological features of 5532 cases of cancer collected from the Department of Pathology in Hassan II University Hospital of Fes from 2004 to 2010. The mean age of the patients was 53.5 years and 52% were male. Digestive cancers and skin cancers were the most common. Digestive cancers were predominantly colorectal and stomach. Cancers of the urinary bladder and colorectal cancers were the leading cancers in men accounting respectively for 9% and 8% of all male cancers. In women, cancers of the breast (62%) and uterine cervix (22.6%) predominated. As a first step in cancer control in our area, establishment of a regional cancer registry is recommended.

  11. [MRI findings and pathological features of occult breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Yang, X T; Du, X S; Zhang, J X; Hou, L N; Niu, J L

    2018-01-23

    Objective: To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinicopathological features of primary lesions in patients with occult breast cancer (OBC). Methods: The imaging reports from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System in 2013 were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the morphology and the time signal intensity curve (TIC) of breast lesions in patients with OBC. The clinical and pathological characteristics of these patients were also included. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 24 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy and 18 of them had primary breast carcinoma in pathological sections. MRI detected 17 cases of primary lesions, including six masse lesions with a diameter of 0.6-1.2 cm (average 0.9 cm), and 11 non-mass lesions with four linear distributions, three segmental distributions, three focal distributions, and one regions distribution. Five patients had TIC typeⅠprimary lesions, ten had TIC type Ⅱ primary lesions, and two had TIC type Ⅲ primary lesions. Among all 34 cases, 23 of them had complete results of immunohistochemistry: 11 estrogen receptor (ER) positive lesions (47.8%), tenprogesterone receptor (PR) positive lesions (43.5%), seven human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positive lesions (30.4%), and 20high expression(>14%) of Ki-67 (87.0%). The proportion of type luminal A was 4.3%, type luminal B was 43.5%, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) was 30.4%, and HER-2 over expression accounted for 21.7%. Conclusions: The primary lesions of OBC usually manifested as small mass lesions, or focal, linear or segmental distribution of non-mass lesions. The positive rate of ER and PR was low, but the positive rate of HER-2 and the proliferation index of Ki-67 was high. Type luminal B is the most common molecular subtype.

  12. Preoperative erectile function and the pathologic features of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wook Jeong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We evaluated whether preoperative erectile function is associated with pathologic features in the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 1,743 men who underwent RP from November 2003 through May 2012. Of these, 50 patients who had prior hormone therapy and 272 patients who had lacking data of International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 were excluded. Men whose IIEF-5 was in the lower 25 percentile were assigned as Low Erectile Function group and the others were assigned as Control group. We compared pathologic features using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis between two groups. Results A total of 1,421 patients were included in the analysis. Patients’ age was 65.8 ± 6.7 years and prostate-specific antigen (PSA was 12.8±16.1 ng/mL. Median and low 25 percentile of IIEF-5 were 14 and 8, respectively. Low Erectile Function group (IIEF-5<8 had higher risk to have high Gleason score (≥7(4+3, odds ratio (OR 1.642, p<0.001 and large tumor volume (≥5 mL, OR 1.292, p=0.042. Even after adjusting age, year of surgery, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, PSA, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score, Low Erectile Function group still had higher risk of high Gleason score (OR 1.910, p<0.001 and large tumor volume (OR 1.390, p=0.04 by multivariable logistic regressions. Conclusions Lower erectile function before RP was associated with higher Gleason’s score and larger tumor volume in final pathology. Thus, erectile function could be a surrogate barometer for prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  13. Features of ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kanako; Banno, Kouji; Yanokura, Megumi; Iida, Miho; Adachi, Masataka; Masuda, Kenta; Ueki, Arisa; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Akira; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary ovarian cancer with a prevalence of 0.9-2.7%. Lynch syndrome accounts for 10-15% of hereditary ovarian cancers, while hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome accounts for 65-75% of these cancers. The lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in families with Lynch syndrome is ~8%, which is lower than colorectal and endometrial cancers, and ovarian cancer is not listed in the Amsterdam Criteria II. More than half of sporadic ovarian cancers are diagnosed in stage III or IV, but ≥80% of ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome are diagnosed in stage I or II. Ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome mostly have non-serous histology and different properties from those of sporadic ovarian cancers. A screening method for ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome has yet to be established and clinical studies of prophylactic administration of oral contraceptives are not available. However, molecular profiles at the genetic level indicate that ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome has a more favorable prognosis than sporadic ovarian cancer. Inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway and anti-epidermal growth factor antibodies may have efficacy for the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome.

  14. TCGA study identifies genomic features of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified novel genomic and molecular characteristics of cervical cancer that will aid in subclassification of the disease and may help target therapies that are most appropriate for each patient.

  15. Feature selection using genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis: experiment on three different datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalaei, Shokoufeh; Shahraki, Hadi; Rowhanimanesh, Alireza; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process uses a wrapper approach using GA-based on feature selection and PS-classifier. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. To

  16. Feature selection using genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis: experiment on three different datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufeh Aalaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process uses a wrapper approach using GA-based on feature selection and PS-classifier. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. Materials and Methods: To evaluate effectiveness of proposed feature selection method, we employed three different classifiers artificial neural network (ANN and PS-classifier and genetic algorithm based classifier (GA-classifier on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets include Wisconsin breast cancer dataset (WBC, Wisconsin diagnosis breast cancer (WDBC, and Wisconsin prognosis breast cancer (WPBC. Results: For WBC dataset, it is observed that feature selection improved the accuracy of all classifiers expect of ANN and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by PS-classifier. For WDBC and WPBC, results show feature selection improved accuracy of all three classifiers and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by ANN. Also specificity and sensitivity improved after feature selection. Conclusion: The results show that feature selection can improve accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of classifiers. Result of this study is comparable with the other studies on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets.

  17. Radiomics assessment of bladder cancer grade using texture features from diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xiaopan; Tian, Qiang; Li, Baojuan; Wu, Yuxia; Yang, Zengyue; Liang, Zhengrong; Liu, Yang; Cui, Guangbin; Lu, Hongbing

    2017-11-01

    To 1) describe textural features from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps that can distinguish low-grade bladder cancer from high-grade, and 2) propose a radiomics-based strategy for cancer grading using texture features. In all, 61 patients with bladder cancer (29 in high- and 32 in low-grade groups) were enrolled in this retrospective study. Histogram- and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)-based radiomics features were extracted from cancerous volumes of interest (VOIs) on DWI and corresponding ADC maps of each patient acquired from 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to select features with significant differences between low- and high-grade groups (P classifier using the optimal feature subset achieved the best performance in bladder cancer grading, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.861, 82.9%, 78.4%, and 87.1%, respectively. Textural features from DWI and ADC maps can reflect the difference between low- and high-grade bladder cancer, especially those GLCM features from ADC maps. The proposed radiomics strategy using these features, combined with the SVM classifier, may better facilitate image-based bladder cancer grading preoperatively. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1281-1288. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Clinical and Biological Features of Interval Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu Mi; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2017-01-01

    Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC) is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the ?mean sojourn time.? It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) share many genomic and colo...

  19. Cancer stem cells: a minor cancer subpopulation that redefines global cancer features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eEnderling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years cancer stem cells (CSCs have been hypothesized to comprise only a minor subpopulation in solid tumors that drives tumor initiation, development and metastasis; the so-called cancer stem cell hypothesis. While a seemingly trivial statement about numbers, much is put at stake. If true, the conclusions of many studies of cancer cell populations could be challenged, as the bulk assay methods upon which they depend have, by and large, taken for granted the notion that a ‘typical’ cell of the population possesses the attributes of a cell capable of perpetuating the cancer, i.e., a CSC. In support of the CSC hypothesis, populations enriched for so-called ‘tumor-initiating’ cells have demonstrated a corresponding increase in tumorigenicity as measured by dilution assay, although estimates have varied widely as to what the fractional contribution of tumor-initiating cells is in any given population. Some have taken this variability to suggest the CSC fraction may be nearly 100% after all, countering the CSC hypothesis, and that there are simply assay-dependent error rates in our ability to ‘reconfirm’ CSC status at the cell level. To explore this controversy more quantitatively, we developed a simple theoretical model of cancer stem cell-driven tumor growth dynamics. Assuming CSC and non-stem cancer cell subpopulations coexist to some degree, we evaluated the impact of an environmentally-dependent cancer stem cell symmetric division probability and a non-stem cancer cell proliferation capacity on tumor progression and morphology. Our model predicts, as expected, that the frequency of CSC divisions that are symmetric highly influences the frequency of CSCs in the population, but goes on to predict the two frequencies can be widely divergent, and that spatial constraints will tend to increase the CSC fraction over time.

  20. Features of members of a prostate cancer patients' association.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Fischer, M.; Visser, A.; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: the objective of this study was to compare prostate cancer (PC) patients who are and who are not members of the Dutch Prostate Cancer Patients' Association (PCPA) with respect to demographic, medical and psychosocial characteristics. Methods: using a cross-sectional design, 88

  1. Features of members of a prostate cancer patients’ association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Fischer, M.; Visser, Adriaan; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare prostate cancer (PC) patients who are and who are not members of the Dutch prostate cancer patients’ association (PCPA) with respect to demographic, medical and psychosocial characteristics. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 88

  2. Special radiobiological features of second cancer risk after particle radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Klaus-Rüdiger

    2017-10-01

    In absolute terms: second cancer risks from radiotherapy of first cancers in adults are small compared to the benefits from radiotherapy but this is not so for radiotherapy of childhood cancers. Moreover, the radiation dose dependence of cancer induction differs between organs and tissues. The organ-specific dose dependence of second cancer risks may indicate the existence of different radiobiological mechanisms. As an inevitable consequence of the age dependence of organ sensitivity to second cancer induction, the organ/tissue weighting factors which have been proposed by ICRP for calculating effective dose (the dose unit Sv) and for risk estimation in the general population should not be used in medical radiation exposures. In adult cancer radiotherapy, the most common unwanted effect is local tumour recurrence whereas both, severe late normal tissue damage and radiation-induced second cancers are rare, around 1% of locally controlled cancer patients. In childhood cancers, local failures are rare (particle radiotherapy for childhood cancers is the possibility to exploit their physical characteristics to reduce the radiation exposure to organs and tissues close to and distant from the primary cancer which is to be targeted. However, the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation doses within the proton beam is not a constant and the relative biological effectiveness of the neutrons is not known as far as the mechanisms of late normal tissue damage and second cancer risk are concerned. In view of the highly charged discussions of the potential risks of treatment-induced seecond cancers from the neutron contamination of exposure doses in out-of-PTV critical organs a comprehensive European project called ANDANTE was performed which integrated the disciplines of radiation physics, molecular biology, systems biology modelling and epidemiology in order to investigate the RBE of induction of cancer from exposure to neutrons compared to photons. Since out

  3. Diagnosis of Distant Metastasis of Lung Cancer: Based on Clinical and Radiomic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the distant metastasis possibility based on computed tomography (CT radiomic features in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 348 patients with lung cancer enrolled between 2014 and February 2015. A feature set containing clinical features and 485 radiomic features was extracted from the pretherapy CT images. Feature selection via concave minimization (FSV was used to select effective features. A support vector machine (SVM was used to evaluate the predictive ability of each feature. RESULTS: Four radiomic features and three clinical features were obtained by FSV feature selection. Classification accuracy by the proposed SVM with SGD method was 71.02%, and the area under the curve was 72.84% with only the radiomic features extracted from CT. After the addition of clinical features, 89.09% can be achieved. CONCLUSION: The radiomic features of the pretherapy CT images may be used as predictors of distant metastasis. And it also can be used in combination with the patient's gender and tumor T and N phase information to diagnose the possibility of distant metastasis in lung cancer.

  4. Cowden Syndrome Presenting as Breast Cancer: Imaging and Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae [Dept. of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Hyeong Gon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hye Shin [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Cowden syndrome is an uncommon, autosomal dominant disease which is characterized by multiple hamartomas of the skin, mucous membrane, brain, breast, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of Cowden syndrome implicates an increased risk of developing breast cancer. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with Cowden syndrome that presented as breast cancer with concomitant bilateral exuberant benign masses in both breasts.

  5. Colorectal cancer complicated by perforation. Specific features of surgical tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Shchaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the immediate results of surgical interventions for colorectal cancer complicated by perforation.Materials and methods. The immediate results of surgical treatment were retrospectively analyzed in 56 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by perforated colon cancer, who had been treated at Smolensk surgical hospitals in 2001 to 2013. Patients with diastatic perforation of the colon in the presence of decompensated obturation intestinal obstruction of tumor genesis were not included into this investigation.Results. The immediate results of uni- and multistage surgical interventions were analyzed in relation to the extent of peritonitis and the stage of colon cancer. More satisfactory immediate results were observed after multistage surgical treatment. Following these interventions, a fatal outcome of disseminated peritonitis in the presence of performed colorectal cancer was recorded in 8 (53.3 % cases whereas after symptomatic surgery there were 11 (67.8 % deaths. A fatal outcome was noted in 1 case (7.7 % after multistage surgery.Discussion. The results of surgical treatment in the patients with perforated colorectal cancer are directly related to the degree of peritonitis and the choice of surgical tactics.

  6. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HEREDITARY OVARIAN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kotiv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most established risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. The purpose of the study was to analyze BRCA1/2 testing in ovarian cancer patients. Materials and methods. We analyzed 222 patients with ovarian cancer (OC who underwent genetic testing. Results. Recurrent Slavic mutations in these genes were detected in 60/222 (27% patients.104 patients lacked any clinical signs of hereditary form of the disease, however BRCA1/2 genetic defects were identified among 11 (11% of these women. BRCA1/2-associated carcinomas were characterized by more advanced stage at diagnosis and predominance of high-grade serous histological tumor subtype. Conclusion. These results emphasize the need for BRCA1/2 testing for all patients with OC. BRCA1/2-associated carcinomas have clinical and pathological cgaracteristics, which should be considered while planning therapy. 

  7. Inflammation, Autophagy, and Obesity: Common Features in the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gukovsky, Ilya; Li, Ning; Todoric, Jelena; Gukovskaya, Anna; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and autophagy are cellular defense mechanisms. When these processes are deregulated (deficient or overactivated) they produce pathologic effects, such as oxidative stress, metabolic impairments, and cell death. Unresolved inflammation and disrupted regulation of autophagy are common features of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, obesity, a risk factor for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, promotes inflammation and inhibits or deregulates autophagy, creating an env...

  8. Management and performance features of cancer centers in Europe: A fuzzy-set analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anke; Lobo, Mariana Fernandes; van Dijk, Joris; Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Laranja-Pontes, Jose; da Conceicao Goncalves, Vitor; van Harten, Willem H.; Rocha-Goncalves, Francisco Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The specific aim of this study is to identify the performance features of cancer centers in the European Union by using a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The fsQCA method represents cases (cancer centers) as a combination of explanatory and outcome conditions. This study uses

  9. (18)F-FDG PET radiomics approaches: comparing and clustering features in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Rahman, Tasmiah; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamada, Shizuka; Tsuyoshi, Hideaki; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Yoshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2017-11-01

    The aims of our study were to find the textural features on (18)F-FDG PET/CT which reflect the different histological architectures between cervical cancer subtypes and to make a visual assessment of the association between (18)F-FDG PET textural features in cervical cancer. Eighty-three cervical cancer patients [62 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 21 non-SCCs (NSCCs)] who had undergone pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled. A texture analysis was performed on PET/CT images, from which 18 PET radiomics features were extracted including first-order features such as standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), second- and high-order textural features using SUV histogram, normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix, respectively. These features were compared between SCC and NSCC using a Bonferroni adjusted P value threshold of 0.0028 (0.05/18). To assess the association between PET features, a heat map analysis with hierarchical clustering, one of the radiomics approaches, was performed. Among 18 PET features, correlation, a second-order textural feature derived from NGLCM, was a stable parameter and it was the only feature which showed a robust trend toward significant difference between SCC and NSCC. Cervical SCC showed a higher correlation (0.70 ± 0.07) than NSCC (0.64 ± 0.07, P = 0.0030). The other PET features did not show any significant differences between SCC and NSCC. A higher correlation in SCC might reflect higher structural integrity and stronger spatial/linear relationship of cancer cells compared with NSCC. A heat map with a PET feature dendrogram clearly showed 5 distinct clusters, where correlation belonged to a cluster including MTV and TLG. However, the association between correlation and MTV/TLG was not strong. Correlation was a relatively independent PET feature in cervical cancer. (18)F-FDG PET textural features might reflect

  10. CLINICAL AND PATHOHISTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF BREAST CANCER IN ELDERLY WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Buđevac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in elderly women is the major health issue and therapeutic challenge. The aim of the study was to determine specific characteristics of breast cancer biology in elderly patients. Retrospectively, we followed: breast cancer clinical and pathohistological characteristics of patients treated during the 5-year period at the Surgical Clinic in Nis. Patients were divided into study (≥65 years and control group (<65 years The study involved 1098 women (431 from the study group; 667 from the control group. The mean age was 71, 3 years in the study group, and 50, 7 years in the control group. Ductal carcinoma was the most frequently observed histological early-stage type (70,3% vs. 61,92%; p = 0.5236. The majority of our patients presented with an early-stage disease (69,02% vs. 60,20%. Estrogen receptor positive tumors occurred in 67.88% of elderly patients versus 28.42% of young cases (p < 1x10-8, while negative axillary lymph nodes were observed in 45,78% and 34,40% of patients in the elderly and young group, respectively. There are some clinical and pathohistological breast cancer specifics in elderly patients. This study showed similar pathohistological tumor characteristics. Our results confirm that elderly patients present with more favorable prognostic factors (estrogen receptor positive tumors, negative axillary lymph nodes.

  11. [Cancer stem cells: Radiotherapeutic features and therapeutic targets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méry, Benoîte; Rancoule, Chloé; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Espenel, Sophie; Wozny, Anne-Sophie; Simonet, Stéphanie; Vallard, Alexis; Alphonse, Gersende; Ardail, Dominique; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire; Magné, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidences suggest that many types of cancers contain a cell population presenting stem cell properties. While the great majority of tumor cells are destined to differentiate, and eventually stop dividing, only a minority population of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), possesses extensive self-renewal capability and can recapitulate tumor pathophysiology in an immune-compromised animal model. Tumor initiating cells have been identified and isolated in many tumor types including brain, colon and prostate. They are virtually resistant to radiation and may contribute to treatment resistance and recurrence. Therefore, therapies specifically targeting CSCs will likely be needed for complete tumor eradication. The present study reviews published reports identifying the mechanisms of radioresistance of CSCs and potential targets based on the pathways of self-renewal. Further elucidation of pathways that regulate CSCs may provide insights into the development of novel innovative therapies. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Features of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease as Predictors of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Laurie L; Jacobson, Sean; Lynch, David A; Foreman, Marilyn G; Flenaugh, Eric L; Hersh, Craig P; Sciurba, Frank C; Wilson, David O; Sieren, Jessica C; Mulhall, Patrick; Kim, Victor; Kinsey, C Matthew; Bowler, Russell P

    2018-02-13

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of death and hospitalization for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, (COPD); a detailed understanding of which clinical features of COPD increase risk is needed. To identify clinical and imaging features of smokers, with and without COPD, that are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, we performed a nested case-control study of COPDGene subjects with and without lung cancer, age 45-80, who smoked at least 10-pack years. Baseline evaluation included: spirometry, high-resolution chest CT, and respiratory questionnaires. New lung cancer diagnoses were identified over eight years of longitudinal follow-up. Lung cancer cases were matched 1:4 with control subjects for age, race, gender, and smoking history. Multiple logistic regressions were used to determine features predictive of lung cancer. Features associated with a future risk of lung cancer included: decreased FEV 1 /FVC (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.28 per 10% decrease, 95%CI 1.12- 1.46), visual severity of emphysema (OR 2.31, none-trace vs mild-advanced, 95%CI 1.41-3.86), and respiratory exacerbations prior to study entry (OR 1.39 per increased events, 0, 1, > 2, 95%CI 1.04-1.85). Respiratory exacerbations were also associated with small-cell lung cancer histology (OR 3.57, 95%CI, 1.47-10). The degree of COPD severity, including airflow obstruction, visual emphysema and respiratory exacerbations are independently predictive of lung cancer. These risk factors should be further studied as inclusion and exclusion criteria for the survival benefit of lung cancer screening. Studies are needed to determine if reduction in respiratory exacerbations among smokers can reduce lung cancer risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketiah, Gabriel; Elschot, Mattijs; Kim, Eugene; Teruel, Jose R. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Scheenen, Tom W. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bathen, Tone F.; Selnaes, Kirsten M. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. 3T multiparametric-MRI was performed on 23 prostate cancer patients prior to prostatectomy. Textural features [angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, entropy], apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and DCE pharmacokinetic parameters (K{sup trans} and V{sub e}) were calculated from index tumours delineated on the T2W, DW, and DCE images, respectively. The association between the textural features and prostatectomy GS and the MRI-derived parameters, and the utility of the parameters in differentiating between GS 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers were assessed statistically. ASM and entropy correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with both GS and median ADC. Contrast correlated moderately with median ADC. The textural features correlated insignificantly with K{sup trans} and V{sub e}. GS 4+3 cancers had significantly lower ASM and higher entropy than 3+4 cancers, but insignificant differences in median ADC, K{sup trans}, and V{sub e}. The combined texture-MRI parameters yielded higher classification accuracy (91%) than the individual parameter sets. T2W MRI-derived textural features could serve as potential diagnostic markers, sensitive to the pathological differences in prostate cancers. (orig.)

  14. Clinicopathological features of non-familial colorectal cancer with high-frequency microsatellite instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin; Xiao-ming, Meng; Jian-qiu, Sheng; Zi-tao, Wu; Lei, Fu; He-juan, An; Ying, Han; Shi-rong, Li

    2010-12-01

    To explore the clinicopathological features of non-familial colorectal cancer with high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H). One hundred and fifty patients with colorectal cancer who had no family history were enrolled in this study from June 2006 to June 2008. Five standard microsatellite loci including BAT25, BAT26, D2S123, D5S346, and D17S250 were amplified with immunofluorescent polymerase chain reaction. The patient information including age, sex, and tumor location was recorded. Pathological features including differentiation, mucinous differentiation, histological heterogeneity, and Crohn's-like reaction were observed under light microscope. The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TLs, CD4+ and CD8+) was detected by means of immunohistochemistry. A regression equation was obtained by stepwise logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between MSI-H phenotype in colorectal cancer and pathological features. MSI-H phenotype occurred in 13.33% of the 150 patients with non-familial colorectal cancer. Poor differentiation, histological heterogeneity, Crohn's-like reaction, and presence of TLs were found to be independent factors to identify MSI-H non-familial colorectal cancer. Logistic regression equation showed an overall sensitivity of 70.0%, specificity of 99.2%, and accuracy of 95.3% in identifying MSI-H non-familial colorectal cancer. MSI-H non-familial colorectal cancer manifests specific pathological features, which may be relied upon for effective identification of that disease.

  15. Modified Bat Algorithm for Feature Selection with the Wisconsin Diagnosis Breast Cancer (WDBC) Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Suganthi; Veluchamy, Malathi

    2017-05-01

    Early diagnosis of breast cancer is essential to save lives of patients. Usually, medical datasets include a large variety of data that can lead to confusion during diagnosis. The Knowledge Discovery on Database (KDD) process helps to improve efficiency. It requires elimination of inappropriate and repeated data from the dataset before final diagnosis. This can be done using any of the feature selection algorithms available in data mining. Feature selection is considered as a vital step to increase the classification accuracy. This paper proposes a Modified Bat Algorithm (MBA) for feature selection to eliminate irrelevant features from an original dataset. The Bat algorithm was modified using simple random sampling to select the random instances from the dataset. Ranking was with the global best features to recognize the predominant features available in the dataset. The selected features are used to train a Random Forest (RF) classification algorithm. The MBA feature selection algorithm enhanced the classification accuracy of RF in identifying the occurrence of breast cancer. The Wisconsin Diagnosis Breast Cancer Dataset (WDBC) was used for estimating the performance analysis of the proposed MBA feature selection algorithm. The proposed algorithm achieved better performance in terms of Kappa statistic, Mathew’s Correlation Coefficient, Precision, F-measure, Recall, Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Relative Absolute Error (RAE) and Root Relative Squared Error (RRSE). Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Imaging features of automated breast volume scanner: Correlation with molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng-Yang; Lu, Qing; Huang, Bei-Jian; Xia, Han-Sheng; Yan, Li-Xia; Wang, Xi; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the imaging features obtained by an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We examined 303 malignant breast tumours by ABVS for specific imaging features and by immunohistochemical analysis to determine the molecular subtype. ABVS imaging features, including retraction phenomenon, shape, margins, echogenicity, post-acoustic features, echogenic halo, and calcifications were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictive factors of the molecular subtypes. By univariate logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of the Luminal-A subtype (n=128) were retraction phenomenon (odds ratio [OR]=10.188), post-acoustic shadowing (OR=5.112), and echogenic halo (OR=3.263, Pimaging features, especially retraction phenomenon, have a strong correlation with the molecular subtypes, expanding the scope of ultrasound in identifying breast cancer subtypes with confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution and pathological features of pancreatic, ampullary, biliary and duodenal cancers resected with pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasegaram, Manju D; Chiam, Su C; Chen, John W; Khalid, Aisha; Mittinty, Murthy L; Neo, Eu L; Tan, Chuan P; Dolan, Paul M; Brooke-Smith, Mark E; Kanhere, Harsh; Worthley, Chris S

    2015-02-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) has the worst survival of all periampullary cancers. This may relate to histopathological differences between pancreatic cancers and other periampullary cancers. Our aim was to examine the distribution and histopathologic features of pancreatic, ampullary, biliary and duodenal cancers resected with a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to examine local trends of periampullary cancers resected with a PD. A retrospective review of PD between January 2000 and December 2012 at a public metropolitan database was performed. The institutional ethics committee approved this study. There were 142 PDs during the study period, of which 70 cases were pre-2010 and 72 post-2010, corresponding to a recent increase in the number of cases. Of the 142 cases, 116 were for periampullary cancers. There were also proportionately more PD for PC (26/60, 43% pre-2010 vs 39/56, 70% post-2010, P = 0.005). There were 65/116 (56%) pancreatic, 29/116 (25%), ampullary, 17/116 (15%) biliary and 5/116 (4%) duodenal cancers. Nodal involvement occurred more frequently in PC (78%) compared to ampullary (59%), biliary (47%) and duodenal cancers (20%), P = 0.002. Perineural invasion was also more frequent in PC (74%) compared to ampullary (34%), biliary (59%) and duodenal cancers (20%), P = 0.002. Microvascular invasion was seen in 57% pancreatic, 38% ampullary, 41% biliary and 20% duodenal cancers, P = 0.222. Overall, clear margins (R0) were achieved in fewer PC 41/65 (63%) compared to ampullary 27/29 (93%; P = 0.003) and biliary cancers 16/17 (94%; P = 0.014). This study highlights that almost half of PD was performed for cancers other than PC, mainly ampullary and biliary cancers. The volume of PD has increased in recent years with an increased proportion being for PC. PC had higher rates of nodal and perineural invasion compared to ampullary, biliary and duodenal cancers.

  18. NOTE: Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S. S.; Salama, M. M. A.; Kamel, M.; El-Saadany, E. F.; Rizkalla, K.; Chin, J.

    2005-08-01

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yeilding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN.

  19. Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, S S [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Salama, M M A [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kamel, M [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); El-Saadany, E F [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Rizkalla, K [University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, Suite 2, London, Ontario N6A 5B8 (Canada); Chin, J [University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, Suite 2, London, Ontario N6A 5B8 (Canada)

    2005-08-07

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yeilding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN. (note)

  20. Aspirin counteracts cancer stem cell features, desmoplasia and gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyao; Liu, Li; Fan, Pei; Bauer, Nathalie; Gladkich, Jury; Ryschich, Eduard; Bazhin, Alexandr V.; Giese, Nathalia A.; Strobel, Oliver; Hackert, Thilo; Hinz, Ulf; Gross, Wolfgang; Fortunato, Franco; Herr, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by an extremely poor prognosis. An inflammatory microenvironment triggers the pronounced desmoplasia, the selection of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and therapy resistance. The anti-inflammatory drug aspirin is suggested to lower the risk for PDA and to improve the treatment, although available results are conflicting and the effect of aspirin to CSC characteristics and desmoplasia in PDA has not yet been investigated. We characterized the influence of aspirin on CSC features, stromal reactions and gemcitabine resistance. Four established and 3 primary PDA cell lines, non-malignant cells, 3 patient tumor-derived CSC-enriched spheroidal cultures and tissues from patients who did or did not receive aspirin before surgery were analyzed using MTT assays, flow cytometry, colony and spheroid formation assays, Western blot analysis, antibody protein arrays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), immunohistochemistry and in vivo xenotransplantation. Aspirin significantly induced apoptosis and reduced the viability, self-renewal potential, and expression of proteins involved in inflammation and stem cell signaling. Aspirin also reduced the growth and invasion of tumors in vivo, and it significantly prolonged the survival of mice with orthotopic pancreatic xenografts in combination with gemcitabine. This was associated with a decreased expression of markers for progression, inflammation and desmoplasia. These findings were confirmed in tissue samples obtained from patients who had or had not taken aspirin before surgery. Importantly, aspirin sensitized cells that were resistant to gemcitabine and thereby enhanced the therapeutic efficacy. Aspirin showed no obvious toxic effects on normal cells, chick embryos or mice. These results highlight aspirin as an effective, inexpensive and well-tolerated co-treatment to target inflammation, desmoplasia and CSC features PDA. PMID:25846752

  1. Estimation of T2 relaxation time of breast cancer: Correlation with clinical, imaging and pathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.

  2. Lung cancer risk prediction method based on feature selection and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nan-Nan; Hu, Liang; Li, Tai-Hui

    2014-01-01

    A method to predict the risk of lung cancer is proposed, based on two feature selection algorithms: Fisher and ReliefF, and BP Neural Networks. An appropriate quantity of risk factors was chosen for lung cancer risk prediction. The process featured two steps, firstly choosing the risk factors by combining two feature selection algorithms, then providing the predictive value by neural network. Based on the method framework, an algorithm LCRP (lung cancer risk prediction) is presented, to reduce the amount of risk factors collected in practical applications. The proposed method is suitable for health monitoring and self-testing. Experiments showed it can actually provide satisfactory accuracy under low dimensions of risk factors.

  3. Lowered circulating aspartate is a metabolic feature of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhou, Bingsen; Zhao, Aihua; Qiu, Yunping; Zhao, Xueqing; Garmire, Lana; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Yu, Herbert; Yen, Yun; Jia, Wei

    2015-10-20

    Distinct metabolic transformation is essential for cancer cells to sustain a high rate of proliferation and resist cell death signals. Such a metabolic transformation results in unique cellular metabolic phenotypes that are often reflected by distinct metabolite signatures in tumor tissues as well as circulating blood. Using a metabolomics platform, we find that breast cancer is associated with significantly (p = 6.27E-13) lowered plasma aspartate levels in a training group comprising 35 breast cancer patients and 35 controls. The result was validated with 103 plasma samples and 183 serum samples of two groups of primary breast cancer patients. Such a lowered aspartate level is specific to breast cancer as it has shown 0% sensitivity in serum from gastric (n = 114) and colorectal (n = 101) cancer patients. There was a significantly higher level of aspartate in breast cancer tissues (n = 20) than in adjacent non-tumor tissues, and in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line than in MCF-10A cell lines, suggesting that the depleted level of aspartate in blood of breast cancer patients is due to increased tumor aspartate utilization. Together, these findings suggest that lowed circulating aspartate is a key metabolic feature of human breast cancer.

  4. Shear-wave elastographic features of breast cancers: comparison with mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Park, In-Ae

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quantitative and qualitative shear-wave elastographic (SWE) features of breast cancers with mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics. This prospective study was conducted with institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Shear-wave elastography was performed for 30 invasive breast cancers in 30 women before surgery. The mechanical elasticity of a fresh breast tissue section, correlated with the ultrasound image, was measured using an indentation system. Quantitative (maximum, mean, minimum, and standard deviation of elasticity in kilopascals) and qualitative (color heterogeneity and presence of signal void areas in the mass) SWE features were compared with mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics using the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Maximum SWE values showed a moderate correlation with maximum mechanical elasticity (r = 0.530, P = 0.003). There were no significant differences between SWE values and mechanical elasticity in histologic grade I or II cancers (P = 0.268). However, SWE values were significantly higher than mechanical elasticity in histologic grade III cancers (P elasticity (r = 0.469, P = 0.009). Signal void areas in the masses were present in 43% of breast cancers (13 of 30) and were correlated with dense collagen depositions (n = 11) or intratumoral necrosis (n = 2). Quantitative and qualitative SWE features reflect both the mechanical elasticity and histopathologic characteristics of breast cancers.

  5. HBXIP overexpression is correlated with the clinical features and survival outcome of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Jie; Li, Nan; Che, Shuanlong; Jin, Tiefeng; Liu, Shuangping; Lin, Zhenhua

    2017-04-07

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that Mammalian hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) has broad roles in cancer. Although HBXIP is associated with a variety of cancers, the HBXIP protein expression level and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer have not yet been determined. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HBXIP expression and the clinicopathological features of ovarian cancer patients to determine whether HBXIP may be correlated with a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. HBXIP protein expression was assessed in a well-characterized series of ovarian cancer tissue samples (n = 120) with long-term follow-up, using immunohistochemistry to determine the location pattern and expression of HBXIP in ovarian cancer. The localization of HBXIP was detected in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells using immunofluorescence (IF) staining. The relationship between high HBXIP expression and the clinicopathological features of ovarian cancer patients was analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher's exact test. Overall survival (OS) rates of all the ovarian cancer patients were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. IF staining revealed strongly positive signals for HBXIP in both cytoplasm and nucleus, but mainly in the cytoplasm of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. High HBXIP expression was predominantly observed in ovarian cancer tissues but not the adjacent non-tumor ovarian tissues. The strongly positive rate of HBXIP expression was 60.0% (72/120) in ovarian cancer and was significantly higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues (17.4%, 4/23) (P = 0.000). High HBXIP expression was positively correlated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.025), histological grade (P = 0.036) and clinical stage (P = 0.003). The patients with high HBXIP expression had lower overall survival (OS) rates. Moreover

  6. Joint Effect of Genotypic and Phenotypic Features of Reproductive Factors on Endometrial Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanwei; Risch, Harvey; Lu, Lingeng; Irwin, Melinda L.; Mayne, Susan; Schwartz, Peter; Rutherford, Thomas; De Vivo, Immaculata; Yu, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged estrogen exposure is believed to be the major cause of endometrial cancer. As possible markers of estrogen exposure, various menstrual and reproductive features, e.g., ages at menarche and menopause, are found to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. In order to assess their combined effects on endometrial cancer, we created the total number of menstrual cycles (TNMC) that a woman experienced during her life or up to the time of study and two genetic risk scores, GRS1 for age at menarche and GRS2 for age at menopause. Comparing 482 endometrial cancer patients with 571 population controls, we found TNMC was associated with endometrial cancer risk and that the association remained statistically significant after adjustment for obesity and other potential confounders. Risk increased by about 2.5% for every additional 10 menstrual-cycles. The study also showed that high GRS1 was associated with increased risk. This relationship, however, was attenuated after adjustment for obesity. Our study further indicated women with high TNMC and GRS1 had twice the risk of endometrial cancer compared to those low in both indices. Our results provided additional support to the involvement of estrogen exposure in endometrial cancer risk with regard to genetic background and lifestyle features. PMID:26498156

  7. Pathology features in Bethesda guidelines predict colorectal cancer microsatellite instability: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark A; Hayashi, Shinichi; O'Shea, Anne-Marie; Burgart, Lawrence J; Smyrk, Tom C; Shimizu, David; Waring, Paul M; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Pollett, Aaron F; Redston, Mark; Barker, Melissa A; Baron, John A; Casey, Graham R; Dowty, James G; Giles, Graham G; Limburg, Paul; Newcomb, Polly; Young, Joanne P; Walsh, Michael D; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Lindor, Noralane M; Lemarchand, Loïc; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Potter, John D; Hopper, John L; Jass, Jeremy R

    2007-07-01

    The revised Bethesda guidelines for Lynch syndrome recommend microsatellite instability (MSI) testing all colorectal cancers in patients diagnosed before age 50 years and colorectal cancers diagnosed in patients between ages 50 and 59 years with particular pathology features. Our aim was to identify pathology and other features that independently predict high MSI (MSI-H). Archival tissue from 1098 population-based colorectal cancers diagnosed before age 60 years was tested for MSI. Pathology features, site, and age at diagnosis were obtained. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the predictive value of each feature, as measured by an odds ratio (OR), from which a scoring system (MsPath) was developed to estimate the probability a colorectal cancer is MSI-H. Fifteen percent of tumors (162) were MSI-H. Independent predictors were tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (OR, 9.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-14.1), proximal subsite (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 3.1-7.3), mucinous histology (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7-4.8), poor differentiation (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), Crohn's-like reaction (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), and diagnosis before age 50 years (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9). MsPath score >or=1.0 had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 55% for MSI-H. The probability an individual colorectal cancer is MSI-H is predicted well by the MsPath score. There is little value in testing for DNA mismatch repair loss in tumors, or for germline mismatch repair mutations, for colorectal cancers diagnosed in patients before age 60 years with an MSPath score <1 (approximately 50%). Pathology can identify almost all MSI-H colorectal cancers diagnosed before age 60 years.

  8. Radiomic analysis reveals DCE-MRI features for prediction of molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fan

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of features derived from breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI and to incorporated clinical information to predict the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. In particular, 60 breast cancers with the following four molecular subtypes were analyzed: luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2-over-expressing and basal-like. The breast region was segmented and the suspicious tumor was depicted on sequentially scanned MR images from each case. In total, 90 features were obtained, including 88 imaging features related to morphology and texture as well as dynamic features from tumor and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE and 2 clinical information-based parameters, namely, age and menopausal status. An evolutionary algorithm was used to select an optimal subset of features for classification. Using these features, we trained a multi-class logistic regression classifier that calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The results of a prediction model using 24 selected features showed high overall classification performance, with an AUC value of 0.869. The predictive model discriminated among the luminal A, luminal B, HER2 and basal-like subtypes, with AUC values of 0.867, 0.786, 0.888 and 0.923, respectively. An additional independent dataset with 36 patients was utilized to validate the results. A similar classification analysis of the validation dataset showed an AUC of 0.872 using 15 image features, 10 of which were identical to those from the first cohort. We identified clinical information and 3D imaging features from DCE-MRI as candidate biomarkers for discriminating among four molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

  9. Radiomic analysis reveals DCE-MRI features for prediction of molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming; Li, Hui; Wang, Shijian; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Juan; Li, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of features derived from breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and to incorporated clinical information to predict the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. In particular, 60 breast cancers with the following four molecular subtypes were analyzed: luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-over-expressing and basal-like. The breast region was segmented and the suspicious tumor was depicted on sequentially scanned MR images from each case. In total, 90 features were obtained, including 88 imaging features related to morphology and texture as well as dynamic features from tumor and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and 2 clinical information-based parameters, namely, age and menopausal status. An evolutionary algorithm was used to select an optimal subset of features for classification. Using these features, we trained a multi-class logistic regression classifier that calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The results of a prediction model using 24 selected features showed high overall classification performance, with an AUC value of 0.869. The predictive model discriminated among the luminal A, luminal B, HER2 and basal-like subtypes, with AUC values of 0.867, 0.786, 0.888 and 0.923, respectively. An additional independent dataset with 36 patients was utilized to validate the results. A similar classification analysis of the validation dataset showed an AUC of 0.872 using 15 image features, 10 of which were identical to those from the first cohort. We identified clinical information and 3D imaging features from DCE-MRI as candidate biomarkers for discriminating among four molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

  10. Immature truncated O-glycophenotype of cancer directly induces oncogenic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Dabelsteen, Sally; Madsen, Frey Brus

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of immature truncated O-glycans is a characteristic feature observed on virtually all epithelial cancer cells, and a very high frequency is observed in early epithelial premalignant lesions that precede the development of adenocarcinomas. Expression of the truncated O-glycan s...

  11. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nketiah, G.; Elschot, M.; Kim, E.; Teruel, J.R.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Bathen, T.F.; Selnaes, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  12. Ensemble based system for whole-slide prostate cancer probability mapping using color texture features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DiFranco, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    We present a tile-based approach for producing clinically relevant probability maps of prostatic carcinoma in histological sections from radical prostatectomy. Our methodology incorporates ensemble learning for feature selection and classification on expert-annotated images. Random forest feature selection performed over varying training sets provides a subset of generalized CIEL*a*b* co-occurrence texture features, while sample selection strategies with minimal constraints reduce training data requirements to achieve reliable results. Ensembles of classifiers are built using expert-annotated tiles from training images, and scores for the probability of cancer presence are calculated from the responses of each classifier in the ensemble. Spatial filtering of tile-based texture features prior to classification results in increased heat-map coherence as well as AUC values of 95% using ensembles of either random forests or support vector machines. Our approach is designed for adaptation to different imaging modalities, image features, and histological decision domains.

  13. MR and mammographic imaging features of HER2-positive breast cancers according to hormone receptor status: a retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung Eun; Bae, Min Sun; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Ryu, Han Suk; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-07-01

    Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer has two distinct subtypes according to hormone receptor (HR) status. Survival, pattern of recurrence, and treatment response differ between HR-/HER2+ and HR+/HER2+ cancers. Purpose To investigate imaging and clinicopathologic features of HER2+ cancers and their correlation with HR expression. Material and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 252 consecutive patients with 252 surgically confirmed HER2+ cancers (125 HR- and 127 HR+) were included. Two experienced breast radiologists blinded to the clinicopathologic findings reviewed the mammograms and magnetic resonance (MR) images using the BI-RADS lexicon. Tumor kinetic features were acquired by computer-aided detection (CAD). The imaging and clinicopathologic features of 125 HR-/HER2+ cancers were compared with those of 127 HR+/HER2+ cancers. Association between the HR status and each feature was assessed. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that circumscribed mass margin (odds ratio [OR], 4.73; P HER2+ cancers. Between the two HER2+ subtypes, there were no differences in mammographic imaging presentations and calcification features and MR kinetic features by a CAD. Conclusion HER2+ breast cancers have different MR imaging (MRI) phenotypes and clinicopathologic feature according to HR status. MRI features related to HR and HER2 status have the potential to be used for the diagnosis and treatment decisions in HER2+ breast cancer patients.

  14. Assessing the prognostic features of a pain classification system in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Joseph; Tanco, Kimberson; Haider, Ali; Maligi, Courtney; Park, Minjeong; Liu, Diane; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    The Edmonton Classification System for Cancer Pain (ECS-CP) has been shown to predict pain management complexity based on five features: pain mechanism, incident pain, psychological distress, addictive behavior, and cognitive function. The main objective of our study was to explore the association between ECS-CP features and pain treatment outcomes among outpatients managed by a palliative care specialist-led interdisciplinary team. Initial and follow-up clinical information of 386 eligible supportive care outpatients were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Between the initial consultation and the first follow-up visit, the median ESAS pain intensity improved from 6 to 4.5 (p feature (p = 0.006) used a higher number of adjuvant medications. At follow-up, patients with neuropathic pain were less likely to achieve their personalized pain goal (PPG) (29 vs 72%, p = 0.015). No statistically significant association was found between increasing sum of ECS-CP features and any of the pain treatment outcomes at follow-up. Neuropathy was found to be a poor prognostic feature in advanced cancer pain management. Increasing sum of ECS-CP features was not predictive of pain management complexity at the follow-up visit when pain was managed by a palliative medicine specialist. Further research is needed to further explore these observations.

  15. A New Feature Ensemble with a Multistage Classification Scheme for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Isikli Esener

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and effective feature ensemble with a multistage classification is proposed to be implemented in a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system for breast cancer diagnosis. A publicly available mammogram image dataset collected during the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA project is utilized to verify the suggested feature ensemble and multistage classification. In achieving the CAD system, feature extraction is performed on the mammogram region of interest (ROI images which are preprocessed by applying a histogram equalization followed by a nonlocal means filtering. The proposed feature ensemble is formed by concatenating the local configuration pattern-based, statistical, and frequency domain features. The classification process of these features is implemented in three cases: a one-stage study, a two-stage study, and a three-stage study. Eight well-known classifiers are used in all cases of this multistage classification scheme. Additionally, the results of the classifiers that provide the top three performances are combined via a majority voting technique to improve the recognition accuracy on both two- and three-stage studies. A maximum of 85.47%, 88.79%, and 93.52% classification accuracies are attained by the one-, two-, and three-stage studies, respectively. The proposed multistage classification scheme is more effective than the single-stage classification for breast cancer diagnosis.

  16. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinicopathological Features of Cervical Esophageal Cancer: Retrospective Analysis of 63 Consecutive Patients Who Underwent Surgical Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Yukaya, Takafumi; Tajiri, Hirotada; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Sho; Nakaji, Yu; Kudou, Kensuke; Akiyama, Shingo; Kasagi, Yuta; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Sonoda, Hideto; Ohgaki, Kippei; Oki, Eiji; Yasumatsu, Ryuji; Nakashima, Torahiko; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to elucidate the clinicopathological features and recent surgical results of cervical esophageal cancer. Cervical esophageal cancer has been reported to have a dismal prognosis. Accurate knowledge of the clinical characteristics of cervical esophageal cancer is warranted to establish appropriate therapeutic strategies. The clinicopathological features and treatment results of 63 consecutive patients with cervical esophageal cancer (Ce group) who underwent surgical resection from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed and compared with 977 patients with thoracic or abdominal esophageal cancer (T/A group) who underwent surgical resection during that time. Among the patients who received curative resection, the 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rates of the Ce patients were significantly better than those of the T/A patients (overall: 77.3% vs 46.5%, respectively, P = 0.0067; disease-specific: 81.9% vs 55.8%, respectively, P = 0.0135). Although total pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy procedures were less frequently performed in the recent period, the rate of curative surgical procedures was markedly higher in the recent period (2000-1013) than that in the early period (1980-1999) (44.4% vs 88.9%, P = 0.0001). The 5-year overall survival rate in the recent period (71.5%) was significantly better than that in the early period (40.7%, P = 0.0342). Curative resection for cervical esophageal cancer contributes to favorable outcomes compared with other esophageal cancers. Recent surgical results for cervical esophageal cancer have improved, and include an increased rate of curative resection and decreased rate of extensive surgery.

  18. The Prognostic Value of Adaptive Nuclear Texture Features from Patient Gray Level Entropy Matrices in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nuclear texture analysis gives information about the spatial arrangement of the pixel gray levels in a digitized microscopic nuclear image, providing texture features that may be used as quantitative tools for prognosis of human cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of adaptive nuclear texture features in early stage ovarian cancer.

  19. Lung cancer prediction using neural network ensemble with histogram of oriented gradient genomic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetiba, Emmanuel; Olugbara, Oludayo O

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental comparison of artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) ensembles and their "nonensemble" variants for lung cancer prediction. These machine learning classifiers were trained to predict lung cancer using samples of patient nucleotides with mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene, and tumor suppressor p53 genomes collected as biomarkers from the IGDB.NSCLC corpus. The Voss DNA encoding was used to map the nucleotide sequences of mutated and normal genomes to obtain the equivalent numerical genomic sequences for training the selected classifiers. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) and local binary pattern (LBP) state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes were applied to extract representative genomic features from the encoded sequences of nucleotides. The ANN ensemble and HOG best fit the training dataset of this study with an accuracy of 95.90% and mean square error of 0.0159. The result of the ANN ensemble and HOG genomic features is promising for automated screening and early detection of lung cancer. This will hopefully assist pathologists in administering targeted molecular therapy and offering counsel to early stage lung cancer patients and persons in at risk populations.

  20. Lung Cancer Prediction Using Neural Network Ensemble with Histogram of Oriented Gradient Genomic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Adetiba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental comparison of artificial neural network (ANN and support vector machine (SVM ensembles and their “nonensemble” variants for lung cancer prediction. These machine learning classifiers were trained to predict lung cancer using samples of patient nucleotides with mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene, and tumor suppressor p53 genomes collected as biomarkers from the IGDB.NSCLC corpus. The Voss DNA encoding was used to map the nucleotide sequences of mutated and normal genomes to obtain the equivalent numerical genomic sequences for training the selected classifiers. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG and local binary pattern (LBP state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes were applied to extract representative genomic features from the encoded sequences of nucleotides. The ANN ensemble and HOG best fit the training dataset of this study with an accuracy of 95.90% and mean square error of 0.0159. The result of the ANN ensemble and HOG genomic features is promising for automated screening and early detection of lung cancer. This will hopefully assist pathologists in administering targeted molecular therapy and offering counsel to early stage lung cancer patients and persons in at risk populations.

  1. Expression of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 correlates with clinical features of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ping; Li, Wen-Jie; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Song; Li, De-Yun; Feng, Li-Yun; Shi, Xiang-Lin; Koeffler, H Phillip; Tong, Xiang-Jun; Xie, Dong

    2007-06-20

    CCN family, comprising six members (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov, WISP-1, WISP-2, WISP-3), is involved in the stimulation of cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Several studies have shown that expression of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 affects the tumorigenic potential of lung cancer cells in vitro. However, the correlation of expression of CCN family proteins and clinical features of lung cancer remains unknown. In the present work, we quantified the mRNA levels of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 in samples from 60 primary lung cancers and their matched normal lung tissues by quantitative real-time PCR assay. Downregulation of the Cyr61 and CTGF genes and upregulation of the WISP-1 gene were found in primary lung cancers compared to the paired normal lung tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis also disclosed a similar expression pattern of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 protein in paired lung cancer tissues. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations between expression of either Cyr61 or CTGF with tumor stage, tumor histology, metastasis, smoking, and family history at diagnosis. A significant correlation also existed between WISP-1 expression with tumor histology, and patient age. Moreover, expression levels of Cyr61 and CTGF correlated with survival of the lung-cancer patients. Our results suggest that Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 might be implicated in the development and progression of primary lung cancers, and their levels might serve as valuable prognostic markers, as well as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Relationship between solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer and CT image features based on gradual clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between the medical characteristics of lung cancers and computer tomography (CT) images are explored so as to improve the early diagnosis rate of lung cancers. This research collected CT images of patients with solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer, and used gradual clustering methodology to classify them. Preliminary classifications were made, followed by continuous modification and iteration to determine the optimal condensation point, until iteration stability was achieved. Reasonable classification results were obtained. the clustering results fell into 3 categories. The first type of patients was mostly female, with ages between 50 and 65 years. CT images of solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer for this group contain complete lobulation and burr, with pleural indentation; The second type of patients was mostly male with ages between 50 and 80 years. CT images of solitary pulmonary nodule lung cancer for this group contain complete lobulation and burr, but with no pleural indentation; The third type of patients was also mostly male with ages between 50 and 80 years. CT images for this group showed no abnormalities. the application of gradual clustering methodology can scientifically classify CT image features of patients with lung cancer in the initial lesion stage. These findings provide the basis for early detection and treatment of malignant lesions in patients with lung cancer.

  3. Examining applying high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajab, Murad; Lu, Joan; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and efficiency (time complexity) of high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis. The need for this research derives from the urgent and increasing need for accurate and efficient algorithms. Colon cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, hence it is vitally important for the cancer tissues to be expertly identified and classified in a rapid and timely manner, to assure both a fast detection of the disease and to expedite the drug discovery process. In this research, a three-phase approach was proposed and implemented: Phases One and Two examined the feature selection algorithms and classification algorithms employed separately, and Phase Three examined the performance of the combination of these. It was found from Phase One that the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm performed best with the colon dataset as a feature selection (29 genes selected) and from Phase Two that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperformed other classifications, with an accuracy of almost 86%. It was also found from Phase Three that the combined use of PSO and SVM surpassed other algorithms in accuracy and performance, and was faster in terms of time analysis (94%). It is concluded that applying feature selection algorithms prior to classification algorithms results in better accuracy than when the latter are applied alone. This conclusion is important and significant to industry and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A new feature extraction framework based on wavelets for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Semih; Kilinc, Onur

    2014-08-01

    This paper investigates a pattern recognition framework in order to determine and classify breast cancer cases. Initially, a two-class separation study classifying normal and abnormal (cancerous) breast tissues is achieved. The Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Dense Scale Invariant Feature Transform (DSIFT), and Local Configuration Pattern (LCP) methods are used to extract the rotation- and scale-invariant features for all tissue patches. A classification is made utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighborhood (k-NN), Decision Tree, and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA) via 10-fold cross validation. Then, a three-class study (normal, benign, and malignant cancerous cases) is carried out using similar procedures in a two-class case; however, the attained classification accuracies are not sufficiently satisfied. Therefore, a new feature extraction framework is proposed. The feature vectors are again extracted with this new framework, and more satisfactory results are obtained. Our new framework achieved a remarkable increase in recognition performance for the three-class study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis on Clinical Features of 2168 Patients with Lung Cancer Diagnosed by Bronchoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical features of lung cancer diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Methods: The clinical features of 2168 patients with lung cancer diagnosed by bronchoscopy were retrospectively analyzed, including gender, age, pathological type, diseased region, manifestations under bronchoscopy and methods of drawing materials. Results: The ratio of male/female was 4.8:1 and the peak onset age was 60 - 69 years old. The major pathological type was squamous cell carcinoma (44.5%, then adenocarcinoma (25.9% and small cell lung cancer (18.3%. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was the highest in males (50.6%, while that of adenocarcinoma in females (56.2%. The positive diagnostic rates of forceps biopsy, brush biopsy, bronchial alveolar lavage and transbronchial needle aspiration were 81.6%, 49.4%, 18.2% and 62.6%, respectively, whereas that of biopsy combined with brush biopsy came up to 89.0%. Conclusion: Bronchoscopy is an important method in diagnosis of lung cancer. Different ages and genders of patients with lung cancer have different onset, and the distribution of pathological types is diverse. Attaching more importance to bronchoscopy and improving biopsy technique can significantly improve the diagnostic rate and provide reliable evidences for clinical treatment.

  6. Survival Prediction and Feature Selection in Patients with Breast Cancer Using Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbanoo Goli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Support Vector Regression (SVR model has been broadly used for response prediction. However, few researchers have used SVR for survival analysis. In this study, a new SVR model is proposed and SVR with different kernels and the traditional Cox model are trained. The models are compared based on different performance measures. We also select the best subset of features using three feature selection methods: combination of SVR and statistical tests, univariate feature selection based on concordance index, and recursive feature elimination. The evaluations are performed using available medical datasets and also a Breast Cancer (BC dataset consisting of 573 patients who visited the Oncology Clinic of Hamadan province in Iran. Results show that, for the BC dataset, survival time can be predicted more accurately by linear SVR than nonlinear SVR. Based on the three feature selection methods, metastasis status, progesterone receptor status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status are the best features associated to survival. Also, according to the obtained results, performance of linear and nonlinear kernels is comparable. The proposed SVR model performs similar to or slightly better than other models. Also, SVR performs similar to or better than Cox when all features are included in model.

  7. Applying Quantitative CT Image Feature Analysis to Predict Response of Ovarian Cancer Patients to Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danala, Gopichandh; Thai, Theresa; Gunderson, Camille C; Moxley, Katherine M; Moore, Kathleen; Mannel, Robert S; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin; Qiu, Yuchen

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the role of applying quantitative image features computed from computed tomography (CT) images for early prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy in the clinical trials for treating ovarian cancer patients. A dataset involving 91 patients was retrospectively assembled. Each patient had two sets of pre- and post-therapy CT images. A computer-aided detection scheme was applied to segment metastatic tumors previously tracked by radiologists on CT images and computed image features. Two initial feature pools were built using image features computed from pre-therapy CT images only and image feature difference computed from both pre- and post-therapy images. A feature selection method was applied to select optimal features, and an equal-weighted fusion method was used to generate a new quantitative imaging marker from each pool to predict 6-month progression-free survival. The prediction accuracy between quantitative imaging markers and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria was also compared. The highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve are 0.684 ± 0.056 and 0.771 ± 0.050 when using a single image feature computed from pre-therapy CT images and feature difference computed from pre- and post-therapy CT images, respectively. Using two corresponding fusion-based image markers, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased to 0.810 ± 0.045 and 0.829 ± 0.043 (P imaging markers and RECIST, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of predicting patients' response to chemotherapy using quantitative imaging markers computed from pre-therapy CT images. However, using image feature difference computed between pre- and post-therapy CT images yielded higher prediction accuracy. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterizing cancer cells with cancer stem cell-like features in 293T human embryonic kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeb, Bisrat G; Zhang, Xiaomei; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Gao, Hui; Cohen, Evan; Li, Li; Rodriguez, Angel A; Landis, Melissa D; Lucci, Anthony; Ueno, Naoto T; Robertson, Fredika; Xu, Wei; Lacerda, Lara; Buchholz, Thomas A; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Reuben, James M; Lewis, Michael T; Woodward, Wendy A

    2010-07-08

    Since the first suggestion of prospectively identifiable cancer stem cells in solid tumors, efforts have been made to characterize reported cancer stem cell surrogates in existing cancer cell lines, and cell lines rich with these surrogates have been used to screen for cancer stem cell targeted agents. Although 293T cells were derived from human embryonic kidney, transplantation of these cells into the mammary fat pad yields aggressive tumors that self-renew as evidenced by serial xenograft passages through transplantation. Herein we fully characterize cancer stem cell-like features in 293T human embryonic kidney cells. 293T cells can be readily cultured and passaged as spheres in serum-free stem cell promoting culture conditions. Cells cultured in vitro as three-dimensional spheres (3D) were shown to contain higher ALDH1 and CD44+/CD24- population compared to monolayer cells. These cells were also resistant to radiation and upregulate stem cell survival signaling including beta-catenin, Notch1 and Survivin in response to radiation. Moreover, 3D spheres generated from the 293T cells have increased expression of mesenchymal genes including vimentin, n-cadherin, zeb1, snail and slug as well as pro-metastatic genes RhoC, Tenascin C and MTA1. In addition, microRNAs implicated in self-renewal and metastases were markedly reduced in 3D spheres. 293T cells exhibit a cancer stem cell-like phenotype when cultured as 3D spheres and represent an important research tool for studying the molecular and biological mechanisms of cancer stem cells and for testing and developing novel targets for cancer therapy.

  9. Digital compared to screen-film mammography: breast cancer prognostic features in an organized screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prummel, Maegan V; Done, Susan J; Muradali, Derek; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Shumak, Rene S; Yaffe, Martin J; Holloway, Claire M B; Chiarelli, Anna M

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study found cancer detection rates were equivalent for direct radiography compared to screen-film mammography, while rates for computed radiography were significantly lower. This study compares prognostic features of invasive breast cancers by type of mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified invasive breast cancers diagnosed among concurrent cohorts of women aged 50-74 screened by direct radiography, computed radiography, or screen-film mammography from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. During the study period, 816,232 mammograms were performed on 668,418 women, and 3,323 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Of 2,642 eligible women contacted, 2,041 participated (77.3 %). The final sample size for analysis included 1,405 screen-detected and 418 interval cancers (diagnosed within 24 months of a negative screening mammogram). Polytomous logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tumour characteristics and type of mammography, and between tumour characteristics and detection method. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were recorded. Cancers detected by computed radiography compared to screen-film mammography were significantly more likely to be lymph node positive (OR 1.94, 95 %CI 1.01-3.73) and have higher stage (II:I, OR 2.14, 95 %CI 1.11-4.13 and III/IV:I, OR 2.97, 95 %CI 1.02-8.59). Compared to screen-film mammography, significantly more cancers detected by direct radiography (OR 1.64, 95 %CI 1.12-2.38) were lymph node positive. Interval cancers had worse prognostic features compared to screen-detected cancers, irrespective of mammography type. Screening with computed radiography may lead to the detection of cancers with a less favourable stage distribution compared to screen-film mammography that may reflect a delayed diagnosis. Screening programs should re-evaluate their use of computed radiography for breast screening.

  10. A case of Brunner's gland hyperplasia with features of duodenal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Kume

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of Brunner’s gland hyperplasia mimicking duodenal cancer is reported. A 68-year old woman had an elevated lesion in the second portion of the duodenum. Endoscopy after spraying with indigo carmine dye showed a granular appearance and fold convergence. The biopsy specimen suggested hyperplasia without malignancy. However, since the endoscopic features strongly suggested malignancy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR was performed to establish the correct diagnosis. The final pathology diagnosis was Brunner's hyperplasia.

  11. Influence of Study Features and Methods on Overdiagnosis Estimates in Breast and Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzioni, Ruth; Gulati, Roman; Mallinger, Leslie; Mandelblatt, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the likelihood that a screen-detected cancer case has been overdiagnosed is vitally important for treatment decision making and screening policy development. An overdiagnosed case is an excess case detected because of cancer screening. Estimates of the frequency of overdiagnosis in breast and prostate cancer screening are highly variable across studies. In this article we identify features of overdiagnosis studies that influence results and illustrate their impact using published studies. We first consider different ways to define and measure overdiagnosis. We then examine contextual features and how they affect overdiagnosis estimates. Finally, we discuss the effect of estimation approach. Many studies use excess incidence under screening as a proxy for overdiagnosis. Others use statistical models to make inferences about lead time or natural history and then derive the corresponding fraction of cases that are overdiagnosed. We conclude with a list of questions that readers of overdiagnosis studies can use to evaluate the validity and relevance of published estimates and recommend that authors of publications quantifying overdiagnosis provide information about these features of their studies. PMID:23732716

  12. Differentiating characteristic microstructural features of cancerous tissues using Mueller matrix microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; Zeng, Nan; Liu, Shaoxiong; Li, Migao; Ma, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Polarized light imaging can provide rich microstructural information of samples, and has been applied to the detections of various abnormal tissues. In this paper, we report a polarized light microscope based on Mueller matrix imaging by adding the polarization state generator and analyzer (PSG and PSA) to a commercial transmission optical microscope. The maximum errors for the absolute values of Mueller matrix elements are reduced to 0.01 after calibration. This Mueller matrix microscope has been used to examine human cervical and liver cancerous tissues with fibrosis. Images of the transformed Mueller matrix parameters provide quantitative assessment on the characteristic features of the pathological tissues. Contrast mechanism of the experimental results are backed up by Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere-cylinder birefringence model, which reveal the relationship between the pathological features in the cancerous tissues at the cellular level and the polarization parameters. Both the experimental and simulated data indicate that the microscopic transformed Mueller matrix parameters can distinguish the breaking down of birefringent normal tissues for cervical cancer, or the formation of birefringent surrounding structures accompanying the inflammatory reaction for liver cancer. With its simple structure, fast measurement and high precision, polarized light microscope based on Mueller matrix shows a good diagnosis application prospect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging and Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents

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    Lee, Kang Young; Hong, HyunSook; Lee, Eun Hye; Yi, Beom Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Hwa [Dept. of Labortory Medicine and Genetics, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eun Suk [Dept. of Pathology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheonl (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate clinical and imaging features of pediatric thyroid cancer, including BRAF'V{sup 600E} mutation status in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We evaluated clinical findings including BRAF''6{sup 00E} status, ultrasound (US), and CT features of 13 pediatric patients with thyroid cancer. US findings were retrospectively analyzed for location, presence of a nodule, echotexture, echogenicity, calcifications, margin, shape, intranodular vascularity and abnormal lymph nodes. CT characteristics of the lesions, including attenuation, calcification, and measured degree of enhancement, were assessed. The patients included three boys and ten girls with a mean age of 15.5 years (range 6-18 years). No patient was exposed to radiation. Palpable neck mass was the most common presentation. Eleven of 13 patients (84.6%) were diagnosed with PTC, and two (15.4%) had follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). Nine of 13 (69.2%) had high T-staging. BRAF{sup V600E} mutations were detected in 30.0% of PTC patients. A diffusely enlarged thyroid with calcifications (n = 2) or nodules (n = 7) was detected on US. All PTC nodules showed malignant US findings and one FTC displayed on indeterminate nodule. Nodules generally showed low attenuation on enhanced CT (n = 11/12). US demonstrated enlarged glands with calcifications or nodules. Diffusely enlarged thyroids with microcalcifications should be evaluated using fine-needle aspiration. A low attenuation nodule was a common finding on enhanced CT.

  14. Feature extraction techniques using multivariate analysis for identification of lung cancer volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriumani, Reena; Zakaria, Ammar; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Helmy, Khaled Mohamed; Omar, Mohammad Iqbal; Jeffree, Amanina; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2017-03-01

    In this experiment, three different cell cultures (A549, WI38VA13 and MCF7) and blank medium (without cells) as a control were used. The electronic nose (E-Nose) was used to sniff the headspace of cultured cells and the data were recorded. After data pre-processing, two different features were extracted by taking into consideration of both steady state and the transient information. The extracted data are then being processed by multivariate analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to provide visualization of the clustering vector information in multi-sensor space. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifier was used to test the performance of the E-Nose on determining the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of lung cancer cell line. The LDA data projection was able to differentiate between the lung cancer cell samples and other samples (breast cancer, normal cell and blank medium) effectively. The features extracted from the steady state response reached 100% of classification rate while the transient response with the aid of LDA dimension reduction methods produced 100% classification performance using PNN classifier with a spread value of 0.1. The results also show that E-Nose application is a promising technique to be applied to real patients in further work and the aid of Multivariate Analysis; it is able to be the alternative to the current lung cancer diagnostic methods.

  15. Assessment of two mammographic density related features in predicting near-term breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Wang, Xingwei; Klym, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2012-02-01

    In order to establish a personalized breast cancer screening program, it is important to develop risk models that have high discriminatory power in predicting the likelihood of a woman developing an imaging detectable breast cancer in near-term (e.g., breast cancer risk models, mammographic density is considered the second highest breast cancer risk factor (second to woman's age). In this study we explored a new feature, namely bilateral mammographic density asymmetry, and investigated the feasibility of predicting near-term screening outcome. The database consisted of 343 negative examinations, of which 187 depicted cancers that were detected during the subsequent screening examination and 155 that remained negative. We computed the average pixel value of the segmented breast areas depicted on each cranio-caudal view of the initial negative examinations. We then computed the mean and difference mammographic density for paired bilateral images. Using woman's age, subjectively rated density (BIRADS), and computed mammographic density related features we compared classification performance in estimating the likelihood of detecting cancer during the subsequent examination using areas under the ROC curves (AUC). The AUCs were 0.63+/-0.03, 0.54+/-0.04, 0.57+/-0.03, 0.68+/-0.03 when using woman's age, BIRADS rating, computed mean density and difference in computed bilateral mammographic density, respectively. Performance increased to 0.62+/-0.03 and 0.72+/-0.03 when we fused mean and difference in density with woman's age. The results suggest that, in this study, bilateral mammographic tissue density is a significantly stronger (prisk indicator than both woman's age and mean breast density.

  16. Joint analysis of histopathology image features and gene expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Vlad; Budinská, Eva; Čápková, Lenka; Schwarz, Daniel; Dušek, Ladislav; Feit, Josef; Jaggi, Rolf

    2016-05-11

    Genomics and proteomics are nowadays the dominant techniques for novel biomarker discovery. However, histopathology images contain a wealth of information related to the tumor histology, morphology and tumor-host interactions that is not accessible through these techniques. Thus, integrating the histopathology images in the biomarker discovery workflow could potentially lead to the identification of new image-based biomarkers and the refinement or even replacement of the existing genomic and proteomic signatures. However, extracting meaningful and robust image features to be mined jointly with genomic (and clinical, etc.) data represents a real challenge due to the complexity of the images. We developed a framework for integrating the histopathology images in the biomarker discovery workflow based on the bag-of-features approach - a method that has the advantage of being assumption-free and data-driven. The images were reduced to a set of salient patterns and additional measurements of their spatial distribution, with the resulting features being directly used in a standard biomarker discovery application. We demonstrated this framework in a search for prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer which resulted in the identification of several prognostic image features and a promising multimodal (imaging and genomic) prognostic signature. The source code for the image analysis procedures is freely available. The framework proposed allows for a joint analysis of images and gene expression data. Its application to a set of breast cancer cases resulted in image-based and combined (image and genomic) prognostic scores for relapse-free survival.

  17. New trends in the clinicopathological features of differentiated thyroid cancer in Central Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaf, Maha S; Younes, Nidal A; Albsoul, Nader M; Musmar, Ayman A; Al-Zaheri, Mohammed M; Tarawneh, Musleh S; Sroujieh, Ahmad S

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the current trends in presentation and distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at the largest referral hospital for endocrine cancers in Central Jordan. We analyzed the clinical features, management and outcome of 110 patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, between 1996 and 2001. Papillary carcinoma was diagnosed in 87 patients (80%), follicular carcinoma in 3 patients (2.7%), Hurthle cell carcinoma in 8 patients (7.3%), medullary carcinoma in 5 (4.5%), and anaplastic carcinoma in 4 patients (3.6%), metastatic cancer in 2 patients and lymphoma in one patient. Time course analysis showed an increasing trend in surgery for thyroid cancer from 28 cases in 1986-1991 to 48 in 1996-2001. As time advanced, the incidence of locally invasive disease and lymph node involvement markedly increased over the last 5 years of the study (from 28-62%). All patients with follicular carcinoma were diagnosed in the period 1986-1994. After thyroidectomy and a follow up period of 2-15 years, 10 patients died of their disease, 4 of these died within one year from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The dramatic decline in the incidence of follicular thyroid carcinoma combined with the increase in the advanced forms of thyroid cancer in Central Jordan may suggest a possible environmental factor in thyroid carcinogenesis in this region. We suggest a larger scale studies and steps to investigate the etiologic factors for thyroid carcinogenesis in Central Jordan.

  18. Clinicopathological and imaging features of breast cancer in Korean Women under 40 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Mi Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yun, Bo La; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Eun Kyu; Kang, Eun Young; Park, So Yeon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in Korean women under 40 years of age according to molecular subtypes. We included 183 breast cancers in 176 consecutive women under 40 years old who had been diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2012 and November 2014. The patients' clinical and pathologic records were available as electronic medical records. A retrospective review of the pre-operative imaging studies was performed with 177 mammographies, 183 ultrasonographies, and 178 MRIs. Eighty-six percent (158/183) of lesions were symptomatic, with masses (147/183) as the most common presentation. Eighty percent (22/25) of the asymptomatic lesions were diagnosed via screening ultrasonography. The luminal A subtype was the most common (n = 79, 43%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched subtype showed indistinct margins on mammography (p = 0.006), the triple negative subtype depicted a posterior enhancement on ultrasonography (p < 0.001) and rim enhancement on MRI (p < 0.001). Breast cancers in Korean women under 40 years of age are commonly presented with a palpable mass, and luminal A is the most common molecular subtype. In our study, the imaging and pathologic characteristics of breast cancer in younger women were similar to those previously reported for older patients.

  19. [Clinical and pathological features of breast cancer in a population of Mexico].

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    Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Labastida-Almendaro, Sonia; Espejo-Fonseca, Aura; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    Breast cancer is the most common among women in our country, and its treatment is based on prognostic factors to categorize patients into different risk groups. In this study, the clinical and pathological features that play a role as a prognostic factor in a representative population with breast cancer in México are described. A descriptive analysis of the clinical and pathological features of women diagnosed with breast cancer, in a period from June 2005 to May 2014; registered in a database and calculated by simple frequencies. A total of 4,411 patients were included, the average age at diagnosis was 53 years, 19.7% were diagnosed by mammography screening program and 80.3% derived from any signs or symptoms. Regarding the stages at diagnosis, 6.8% were carcinoma in situ, 36% at early stages (I and IIA), 45% locally advanced (IIB to IIIC), 7.7% metastatic and 3.9% unclassifiable. A 79% were ductal histology, lobular 7.8% and the rest, other types. Of ductal carcinomas, 9.1% were grade I, 54.1% grade II, and 34.6% grade III. Regarding the biological subtypes, 65.7% were luminal, 10.9% luminal Her positive, 8.7% pure Her 2 positive and 14.6% triple negative. In the present study, we described the clinical and pathologic features of a group of Mexican women with breast cancer that might reflect a national landscape, and represent the prognostic factors to determine groups of risk and treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 correlates with clinical features of lung cancer.

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    Ping-Ping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CCN family, comprising six members (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov, WISP-1, WISP-2, WISP-3, is involved in the stimulation of cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Several studies have shown that expression of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 affects the tumorigenic potential of lung cancer cells in vitro. However, the correlation of expression of CCN family proteins and clinical features of lung cancer remains unknown. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present work, we quantified the mRNA levels of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 in samples from 60 primary lung cancers and their matched normal lung tissues by quantitative real-time PCR assay. Downregulation of the Cyr61 and CTGF genes and upregulation of the WISP-1 gene were found in primary lung cancers compared to the paired normal lung tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis also disclosed a similar expression pattern of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 protein in paired lung cancer tissues. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations between expression of either Cyr61 or CTGF with tumor stage, tumor histology, metastasis, smoking, and family history at diagnosis. A significant correlation also existed between WISP-1 expression with tumor histology, and patient age. Moreover, expression levels of Cyr61 and CTGF correlated with survival of the lung-cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 might be implicated in the development and progression of primary lung cancers, and their levels might serve as valuable prognostic markers, as well as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Automatic feature learning using multichannel ROI based on deep structured algorithms for computerized lung cancer diagnosis.

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    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the ability of extracting automatically generated features using deep structured algorithms in lung nodule CT image diagnosis, and compare its performance with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems using hand-crafted features. All of the 1018 cases were acquired from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) public lung cancer database. The nodules were segmented according to four radiologists' markings, and 13,668 samples were generated by rotating every slice of nodule images. Three multichannel ROI based deep structured algorithms were designed and implemented in this study: convolutional neural network (CNN), deep belief network (DBN), and stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE). For the comparison purpose, we also implemented a CADx system using hand-crafted features including density features, texture features and morphological features. The performance of every scheme was evaluated by using a 10-fold cross-validation method and an assessment index of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The observed highest area under the curve (AUC) was 0.899±0.018 achieved by CNN, which was significantly higher than traditional CADx with the AUC=0.848±0.026. The results from DBN was also slightly higher than CADx, while SDAE was slightly lower. By visualizing the automatic generated features, we found some meaningful detectors like curvy stroke detectors from deep structured schemes. The study results showed the deep structured algorithms with automatically generated features can achieve desirable performance in lung nodule diagnosis. With well-tuned parameters and large enough dataset, the deep learning algorithms can have better performance than current popular CADx. We believe the deep learning algorithms with similar data preprocessing procedure can be used in other medical image analysis areas as well. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Genetic Fuzzy System (GFS based wavelet co-occurrence feature selection in mammogram classification for breast cancer diagnosis

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    Meenakshi M. Pawar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is significant health problem diagnosed mostly in women worldwide. Therefore, early detection of breast cancer is performed with the help of digital mammography, which can reduce mortality rate. This paper presents wrapper based feature selection approach for wavelet co-occurrence feature (WCF using Genetic Fuzzy System (GFS in mammogram classification problem. The performance of GFS algorithm is explained using mini-MIAS database. WCF features are obtained from detail wavelet coefficients at each level of decomposition of mammogram image. At first level of decomposition, 18 features are applied to GFS algorithm, which selects 5 features with an average classification success rate of 39.64%. Subsequently, at second level it selects 9 features from 36 features and the classification success rate is improved to 56.75%. For third level, 16 features are selected from 54 features and average success rate is improved to 64.98%. Lastly, at fourth level 72 features are applied to GFS, which selects 16 features and thereby increasing average success rate to 89.47%. Hence, GFS algorithm is the effective way of obtaining optimal set of feature in breast cancer diagnosis.

  3. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

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    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  4. Breast cancer diagnosis based on evolvable fuzzy classifiers and feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkas, S.; Mikhailov, L.

    This paper presents an architecture for evolvable fuzzy rule-based classifiers, applied to the diagnosis of breast cancer, the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths in the female population. It is based on the eClass family of relative models, having the ability to evolve its fuzzy rule-base incrementally. This incremental adaptation is gradually developed by the influence that data bring, arriving from a data stream sequentially. Recent studies have shown that the eClass algorithms are very promising solution for decision making problems. Such on-line learning method has been extensively used for control applications and is also suitable for real time classification tasks, such as fault detection, diagnosis, robotic navigation etc. We propose the use of evolvable multiple-input-multipleoutput (MIMO) Takagi Sugeno Kang (TSK) rule-based classifiers of first order, to the diagnosis of breast cancer. Moreover we introduce a novel feature scoring function that identifies most valuable features of the data in real time. Our experiments show that the algorithm returns high classification rate and the results are comparable with other approaches that regard learning from numerical observations of medical nature.

  5. Salient Features and Outline of the Joint Japanese Guidelines for Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs.

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    Kanda, Kiyoko; Hirai, Kazue; Iino, Keiko; Nomura, Hisanaga; Yasui, Hisateru; Kano, Taro; Ichikawa, Chisato; Hiura, Sumiko; Morita, Tomoko; Mitsuma, Ayako; Komatsu, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the outline and describe the salient features of the "Joint Guidelines for Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs" (hereinafter, "Guideline"), which were published in July 2015. The purpose of this Guideline is to provide guidance to protect against occupational exposure to hazardous drugs (HDs) to all medical personnel involved in cancer chemotherapy, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses and home health-care providers. The Guideline was developed according to the Medical Information Network Distribution Service guidance for developing clinical practice guidelines, with reference to five authoritative guidelines used worldwide. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ichushi-Web, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used for a systematic search of the literature. Eight clinical questions (CQs) were eventually established, and the strength of recommendation for each CQ is presented based on 867 references. The salient features of the Guideline are that it was jointly developed by three societies (Japanese Society of Cancer Nursing, Japanese Society of Medical Oncology, and Japanese Society of Pharmaceutical Oncology), contains descriptions including the definition of HDs and the concept of hierarchy of controls, and addresses exposure control measures during handling of chemotherapy drugs. Our future task is to collect additional evidence for the recommended exposure control measures and to assess whether publication of the Guideline has led to adherence of measures to prevent occupational exposure.

  6. Salient features and outline of the joint Japanese guidelines for safe handling of cancer chemotherapy drugs

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    Kiyoko Kanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce the outline and describe the salient features of the “Joint Guidelines for Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs” (hereinafter, “Guideline”, which were published in July 2015. The purpose of this Guideline is to provide guidance to protect against occupational exposure to hazardous drugs (HDs to all medical personnel involved in cancer chemotherapy, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses and home health-care providers. The Guideline was developed according to the Medical Information Network Distribution Service guidance for developing clinical practice guidelines, with reference to five authoritative guidelines used worldwide. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ichushi-Web, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used for a systematic search of the literature. Eight clinical questions (CQs were eventually established, and the strength of recommendation for each CQ is presented based on 867 references. The salient features of the Guideline are that it was jointly developed by three societies (Japanese Society of Cancer Nursing, Japanese Society of Medical Oncology, and Japanese Society of Pharmaceutical Oncology, contains descriptions including the definition of HDs and the concept of hierarchy of controls, and addresses exposure control measures during handling of chemotherapy drugs. Our future task is to collect additional evidence for the recommended exposure control measures and to assess whether publication of the Guideline has led to adherence of measures to prevent occupational exposure.

  7. Support Vector Machine based diagnostic system for thyroid cancer using statistical texture features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, B; Shanthi, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an automated computer-aided diagnostic system for diagnosis of thyroid cancer pattern in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) microscopic images with high degree of sensitivity and specificity using statistical texture features and a Support Vector Machine classifier (SVM). A training set of 40 benign and 40 malignant FNAC images and a testing set of 10 benign and 20 malignant FNAC images were used to perform the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Initially, segmentation of region of interest (ROI) was performed by region-based morphology segmentation. The developed diagnostic system utilized statistical texture features derived from the segmented images using a Gabor filter bank at various wavelengths and angles. Finally, the SVM was used as a machine learning algorithm to identify benign and malignant states of thyroid nodules. The SVMachieved a diagnostic accuracy of 96.7% with sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100%, respectively, at a wavelength of 4 and an angle of 45. The results show that the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in FNAC images can be effectively performed using statistical texture information derived with Gabor filters in association with an SVM.

  8. Response monitoring of breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy using quantitative ultrasound, texture, and molecular features.

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    Lakshmanan Sannachi

    Full Text Available Pathological response of breast cancer to chemotherapy is a prognostic indicator for long-term disease free and overall survival. Responses of locally advanced breast cancer in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC settings are often variable, and the prediction of response is imperfect. The purpose of this study was to detect primary tumor responses early after the start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy using quantitative ultrasound (QUS, textural analysis and molecular features in patients with locally advanced breast cancer.The study included ninety six patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Breast tumors were scanned with a clinical ultrasound system prior to chemotherapy treatment, during the first, fourth and eighth week of treatment, and prior to surgery. Quantitative ultrasound parameters and scatterer-based features were calculated from ultrasound radio frequency (RF data within tumor regions of interest. Additionally, texture features were extracted from QUS parametric maps. Prior to therapy, all patients underwent a core needle biopsy and histological subtypes and biomarker ER, PR, and HER2 status were determined. Patients were classified into three treatment response groups based on combination of clinical and pathological analyses: complete responders (CR, partial responders (PR, and non-responders (NR. Response classifications from QUS parameters, receptors status and pathological were compared. Discriminant analysis was performed on extracted parameters using a support vector machine classifier to categorize subjects into CR, PR, and NR groups at all scan times.Of the 96 patients, the number of CR, PR and NR patients were 21, 52, and 23, respectively. The best prediction of treatment response was achieved with the combination mean QUS values, texture and molecular features with accuracies of 78%, 86% and 83% at weeks 1, 4, and 8, after treatment respectively. Mean QUS parameters or clinical receptors status alone predicted the

  9. Identification of endometrial cancer methylation features using combined methylation analysis methods.

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    Michael P Trimarchi

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that is frequently altered in tumors. DNA methylation features are attractive biomarkers for disease states given the stability of DNA methylation in living cells and in biologic specimens typically available for analysis. Widespread accumulation of methylation in regulatory elements in some cancers (specifically the CpG island methylator phenotype, CIMP can play an important role in tumorigenesis. High resolution assessment of CIMP for the entire genome, however, remains cost prohibitive and requires quantities of DNA not available for many tissue samples of interest. Genome-wide scans of methylation have been undertaken for large numbers of tumors, and higher resolution analyses for a limited number of cancer specimens. Methods for analyzing such large datasets and integrating findings from different studies continue to evolve. An approach for comparison of findings from a genome-wide assessment of the methylated component of tumor DNA and more widely applied methylation scans was developed.Methylomes for 76 primary endometrial cancer and 12 normal endometrial samples were generated using methylated fragment capture and second generation sequencing, MethylCap-seq. Publically available Infinium HumanMethylation 450 data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA were compared to MethylCap-seq data.Analysis of methylation in promoter CpG islands (CGIs identified a subset of tumors with a methylator phenotype. We used a two-stage approach to develop a 13-region methylation signature associated with a "hypermethylator state." High level methylation for the 13-region methylation signatures was associated with mismatch repair deficiency, high mutation rate, and low somatic copy number alteration in the TCGA test set. In addition, the signature devised showed good agreement with previously described methylation clusters devised by TCGA.We identified a methylation signature for a "hypermethylator phenotype" in

  10. Identification of prognostic molecular features in the reactive stroma of human breast and prostate cancer.

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    Anne Planche

    Full Text Available Primary tumor growth induces host tissue responses that are believed to support and promote tumor progression. Identification of the molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and elucidation of its crosstalk with tumor cells may therefore be crucial for improving our understanding of the processes implicated in cancer progression, identifying potential therapeutic targets, and uncovering stromal gene expression signatures that may predict clinical outcome. A key issue to resolve, therefore, is whether the stromal response to tumor growth is largely a generic phenomenon, irrespective of the tumor type or whether the response reflects tumor-specific properties. To address similarity or distinction of stromal gene expression changes during cancer progression, oligonucleotide-based Affymetrix microarray technology was used to compare the transcriptomes of laser-microdissected stromal cells derived from invasive human breast and prostate carcinoma. Invasive breast and prostate cancer-associated stroma was observed to display distinct transcriptomes, with a limited number of shared genes. Interestingly, both breast and prostate tumor-specific dysregulated stromal genes were observed to cluster breast and prostate cancer patients, respectively, into two distinct groups with statistically different clinical outcomes. By contrast, a gene signature that was common to the reactive stroma of both tumor types did not have survival predictive value. Univariate Cox analysis identified genes whose expression level was most strongly associated with patient survival. Taken together, these observations suggest that the tumor microenvironment displays distinct features according to the tumor type that provides survival-predictive value.

  11. Inflammation, autophagy, and obesity: common features in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukovsky, Ilya; Li, Ning; Todoric, Jelena; Gukovskaya, Anna; Karin, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Inflammation and autophagy are cellular defense mechanisms. When these processes are deregulated (deficient or overactivated) they produce pathologic effects, such as oxidative stress, metabolic impairments, and cell death. Unresolved inflammation and disrupted regulation of autophagy are common features of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, obesity, a risk factor for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, promotes inflammation and inhibits or deregulates autophagy, creating an environment that facilitates the induction and progression of pancreatic diseases. However, little is known about how inflammation, autophagy, and obesity interact to promote exocrine pancreatic disorders. We review the roles of inflammation and autophagy, and their deregulation by obesity, in pancreatic diseases. We discuss the connections among disordered pathways and important areas for future research. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake with histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer

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    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong Il; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Histopathologic features could affect the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer and detection rate on FDG PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer by correlating it with the histopathologic features of the tumors. Fifty patients with locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were referred for preoperative FDG-PET/CT scans were enrolled in this study. The detection rate of PET/CT and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumor were compared using the WHO, Lauren, Ming and Borrmann classifications and tumor size and location. In 45 of the 50 patients (90 %), the primary gastric tumors were detected by FDG PET/CT. On comparison using the WHO classification, the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of the tubular type were significantly higher than those of the poorly cohesive type. On comparison using the Lauren and Ming classifications, the SUV{sub maxs} of the intestinal type and expanding type were significantly higher than those of the diffuse and infiltrative type, respectively. On comparison using the Borrmann classification and tumor size and location, there was no significant difference in the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of primary gastric tumors. This study demonstrates that the poorly cohesive type according to the WHO classification, diffuse type according to the Lauren classification and infiltrative type according to the Ming classification have low FDG uptake in patients with locally advanced gastric carcinoma. Understanding the relationship between primary tumor FDG uptake and histopathologic features would be helpful in detecting the primary tumor by FDG PET/CT in patients with gastric cancer.

  13. Breast cancer features in women under the age of 40 years

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    Deise Santiago Girão Eugênio

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To describe the clinical features, imaging findings and pathological aspects of breast cancer diagnosed in women under the age of 40 years. Method: A retrospective, descriptive study was performed through analysis of medical records between November 2008 and August 2012. One hundred and twenty (120 patients were included, of whom 112 underwent mammography, 113 underwent ultrasonography, and 105 underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The histopathological data was obtained in most cases from post-surgical analysis, which was available for 113 patients. Results: The mean age at diagnosis of primary breast cancer was 34 years. Only 11 patients (9.0% had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer in first-degree relative. Ninety-two (92 patients sought medical attention after showing breast symptoms, and the presence of a palpable nodule was the main complaint. One hundred and twenty-two (122 primary tumors were diagnosed, of which 112 were invasive (95%. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (73.8%. Luminal B was the predominant molecular subtype (42.6%. Ultrasonography was positive in 94.5% of the cases and the most common finding were nodules (94.8%. At mammography, the malignancy was observed in 92.8% and the presence of suggestive calcifications was the dominant feature. The MRI was positive in 98% of patients, and mass lesions were the most common. Conclusion: Most cases of breast cancer diagnosed in patients under the age of 40 years, in our population, had symptoms at diagnosis and tumor with more aggressive biological behavior. Despite the ultrasound has been the most widely used method, we found improved characterization of breast lesions when also used mammography and MRI.

  14. Beyond breast cancer: mammographic features and mortality risk in a population of healthy women.

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    Rachel A Murphy

    Full Text Available Breast fibroglandular (dense tissue is a risk factor for breast cancer. Beyond breast cancer, little is known regarding the prognostic significance of mammographic features.We evaluated relationships between nondense (fatty breast area and dense area with all-cause mortality in 4,245 initially healthy women from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project; 1,361 died during a mean follow-up of 28.2 years. Dense area and total breast area were assessed using planimeter measurements from screening mammograms. Percent density reflects dense area relative to breast area and nondense area was calculated as the difference between total breast area and dense area. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression.In age-adjusted models, greater nondense and total breast area were associated with increased risk of death (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.24 and HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.19, per SD difference while greater dense area and percent density were associated with lower risk of death (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.95 and HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92, per SD difference. Associations were not attenuated with adjustment for race, education, mammogram type (x-ray or xerogram, smoking status, diabetes and heart disease. With additional adjustment for body mass index, associations were diminished for all features but remained statistically significant for dense area (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, per SD difference and percent density (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.98, per SD difference.These data indicate that dense area and percent density may relate to survival in healthy women and suggest the potential utility of mammograms beyond prediction of breast cancer risk.

  15. Changes in mammographic features of breast cancer; Comparison with previous films

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    Matsunaga, Tadaharu; Hagiwara, Kei (Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer Detection Center (Japan)); Kimura, Kohzaburo; Kusama, Mikihiro

    1992-11-01

    Mammographic features of 87 breast cancer patients were studied in comparison with their previous survey films. Changes in the mammographic features included microcalcification (28 cases), tumor shadow (35 cases) and intratumorous microcalcifications (6 cases). Seven cases had several extremely high calcifications on the previous films, and three of six cases with clustered and scattered microcalcifications that extended over an entire breast quadrant had increased in number, density and extent. Eight cases in which clustered microcalcifications had increased in number, density and extent suggested a relationship between the increase in the extent of microcalcifications and length of time between visits. In most cases with tumor shadow, a slight localized increase in mammary gland density, irregular margins and strainghtened trabeculae were overlooked because of breast density. (author).

  16. Colon adenoma features and their impact on risk of future advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Audrey H; Lasser, Karen E; Roy, Hemant K

    2016-12-15

    To review the evidence on the association between specific colon adenoma features and the risk of future colonic neoplasia [adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC)]. We performed a literature search using the National Library of Medicine through PubMed from 1/1/2003 to 5/30/2015. Specific Medical Subject Headings terms (colon, colon polyps, adenomatous polyps, epidemiology, natural history, growth, cancer screening, colonoscopy, CRC) were used in conjunction with subject headings/key words (surveillance, adenoma surveillance, polypectomy surveillance, and serrated adenoma). We defined non-advanced adenomas as 1-2 adenomas each 25% villous histology or high-grade dysplasia. A combined endpoint of advanced neoplasia included advanced adenomas and invasive CRC. Our search strategy identified 592 candidate articles of which 8 met inclusion criteria and were relevant for assessment of histology (low grade vs high grade dysplasia, villous features) and adenoma size. Six of these studies met the accepted quality indicator threshold for overall adenoma detection rate > 25% among study patients. We found 254 articles of which 7 met inclusion criteria for the evaluation of multiple adenomas. Lastly, our search revealed 222 candidate articles of which 6 met inclusion criteria for evaluation of serrated polyps. Our review found that villous features, high grade dysplasia, larger adenoma size, and having ≥ 3 adenomas at baseline are associated with an increased risk of future colonic neoplasia in some but not all studies. Serrated polyps in the proximal colon are associated with an increased risk of future colonic neoplasia, comparable to having a baseline advanced adenoma. Data on adenoma features and risk of future adenomas and CRC are compelling yet modest in absolute effect size. Future research should refine this risk stratification.

  17. Associations of red and processed meat intake with major molecular pathological features of colorectal cancer.

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    Carr, Prudence R; Jansen, Lina; Bienert, Stefanie; Roth, Wilfried; Herpel, Esther; Kloor, Matthias; Bläker, Hendrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Red and processed meat is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, exact mechanisms to explain the associations remain unclear. Few studies have investigated the association with CRC by molecular tumor features, which could provide relevant information on associated molecular pathways. In this population-based case-control study from Germany (DACHS), 2449 cases and 2479 controls provided information on risk factors of CRC and completed a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between meat intake and risk of CRC by molecular pathologic features and specific subtypes. Red and processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal (>1 time/day vs ≤1 time/week OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.34-2.07), colon and rectal cancer. Among the single molecular tumor features investigated, the results were similar for associations of red and processed meat with CRC risk by microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, BRAF, oestrogen receptor-β and p53 status. Red and processed meat intake was associated less strongly with risk of KRAS-mutated CRC (OR >1 time/day vs ≤1 time/week: 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.03) than with risk of KRAS-wildtype CRC (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.42-2.34; p heterogeneity 0.04). These results support an association between red and processed meat and CRC risk similar for subsites of CRC and most of the investigated major molecular pathological features. Potential differences were observed in more specific subtype analyses. Further large studies are needed to confirm these results and to help further elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.

  18. Isolated pachymeningeal metastasis from breast cancer: Clinical features and prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Mi Hwa; Cho, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Park, Yeon Hee

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical features and prognoses of patients with isolated pachymeningeal metastasis (IPM) from breast cancer. We reviewed the medical records of all patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated from January 2009 to August 2016. Eligibility criteria included diagnosis of pachymeningeal metastasis based on brain magnetic resonance imaging and histologic diagnosis of primary breast cancer. We excluded patients with concomitant parenchymal or leptomeningeal metastases. Thirty-eight patients who matched our inclusion criteria were included in this study. The incidence of IPM in breast cancer was 1.5% of all patients with MBC. The molecular subtype distribution was: triple negative, 29.0%; ER+/HER2-, 44.7%; ER+/HER2+, 18.4%; and ER-/HER2+, 7.9%. All isolated pachymeningeal involvement resulted from the direct extension of skull metastases. The median time to IPM from systemic metastasis was 28.6 (95% CI: 23.6-33.6) months. The median time to IPM from skull metastasis was 5.2 (95% CI: 0-10.9) months. The median overall survival (OS) from IPM was 4.0 (95% CI: 2.5-5.5) months. In patients who received chemotherapy the OS was longer than for those who received radiotherapy or supportive care only [median OS 8.9 (95% CI: 0.0-18.4), 2.8 (95% CI: 0.5-5.0), and 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6-1.1) months, respectively (p = 0.006)]. Multivariate analysis revealed that good performance status and chemotherapy were associated with better survival outcomes. Stratified evaluation is required for patients with skull metastasis from breast cancer, as pachymeningeal involvement can develop and be associated with unsuspected outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Ultrasonographic features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy

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    Sung, Hwa Sung; Kim, Young Seon [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. This study was performed with approval from our Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Six traumatic neuromas in five patients were included in this study. The US findings of traumatic neuromas were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The final assessment was also recorded. On US, all six lesions presented as a mass within the pectoralis muscle layer (mean size, 4.8 mm; range, 3.9 to 5.5 mm). Of the six masses, four had an oval shape with a circumscribed margin, and two had an irregular shape and an indistinct margin. They were all hypoechoic. Two lesions showed a non-parallel orientation. On color Doppler examinations, two lesions showed internal vascularity. Strain elastography was performed for four neuromas, resulting in scores of 1 (n=1), 4 (n=2), and 5 (n=1). The final assessment categories were BI-RADS 3 (n=2), 4A (n=2), and 4B (n=2). On US, an oval shape, circumscribed margin, parallel orientation, and hypoechogenicity were the most frequent features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Neuromas may show increased vascularity on color Doppler imaging and present as a hard mass on elastography.

  20. Ultrasonographic features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Sung Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Methods This study was performed with approval from our Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Six traumatic neuromas in five patients were included in this study. The US findings of traumatic neuromas were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. The final assessment was also recorded. Results On US, all six lesions presented as a mass within the pectoralis muscle layer (mean size, 4.8 mm; range, 3.9 to 5.5 mm. Of the six masses, four had an oval shape with a circumscribed margin, and two had an irregular shape and an indistinct margin. They were all hypoechoic. Two lesions showed a non-parallel orientation. On color Doppler examinations, two lesions showed internal vascularity. Strain elastography was performed for four neuromas, resulting in scores of 1 (n=1, 4 (n=2, and 5 (n=1. The final assessment categories were BI-RADS 3 (n=2, 4A (n=2, and 4B (n=2. Conclusion On US, an oval shape, circumscribed margin, parallel orientation, and hypoechogenicity were the most frequent features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Neuromas may show increased vascularity on color Doppler imaging and present as a hard mass on elastography.

  1. Relationship between reticuloendothelial systems' FDG uptake level and clinicopathological features in patient with invasive ductal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ertan; Elboğa, Umut

    2017-10-01

    The reticuloendothelial system (RES) is a part of the immune system and plays a major role in the protection of against diseases. We thought that FDG-PET/CT may show the degree of systemic immune response induced with malignancy in the organs with the high RES activity. Our objective is to investigate FDG uptake levels of high RES activity organs (liver, spleen, bone marrow) in invasive ductal breast cancer and to evaluate the association with the clinicopathological features. In the present study, 193 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer who performed FDG-PET/CT were categorized according to the clinicopathological features including age, tumor size, axillary nodal status, histological grade, the presence of lymphavascular invasion, receptor status, Ki-67 proliferation index and biological subgroup. Also, a control group of 100 subjects were identified for comparison with breast cancer patients. We analyzed the relation of FDG uptake levels in high RES activity organs and clinicopathological features in patients. There was a statistically significant difference of SUVmax of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow between cancer and control groups (P features in patient with invasive ductal breast cancer. FDG uptake level in high RES activity organs is associated with the presence of tumor, and also directly relating clinicopathological features for patients with invasive ductal breast cancer.

  2. Cancer Feature Selection and Classification Using a Binary Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feature gene selection for cancer classification, which employs an optimization algorithm to select a subset of the genes. We propose a binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (BQPSO for cancer feature gene selection, coupling support vector machine (SVM for cancer classification. First, the proposed BQPSO algorithm is described, which is a discretized version of original QPSO for binary 0-1 optimization problems. Then, we present the principle and procedure for cancer feature gene selection and cancer classification based on BQPSO and SVM with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV. Finally, the BQPSO coupling SVM (BQPSO/SVM, binary PSO coupling SVM (BPSO/SVM, and genetic algorithm coupling SVM (GA/SVM are tested for feature gene selection and cancer classification on five microarray data sets, namely, Leukemia, Prostate, Colon, Lung, and Lymphoma. The experimental results show that BQPSO/SVM has significant advantages in accuracy, robustness, and the number of feature genes selected compared with the other two algorithms.

  3. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  4. Patient feature based dosimetric Pareto front prediction in esophageal cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Zhao, Kuaike; Peng, Jiayuan; Xie, Jiang; Chen, Junchao; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Weigang, E-mail: jackhuwg@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032, China and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jin, Xiance [The 1st Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); Studenski, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami-Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of the dosimetric Pareto front (PF) prediction based on patient’s anatomic and dosimetric parameters for esophageal cancer patients. Methods: Eighty esophagus patients in the authors’ institution were enrolled in this study. A total of 2928 intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were obtained and used to generate PF for each patient. On average, each patient had 36.6 plans. The anatomic and dosimetric features were extracted from these plans. The mean lung dose (MLD), mean heart dose (MHD), spinal cord max dose, and PTV homogeneity index were recorded for each plan. Principal component analysis was used to extract overlap volume histogram (OVH) features between PTV and other organs at risk. The full dataset was separated into two parts; a training dataset and a validation dataset. The prediction outcomes were the MHD and MLD. The spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical features and dosimetric features. The stepwise multiple regression method was used to fit the PF. The cross validation method was used to evaluate the model. Results: With 1000 repetitions, the mean prediction error of the MHD was 469 cGy. The most correlated factor was the first principal components of the OVH between heart and PTV and the overlap between heart and PTV in Z-axis. The mean prediction error of the MLD was 284 cGy. The most correlated factors were the first principal components of the OVH between heart and PTV and the overlap between lung and PTV in Z-axis. Conclusions: It is feasible to use patients’ anatomic and dosimetric features to generate a predicted Pareto front. Additional samples and further studies are required improve the prediction model.

  5. Patient feature based dosimetric Pareto front prediction in esophageal cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Jin, Xiance; Zhao, Kuaike; Peng, Jiayuan; Xie, Jiang; Chen, Junchao; Zhang, Zhen; Studenski, Matthew; Hu, Weigang

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the dosimetric Pareto front (PF) prediction based on patient's anatomic and dosimetric parameters for esophageal cancer patients. Eighty esophagus patients in the authors' institution were enrolled in this study. A total of 2928 intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were obtained and used to generate PF for each patient. On average, each patient had 36.6 plans. The anatomic and dosimetric features were extracted from these plans. The mean lung dose (MLD), mean heart dose (MHD), spinal cord max dose, and PTV homogeneity index were recorded for each plan. Principal component analysis was used to extract overlap volume histogram (OVH) features between PTV and other organs at risk. The full dataset was separated into two parts; a training dataset and a validation dataset. The prediction outcomes were the MHD and MLD. The spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical features and dosimetric features. The stepwise multiple regression method was used to fit the PF. The cross validation method was used to evaluate the model. With 1000 repetitions, the mean prediction error of the MHD was 469 cGy. The most correlated factor was the first principal components of the OVH between heart and PTV and the overlap between heart and PTV in Z-axis. The mean prediction error of the MLD was 284 cGy. The most correlated factors were the first principal components of the OVH between heart and PTV and the overlap between lung and PTV in Z-axis. It is feasible to use patients' anatomic and dosimetric features to generate a predicted Pareto front. Additional samples and further studies are required improve the prediction model.

  6. Multiple Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Automatic Features Extraction Algorithm for Cervical Cancer Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Subhi Al-batah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, cancer of uterine cervix is still a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The current methods (i.e., Pap smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC to screen for cervical cancer are time-consuming and dependent on the skill of the cytopathologist and thus are rather subjective. Therefore, this paper presents an intelligent computer vision system to assist pathologists in overcoming these problems and, consequently, produce more accurate results. The developed system consists of two stages. In the first stage, the automatic features extraction (AFE algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a neuro-fuzzy model called multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (MANFIS is proposed for recognition process. The MANFIS contains a set of ANFIS models which are arranged in parallel combination to produce a model with multi-input-multioutput structure. The system is capable of classifying cervical cell image into three groups, namely, normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. The experimental results prove the capability of the AFE algorithm to be as effective as the manual extraction by human experts, while the proposed MANFIS produces a good classification performance with 94.2% accuracy.

  7. Clinico-pathological features and prognostic analysis of gastric cancer patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Hongliang; Wang, Huiling; Li, Chunfeng; Kang, Yue; Xue, Yingwei

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic value of age on patients with gastric cancer is not well defined. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the impact of age on survival in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 1800 patients with gastric carcinoma, who had undergone gastrectomy between 1997-2007 years were included. They were divided into six different age groups (21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51- 60, 61-70 and 71-80 years). We reviewed patient's clinico-pathological characteristics and the prognosis with special reference to their ages. Among the six age groups, the younger patients have more female-dominated patients and poorly differentiated carcinoma, whereas the older patients have a higher incidence of large tumors (≥5 cm) and more patients with stage T3. Moreover, there were more liver metastases in the older age groups. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in 5-year survival rates among the six age groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed age, tumor size, pT stage, pN stage and curability were independent prognostic factors. There are several distinctive properties related to age of patients with gastric cancer, the older patients have more aggressive features and poorer prognosis than the younger patients.

  8. Multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with automatic features extraction algorithm for cervical cancer recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-batah, Mohammad Subhi; Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat; Klaib, Mohammad Fadel; Al-Betar, Mohammed Azmi

    2014-01-01

    To date, cancer of uterine cervix is still a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The current methods (i.e., Pap smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC)) to screen for cervical cancer are time-consuming and dependent on the skill of the cytopathologist and thus are rather subjective. Therefore, this paper presents an intelligent computer vision system to assist pathologists in overcoming these problems and, consequently, produce more accurate results. The developed system consists of two stages. In the first stage, the automatic features extraction (AFE) algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a neuro-fuzzy model called multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (MANFIS) is proposed for recognition process. The MANFIS contains a set of ANFIS models which are arranged in parallel combination to produce a model with multi-input-multioutput structure. The system is capable of classifying cervical cell image into three groups, namely, normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). The experimental results prove the capability of the AFE algorithm to be as effective as the manual extraction by human experts, while the proposed MANFIS produces a good classification performance with 94.2% accuracy.

  9. Clinical features and evolution of oral cancer: A study of 274 cases in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandizzi, Daniel; Gandolfo, Mariana; Velazco, María Lucia; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis; Lanfranchi, Hector Eduardo

    2008-09-01

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma has a low survival rate, 34 to 66% five-year survival after initial diagnosis, due to late diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical features and evolution of oral cancer in the University of Buenos Aires. 274 patients with primary oral carcinoma, over the 1992-2000 period were included in the study. The survival rate of this population was 80% at 12 months, 60% at 24 months, 46% at 36 months, 40% at 48 months, and 39% at 60 months (5 years). The tumor localizations with worse prognosis were floor of mouth and tongue, with survival rates of 19% and 27% respectively. Sixty-five percent of the oral carcinomas evaluated were diagnosed at advanced stages (III and IV). The patients under study exhibited the lowest survival rate described for oral cancer (34% five-year survival after initial diagnosis). The population included in this study can be considered representative of the Argentine population. This bad prognosis would be mainly due to the large number of oral cancer cases that were diagnosed at advanced stages.

  10. Accelerated whole breast irradiation in early breast cancer patients with adverse prognostic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sea-Won; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Jin Ho; Im, Seock-Ah; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Lim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Keun Seok; Lee, Eun Sook; Sung, Soo Yoon; Kim, Kyubo

    2016-12-06

    Accelerated whole breast irradiation (AWBI) and conventional whole breast irradiation (CWBI) were compared to determine whether AWBI is as effective as CWBI in patients with early breast cancer and adverse prognostic features. We included 330 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and post-operative radiation therapy (RT) using AWBI for pT1-2 and pN0-1a breast cancer from 2007 to 2010. These patients were matched with 330 patients who received CWBI according to stage, age (±3 years), and the year of BCS. AWBI of 39 Gy and CWBI of 50.4 Gy were given in 13 and 28 fractions, respectively. Median follow-up time was 81.9 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the AWBI and CWBI groups in terms of age, stage, tumor grade, or molecular subtype. More patients with Ki-67 index ≥ 14% were present in the AWBI group (AWBI 47.0% vs. CWBI 10.3%; P<0.01). The 5-year ipsilateral breast tumor relapse (IBTR) rates for the AWBI and CWBI groups were 0.8% and 1.8%, respectively (P=0.54). High tumor grade was a statistically significant risk factor for IBTR (5-year IBTR rate: 2.9%; P=0.01). Ki-67 ≥ 14% was marginally related to IBTR (5-year IBTR rate: 2.2%; P=0.07). There were no statistically significant differences in the hazard ratios between the AWBI and CWBI groups according to any of the risk factors. There were no acute grade 3 toxicities in the AWBI group. There were no late grade 3 toxicities in either group. AWBI is comparable to CWBI in early breast cancer with adverse prognostic features.

  11. Current or recent pregnancy is associated with adverse pathologic features but not impaired survival in early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Conleth G; Mallam, Divya; Stein, Samantha; Patil, Sujata; Howard, Jane; Sklarin, Nancy; Hudis, Clifford A; Gemignani, Mary L; Seidman, Andrew D

    2012-07-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) may be defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within 1 year of giving birth. Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of pregnancy on clinical features and prognosis of breast cancer. A single-institution retrospective chart review was performed of 99 patients identified with PABC between 1992 and 2007. Non-PABC controls were matched 2:1 to PABC cases by year of diagnosis and age. The differences in clinical features were compared between cases and controls using chi-square tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of PABC on survival. Of the 99 PABC cases, breast cancer was diagnosed during pregnancy in 36 patients, and after delivery in 63. PABC cases were more likely than controls to be negative for estrogen receptor (59% vs 31%, P Cancer Society.

  12. A deep feature fusion methodology for breast cancer diagnosis demonstrated on three imaging modality datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropova, Natalia; Huynh, Benjamin Q; Giger, Maryellen L

    2017-10-01

    Deep learning methods for radiomics/computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) are often prohibited by small datasets, long computation time, and the need for extensive image preprocessing. We aim to develop a breast CADx methodology that addresses the aforementioned issues by exploiting the efficiency of pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and using pre-existing handcrafted CADx features. We present a methodology that extracts and pools low- to mid-level features using a pretrained CNN and fuses them with handcrafted radiomic features computed using conventional CADx methods. Our methodology is tested on three different clinical imaging modalities (dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI [690 cases], full-field digital mammography [245 cases], and ultrasound [1125 cases]). From ROC analysis, our fusion-based method demonstrates, on all three imaging modalities, statistically significant improvements in terms of AUC as compared to previous breast cancer CADx methods in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. (DCE-MRI [AUC = 0.89 (se = 0.01)], FFDM [AUC = 0.86 (se = 0.01)], and ultrasound [AUC = 0.90 (se = 0.01)]). We proposed a novel breast CADx methodology that can be used to more effectively characterize breast lesions in comparison to existing methods. Furthermore, our proposed methodology is computationally efficient and circumvents the need for image preprocessing. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. When fear of cancer recurrence becomes a clinical issue: a qualitative analysis of features associated with clinical fear of cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaers, Brittany; Jones, Georden; Rutkowski, Nicole; Tomei, Christina; Séguin Leclair, Caroline; Petricone-Westwood, Danielle; Simard, Sébastien; Lebel, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common experience for cancer survivors. However, it remains unclear what characteristics differentiate non-clinical from clinical levels of FCR. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential hallmarks of clinical FCR. A convenience sample of 40 participants (n = 19 female) was drawn from another study (Lebel et al. in Qual Life Res 25:311-321. doi: 10.1007/s11136-015-1088-2 , 2016). The semi-structured interview for fear of cancer recurrence (Simard and Savard in J Cancer Surviv 9:481-491. doi: 10.1007/s11764-015-0424-4 , 2015) was used to identify participants with non-clinical and clinical FCR and qualitative analysis of these interviews was performed. Individuals with clinical FCR reported the following features: death-related thoughts, feeling alone, belief that the cancer would return, experiencing intolerance of uncertainty, having cancer-related thoughts and imagery that were difficult to control, daily and recurrent, lasted 30 minutes or more, increased over time, caused distress and impacted their daily life. Triggers of FCR and coping strategies did not appear to be features of clinical FCR as they were reported by participants with a range of FCR scores. While features of clinical FCR found in this analysis such as intrusive thoughts, distress and impact on functioning confirmed previous FCR research, other features spontaneously emerged from the interviews including "death-related thoughts," "feeling alone," and "belief that the cancer will return." The participants' descriptions of cancer-specific fear and worry suggest that FCR is a distinct phenomenon related to cancer survivorship, despite similarities with psychological disorders (e.g., Anxiety Disorders). Future research investigating the construct of FCR, and the distinguishing features of clinical FCR across a range of cancer types and gender is required.

  14. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging of breast cancer: association with histopathological features and subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunju; Ko, Kyounglan; Kim, Daehong; Min, Changki; Kim, Sungheon G; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Boram

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the associations between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters and histopathological features and subtypes of breast cancer. Pre-operative MRI from 275 patients with unilateral breast cancer was analyzed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameters [tissue diffusion coefficient (Dt), perfusion fraction (fp) and pseudodiffusion coefficient] were obtained from cancer and normal tissue using diffusion-weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 30, 70, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 800 s mm(-2). We then compared the IVIM parameters of tumours with different histopathological features and subtypes. The ADC and Dt were lower and fp was higher in cancers than in normal tissues (p cancer than in low Ki-67 cancer (p = 0.019), whereas ADC showed no significant difference (p = 0.309). Luminal B [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative] cancer showed lower ADC (p = 0.003) and Dt (p = 0.001) than other types. We found low tissue diffusivity in high Ki-67 cancer and luminal B (HER2-negative) cancer using IVIM imaging. Low tissue diffusivity is more clearly shown in high Ki-67 tumours and luminal B (HER2-negative) tumours with the IVIM model.

  15. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with poor breast cancer prognostic features in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Almeida-Filho, Benedito; De Luca Vespoli, Heloisa; Pessoa, Eduardo Carvalho; Machado, Murilo; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between pretreatment vitamin D (VD) deficiency with breast cancer prognostic features in Brazilian postmenopausal women. An analytical cross sectional study was conducted with 192 women, aged 45-75 years, attended at University Hospital. Women with recent diagnosis of breast cancer, in amenorrhea >12months and age ≥45 years, without medication use or clinical conditions that interfere with VD values were included. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in all patients until 20days after breast cancer diagnosis, and was classified as normal (≥30ng/mL), insufficiency (20-29ng/mL) and deficiency (D level was 25.8ng/mL (range 12.0-59.2ng/mL). Sufficient vitamin D levels were detected in 65 patients (33.9%), whereas insufficient levels in 92 patients (47.9%), and deficient levels in 35 patients (18.2%). Participants with insufficient and deficient 25(OH)D levels had a higher proportion of tumors with a high grade and locally advanced and metastatic disease, more positive lymph node, a lower proportion of ER, PR positives tumors and higher Ki-67(pD had a higher frequency of luminal A (47.7%) and luminal B (32.2%) tumors when compared to patients with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Furthermore, all cases of triple negative were detected in women with low VD levels. Multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, time since menopause and BMI, showed that insufficient and deficient level of vitamin D were significantly associated with negative estrogen receptor (OR 3.77 CI 95% 1.76-8.09 and OR 3.99 CI 95% 1.83-8.68), high Ki-67 (OR 2.50, CI 95% 1.35-4.63, and OR 2.62, CI 95% 1.40-4.98), and positive axillary lymph node status (OR 1.59, CI 95% 1.03-2.33, and OR 1.58, CI 95% 1.02-2.92) respectively. In Brazilian postmenopausal women with breast cancer, there was an association between vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and tumors with worse

  16. Imaging Features for the Prediction of Extensive Intraductal Components in Invasive Cancer in Addition to the Histopathologic Grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hye Yoen; Kim, Keum Won; Park, Yong Sung; Cho, Yong Jun; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Hyun Jin; Sul, Hae Jung; Yoon, Dae Sung [Konyang University, College of Medicine, Nonsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu Soon [Eulji University, College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of US and mammography in detecting extensive intraductal component (EIC) in invasive cancer and correlating the results with the histopathologic grade. We retrospectively reviewed the mammographic and sonographic features of 125 invasive breast cancers, classified as 'invasive cancer with EIC' (n=57) and 'invasive cancer without EIC' (n=68). The mammographic features are classified as microcalcifications only, microcalcifications beyond the soft tissue density, soft tissue density without microcalcification, and sonographic features classified according to ten sonographic suspicious features for malignancy by Stavros. We calculated sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy to correlate them with histologic grade. Microcalcifications on mammography, calcification, duct extension, and a branching pattern on sonography were found to be statistically significant predictors of EIC. Also, a thick echogenic halo, angular margin, microlobuation, taller than wide feature on sonography, and soft tissue shadow without microcalcification on mammography showed a decreased risk of EIC. In addition, the presence of a branching pattern is an indicator of high histologic grade (p<0.05). Microcalcification on mammography, calcification, duct extension, and branching pattern on sonography are an indicator of the presence of EIC in invasive cancer. In addition, when a branching pattern is present, the tumor tends to have a high histologic grade.

  17. Radiogenomic analysis of breast cancer: dynamic contrast enhanced - magnetic resonance imaging based features are associated with molecular subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijian; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiaojia; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor with upgrading incidence in females. The key to decrease the mortality is early diagnosis and reasonable treatment. Molecular classification could provide better insights into patient-directed therapy and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. It is known that different molecular subtypes have different characteristics in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Therefore, we assumed that imaging features can reflect molecular information in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated associations between dynamic contrasts enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) features and molecular subtypes in breast cancer. Sixty patients with breast cancer were enrolled and the MR images were pre-processed for noise reduction, registration and segmentation. Sixty-five dimensional imaging features including statistical characteristics, morphology, texture and dynamic enhancement in breast lesion and background regions were semiautomatically extracted. The associations between imaging features and molecular subtypes were assessed by using statistical analyses, including univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression. The results of multivariate regression showed that imaging features are significantly associated with molecular subtypes of Luminal A (p=0.00473), HER2-enriched (p=0.00277) and Basal like (p=0.0117), respectively. The results indicated that three molecular subtypes are correlated with DCE-MRI features in breast cancer. Specifically, patients with a higher level of compactness or lower level of skewness in breast lesion are more likely to be Luminal A subtype. Besides, the higher value of the dynamic enhancement at T1 time in normal side reflect higher possibility of HER2-enriched subtype in breast cancer.

  18. Assessment of pathological prostate cancer characteristics in men with favorable biopsy features on predominantly sextant biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Felix K-H; Suardi, Nazareno; Capitanio, Umberto; Jeldres, Claudio; Ahyai, Sascha; Graefen, Markus; Haese, Alexander; Steuber, Thomas; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Montorsi, Francesco; Huland, Hartwig; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2009-03-01

    The rate of insignificant prostate cancer (IPCa) is increasing. To examine three end points in patients with a single, positive core and no high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) at biopsy, namely (1) rate of clinical IPCa at radical prostatectomy (RP), defined as organ-confined PCa with a Gleason score of 6 or lower and tumor volume<0.5 cc; (2) rate of pathologically unfavorable PCa at RP (Gleason 7-10 or non-organ-confined disease); and (3) ability to predict either insignificant or unfavorable PCa at RP. Retrospective analysis of 209 men with one positive biopsy core showing Gleason 6 or lower. : Detailed clinical and RP data were used in multivariable logistic regression models. Their bias-corrected accuracy estimates were quantified using the area under the curve (AUC) method. At RP, IPCa was present in 28 patients (13.4%) and pathologically unfavorable PCa, defined as Gleason 7 or higher or non-organ-confined PCa, was reported in 70 (33.5%) of 209 men; when Gleason 8 or higher or non-organ-confined PCa was considered, the proportion fell to 11%. Our multivariable models predicting different categories of pathologically unfavorable PCa at RP had an accuracy rate between 56% and 68% for predicting IPCa at RP versus 65.1% to 66.1% and 61.7% for the IPCa nomograms of Kattan et al and Nakanishi et al, respectively. Our data are not applicable to screening because they originate from a referral population. Despite highly favorable biopsy features, between 11% and 33% of men had unfavorable PCa at RP and only a minority (13.4%) had pathologically confirmed IPCa. Neither clinically insignificant nor pathologically unfavorable features could be predicted with sufficient accuracy for clinical decision making.

  19. High levels of EGFR expression in tumor stroma are associated with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ke Wang, Dan Li, Lu Sun Department of Gynecologic Cancer, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expressed in tumor stroma of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistological staining of EGFR was evaluated in 242 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The correlations of EGFR expression in tumor stroma with clinicopathological features and with the expression level of Ki-67 were analyzed by SPSS software. Kaplan–Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to analyze the effect of EGFR expression in tumor stroma on the prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Meanwhile, the activities of proliferation and migration of tumor cells were detected when EGFR overexpressed in stroma cells. Results: EGFR expression in tumor stroma correlated significantly with clinical stage (χ2=7.002, P=0.008 and distant metastases (χ2=16.59, P<0.001. Furthermore, there was a significantly positive correlation between the level of EGFR expressed in tumor stroma and the level of Ki-67 expressed in tumor cells (χ2=6.120, P=0.013. Patients with high EGFR expression level in tumor stroma showed poor survival (P=0.002. Multivariate analysis showed that high expression of EGFR in tumor stroma was an independent predictor for epithelial ovarian cancer patients (hazard ratio =1.703; 95% confidence interval 1.125–2.578, P=0.012. Furthermore, stroma cells overexpressing EGFR could promote the proliferation and migration of adjacent tumor cells. Conclusion: High expression of EGFR in tumor stroma correlates with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer, and is an independent prognostic factor. Keywords: EGFR, epithelial

  20. Feature selection in computer-aided breast cancer diagnosis via dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Megan; McGaughey, Donald; Korenberg, Michael J; Levman, Jacob; Martel, Anne L

    2013-04-01

    The accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for early detection and classification of breast cancer in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is dependent upon the features used by the CAD classifier. Here, we show that fast orthogonal search (FOS), which provides a more efficient iterative manner of computing stepwise regression feature selection, can select features with predictive value from a set of kinetic and texture candidate features computed from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. FOS can in minutes search candidate feature sets of millions of terms, which may include cross-products of features up to second-, third- or fourth-order. This method is tested on a set of 83 DCE-MRI images, of which 20 are for cancerous and 63 for benign cases, using a leave-one-out trial. The features selected by FOS were used in a FOS predictor and nearest-neighbour predictor and had an area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 0.889 and 0.791 respectively. The FOS predictor AUC is significantly improved over the signal enhancement ratio predictor with an AUC of 0.706 (p = 0.0035 for the difference in the AUCs). Moreover, using FOS-selected features in a support vector machine increased the AUC over that resulting when the features were manually selected.

  1. Risk factors and histopathological features of breast cancer among women with different menopausal status and age at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Ozan; Kiyak, Dilara; Caka, Canan; Yagmur, Merve; Yavas, Huseyin G; Erdogan, Fadime; Sener, Nazli; Oguz, Bahar; Babacan, Taner; Altundag, Kadri

    2017-01-01

    Although there are studies that investigate different risk factors and clinicopathological features of breast cancer in women at different age groups and menopausal status, there is a need for studies with larger study populations due to controversial findings. We conducted this study to identify demographic parameters in breast cancer patients and histopathological features of the tumors for different age groups and compare them to demonstrate significant differences, if any. 3325 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hacettepe University Oncology Hospital Outpatient Clinic between January 1994 and March 2014 were included in this study. Postmenopausal women who were older than 65 were found to have higher number of children, higher rates of oral contraceptive use, greater age at menarche, and have higher rates of first full-time pregnancy before the age of 30. On the other hand, higher rates of grade 3 tumors, advanced lymph node stage, lymphovascular invasion, and triple negative breast cancers were more frequently seen in premenopausal women below the age of 35. Since earlier age at the time of diagnosis is associated with bad prognosis, early diagnosis of breast cancer gains importance in younger women. Implementing targeted screening programs of breast cancer for younger women may become a need in the future. Meanwhile, well-education on risks of breast cancer and regular self-examination for early diagnosis need to be emphasized for the prevention of breast cancer and related diseases in young ages.

  2. Evaluation of correlation between CT image features and ERCC1 protein expression in assessing lung cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Emaminejad, Nastaran; Qian, Wei; Sun, Shenshen; Kang, Yan; Guan, Yubao; Lure, Fleming; Zheng, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Stage I non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) usually have favorable prognosis. However, high percentage of NSCLC patients have cancer relapse after surgery. Accurately predicting cancer prognosis is important to optimally treat and manage the patients to minimize the risk of cancer relapse. Studies have shown that an excision repair crosscomplementing 1 (ERCC1) gene was a potentially useful genetic biomarker to predict prognosis of NSCLC patients. Meanwhile, studies also found that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was highly associated with lung cancer prognosis. In this study, we investigated and evaluated the correlations between COPD image features and ERCC1 gene expression. A database involving 106 NSCLC patients was used. Each patient had a thoracic CT examination and ERCC1 genetic test. We applied a computer-aided detection scheme to segment and quantify COPD image features. A logistic regression method and a multilayer perceptron network were applied to analyze the correlation between the computed COPD image features and ERCC1 protein expression. A multilayer perceptron network (MPN) was also developed to test performance of using COPD-related image features to predict ERCC1 protein expression. A nine feature based logistic regression analysis showed the average COPD feature values in the low and high ERCC1 protein expression groups are significantly different (p < 0.01). Using a five-fold cross validation method, the MPN yielded an area under ROC curve (AUC = 0.669±0.053) in classifying between the low and high ERCC1 expression cases. The study indicates that CT phenotype features are associated with the genetic tests, which may provide supplementary information to help improve accuracy in assessing prognosis of NSCLC patients.

  3. Prediction of near-term breast cancer risk using local region-based bilateral asymmetry features in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yane; Fan, Ming; Li, Lihua; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    This study proposed a near-term breast cancer risk assessment model based on local region bilateral asymmetry features in Mammography. The database includes 566 cases who underwent at least two sequential FFDM examinations. The `prior' examination in the two series all interpreted as negative (not recalled). In the "current" examination, 283 women were diagnosed cancers and 283 remained negative. Age of cancers and negative cases completely matched. These cases were divided into three subgroups according to age: 152 cases among the 37-49 age-bracket, 220 cases in the age-bracket 50- 60, and 194 cases with the 61-86 age-bracket. For each image, two local regions including strip-based regions and difference-of-Gaussian basic element regions were segmented. After that, structural variation features among pixel values and structural similarity features were computed for strip regions. Meanwhile, positional features were extracted for basic element regions. The absolute subtraction value was computed between each feature of the left and right local-regions. Next, a multi-layer perception classifier was implemented to assess performance of features for prediction. Features were then selected according stepwise regression analysis. The AUC achieved 0.72, 0.75 and 0.71 for these 3 age-based subgroups, respectively. The maximum adjustable odds ratios were 12.4, 20.56 and 4.91 for these three groups, respectively. This study demonstrate that the local region-based bilateral asymmetry features extracted from CC-view mammography could provide useful information to predict near-term breast cancer risk.

  4. Unsupervised feature construction and knowledge extraction from genome-wide assays of breast cancer with denoising autoencoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Cheng, Chao; Greene, Casey S

    2015-01-01

    Big data bring new opportunities for methods that efficiently summarize and automatically extract knowledge from such compendia. While both supervised learning algorithms and unsupervised clustering algorithms have been successfully applied to biological data, they are either dependent on known biology or limited to discerning the most significant signals in the data. Here we present denoising autoencoders (DAs), which employ a data-defined learning objective independent of known biology, as a method to identify and extract complex patterns from genomic data. We evaluate the performance of DAs by applying them to a large collection of breast cancer gene expression data. Results show that DAs successfully construct features that contain both clinical and molecular information. There are features that represent tumor or normal samples, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and molecular subtypes. Features constructed by the autoencoder generalize to an independent dataset collected using a distinct experimental platform. By integrating data from ENCODE for feature interpretation, we discover a feature representing ER status through association with key transcription factors in breast cancer. We also identify a feature highly predictive of patient survival and it is enriched by FOXM1 signaling pathway. The features constructed by DAs are often bimodally distributed with one peak near zero and another near one, which facilitates discretization. In summary, we demonstrate that DAs effectively extract key biological principles from gene expression data and summarize them into constructed features with convenient properties.

  5. Strain measurement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pediatric cancer survivors: validation of feature tracking against harmonic phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jimmy C. [C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, University of Michigan Congenital Heart Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Connelly, James A. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zhao, Lili [University of Michigan, Department of Biostatistics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Left ventricular strain may be a more sensitive marker of left ventricular dysfunction than ejection fraction in pediatric cancer survivors after anthracycline therapy, but there is limited validation of strain measurement by feature tracking on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) images. To compare left ventricular circumferential and radial strain by feature tracking vs. harmonic phase imaging analysis (HARP) in pediatric cancer survivors. Twenty-six patients (20.2 ± 5.6 years old) underwent cardiovascular MR at least 5 years after completing anthracycline therapy. Circumferential and radial strain were measured at the base, midventricle and apex from short-axis myocardial tagged images by HARP, and from steady-state free precession images by feature tracking. Left ventricular ejection fraction more closely correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = -0.63, P = 0.0005) than by HARP (r = -0.39, P = 0.05). Midventricular circumferential strain did not significantly differ by feature tracking or HARP (-20.8 ± 3.4 vs. -19.5 ± 2.5, P = 0.07), with acceptable limits of agreement. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking strongly correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001). Radial strain by feature tracking had poor agreement with HARP, particularly at higher values of radial strain. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was excellent for feature tracking circumferential strain, but reproducibility was poor for feature tracking radial strain. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking is a reliable and reproducible measure of myocardial deformation in patients status post anthracycline therapy, while radial strain measurements are unreliable. Further studies are necessary to evaluate potential relation to long-term outcomes. (orig.)

  6. Estrogen switches pure mucinous breast cancer to invasive lobular carcinoma with mucinous features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambal, Purevsuren; Badtke, Melanie M; Harrell, J Chuck; Borges, Virginia F; Post, Miriam D; Sollender, Grace E; Spillman, Monique A; Horwitz, Kathryn B; Jacobsen, Britta M

    2013-01-01

    Mucinous breast cancer (MBC) is mainly a disease of postmenopausal women. Pure MBC is rare and augurs a good prognosis. In contrast, MBC mixed with other histological subtypes of invasive disease loses the more favorable prognosis. Because of the relative rarity of pure MBC, little is known about its cell and tumor biology and relationship to invasive disease of other subtypes. We have now developed a human breast cancer cell line called BCK4, in which we can control the behavior of MBC. BCK4 cells were derived from a patient whose poorly differentiated primary tumor was treated with chemotherapy, radiation and tamoxifen. Malignant cells from a recurrent pleural effusion were xenografted in mammary glands of a nude mouse. Cells from the solid tumor xenograft were propagated in culture to generate the BCK4 cell line. Multiple marker and chromosome analyses demonstrate that BCK4 cells are human, near diploid and luminal, expressing functional estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors. When xenografted back into immunocompromised cycling mice, BCK4 cells grow into small pure MBC. However, if mice are supplemented with continuous estradiol, tumors switch to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) with mucinous features (mixed MBC), and growth is markedly accelerated. Tamoxifen prevents the expansion of this more invasive component. The unexpected ability of estrogens to convert pure MBC into mixed MBC with ILC may explain the rarity of the pure disease in premenopausal women. These studies show that MBC can be derived from lobular precursors and that BCK4 cells are new, unique models to study the phenotypic plasticity, hormonal regulation, optimal therapeutic interventions, and metastatic patterns of MBC.

  7. Imaging and pathology features to predict axillary tumor load in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Pau; Gamero, Rocio; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Plancarte, Francisco; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Carreras, Ramon; Sabadell, Dolors; Vernet-Tomas, Mar

    2017-10-13

    We investigated if imaging and pathology features could help to identify a high axillary tumor burden (ATB) in breast cancer patients, in order to individualize decisions on axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection (ALND). We retrospectively analyzed patients primarily treated with surgery in our unit between 2011 and 2014. We divided the patients in two groups: low ATB (LATB) if ≤ 2 ALN were infiltrated and high ATB (HATB) if > 2 ALN were infiltrated. Data of 105 patients was included in the study. Axillary ultrasound (AUS) features associated with HATB were any sign of ALN infiltration (76 vs 24%, P = 0.027) and > 2 suspicious ALNs (73% vs 27%, P = 0.018); however, when AUS revealed ≤ 2 suspicious ALNs, 39% of these patients had HATB. Any sign of ALN infiltration on magnetic resonance imaging was associated with HATB (48% vs 52%, P = 0.031). Positive preoperative ALN cytology or biopsy was associated with HATB (53% vs 47%, P = 0.008), while p53 positivity (80% vs 20%) and high histological grade (68% vs. 32%) correlated with LATB (P = 0.05 and P = 0.02, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only positive preoperative ALN cytology or biopsy was associated with HATB (P = 0.038). AUS was useful for detecting HATB but was not as effective in patients with LATB. Proving axillary infiltration with AUS-directed cytology or biopsy is the most effective method to predict HATB. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Cancer of Unknown Primary in Adolescents and Young Adults: Clinicopathological Features, Prognostic Factors and Survival Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Raghav

    Full Text Available Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs (15-39 years is increasingly recognized as a distinct clinical and biological entity. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP, a disease traditionally presenting in older adults with a median age of 65 years, poses several challenges when diagnosed in AYA patients. This study describes clinicopathological features, outcomes and challenges in caring for AYA-CUP patients.A retrospective review of 47 AYAs diagnosed with CUP at MD Anderson Cancer Center (6/2006-6/2013 was performed. Patients with favorable CUP subsets treated as per site-specific recommendations were excluded. Demographics, imaging, pathology and treatment data was collected using a prospectively maintained CUP database. Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test were used to estimate and compare overall survival. The cox-proportional model was used for multivariate analyses.Median age was 35 years (range 19-39. All patients underwent comprehensive workup. Adenocarcinoma was the predominant histology (70%. A median of 9 immunostains (range 2-29 were performed. The most common putative primary was biliary tract based on clinicopathological parameters as well as gene profiling. Patients presented with a median of 2 metastatic sites [lymph node (60%, lung (47%, liver (38% and bone (34%]. Most commonly used systemic chemotherapies included gemcitabine, fluorouracil, taxanes and platinum agents. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 10.0 (95% confidence interval (CI: 6.7-15.4 months. On multivariate analyses, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (Hazard ratio (HR 3.66; 95%CI 1.52-8.82; P = 0.004, ≥3 metastatic sites (HR 5.34; 95%CI 1.19-23.9; P = 0.029, and tissue of origin not tested (HR 3.4; 95%CI 1.44-8.06; P = 0.005 were associated with poor overall survival. Culine's CUP prognostic model (lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, liver metastases was validated in this cohort (median overall survival: good-risk 25.2 months vs

  9. Clinicopathologic features and determinants of Gleason score of prostate cancer in Ghanaian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarney, Joel; Vanderpuye, Verna; Mensah, James

    2013-04-01

    Prostate cancer is reported to be more aggressive in Blacks. We studied the clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer in Ghana, in order to determine the factors responsible for them and to find out if there is any relationship between them. Patients referred with a biopsy proven diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate to the Cancer Center of Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, from 2003 to 2007 were studied. Information with respect to age at diagnosis, presenting symptoms, initial PSA (iPSA), Gleason score, and disease extent were studied. Age was partitioned into 50-65 and >65 years, Gleason score into 2-6, 7, and 8-10, iPSA into 4-20 ng/ml and >20, and disease extent into T1, T2, vs. T3, T4, M1, and the relationship between them was determined. Various presenting symptoms were described. Known risk factors and screening in a context of high grade disease is discussed. A total of 170 patients were studied. Mean age was 65.4 years. Majority of patients (73.7%) presented with an iPSA > 20 ng/ml, whilst 22 (14.1%) had PSA Gleason score ≥ 7 was found in 95 (56%) of patients. Asymptomatic patients constituted 24.0%, the rest had bone pain (22.6%), urinary (50.4%), and neurologic symptoms (3.0%).There was a statistically significant relationship between age and Gleason score (P = 0.049), PSA and Gleason score (P = 0.0001), and between extent of disease and Gleason score (P = 0.0002). High fat diet and low intake of fruits and vegetables are probable risk factors in Ghana. Majority of patients present with symptomatic disease at a relatively older age. These patients tend to have high Gleason score partly attributable to advanced disease, age, PSA at the time of diagnosis, and race. Screening with PSA should be recommended and individualized in this group of patients in order to allow diagnosis of less aggressive disease until better screening tools are identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular and metabolic features of oncocytomas: Seeking the blueprints of indolent cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luise, Monica; Girolimetti, Giulia; Okere, Bernard; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Kurelac, Ivana; Gasparre, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Oncocytic tumors are a peculiar subset of human neoplasms in which mitochondria have been proven to have a prominent role. A number of paradoxes render these clinical entities interesting from the translational research point of view. Most oncocytic tumors are generally metabolically constrained due to the impaired respiratory capacity and lack of the ability to respond to hypoxia, yet they maintain features that allow them to strive and persist in an indolent form. Their unique molecular and metabolic characteristics are an object of investigation that may reveal novel ways for therapeutic strategies based on metabolic targeting. With this aim in mind, we here examine the current knowledge on oncocytomas and delve into the molecular causes and consequences that revolve around the oncocytic phenotype, to understand whether we can learn to design therapies from the dissection of benign neoplasms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria in Cancer, edited by Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol and Pierre Sonveaux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bilateral image subtraction features for multivariate automated classification of breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya-Padilla, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Rojas, Juan; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Martínez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José G.

    2014-03-01

    Early tumor detection is key in reducing breast cancer deaths and screening mammography is the most widely available method for early detection. However, mammogram interpretation is based on human radiologist, whose radiological skills, experience and workload makes radiological interpretation inconsistent. In an attempt to make mammographic interpretation more consistent, computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems has been introduced. This paper presents an CADx system aimed to automatically triage normal mammograms form suspicious mammograms. The CADx system co-reregister the left and breast images, then extracts image features from the co-registered mammographic bilateral sets. Finally, an optimal logistic multivariate model is generated by means of an evolutionary search engine. In this study, 440 subjects form the DDSM public data sets were used: 44 normal mammograms, 201 malignant mass mammograms, and 195 mammograms with malignant calci cations. The results showed a cross validation accuracy of 0.88 and an area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC) of 0.89 for the calci cations vs. normal mammograms. The optimal mass vs. normal mammograms model obtained an accuracy of 0.85 and an AUC of 0.88.

  12. Clinical features and treatment strategies for older prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Qi, Gui-Sheng; Rong, Rui-Ming; He, Jian

    2013-11-01

    To identify the clinical features and independent predictors of survival in older patients with bone metastasis from prostate cancer (PCa). We retrospectively analysed 205 older patients with bone metastases from PCa between 1997 and 2012. The Kaplan-Meier method was used with the log-rank test for survival rate calculations and to evaluate each variable. Multivariate analysis was performed with the Cox regression model. The chi-squared test was used to compare survival rates between older and younger (n=197) patients. All patients were followed up. The 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 95.5%, 77.5%, 68.5% and 33.7%, respectively. Gleason score, radiotherapy of the primary tumour, the number of bone metastases, the alkaline phosphatase alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level, organ metastasis and regional lymph node metastasis were associated with the survival rates. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Gleason score at diagnosis of the primary tumour was a significant predictor of overall survival following the diagnosis of bone metastases. In addition, the overall survival rates of older patients were higher compared with younger patients, but older patients who underwent radiotherapy had higher mortality. These data may serve as a guide for creating clinical prediction models in further studies.

  13. bHLH Transcription factors inhibitors for cancer therapy: general features for in silico drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigelny, I F; Kouznetsova, V L; Pingle, S C; Kesari, S

    2014-01-01

    Numerous basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TF) have been found to play important roles in tumor growth and progression. Elucidation of the common features of these TFs can pave the road to possible therapeutic intervention. The existing studies of possible inhibition of these TFs are concentrated on the development of peptides or small molecules that inhibit their dimerization or prevent their DNA binding. The bHLH TFs have striking similarity in many functionally important regions, such as the helical regions of TFs that interact with each other during dimerization and have complementary sets of residues on both sides of a dimer. These are hydrophobic residues along with anionic and cationic residues with complementary charges. Such complementarity also exists in other contact regions of the bHLH TFs. They also have a very specific set of positively charged residues on the surface, which would contact DNA. Such specificity defines a common concept for an in silico design of bHLH TFs inhibitors for a number of existing and important cancer-related TFs.

  14. Epidemiological and clinical features of primary liver cancer: an analysis of 236 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Rongrong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with primary liver cancer (PLC. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 236 patients with complete information who were admitted to The First Hospital of Lanzhou University and diagnosed with PLC for the first time form August 2012 to August 2014, and their epidemiological and clinical features were analyzed. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsAmong the 236 PLC patients, there were 198 male patients (83.9% and 38 female patients (16.1%, and the patients aged 41-60 years has the highest incidence rate (58.5%, 138/236. Nineteen patients had a family history of liver cancer, 28 had a history of heavy drinking, 34 were complicated by type 2 diabetes, and 44 were complicated by hypertension. Among these patients, 232 (98.3% developed PLC on the basis of chronic liver disease, and 4 (1.7% had no chronic liver disease. There were 207 patients (87.7% with chronic HBV infection, and most of them had HBeAg-negative infection. Fourteen patients (5.9% had chronic HCV infection, 5 (2.1% had HBV/HCV co-infection, and 6 (2.5% had chronic alcoholic hepatitis. Among the 212 patients with HBV infection, 51(241% had HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B, and 95(448% had HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B; there was significant difference in HBV DNA level between the two groups (χ2=40687,Ρ=0001. Among all the PLC patients, 104 had an alpha-fetoprotein(AFP level of >400 IU/ml, 48 had an AFP level of 200-400 IU/ml, and 84 had an AFP level of <200 IU/ml; 154 (62.3% had a single lesion, and 72 (30.5% had multiple lesions; most (72.7% of patients with a single lesion had the single lesion in the right lobe, and the proportions of patients with multiple lesions in the right lobe and in both lobes accounted for 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. Among the 80 PLC patients with

  15. Comparative Analysis of Clinicopathologic Features of, Treatment in, and Survival of Americans with Lung or Bronchial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    Full Text Available Ethnic disparities in lung and bronchial cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have specifically assessed these differences in Asian subgroups. The primary objectives of the retrospective analysis described herein were to identify any significant differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and survival rate between Asian lung cancer patients and lung cancer patients in other broad ethnic groups in the United States and to determine the reasons for these differences among subgroups of Asian patients with lung or bronchial cancer. We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database to identify patients diagnosed with lung or bronchial cancer from 1990 to 2012. Differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and DSS rate in four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups were compared. The study population consisted of 849,088 patients, 5.2% of whom were of Asian descent. Female Asian patients had the lowest lung and bronchial cancer incidence rates, whereas male black patients had the highest rates. Asian patients had the best 5-year DSS rate. In our Asian subgroup analysis, Indian/Pakistani patients had the best 5-year DSS rate, whereas Hawaiian/Pacific Islander patients had the worst 5-year DSS rates. We found the differences in DSS rate among the four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups when we grouped patients by age and disease stage, as well. Asian patients had better DSS rates than those in the other three broad ethnic groups in almost every age and disease-stage group, especially in older patients and those with advanced-stage disease. In conclusion, we found that clinicopathologic features and treatment of lung and bronchial cancer differ by ethnicity in the United States, and the differences impact survival in each ethnic group.

  16. Oral cancer prognosis based on clinicopathologic and genomic markers using a hybrid of feature selection and machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Machine learning techniques are becoming useful as an alternative approach to conventional medical diagnosis or prognosis as they are good for handling noisy and incomplete data, and significant results can be attained despite a small sample size. Traditionally, clinicians make prognostic decisions based on clinicopathologic markers. However, it is not easy for the most skilful clinician to come out with an accurate prognosis by using these markers alone. Thus, there is a need to use genomic markers to improve the accuracy of prognosis. The main aim of this research is to apply a hybrid of feature selection and machine learning methods in oral cancer prognosis based on the parameters of the correlation of clinicopathologic and genomic markers. Results In the first stage of this research, five feature selection methods have been proposed and experimented on the oral cancer prognosis dataset. In the second stage, the model with the features selected from each feature selection methods are tested on the proposed classifiers. Four types of classifiers are chosen; these are namely, ANFIS, artificial neural network, support vector machine and logistic regression. A k-fold cross-validation is implemented on all types of classifiers due to the small sample size. The hybrid model of ReliefF-GA-ANFIS with 3-input features of drink, invasion and p63 achieved the best accuracy (accuracy = 93.81%; AUC = 0.90) for the oral cancer prognosis. Conclusions The results revealed that the prognosis is superior with the presence of both clinicopathologic and genomic markers. The selected features can be investigated further to validate the potential of becoming as significant prognostic signature in the oral cancer studies. PMID:23725313

  17. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2012, featuring the increasing incidence of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, A Blythe; Eheman, Christie R; Altekruse, Sean F; Ward, John W; Jemal, Ahmedin; Sherman, Recinda L; Henley, S Jane; Holtzman, Deborah; Lake, Andrew; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Anderson, Robert N; Ma, Jiemin; Ly, Kathleen N; Cronin, Kathleen A; Penberthy, Lynne; Kohler, Betsy A

    2016-05-01

    Annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States are provided through an ongoing collaboration among the American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR). This annual report highlights the increasing burden of liver and intrahepatic bile duct (liver) cancers. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the CDC, NCI, and NAACCR; data about cancer deaths were obtained from the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Annual percent changes in incidence and death rates (age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population) for all cancers combined and for the leading cancers among men and women were estimated by joinpoint analysis of long-term trends (incidence for 1992-2012 and mortality for 1975-2012) and short-term trends (2008-2012). In-depth analysis of liver cancer incidence included an age-period-cohort analysis and an incidence-based estimation of person-years of life lost because of the disease. By using NCHS multiple causes of death data, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and liver cancer-associated death rates were examined from 1999 through 2013. Among men and women of all major racial and ethnic groups, death rates continued to decline for all cancers combined and for most cancer sites; the overall cancer death rate (for both sexes combined) decreased by 1.5% per year from 2003 to 2012. Overall, incidence rates decreased among men and remained stable among women from 2003 to 2012. Among both men and women, deaths from liver cancer increased at the highest rate of all cancer sites, and liver cancer incidence rates increased sharply, second only to thyroid cancer. Men had more than twice the incidence rate of liver cancer than women, and rates increased with age for both sexes. Among non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, and Hispanic men and women, liver cancer incidence rates were higher for persons born

  18. Targeting the LOX/hypoxia axis reverses many of the features that make pancreatic cancer deadly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Bryan W; Morton, Jennifer P; Pinese, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. Despite significant advances made in the treatment of other cancers, current chemotherapies offer little survival benefit in this disease. Pancreaticoduodenectomy offers patients the possibility...

  19. Pancreatic Cancer: Review of Etiology, Clinical Features, Diagnostic Procedures, Treatment and Mesothelin Role

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawan, Guntur; Simadibrata, Marcellus

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one with high mortality cancer in the world. Ninety percent of pancreatic cancer is pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Various factors is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer including age, sex, race, genetic, history of chronic pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, gallstone, obesity, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, diet, and polution exposure. A lot of cases were diagnosed in late stadium due to non-specific early clinical symptoms, and also, until now, the...

  20. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population: the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Li, Yu-Lin; Wu, Shan; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Pan, Yu-Zhuo; Zhang, Ling; Tateno, Hiroo; Sato, Ikuro; Kuwahara, Masaaki; Zhao, Xue-Jian

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). A total of 12027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen tPSA test (by Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was > 4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Of the 12027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were 4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  1. Clinical features of kidney cancer in primary care: a case-control study using primary care records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Neal, Richard; Rose, Peter; Walter, Fiona; Hamilton, William T

    2013-04-01

    Kidney cancer accounts for over 4000 UK deaths annually, and is one of the cancer sites with a poor mortality record compared with Europe. To identify and quantify all clinical features of kidney cancer in primary care. Case-control study, using General Practice Research Database records. A total of 3149 patients aged ≥40 years, diagnosed with kidney cancer between 2000 and 2009, and 14 091 age, sex and practice-matched controls, were selected. Clinical features associated with kidney cancer were identified, and analysed using conditional logistic regression. Positive predictive values for features of kidney cancer were estimated. Cases consulted more frequently than controls in the year before diagnosis: median 16 consultations (interquartile range 10-25) versus 8 (4-15): Pkidney cancer: visible haematuria, odds ratio 37 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28 to 49), abdominal pain 2.8 (95% CI = 2.4 to 3.4), microcytosis 2.6 (95% CI = 1.9 to 3.4), raised inflammatory markers 2.4 (95% CI = 2.1 to 2.8), thrombocytosis 2.2 (95% CI = 1.7 to 2.7), low haemoglobin 1.9 (95% CI = 1.6 to 2.2), urinary tract infection 1.8 (95% CI = 1.5 to 2.1), nausea 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4 to 2.3), raised creatinine 1.7 (95% CI = 1.5 to 2.0), leukocytosis 1.5 (95% CI = 1.2 to 1.9), fatigue 1.5 (95% CI = 1.2 to 1.9), constipation 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.7), back pain 1.4 (95% CI = 1.2 to 1.7), abnormal liver function 1.3 (95% CI = 1.2 to 1.5), and raised blood sugar 1.2 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.4). The positive predictive value for visible haematuria in patients aged ≥60 years was 1.0% (95% CI = 0.8 to 1.3). Visible haematuria is the commonest and most powerful single predictor of kidney cancer, and the risk rises when additional symptoms are present. When considered alongside the risk of bladder cancer, the overall risk of urinary tract cancer from haematuria warrants referral.

  2. From normal response to clinical problem: definition and clinical features of fear of cancer recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebel, S.; Ozakinci, G.; Humphris, G.; Mutsaers, B.; Thewes, B.; Prins, J.B.; Dinkel, A.; Butow, P.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Research to date on fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) shows that moderate to high FCR affects 22-87 % of cancer survivors and is associated with higher psychological morbidity (Simard et al J Cancer Surviv 7:300-322, 2013). Despite growing research interest in FCR, the lack of consensus on

  3. Radiological characteristics, histological features and clinical outcomes of lung cancer patients with coexistent idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K A; Kennedy, M P; Moore, E; Crush, L; Prendeville, S; Maher, M M; Burke, L; Henry, M T

    2015-02-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and management, the outcomes for both lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are still unfavourable. The pathophysiology and outcomes for patients with concomitant lung cancer and IPF remains unclear. A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients presenting with concomitant IPF and lung cancer to our centre over a 3-year period. Patients with connective tissue disease, asbestos exposure, sarcoidosis, previous thoracic radiation, radiological evidence of fibrosis but no histological confirmation of lung cancer, or the use of medications known to cause pulmonary fibrosis were excluded. We describe clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of this group. We also report the response to standardized lung cancer therapy in this cohort. Of 637 lung cancer patients, 34 were identified with concomitant IPF (5.3 %) and all were smokers. 85 % had non-small cell lung cancer, 41 % were squamous cell cancers. The majority of tumours were located in the lower lobes, peripheral and present in an area of honeycombing. Despite the fact that approximately 2/3rds of the patients had localised or locally advanced lung cancer, the outcome of therapy for lung cancer was extremely poor regardless of tumour stage or severity of IPF. At our centre, 1/20 patients with lung cancer have concomitant IPF. The majority of these tumours are small in size, peripheral in location and squamous cell carcinoma; in an area of honey combing. The outcome for concomitant lung cancer and IPF regardless of stage or therapy is poor.

  4. Frequency of breast cancer with hereditary risk features in Spain: Analysis from GEICAM "El Álamo III" retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Márquez-Rodas

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency of breast cancer (BC patients with hereditary risk features in a wide retrospective cohort of patients in Spain.a retrospective analysis was conducted from 10,638 BC patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2001 in the GEICAM registry "El Álamo III", dividing them into four groups according to modified ESMO and SEOM hereditary cancer risk criteria: Sporadic breast cancer group (R0; Individual risk group (IR; Familial risk group (FR; Individual and familial risk group (IFR with both individual and familial risk criteria.7,641 patients were evaluable. Of them, 2,252 patients (29.5% had at least one hereditary risk criteria, being subclassified in: FR 1.105 (14.5%, IR 970 (12.7%, IFR 177 (2.3%. There was a higher frequency of newly diagnosed metastatic patients in the IR group (5.1% vs 3.2%, p = 0.02. In contrast, in RO were lower proportion of big tumors (> T2 (43.8% vs 47.4%, p = 0.023, nodal involvement (43.4% vs 48.1%, p = 0.004 and lower histological grades (20.9% G3 for the R0 vs 29.8% when compared to patients with any risk criteria.Almost three out of ten BC patients have at least one hereditary risk cancer feature that would warrant further genetic counseling. Patients with hereditary cancer risk seems to be diagnosed with worse prognosis factors.

  5. High levels of EGFR expression in tumor stroma are associated with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Dan; Sun, Lu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressed in tumor stroma of epithelial ovarian cancer. Immunohistological staining of EGFR was evaluated in 242 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The correlations of EGFR expression in tumor stroma with clinicopathological features and with the expression level of Ki-67 were analyzed by SPSS software. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to analyze the effect of EGFR expression in tumor stroma on the prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Meanwhile, the activities of proliferation and migration of tumor cells were detected when EGFR overexpressed in stroma cells. EGFR expression in tumor stroma correlated significantly with clinical stage (χ (2)=7.002, P=0.008) and distant metastases (χ (2)=16.59, Pstroma and the level of Ki-67 expressed in tumor cells (χ (2)=6.120, P=0.013). Patients with high EGFR expression level in tumor stroma showed poor survival (P=0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that high expression of EGFR in tumor stroma was an independent predictor for epithelial ovarian cancer patients (hazard ratio =1.703; 95% confidence interval 1.125-2.578, P=0.012). Furthermore, stroma cells overexpressing EGFR could promote the proliferation and migration of adjacent tumor cells. High expression of EGFR in tumor stroma correlates with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer, and is an independent prognostic factor.

  6. Features of undiagnosed breast cancers at screening breast MR imaging and potential utility of computer-aided evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Cho, Nariya; Bea, Min Sun; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, A Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the features of undiagnosed breast cancers on prior screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as the potential utility of MR-computer-aided evaluation (CAE). Between March 2004 and May 2013, of the 72 consecutive pairs of prior negative MR images and subsequent MR images with diagnosed cancers (median interval, 32.8 months; range, 5.4-104.6 months), 36 (50%) had visible findings (mean size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.3-5.2 cm). The visible findings were divided into either actionable or under threshold groups by the blinded review by 5 radiologists. MR imaging features, reasons for missed cancer, and MR-CAE features according to actionability were evaluated. Of the 36 visible findings on prior MR images, 33.3% (12 of 36) of the lesions were determined to be actionable and 66.7% (24 of 36) were underthreshold; 85.7% (6 of 7) of masses and 31.6% (6 of 19) of non-mass enhancements were classified as actionable lesions. Mimicking physiologic enhancements (27.8%, 10 of 36) and small lesion size (27.8%, 10 of 36) were the most common reasons for missed cancer. Actionable findings tended to show more washout or plateau kinetic patterns on MR-CAE than underthreshold findings, as the 100% of actionable findings and 46.7% of underthreshold findings showed washout or plateau (p = 0.008). MR-CAE has the potential for reducing the number of undiagnosed breast cancers on screening breast MR images, the majority of which are caused by mimicking physiologic enhancements or small lesion size.

  7. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2012, Featuring the Increasing Incidence of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, A. Blythe; Eheman, Christie R.; Altekruse, Sean F.; Ward, John W.; Jemal, Ahmedin; Sherman, Recinda L.; Henley, S. Jane; Holtzman, Deborah; Lake, Andrew; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Anderson, Robert N.; Ma, Jiemin; Ly, Kathleen N.; Cronin, Kathleen A.; Penberthy, Lynne; Kohler, Betsy A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States are provided through an ongoing collaboration among the American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR). This annual report highlights the increasing burden of liver and intrahepatic bile duct (liver) cancers. METHODS Cancer incidence data were obtained from the CDC, NCI, and NAACCR; data about cancer deaths were obtained from the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Annual percent changes in incidence and death rates (age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population) for all cancers combined and for the leading cancers among men and women were estimated by joinpoint analysis of long-term trends (incidence for 1992–2012 and mortality for 1975–2012) and short-term trends (2008–2012). In-depth analysis of liver cancer incidence included an age-period-cohort analysis and an incidence-based estimation of person-years of life lost because of the disease. By using NCHS multiple causes of death data, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and liver cancer-associated death rates were examined from 1999 through 2013. RESULTS Among men and women of all major racial and ethnic groups, death rates continued to decline for all cancers combined and for most cancer sites; the overall cancer death rate (for both sexes combined) decreased by 1.5% per year from 2003 to 2012. Overall, incidence rates decreased among men and remained stable among women from 2003 to 2012. Among both men and women, deaths from liver cancer increased at the highest rate of all cancer sites, and liver cancer incidence rates increased sharply, second only to thyroid cancer. Men had more than twice the incidence rate of liver cancer than women, and rates increased with age for both sexes. Among non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, and Hispanic men and women, liver cancer incidence

  8. Proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Tae; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Park, Young Sik

    2017-02-08

    The proportion of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing, but that in Korea has not been well addressed in a large population. We aimed to evaluate the proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with NSCLC in a large single institution. We analyzed clinical data of 1860 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with NSCLC between June 2011 and December 2014. Of the 1860 NSCLC patients, 707 (38.0%) were never-smokers. The proportions of women (83.7% vs. 5.6%) and adenocarcinoma (89.8% vs. 44.9%) were higher among never-smokers than among ever-smokers. Significantly more never-smokers were diagnosed at a younger median age (65 vs. 68 years, P never-smokers, whereas Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutations (5.8% vs. 9.6%, P = 0.021) were less frequently encountered in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Never-smokers showed longer survival after adjusting for the favorable effects of younger age, female sex, adenocarcinoma histology, better performance status, early stage disease, being asymptomatic at diagnosis, received antitumor treatment, and the presence of driver mutations (hazard ratio, 0.624; 95% confidence interval, 0.460-0.848; P = 0.003). More than one-third of the Korean patients with NSCLC were never-smokers. NSCLC in never-smokers had different clinical characteristics and major driver mutations and resulted in longer overall survival compared with NSCLC in ever-smokers.

  9. Association of mammographic image feature change and an increasing risk trend of developing breast cancer: an assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Leader, Joseph K.; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We recently investigated a new mammographic image feature based risk factor to predict near-term breast cancer risk after a woman has a negative mammographic screening. We hypothesized that unlike the conventional epidemiology-based long-term (or lifetime) risk factors, the mammographic image feature based risk factor value will increase as the time lag between the negative and positive mammography screening decreases. The purpose of this study is to test this hypothesis. From a large and diverse full-field digital mammography (FFDM) image database with 1278 cases, we collected all available sequential FFDM examinations for each case including the "current" and 1 to 3 most recently "prior" examinations. All "prior" examinations were interpreted negative, and "current" ones were either malignant or recalled negative/benign. We computed 92 global mammographic texture and density based features, and included three clinical risk factors (woman's age, family history and subjective breast density BIRADS ratings). On this initial feature set, we applied a fast and accurate Sequential Forward Floating Selection (SFFS) feature selection algorithm to reduce feature dimensionality. The features computed on both mammographic views were individually/ separately trained using two artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers. The classification scores of the two ANNs were then merged with a sequential ANN. The results show that the maximum adjusted odds ratios were 5.59, 7.98, and 15.77 for using the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st "prior" FFDM examinations, respectively, which demonstrates a higher association of mammographic image feature change and an increasing risk trend of developing breast cancer in the near-term after a negative screening.

  10. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho Soon, E-mail: hschoi96@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sun Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Healthcare Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Seung Sam [Pathology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways.

  11. Comparison of Radiologic Features of Triple-Negative and Estrogen Receptor/Progesteron Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Joong; Kim, Keum Won; Kim, Dae Ho; Cho, Yong Jun; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Seo, Jae Young; Kim, Jin Suk; Yoon, Dae Sung [Dept. of Konyang University College of Medicine, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu Soon [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University College of Medicine, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    To retrospectively investigate the imaging [mammographic, ultrasonographic (US), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging] features and standardized uptake values (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) and to compare them with breast cancers that are either estrogen receptor (ER) positive or progesteron receptor (PR) positive. 155 breast cancers cases were identified in 134 women (mean age, 51 years; range, 31-86 years). Surgically confirmed TNBC (n = 27) and ER-positive/PR-positive breast cancers (n = 81) were included among them. Cancers were investigated with mammography (n = 81), US (n = 106), MR imaging (n = 34) and PET-CT (n = 59). Mammographic findings are identified by detection of characteristic masses and microcalcifications. US findings included tumor size, margin, tumor shape, calcification and posterior shadowing. MR findings included tumor size, shape, margin, internal enhancement, intratumoral signal intensity and kinetics. Peak SUVs (p-SUV) of breast cancers were evaluated in PET/CT. These findings were compared with TNBC and ER/PR positive groups. Mammographic findings had no significant association with the TNBC. High pathological grade (p < 0.05), larger than 2 cm in size, well-marginal mass, and round or oval-shaped (p < 0.05) is US were significantly associated with TNBC. In MR imaging, round mass shape (p < 0.05), well-circumscribed mass margin (p < 0.05), rim enhancement (p < 0.05), were significantly associated with TNBC. The peak SUV of TNBC tend to be higher than that of ER-positive/PR-positive breast cancer (7.95 {+-} 5.50 vs. 4.91 {+-} 3.00, p < 0.05). TNBC tend to have high pathological grade, are of a large, round and smooth mass with rim enhancement on MR and US. In addition to above features, PET-CT with SUV estimation can improve the accuracy of test through the evaluation of TNBC.

  12. A computational study on convolutional feature combination strategies for grade classification in colon cancer using fluorescence microscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Aritra; Sevinsky, Christopher J.; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Yener, Bülent

    2017-03-01

    The cancer diagnostic workflow is typically performed by highly specialized and trained pathologists, for which analysis is expensive both in terms of time and money. This work focuses on grade classification in colon cancer. The analysis is performed over 3 protein markers; namely E-cadherin, beta actin and colagenIV. In addition, we also use a virtual Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) stain. This study involves a comparison of various ways in which we can manipulate the information over the 4 different images of the tissue samples and come up with a coherent and unified response based on the data at our disposal. Pre- trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is the method of choice for feature extraction. The AlexNet architecture trained on the ImageNet database is used for this purpose. We extract a 4096 dimensional feature vector corresponding to the 6th layer in the network. Linear SVM is used to classify the data. The information from the 4 different images pertaining to a particular tissue sample; are combined using the following techniques: soft voting, hard voting, multiplication, addition, linear combination, concatenation and multi-channel feature extraction. We observe that we obtain better results in general than when we use a linear combination of the feature representations. We use 5-fold cross validation to perform the experiments. The best results are obtained when the various features are linearly combined together resulting in a mean accuracy of 91.27%.

  13. Inferences of drug responses in cancer cells from cancer genomic features and compound chemical and therapeutic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Fang, Jianwen; Chen, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    Accurately predicting the response of a cancer patient to a therapeutic agent is a core goal of precision medicine. Existing approaches were mainly relied primarily on genomic alterations in cancer cells that have been treated with different drugs. Here we focus on predicting drug response based on integration of the heterogeneously pharmacogenomics data from both cell and drug sides. Through a systematical approach, named as PDRCC (Predict Drug Response in Cancer Cells), the cancer genomic alterations and compound chemical and therapeutic properties were incorporated to determine the chemotherapeutic response in cancer patients. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) study as the benchmark dataset, all pharmacogenomics data exhibited their roles in inferring the relationships between cancer cells and drugs. When integrating both genomic resources and compound information, the prediction coverage was significantly increased. The validity of PDRCC was also supported by its effective in uncovering the unknown cell-drug associations with database and literature evidences. It set the stage for clinical testing of novel therapeutic strategies, such as the sensitive association between cancer cell ‘A549_LUNG’ and compound ‘Topotecan’. In conclusion, PDRCC offers the possibility for faster, safer, and cheaper the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics in the early-stage clinical trails.

  14. [The research of clinical pathological features of ALK positive lung cancer in 525 patients and the discussion of detection methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Li, Hongwei; Cao, Baoshan; Liu, Chen; Liang, Li; Wang, Yuxiang; You, Jiangfeng; Gao, Fei; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Bo

    2014-03-01

    The fusion (rearrangement) of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene has been identified as an import factor to the tumorigenesis and development of lung cancer. ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) have been proved to have good effects to ALK positive lung cancers. The increasement of the relevance ratio of ALK will be very important to patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical pathological features of ALK positive lung cancer, and the roles of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in screening and confirming the ALK positive cases in the testing flow of ALK. IHC analysis of ALK in tumor specimens was performed on 525 lung cancer patients. 34 cases among them were confirmed by FISH. The positive incidence of ALK by IHC was 5.14% (27/525). The ALK positive patients were significantly younger than ALK negative patients (PFISH was applied in 34 cases. The coincidence rate was increased with the increasement of positive intensity of IHC staining. All the IHC positive cases with or without EGFR mutation must be confirmed by FISH. IHC is a reliable detection method to screening the ALK in lung cancer, and then enhance the relevance ration. To make a definite diagnosis of ALK positive lung cancer, FISH is a significant detection method.

  15. Effects of TSP-1-696 C/T polymorphism on bladder cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinbao; Tao, Jun; Yang, Xiao; Li, Pengchao; Yang, Xuejian; Qin, Chao; Cao, Qiang; Cai, Hongzhou; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Min; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Changjun

    2014-06-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a glycoprotein that plays a major role in bladder cancer. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of the TSP-1 -696 C/T polymorphism (rs2664139) and the clinical features of bladder cancer. TaqMan assay was used to determine the genotype among the 609 cases and 670 controls in a Chinese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the polymorphism and bladder cancer risk. Compared with the CT/TT genotypes, the CC genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% CI 1.01-2.04), which was more prominent among the male participants (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.20-2.76). The polymorphism was associated with a higher risk of developing grade 3 (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.00-3.36), multiple-tumor (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.08-3.02), and large-tumor (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.22-3.10) bladder cancers. These observations suggest that the TSP-1 -696 C/T polymorphism may contribute to bladder cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Immunohistochemical Assessment of ALDH1 Activity in Breast Cancer and it’s Correlation With Pathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molanae S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 is a marker of normal and malignant human mammary stem cells that has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis. Studies on the detection of ALDH1+ cells can help the treatment of patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of ALDH1 in breast cancer and its relationship with the pathological features of the tumors.Methods: ALDH1 activity was studied by immunohistochemistry in 121 paraffin-embedded histological samples of breast cancer patients from Department of Pathology of Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2006-2007. The relationship of ALDH1 with the pathological features of the tumors (size, grade, lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion was also investigated.Results: Eighty-five percent of breast cancer samples expressed ALDH1 in their cytoplasm with a wide range of intensity (weak, moderate and strong, while 18 samples (14.9% were completely negative. The majority of cases (97.1% showed ALDH1 positivity in the stroma of tumors which varied from weak (2.9% to strong (73.5%. ALDH1 H-score (ALDH1% × intensity of tumor cells varied from 0 to 240 (mean= 80. ALDH1 H-score was ≤80 in 62 (51.2% and >80 in 59 (48.8% samples. There was no statistically significant relationship between ALDH1 H-score and age (P=0.358, tumor size (P=0.375, tumor grade (P=0.207, lymph node metastasis (P=0.125 or vascular invasion (P=0.190.Conclusion: ALDH1 activity was demonstrated in 85.1% of breast cancer samples although its level of expression was not correlated with the pathologic features of breast tumors.

  17. Facial Nerve Palsy: An Unusual Presenting Feature of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Yildiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women; it is responsible for 1.3 million deaths annually worldwide. It can metastasize to any organ. The most common site of metastasis in the head and neck region is the brain; however, it can also metastasize to the oral cavity, gingiva, tongue, parotid gland and lymph nodes. This article reports a case of small cell lung cancer presenting with metastasis to the facial nerve.

  18. Easily detectable cytomorphological features to evaluate during ROSE for rapid lung cancer diagnosis: from cytology to histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaioli, Sara; Bravaccini, Sara; Tumedei, Maria Maddalena; Pironi, Flavio; Candoli, Piero; Puccetti, Maurizio

    2017-02-14

    In lung cancer patients, the only available diagnostic material often comes from biopsy or from cytological samples obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA). There is a lack of easily detectable cytomorphological features for rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) to orient lung cancer diagnosis towards a specific tumor histotype. We studied the cytological features evaluated on site to define tumor histotype and to establish the number of specimens to be taken. Cytological specimens from 273 consecutive patients were analyzed with ROSE: bronchoscopy with transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) had been performed in 72 patients and with endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-TBNA in 201. Cytomorphological features were correlated with the final diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy was measured. Analysis of the different cytomorphological parameters showed that the best sensitivity and specificity were obtained for adenocarcinoma by combining the presence of nucleoli and small/medium cell clusters, and for squamous cell carcinoma by considering the presence of necrosis ≥50% and large cell clusters. For small cell carcinoma, the best diagnostic accuracy was obtained by combining moderate necrosis (lung cancers during ROSE using only a few easily identifiable cytomorphological parameters. An accurate diagnosis during ROSE could help endoscopists to decide how many tumor samples must be taken, e.g.a higher number of samples is needed for the biomolecular characterization of adenocarcinoma, whereas one sample may be sufficient for squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the textural features of cervical cancer associated with lymph node metastasis and histological type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei-Chih [Asia University, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Taichung (China); Chen, Shang-Wen [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Liang, Ji-An [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Asia University, Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Taichung (China)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV{sub max}, the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG{sub mean} was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG{sub mean,} respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology. (orig.)

  20. Distinct Features of Doublecortin as a Marker of Neuronal Migration and Its Implications in Cancer Cell Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola A. Ayanlaja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal migration is a critical process in the development of the nervous system. Defects in the migration of the neurons are associated with diseases like lissencephaly, subcortical band heterotopia (SBH, and pachygyria. Doublecortin (DCX is an essential factor in neurogenesis and mutations in this protein impairs neuronal migration leading to several pathological conditions. Although, DCX is capable of modulating and stabilizing microtubules (MTs to ensure effective migration, the mechanisms involved in executing these functions remain poorly understood. Meanwhile, there are existing gaps regarding the processes that underlie tumor initiation and progression into cancer as well as the ability to migrate and invade normal cells. Several studies suggest that DCX is involved in cancer metastasis. Unstable interactions between DCX and MTs destabilizes cytoskeletal organization leading to disorganized movements of cells, a process which may be implicated in the uncontrolled migration of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism is complex and require further clarification. Therefore, exploring the importance and features known up to date about this molecule will broaden our understanding and shed light on potential therapeutic approaches for the associated neurological diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge about DCX, its features, functions, and relationships with other proteins. We also present an overview of its role in cancer cells and highlight the importance of studying its gene mutations.

  1. Can radiomics features be reproducibly measured from CBCT images for patients with non-small cell lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fave, Xenia, E-mail: xjfave@mdanderson.org; Fried, David [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mackin, Dennis; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Joy; Balter, Peter; Followill, David [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Kyle Jones, A. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Stingo, Francesco [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Fontenot, Jonas [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Court, Laurence [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests radiomics features extracted from computed tomography (CT) images may be useful in prognostic models for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was designed to determine whether such features can be reproducibly obtained from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images taken using medical Linac onboard-imaging systems in order to track them through treatment. Methods: Test-retest CBCT images of ten patients previously enrolled in a clinical trial were retrospectively obtained and used to determine the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for 68 different texture features. The volume dependence of each feature was also measured using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Features with a high reproducibility (CCC > 0.9) that were not due to volume dependence in the patient test-retest set were further examined for their sensitivity to differences in imaging protocol, level of scatter, and amount of motion by using two phantoms. The first phantom was a texture phantom composed of rectangular cartridges to represent different textures. Features were measured from two cartridges, shredded rubber and dense cork, in this study. The texture phantom was scanned with 19 different CBCT imagers to establish the features’ interscanner variability. The effect of scatter on these features was studied by surrounding the same texture phantom with scattering material (rice and solid water). The effect of respiratory motion on these features was studied using a dynamic-motion thoracic phantom and a specially designed tumor texture insert of the shredded rubber material. The differences between scans acquired with different Linacs and protocols, varying amounts of scatter, and with different levels of motion were compared to the mean intrapatient difference from the test-retest image set. Results: Of the original 68 features, 37 had a CCC >0.9 that was not due to volume dependence. When the Linac manufacturer and imaging protocol

  2. Texture features on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: new potential biomarkers for prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, A.; Mazzetti, S.; Giannini, V.; Russo, F.; Bollito, E.; Porpiglia, F.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D.

    2015-04-01

    To explore contrast (C) and homogeneity (H) gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture features on T2-weighted (T2w) Magnetic Resonance (MR) images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for predicting prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness, and to compare them with traditional ADC metrics for differentiating low- from intermediate/high-grade PCas. The local Ethics Committee approved this prospective study of 93 patients (median age, 65 years), who underwent 1.5 T multiparametric endorectal MR imaging before prostatectomy. Clinically significant (volume ≥0.5 ml) peripheral tumours were outlined on histological sections, contoured on T2w and ADC images, and their pathological Gleason Score (pGS) was recorded. C, H, and traditional ADC metrics (mean, median, 10th and 25th percentile) were calculated on the largest lesion slice, and correlated with the pGS through the Spearman correlation coefficient. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) assessed how parameters differentiate pGS = 6 from pGS ≥ 7. The dataset included 49 clinically significant PCas with a balanced distribution of pGS. The Spearman ρ and AUC values on ADC were: -0.489, 0.823 (mean) -0.522, 0.821 (median) -0.569, 0.854 (10th percentile) -0.556, 0.854 (25th percentile) -0.386, 0.871 (C); 0.533, 0.923 (H); while on T2w they were: -0.654, 0.945 (C); 0.645, 0.962 (H). AUC of H on ADC and T2w, and C on T2w were significantly higher than that of the mean ADC (p = 0.05). H and C calculated on T2w images outperform ADC parameters in correlating with pGS and differentiating low- from intermediate/high-risk PCas, supporting the role of T2w MR imaging in assessing PCa biological aggressiveness.

  3. [Assessment of clinical features in solitary minimum size (<1 cm) bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kotaro; Nohda, Hideyuki; Funahashi, Makoto; Chiba, Kimio; Shinagawa, Toshihito; Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Fujikawa, Naoya; Murakami, Takayuki; Ikeda, Ichiro; Kono, Naomi

    2012-08-01

    We retrospectively evaluated primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2008 at 2 facilities (Kawasaki Municipal Hospital and Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital). Size (minimum-size solitary pTa bladder cancers less than 1 cm in diameter. The average follow-up period was 50.9 months. The recurrence rate of the minimum-size bladder cancer was significantly lower than that of bladder cancers of other sizes (1 to 3 cm or ≥ 3 cm). The 3-year non-recurrence rate was 80.7,71.0,and 62.9% in each group (minimum size bladder cancer (pTa) showed a significantly higher recurrence rate than the low-grade cases (P = 0.0101). Intravesical chemotherapy with anti-cancer drugs significantly reduced the intravesical recurrence rate in the low-grade minimum-size bladder cancer group (P = 0.0418). There was no statistically significant difference in either the average recurrence number or the rate of multiple recurrences between the minimum-size tumor group and the 1 to 3 cm tumor group. Minimum size bladder cancer had a lower recurrence rate than tumors of other sizes; however, there were no differences in other characteristics between the groups. Therefore, sufficient treatment, in accordance with the guidelines, should be administered for minimum size tumors as well as tumors of other sizes.

  4. Immortalizing the Complexity of Cancer Metastasis Genetic Features of Lethal Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Obtained from Rapid Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embuscado, Erlinda E.; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; de Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G. Steven; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and one patient with metastatic colon cancer have undergone a rapid autopsy in association with the GICRMDP. The average time interval achieved for these 21 patients was 8.0 hours, with more than 500 individual samples of matched high quality primary and metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues, peritoneal/pleural fluid and blood obtained so far. For the first four patients in which the autopsy was performed in <6 hours, we have successfully xenografted the primary tumor and/or two to four independent matched metastases from a variety of target organ sites, with a take rate of almost 60% for the first 26 xenografted tumors attempted. In an initial survey of KRAS2, TP53 and DPC4 genetic status in lethal metastatic pancreatic cancers, activating KRAS2 mutations were detected in 82% of cases and inactivating TP53 mutations in 55% of cases, consistent with rates of genetic alteration of these genes in early stage pancreatic cancers. However, DPC4 inactivation was found in 75% of patients analyzed, suggesting that genetic inactivation of the DPC4 tumor suppressor gene continues to be selected for with growth at the primary site and metastatic spread to other organs. The invaluable tissue resources generated by the success of the GICRMDP will provide an unparalleled resource for study of metastatic pancreatic cancer and of the metastatic process in general. PMID:15846069

  5. Immortalizing the complexity of cancer metastasis: genetic features of lethal metastatic pancreatic cancer obtained from rapid autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embuscado, Erlinda E; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; de Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G Steven; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A

    2005-05-01

    The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and one patient with metastatic colon cancer have undergone a rapid autopsy in association with the GICRMDP. The average time interval achieved for these 21 patients was 8.0 hours, with more than 500 individual samples of matched high quality primary and metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues, peritoneal/pleural fluid and blood obtained so far. For the first four patients in which the autopsy was performed in <6 hours, we have successfully xenografted the primary tumor and/or two to four independent matched metastases from a variety of target organ sites, with a take rate of almost 60% for the first 26 xenografted tumors attempted. In an initial survey of KRAS2, TP53 and DPC4 genetic status in lethal metastatic pancreatic cancers, activating KRAS2 mutations were detected in 82% of cases and inactivating TP53 mutations in 55% of cases, consistent with rates of genetic alteration of these genes in early stage pancreatic cancers. However, DPC4 inactivation was found in 75% of patients analyzed, suggesting that genetic inactivation of the DPC4 tumor suppressor gene continues to be selected for with growth at the primary site and metastatic spread to other organs. The invaluable tissue resources generated by the success of the GICRMDP will provide an unparalleled resource for study of metastatic pancreatic cancer and of the metastatic process in general.

  6. Breast cancer. Early detection with mammography. Casting type calcifications: sign of a subtype with deceptive features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, L.; Tot, T. [Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Mammography]|[Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). School of Medicine; Dean, P.B. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology]|[Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease in terms of histology, imaging and outcome. Mammography as a screening examination has brought to light a new spectrum of breast cancer dominated by nonpalpable preclinical tumors. This volume seeks to uncover a deviant subtype of breast cancer, easily recognizable by its mammographic and histological appearance but with uniquely unpredictable nature. The book contains the following chapters: Description of calcifications localized within ducts, the evolution of casting type calcifications, the theory of neoductgenesis, the deviant nature of the breast cancer subtype with castings, recognition of the unpredictable, often fatal nature of the breast cancer subtype presented with casting type calcifications on the mammogram, illustrative cases with 3D stereoscopic histological images.

  7. [Specific features of neovascularization of dysplastic invasiveness and cancer of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadyrov, E A; Mchedlishvili, M Iu

    2007-01-01

    There are shown the results of study related to angioarchitechtonices of displastic pre-cancer outgrows, fibroadenoma and carcinoma of the breast (non-proliferative and proliferative forms of fibro-cystic disease - 35 cases, fibroadenoma - 32 cases, cancer - 55 cases) using histological (hematoxylin and eosin and picrofuxin staining) and immunohistochemical (angiogenesis marker - CD31 and marker of proliferation - Ki67) methods. It was estimated that the character and intensity of vascularization as well as neoangiogenesis of above-named pathologic conditions and breast cancer could be determined by the differentiation of tissue structures and neoplastic cells. The microangioarxitectonics pre-cancer outgrowths and cancer of the breast is so peculiar and characteristic for each concrete case that it should be considered for morphological diagnosing and determining the tactic of treatment.

  8. Histopathological Features of Non-Neoplastic Breast Parenchyma Do Not Predict BRCA Mutation Status of Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soley Bayraktar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Several studies have evaluated histologic features of nonneoplastic breast parenchyma in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations, but the results are conflicting. The limited data suggest a much higher prevalence of high-risk precursor lesions in BRCA carriers. Therefore, we designed this study to compare the clinicopathological characteristics of peritumoral benign breast tissue in patients with and without deleterious BRCA mutations. Methods Women with breast cancer (BC who were referred for genetic counseling and underwent BRCA genetic testing in 2010 and 2011 were included in the study. Results Of the six benign histological features analyzed in this study, only stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 was found to be statistically different, with more BRCA noncarriers having stromal fibrosis grade 2/3 than BRCA1/2 carriers ( P = 0.04. Conclusion There is no significant association between mutation risk and the presence of benign histologic features of peritumoral breast parenchyma.

  9. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Ho Soon; Yang, Sun Young; Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo; Paik, Seung Sam

    2014-04-18

    Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n=38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n=38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n=38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving the Mann-Whitney statistical test for feature selection: an approach in breast cancer diagnosis on mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Noel Pérez; Guevara López, Miguel A; Silva, Augusto; Ramos, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses the theoretical description and experimental evaluation of a new feature selection method (named uFilter). The uFilter improves the Mann-Whitney U-test for reducing dimensionality and ranking features in binary classification problems. Also, it presented a practical uFilter application on breast cancer computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). A total of 720 datasets (ranked subsets of features) were formed by the application of the chi-square (CHI2) discretization, information-gain (IG), one-rule (1Rule), Relief, uFilter and its theoretical basis method (named U-test). Each produced dataset was used for training feed-forward backpropagation neural network, support vector machine, linear discriminant analysis and naive Bayes machine learning algorithms to produce classification scores for further statistical comparisons. A head-to-head comparison based on the mean of area under receiver operating characteristics curve scores against the U-test method showed that the uFilter method significantly outperformed the U-test method for almost all classification schemes (pfeatures. The experimental results indicated that uFilter method statistically outperformed the U-test method and it demonstrated similar, but not superior, performance than traditional feature selection methods (CHI2 discretization, IG, 1Rule and Relief). The uFilter method revealed competitive and appealing cost-effectiveness results on selecting relevant features, as a support tool for breast cancer CADx methods especially in unbalanced datasets contexts. Finally, the redundancy analysis as a complementary step to the uFilter method provided us an effective way for finding optimal subsets of features without decreasing the classification performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic features of metachronous esophageal cancer developed in Hodgkin's lymphoma or breast cancer long-term survivors: an exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Boldrin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of novel therapeutic drugs and regimens for cancer treatment has led to improvements in patient long-term survival. This success has, however, been accompanied by the increased occurrence of second primary cancers. Indeed, patients who received regional radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL or breast cancer may develop, many years later, a solid metachronous tumor in the irradiated field. Despite extensive epidemiological studies, little information is available on the genetic changes involved in the pathogenesis of these solid therapy-related neoplasms. METHODS: Using microsatellite markers located in 7 chromosomal regions frequently deleted in sporadic esophageal cancer, we investigated loss of heterozygosity (LOH and microsatellite instability (MSI in 46 paired (normal and tumor samples. Twenty samples were of esophageal carcinoma developed in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors: 14 squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC and 6 adenocarcinomas (EADC, while 26 samples, used as control, were of sporadic esophageal cancer (15 ESCC and 11 EADC. RESULTS: We found that, though the overall LOH frequency at the studied chromosomal regions was similar among metachronous and sporadic tumors, the latter exhibited a statistically different higher LOH frequency at 17q21.31 (p = 0.018. By stratifying for tumor histotype we observed that LOH at 3p24.1, 5q11.2 and 9p21.3 were more frequent in ESCC than in EADC suggesting a different role of the genetic determinants located nearby these regions in the development of the two esophageal cancer histotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results strengthen the genetic diversity among ESCC and EADC whether they occurred spontaneously or after therapeutic treatments. The presence of histotype-specific alterations in esophageal carcinoma arisen in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors suggests that their transformation process, though the putative different etiological origin, may retrace

  12. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  13. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2014, Featuring Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemal, Ahmedin; Ward, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Christopher J; Cronin, Kathleen A; Ma, Jiemin; Ryerson, Blythe; Mariotto, Angela; Lake, Andrew J; Wilson, Reda; Sherman, Recinda L; Anderson, Robert N; Henley, S Jane; Kohler, Betsy A; Penberthy, Lynne; Feuer, Eric J; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-09-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate to provide annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This Annual Report highlights survival rates. Data were from the CDC- and NCI-funded population-based cancer registry programs and compiled by NAACCR. Trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancer types by sex were estimated by joinpoint analysis and expressed as annual percent change. We used relative survival ratios and adjusted relative risk of death after a diagnosis of cancer (hazard ratios [HRs]) using Cox regression model to examine changes or differences in survival over time and by sociodemographic factors. Overall cancer death rates from 2010 to 2014 decreased by 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.8 to -1.8) per year in men, by 1.4% (95% CI = -1.4 to -1.3) per year in women, and by 1.6% (95% CI = -2.0 to -1.3) per year in children. Death rates decreased for 11 of the 16 most common cancer types in men and for 13 of the 18 most common cancer types in women, including lung, colorectal, female breast, and prostate, whereas death rates increased for liver (men and women), pancreas (men), brain (men), and uterine cancers. In contrast, overall incidence rates from 2009 to 2013 decreased by 2.3% (95% CI = -3.1 to -1.4) per year in men but stabilized in women. For several but not all cancer types, survival statistically significantly improved over time for both early and late-stage diseases. Between 1975 and 1977, and 2006 and 2012, for example, five-year relative survival for distant-stage disease statistically significantly increased from 18.7% (95% CI = 16.9% to 20.6%) to 33.6% (95% CI = 32.2% to 35.0%) for female breast cancer but not for liver cancer (from 1.1%, 95% CI = 0.3% to 2.9%, to 2.3%, 95

  14. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: clinical features and survival. Results from the Danish HNPCC register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrhøj, T; Bisgaard, M L; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other carcinomas. Our aim was to evaluate tumour parameters and survival in HNPCC. METHODS: One hundred and eight Danish HNPCC patients...... were compared with 870 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The median age at CRC diagnosis was 41 years in the HNPCC group. HNPCC patients had significantly more carcinomas located to the right colon (68% against 49% in controls), more synchromous tumours (7% versus 1%), more...

  15. 2D and 3D CT Radiomics Features Prognostic Performance Comparison in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare 2D and 3D radiomics features prognostic performance differences in CT images of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. METHOD: We enrolled 588 NSCLC patients from three independent cohorts. Two sets of 463 patients from two different institutes were used as the training cohort. The remaining cohort with 125 patients was set as the validation cohort. A total of 1014 radiomics features (507 2D features and 507 3D features correspondingly were assessed. Based on the dichotomized survival data, 2D and 3D radiomics indicators were calculated for each patient by trained classifiers. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC to assess the prediction performance of trained classifiers (the support vector machine and logistic regression. Kaplan–Meier and Cox hazard survival analyses were also employed. Harrell's concordance index (C-Index and Akaike's information criteria (AIC were applied to assess the trained models. RESULTS: Radiomics indicators were built and compared by AUCs. In the training cohort, 2D_AUC = 0.653, 3D_AUC = 0.671. In the validation cohort, 2D_AUC = 0.755, 3D_AUC = 0.663. Both 2D and 3D trained indicators achieved significant results (P < .05 in the Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. In the validation cohort, 2D Cox model had a C-Index = 0.683 and AIC = 789.047; 3D Cox model obtained a C-Index = 0.632 and AIC = 799.409. CONCLUSION: Both 2D and 3D CT radiomics features have a certain prognostic ability in NSCLC, but 2D features showed better performance in our tests. Considering the cost of the radiomics features calculation, 2D features are more recommended for use in the current study.

  16. Population based screening for prostatic cancer : tumor features and clinical decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. Vis (André)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe aggregate morbidity and mortality attributed to prostate cancer are certainly sufficient to justify a search for rational, effective and efficient screening strategies. Unfortunately, the outcome of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigate the efficacy of prostate

  17. Combining Clinical, Sonographic and Elastigraphic Features to Improve the Detection of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garra, Brian

    2000-01-01

    ...) images, US radio-frequency (RF) data, tissue elasticity imaging, and clinical data such as PSA into a computerized system for displaying prostate images that indicate probable location(s) of cancer...

  18. Lowered circulating aspartate is a metabolic feature of human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhou, Bingsen; Zhao, Aihua; Qiu, Yunping; Zhao, Xueqing; Garmire, Lana; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Yu, Herbert; Yen, Yun; Jia, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Distinct metabolic transformation is essential for cancer cells to sustain a high rate of proliferation and resist cell death signals. Such a metabolic transformation results in unique cellular metabolic phenotypes that are often reflected by distinct metabolite signatures in tumor tissues as well as circulating blood. Using a metabolomics platform, we find that breast cancer is associated with significantly (p = 6.27E-13) lowered plasma aspartate levels in a training group comprising 35 brea...

  19. Sucrose Non-Fermenting Related Kinase Expression in Ovarian Cancer and Correlation with Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Elizabeth E; Cossette, Stephanie M; Kumar, Suresh N; Eastwood, Daniel; Ramchandran, Ramani; Bishop, Erin

    2017-08-09

    Sucrose non-fermenting related kinase (SNRK) is a serine/threonine kinase known to regulate cellular metabolism and adipocyte inflammation. Since alterations in adipocyte metabolism play a role in ovarian cancer metastasis, we investigated the expression of SNRK in benign and malignant human ovarian tissue using immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The number of SNRK positive (+) nuclei is increased in malignant tissue compared to benign tissue (21.03% versus 14.90%, p ovarian cancer metastasis.

  20. Unique Features of Germline Variation in Five Egyptian Familial Breast Cancer Families Revealed by Exome Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong C Kim; Soliman, Amr S; Cui, Jian; Ramadan, Mohamed; Hablas, Ahmed; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Hussien, Nehal; Ahmed, Ola; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman Nabawy; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Wang, San Ming

    2017-01-01

    Genetic predisposition increases the risk of familial breast cancer. Recent studies indicate that genetic predisposition for familial breast cancer can be ethnic-specific. However, current knowledge of genetic predisposition for the disease is predominantly derived from Western populations. Using this existing information as the sole reference to judge the predisposition in non-Western populations is not adequate and can potentially lead to misdiagnosis. Efforts are required to collect geneti...

  1. Distribution And Clinicopathological Features Of Breast Cancer Histological Subtypes In Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Srebnijs Andrejs; Isajevs Sergejs; Eglītis Jānis; Krūmiņš Viesturs; Bērziņš Juris; Vikmanis Uldis

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease. It consists of several histological subtypes that can be separated by morphology and immunohistochemistry. The aim of our study was to determine the distribution of breast cancer histological and molecular subtypes, and their relationship with clinical and pathological characteristics. A total of 561 patients who underwent breast carcinoma surgical treatment from January 2003 till December 2012 were enrolled in the study. In total, invasive ductal carc...

  2. Can BI-RADS features on mammography be used as a surrogate for expensive genomic testing in breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harowicz, Michael R.; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2017-03-01

    Medical oncologists increasingly rely on expensive genomic analysis to stratify patients for different treatment. The genomic markers are able to divide patients into groups that behave differently in terms of tumor presentation, likelihood of metastatic spread, and response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In recent years there has been a rapid increase in the number of genomic tests available, like the Oncotype DX test, which provides the risk of cancer recurrence for a subset of patients. Radiogenomics, a new field that investigates the relationship between imaging phenotypes and genomic characteristics, may offer a less expensive and less invasive imaging surrogate for molecular subtype and Oncotype DX recurrence score (ODRS). This retrospective study analyzes the relationship between Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as assessed by radiologists on mammograms with molecular subtype and ODRS. We used data from patients with BI-RADS features (shape or margin) and a genomic feature (subtype or ODRS) for the following cohort: shape vs. subtype (n=69), margin vs. subtype (n=78), shape vs. ODRS (n=20), and margin vs. ODRS (n=18). The association between features was assessed using a Fisher's exact test. Our results show that shape assessed by radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon is associated with molecular subtype (p=0.0171), while BI-RADS features of shape and margin were not significantly associated with ODRS (p=0.7839, p=0.6047 respectively).

  3. A standardised protocol for texture feature analysis of endoscopic images in gynaecological cancer

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    Pattichis Marios S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the development of tissue classification methods, classifiers rely on significant differences between texture features extracted from normal and abnormal regions. Yet, significant differences can arise due to variations in the image acquisition method. For endoscopic imaging of the endometrium, we propose a standardized image acquisition protocol to eliminate significant statistical differences due to variations in: (i the distance from the tissue (panoramic vs close up, (ii difference in viewing angles and (iii color correction. Methods We investigate texture feature variability for a variety of targets encountered in clinical endoscopy. All images were captured at clinically optimum illumination and focus using 720 × 576 pixels and 24 bits color for: (i a variety of testing targets from a color palette with a known color distribution, (ii different viewing angles, (iv two different distances from a calf endometrial and from a chicken cavity. Also, human images from the endometrium were captured and analysed. For texture feature analysis, three different sets were considered: (i Statistical Features (SF, (ii Spatial Gray Level Dependence Matrices (SGLDM, and (iii Gray Level Difference Statistics (GLDS. All images were gamma corrected and the extracted texture feature values were compared against the texture feature values extracted from the uncorrected images. Statistical tests were applied to compare images from different viewing conditions so as to determine any significant differences. Results For the proposed acquisition procedure, results indicate that there is no significant difference in texture features between the panoramic and close up views and between angles. For a calibrated target image, gamma correction provided an acquired image that was a significantly better approximation to the original target image. In turn, this implies that the texture features extracted from the corrected images provided for better

  4. Heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer: mammographic, US, and MR imaging features according to androgen receptor expression

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    Bae, Min Sun; Song, Sung Eun; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Yeon; Park, In-Ae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-16

    Our aim was to determine whether triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) with and without androgen receptor (AR) expression have distinguishing imaging features on mammography, breast ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. AR expression was assessed immunohistochemically in 125 patients with TNBC from a consecutive series of 1,086 operable invasive breast cancers. Two experienced radiologists blinded to clinicopathological findings reviewed all imaging studies in consensus using the BI-RADS lexicon. The imaging and pathological features of 33 AR-positive TNBCs were compared with those of 92 AR-negative TNBCs. The presence of mammographic calcifications with or without a mass (p < 0.001), non-mass enhancement on MR imaging (p < 0.001), and masses with irregular shape or spiculated margins on US (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002) and MR imaging (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001) were significantly associated with AR-positive TNBC. Compared with AR-negative TNBC, AR-positive TNBC was more likely to have a ductal carcinoma in situ component (59.8 % vs. 90.9 %, p = 0.001) and low Ki-67 expression (30.4 % vs. 51.5 %, p = 0.030). AR-positive and AR-negative TNBCs have different imaging features, and certain imaging findings can be useful to predict AR status in TNBC. (orig.)

  5. Epidemiology and Morphological Features of Thyroid Cancer in People Living in Vinnytsia Region

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    A.V. Palamarchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid cancer (TC is the most common tumor of the endocrine glands. The problem of thyroid cancer in Ukraine went far beyond the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster and is characterized by increasing morbidity of this pathology. Objective: to study the morbidity of thyroid cancer in Vinnytsia region. Materials and methods. The dynamics of thyroid cancer for the last 30 years (1986–2015 among the residents of Vinnytsia region was assessed. Results. The analysis of thyroid cancer rate for 30-year period shows its steady growth, especially for the last 10 years. The morbidity in the pre accident period ranged 1.0–1.2 cases per 100 thousand population; the first 10 years after the accident, it grew up to 2.2–2.8, in 2001–2005 it increased to 4.4–5.5 cases per 100 thousand population, and in recent years 9.9–11.3 cases per 100 thousand population. When compared morbidity in Vinnytsia region with the republic data, these indicators in region are more higher than in the whole Ukraine, but much less than in the regions most affected by the Chernobyl disaster (Kyiv region, city of Kyiv. In the region the morbidity significantly prevails among women compared to the male population. The analysis of the dynamics of thyroid cancer rate in different age groups did not demonstrate statistically significant differences. Conclusions. The researches of thyroid cancer structure among the residents of Vinnytsia region showed a strong growth of the diseases rate in adult patients. The level of the region morbidity exceeds republican date and tends to increase, with highly differentiated forms prevail which are characterized by mildly aggressive course, mostly in women, in solitary nodes less than 20 mm. That should arouse oncologic alertness in these patients.

  6. Association of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

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    Su X

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xingyun Su,1 Xiaoxia Jiang,1 Weibin Wang,1 Haiyong Wang,1 Xin Xu,2 Aihui Lin,1 Xiaodong Teng,3 Huiling Wu,4 Lisong Teng1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Medical Oncology, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Plastic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT promoter mutations have been widely investigated in thyroid cancer; however, the results are still discrepant. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid, and the Cochran Library databases for relevant articles prior to April 2016. Mutation rates were synthesized by R statistical software. The odds ratio or standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval was pooled by Stata. A total of 22 studies with 4,907 cases were included in this meta-analysis. TERT promoter mutations tended to present in aggressive histological types including poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (33.37%, anaplastic thyroid cancer (38.69%, and tall-cell variant papillary thyroid cancer (30.23%. These promoter mutations were likely to exist in older patients and males and were well associated with larger tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, advanced tumor stage, disease recurrence/persistence, and mortality. In addition, TERT promoter mutations (especially C228T tended to coexist with BRAFV600E mutation, which indicated more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, TERT promoter mutations may be promising biomarkers for early diagnosis, risk stratification, prognostic prediction, and management of thyroid cancer. Keywords: TERT promoter mutations, thyroid cancer, clinicopathological features, prognosis, BRAFV600E mutation

  7. Influence of body mass index on clinicopathologic features, surgical morbidity and outcome in patients with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayır, Ozgur; Corbacıoglu Esmer, Aytul; Numanoglu, Ceyhun; Cılesız Goksedef, B Pinar; Akca, Aysu; Bakır, Lale Vuslat; Kuru, Oguzhan

    2012-11-01

    To examine the influence of obesity on the patient characteristics and clinicopathologic features of endometrial cancer, and to find how treatment and prognosis were affected by obesity in women with endometrial cancer. The data of 370 consecutive women operated for endometrial cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into three categories as treatment including total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy and peritoneal cytology. Pelvic lymphadenectomy was carried out for all patients except for those with no myometrial invasion regardless of the tumor grade or for whom it was technically impossible. Paraaortic lymphadenectomy was performed when pre- and intraoperative assessments suggested non-endometrioid or grade 3 endometrioid cancer, >50 % myometrial invasion and cervical involvement. Patients with a BMI (body mass index) of 50 % myometrial invasion and more likely to have stage I disease. There were no significant differences in the incidences of positive pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes and tumor grades between the three groups. Also, there were no differences in surgery type, the mean of removed pelvic and paraaortic lymph node number, hospital stay, blood loss and complications between the groups. The patients with a BMI of ≥30 had significantly longer operating time. There were no statistically significant differences in recurrences, the median number of months at recurrence or the site of recurrence between the three groups, as well as the 5-year overall and disease-free survival of patients. Multivariate proportional hazard models identified stage III and IV disease as significant covariates for mortality rates, while stage III and IV disease, hypertension and pelvic irradiation were identified as significant covariates for recurrence rates. Positive peritoneal cytology, deep myometrial invasion and stage II-IV endometrial cancer were significantly more common in patients with a BMI of <25. There were no significant

  8. Association of Vitamin D Level with Clinicopathological Features in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Chaiwerawattana, Arkom; Prasitthipayong, Aree

    2015-01-01

    A population-based relationship between low vitamin D status and increased cancer risk is now generally accepted. However there were only few studies reported on prognostic impact. To determine the effect of low vitamin D on progression of breast cancer, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of vitamin D levels and clinico- pathological characteristics in 200 cases of breast cancer diagnosed during 2011-2012 at the National Cancer Institute of Thailand. Vitamin D levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Clinical and pathological data were accessed to examine prognostic effects of vitamin D. We found that the mean vitamin D level was 23.0±6.61 ng/ml. High vitamin D levels (≥32 ng/ml) were detected in 7% of patients, . low levels (vitamin D levels for stages 1-4 were 26.1±6.35, 22.3±6.34, 22.2±6.46 and 21.3±5.42 ng/ml respectively (P=0.016) and 24.1 and 21.3 ng/ml for lymph node negative and positive cases (P=0.006). Low vitamin D level (vitamin D might correlate with progression and metastasis of breast cancer.

  9. Esophageal cancer prediction based on qualitative features using adaptive fuzzy reasoning method

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    Raed I. Hamed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers world-wide and also the most common cause of cancer death. In this paper, we present an adaptive fuzzy reasoning algorithm for rule-based systems using fuzzy Petri nets (FPNs, where the fuzzy production rules are represented by FPN. We developed an adaptive fuzzy Petri net (AFPN reasoning algorithm as a prognostic system to predict the outcome for esophageal cancer based on the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and albumin as a set of input variables. The system can perform fuzzy reasoning automatically to evaluate the degree of truth of the proposition representing the risk degree value with a weight value to be optimally tuned based on the observed data. In addition, the implementation process for esophageal cancer prediction is fuzzily deducted by the AFPN algorithm. Performance of the composite model is evaluated through a set of experiments. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of the proposed algorithms. A comparison of the predictive performance of AFPN models with other methods and the analysis of the curve showed the same results with an intuitive behavior of AFPN models.

  10. Long Noncoding RNA H19 in Digestive System Cancers: A Meta-Analysis of Its Association with Pathological Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Xu, Lijian; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Ying, Rongchao

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been reported to be upregulated in malignant digestive tumors, but its clinical relevance is not yet established. The meta-analysis was to investigate the association between H19 expression and pathological features of digestive system cancers. The databases of PubMed, EMBase, Web of Science, CNKI, and WanFang were searched for the related studies. A total of 478 patients from 6 studies were finally included. The meta-analysis showed that the patient group of high H19 expression had a higher risk of poorly differentiated grade, deep tumor invasion (T2 stage or more), lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stage than the group of low H19 expression, although there was no difference between them in terms of distant metastasis. Therefore, the high expression of lncRNA H19 might predict poor oncological outcomes of patients with digestive system cancers.

  11. Assessment of global and local region-based bilateral mammographic feature asymmetry to predict short-term breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yane; Fan, Ming; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Bin; Li, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to develop and test a new imaging marker-based short-term breast cancer risk prediction model. An age-matched dataset of 566 screening mammography cases was used. All ‘prior’ images acquired in the two screening series were negative, while in the ‘current’ screening images, 283 cases were positive for cancer and 283 cases remained negative. For each case, two bilateral cranio-caudal view mammograms acquired from the ‘prior’ negative screenings were selected and processed by a computer-aided image processing scheme, which segmented the entire breast area into nine strip-based local regions, extracted the element regions using difference of Gaussian filters, and computed both global- and local-based bilateral asymmetrical image features. An initial feature pool included 190 features related to the spatial distribution and structural similarity of grayscale values, as well as of the magnitude and phase responses of multidirectional Gabor filters. Next, a short-term breast cancer risk prediction model based on a generalized linear model was built using an embedded stepwise regression analysis method to select features and a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method to predict the likelihood of each woman having image-detectable cancer in the next sequential mammography screening. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values significantly increased from 0.5863  ±  0.0237 to 0.6870  ±  0.0220 when the model trained by the image features extracted from the global regions and by the features extracted from both the global and the matched local regions (p  =  0.0001). The odds ratio values monotonically increased from 1.00–8.11 with a significantly increasing trend in slope (p  =  0.0028) as the model-generated risk score increased. In addition, the AUC values were 0.6555  ±  0.0437, 0.6958  ±  0.0290, and 0.7054  ±  0.0529 for the three age groups of 37

  12. Anticipatory symptoms and anticipatory immune responses in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: features of a classically conditioned response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhorst, U; Spennes-Saleh, S; Körholz, D; Göbel, U; Schneider, M E; Steingrüber, H J; Klosterhalfen, S

    2000-09-01

    There is considerable evidence from studies in adult patients that classical conditioning contributes to anticipatory nausea and/or vomiting (ANV) in cancer chemotherapy: The stimuli predicting the infusion serve as conditioned stimuli (CS). When reexposed to the CS, some patients experience ANV prior to infusion onset. In adult patients, anticipatory immunomodulation (AIM) has also been observed. The present study examines whether ANV and AIM occur in pediatric cancer patients and whether they show features of a conditioned response. Nineteen pediatric cancer patients (M = 10.1 years, > 2 previous chemotherapies) were studied over two consecutive cycles (A, B). In both cycles, self-reported symptoms, for example nausea and vomiting, were recorded from two days prior to the onset (Day -2), during infusion, and two days after the end of the infusion (Day +2). In Cycle B, blood was drawn at home at Day -2, and at Day 0 in the hospital prior to infusion onset, thus using a quasi-experimental variation of the CS content of the environment. Immune parameters valid for tumor defense and cytotoxic competence (natural killer cell activity [NKCA], plasma interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-2, IL-10, interferon [IFN]-gamma, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) and cortisol were measured. ANV was reported by 7 patients in at least one cycle. In Cycle A, ANV was positively associated with emetogenity of chemotherapy. Features of ANV-duration and occurrence-tended to be positively associated with those of posttreatment nausea and vomiting. AN increased as infusion onset time approached. NKCA and IFN-gamma increased from home to hospital, independent from cortisol level. The NKCA increase was predominantly observed in patients with ANV. ANV in pediatric patients showed features of a CR. Immune parameters were sensitive to the CS content of the environment, predominantly in patients with ANV. This is consistent with the manifestation of multiple CRs. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Automated Feature Set Selection and Its Application to MCC Identification in Digital Mammograms for Breast Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Chung Shen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a fully automated algorithm that is able to select a discriminative feature set from a training database via sequential forward selection (SFS, sequential backward selection (SBS, and F-score methods. We applied this scheme to microcalcifications cluster (MCC detection in digital mammograms for early breast cancer detection. The system was able to select features fully automatically, regardless of the input training mammograms used. We tested the proposed scheme using a database of 111 clinical mammograms containing 1,050 microcalcifications (MCs. The accuracy of the system was examined via a free response receiver operating characteristic (fROC curve of the test dataset. The system performance for MC identifications was Az = 0.9897, the sensitivity was 92%, and 0.65 false positives (FPs were generated per image for MCC detection.

  14. A computerized global MR image feature analysis scheme to assist diagnosis of breast cancer: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang; Zheng, Bin

    2014-07-01

    To develop a new computer-aided detection scheme to compute a global kinetic image feature from the dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and test the feasibility of using the computerized results for assisting classification between the DCE-MRI examinations associated with malignant and benign tumors. The scheme registers sequential images acquired from each DCE-MRI examination, segments breast areas on all images, searches for a fraction of voxels that have higher contrast enhancement values and computes an average contrast enhancement value of selected voxels. Combination of the maximum contrast enhancement values computed from two post-contrast series in one of two breasts is applied to predict the likelihood of the examination being positive for breast cancer. The scheme performance was evaluated when applying to a retrospectively collected database including 80 malignant and 50 benign cases. In each of 91% of malignant cases and 66% of benign cases, the average contrast enhancement value computed from the top 0.43% of voxels is higher in the breast depicted suspicious lesions as compared to another negative (lesion-free) breast. In classifying between malignant and benign cases, using the computed image feature achieved an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 with 95% confidence interval of [0.762, 0.898]. We demonstrated that the global contrast enhancement feature of DCE-MRI can be relatively easily and robustly computed without accurate breast tumor detection and segmentation. This global feature provides supplementary information and a higher discriminatory power in assisting diagnosis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A computerized global MR image feature analysis scheme to assist diagnosis of breast cancer: a preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qian [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Li, Lihua, E-mail: lilh@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang [Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, 310010 (China); Zheng, Bin [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To develop a new computer-aided detection scheme to compute a global kinetic image feature from the dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and test the feasibility of using the computerized results for assisting classification between the DCE-MRI examinations associated with malignant and benign tumors. Materials and Methods: The scheme registers sequential images acquired from each DCE-MRI examination, segments breast areas on all images, searches for a fraction of voxels that have higher contrast enhancement values and computes an average contrast enhancement value of selected voxels. Combination of the maximum contrast enhancement values computed from two post-contrast series in one of two breasts is applied to predict the likelihood of the examination being positive for breast cancer. The scheme performance was evaluated when applying to a retrospectively collected database including 80 malignant and 50 benign cases. Results: In each of 91% of malignant cases and 66% of benign cases, the average contrast enhancement value computed from the top 0.43% of voxels is higher in the breast depicted suspicious lesions as compared to another negative (lesion-free) breast. In classifying between malignant and benign cases, using the computed image feature achieved an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 with 95% confidence interval of [0.762, 0.898]. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the global contrast enhancement feature of DCE-MRI can be relatively easily and robustly computed without accurate breast tumor detection and segmentation. This global feature provides supplementary information and a higher discriminatory power in assisting diagnosis of breast cancer.

  16. Feature selection and classification of MAQC-II breast cancer and multiple myeloma microarray gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Liu

    Full Text Available Microarray data has a high dimension of variables but available datasets usually have only a small number of samples, thereby making the study of such datasets interesting and challenging. In the task of analyzing microarray data for the purpose of, e.g., predicting gene-disease association, feature selection is very important because it provides a way to handle the high dimensionality by exploiting information redundancy induced by associations among genetic markers. Judicious feature selection in microarray data analysis can result in significant reduction of cost while maintaining or improving the classification or prediction accuracy of learning machines that are employed to sort out the datasets. In this paper, we propose a gene selection method called Recursive Feature Addition (RFA, which combines supervised learning and statistical similarity measures. We compare our method with the following gene selection methods: Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Elimination (SVMRFE, Leave-One-Out Calculation Sequential Forward Selection (LOOCSFS, Gradient based Leave-one-out Gene Selection (GLGS. To evaluate the performance of these gene selection methods, we employ several popular learning classifiers on the MicroArray Quality Control phase II on predictive modeling (MAQC-II breast cancer dataset and the MAQC-II multiple myeloma dataset. Experimental results show that gene selection is strictly paired with learning classifier. Overall, our approach outperforms other compared methods. The biological functional analysis based on the MAQC-II breast cancer dataset convinced us to apply our method for phenotype prediction. Additionally, learning classifiers also play important roles in the classification of microarray data and our experimental results indicate that the Nearest Mean Scale Classifier (NMSC is a good choice due to its prediction reliability and its stability across the three performance measurements: Testing accuracy, MCC values, and

  17. Thermography based breast cancer detection using texture features and minimum variance quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Marina; Jankovic, Dragan; Peulic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system based on feature extraction techniques and image segmentation techniques for detecting and diagnosing abnormal patterns in breast thermograms. The proposed system consists of three major steps: feature extraction, classification into normal and abnormal pattern and segmentation of abnormal pattern. Computed features based on gray-level co-occurrence matrices are used to evaluate the effectiveness of textural information possessed by mass regions. A total of 20 GLCM features are extracted from thermograms. The ability of feature set in differentiating abnormal from normal tissue is investigated using a Support Vector Machine classifier, Naive Bayes classifier and K-Nearest Neighbor classifier. To evaluate the classification performance, five-fold cross validation method and Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. The verification results show that the proposed algorithm gives the best classification results using K-Nearest Neighbor classifier and a accuracy of 92.5%. Image segmentation techniques can play an important role to segment and extract suspected hot regions of interests in the breast infrared images. Three image segmentation techniques: minimum variance quantization, dilation of image and erosion of image are discussed. The hottest regions of thermal breast images are extracted and compared to the original images. According to the results, the proposed method has potential to extract almost exact shape of tumors.

  18. Distribution And Clinicopathological Features Of Breast Cancer Histological Subtypes In Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebnijs Andrejs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease. It consists of several histological subtypes that can be separated by morphology and immunohistochemistry. The aim of our study was to determine the distribution of breast cancer histological and molecular subtypes, and their relationship with clinical and pathological characteristics. A total of 561 patients who underwent breast carcinoma surgical treatment from January 2003 till December 2012 were enrolled in the study. In total, invasive ductal carcinomas not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS plus invasive ductal carcinomas no special type (IDC-NST were observed in 430 patients (76.65% of cases, medullar carcinoma in 14 patients (2.45%, other rare ductal carcinoma subtypes in 13 patients (2.31%, lobular carcinoma in 81 patients (14.4% and tubulolobular carcinoma in 23 patients (4.19%. Ductal carcinoma, lobular and tubulolobular carcinoma had predominantly luminal A and B subtype, whereas medullar carcinoma had HER2-positive and triple-negative (TN subtype. Tubular, cribriform, mucinous, papillary, and apocrine carcinomas had predominantly luminal A subtype. Significant differences between breast cancer histological subtypes and clinicopathological characteristics were observed. Our study for the first time reported the distribution and characteristics of breast cancer histological subtypes in Latvian women and relationship to clinical and tumour histopathological characteristics.

  19. Prognostic features of breast cancer differ between women in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyeye Mvila, Gertrude; Batalansi, Donatien; Praet, Marleen; Marchal, Guy; Laenen, Annouschka; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Brouckaert, Olivier; Ali-Risasi, Catherine; Neven, Patrick; Van Ongeval, Chantal

    2015-10-01

    Compared to European women, breast cancers in African women present at a younger age, with a higher tumor grade and are more often estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) negative. We here investigate the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics (ER, PR and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2)) and the proportion of triple negative (Tneg) invasive breast cancers from an unselected series of patients diagnosed in Kinshasa, and compare them to a population of Caucasian women with a palpable breast cancer. From 2010 till 2013, during the first breast cancer awareness campaign, organized in Kinshasa, 87 patients were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Diagnose was based on core biopsy. The control group consisted of Caucasian women (University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium) with a palpable mass, diagnosed between 2000 till 2009, treated with surgery of which the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics were collected on excision specimens. Each patient in the Kinshasa group was matched based on age and tumor size to one or more patients of the Leuven database. Differences between both groups with respect to hormone receptors (ER, PR, HER2, Tneg) or grade are presented as relative risks (RR). The analysis is based on a log-binomial model accounting for clustering through matching by a random intercept for cluster. Differences between both groups with respect to hormone receptors correcting for grade is performed by the inclusion of grade as a covariate in the model. After adjusting for age, tumor volume and tumor grade, ER was more frequently negative (RR = 0.71, p PR (RR = 0.87, p = 0.057), and HER2 more often positive (RR = 1.60, p = 0.015) compared to the group from the University Hospitals of Leuven. There was no difference in the proportion of breast cancers being triple negative. Sub-analysis showed that the higher HER2 positive rate was only observed in older patients (≥50y: RR = 2.07, p = 0.007) whereas no

  20. Correlation of HER2 overexpression with histopathologic features in breast cancer: a two- year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foruhesh Tehrani Z

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women. HER2 is an epidermal growth factor receptor which plays a substantial role in pathogenesis of breast cancer and also a target for new antineoplastic drug Herceptin. This study was conducted for determining the correlation between HER2 overexpression and histopathologic characteristics of breast cancer and also degree of intraobserver and interobserver agreement in scoring of Immnohistochemistry (IHC slides between pathologists in samples referred to pathology ward."n"nMethods: This study was conducted as a descriptive cross sectional study. Among the breast cancer samples referred to pathology ward in Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran. 140 samples have been selected sequentially using simple non-random sampling method. All the information has been extracted using medical records and pathology reports."n"nResults: This study showed significant difference between diagnosis and HER2 status (p<0.05. Significant difference observed between lymph node invasion and HER2 status (p<0.05. Positive significant association between the size and tumor grade with HER2 status (r=0.188, p=0.026, Significant difference

  1. From normal response to clinical problem: definition and clinical features of fear of cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Sophie; Ozakinci, Gozde; Humphris, Gerald; Mutsaers, Brittany; Thewes, Belinda; Prins, Judith; Dinkel, Andreas; Butow, Phyllis

    2016-08-01

    Research to date on fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) shows that moderate to high FCR affects 22-87 % of cancer survivors and is associated with higher psychological morbidity (Simard et al J Cancer Surviv 7:300-322, 2013). Despite growing research interest in FCR, the lack of consensus on its definition and characteristics when it reaches a clinical level has impeded knowledge transfer into patient services. In order to address these gaps, expert researchers, policy makers, trainees, and patient advocates attended a 2-day colloquium at the University of Ottawa in August 2015. A Delphi method was used to identify the most relevant definition of FCR, and the attendees generated possible diagnostic characteristics of clinical FCR. After three rounds of discussion and voting, the attendees reached consensus on a new definition of FCR: "Fear, worry, or concern relating to the possibility that cancer will come back or progress." Regarding clinical FCR, five possible characteristics were proposed: (1) high levels of preoccupation, worry, rumination, or intrusive thoughts; (2) maladaptive coping; (3) functional impairments; (4) excessive distress; and (5) difficulties making plans for the future. The new proposed definition of FCR reflects the broad spectrum in which patients experience FCR. A consensual definition of FCR and the identification of the essential characteristics of clinical FCR are necessary to accurately and consistently measure FCR severity and to develop effective interventions to treat FCR. We hope this broad definition can encourage further research and the development of inclusive policies for all cancer patients and survivors who are struggling with this issue.

  2. Conserved features of cancer cells define their sensitivity to HAMLET-induced death; c-Myc and glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, P; Aits, S; Puthia, M K; Urbano, A; Northen, T; Powers, S; Bowen, B; Chao, Y; Reindl, W; Lee, D Y; Sullivan, N L; Zhang, J; Trulsson, M; Yang, H; Watson, J D; Svanborg, C

    2011-12-01

    HAMLET is the first member of a new family of tumoricidal protein-lipid complexes that kill cancer cells broadly, while sparing healthy, differentiated cells. Many and diverse tumor cell types are sensitive to the lethal effect, suggesting that HAMLET identifies and activates conserved death pathways in cancer cells. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the difference in sensitivity between cancer cells and healthy cells. Using a combination of small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibition, proteomic and metabolomic technology, we identified the c-Myc oncogene as one essential determinant of HAMLET sensitivity. Increased c-Myc expression levels promoted sensitivity to HAMLET and shRNA knockdown of c-Myc suppressed the lethal response, suggesting that oncogenic transformation with c-Myc creates a HAMLET-sensitive phenotype. Furthermore, HAMLET sensitivity was modified by the glycolytic state of tumor cells. Glucose deprivation sensitized tumor cells to HAMLET-induced cell death and in the shRNA screen, hexokinase 1 (HK1), 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α modified HAMLET sensitivity. HK1 was shown to bind HAMLET in a protein array containing ∼8000 targets, and HK activity decreased within 15 min of HAMLET treatment, before morphological signs of tumor cell death. In parallel, HAMLET triggered rapid metabolic paralysis in carcinoma cells. Tumor cells were also shown to contain large amounts of oleic acid and its derivatives already after 15 min. The results identify HAMLET as a novel anti-cancer agent that kills tumor cells by exploiting unifying features of cancer cells such as oncogene addiction or the Warburg effect.

  3. Conserved features of cancer cells define their sensitivity of HAMLET-induced death; c-Myc and glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Petter; Puthia, Manoj Kumar; Aits, Sonja; Urbano, Alexander; Northen, Trent; Powers, Scott; Bowen, Ben; Chao, Yinxia; Reindl, Wolfgang; Lee, Do Yup; Sullivan, Nancy Liu; Zhang, Jianping; Trulsson, Maria; Yang, Henry; Watson, James; Svanborg, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    HAMLET is the first member of a new family of tumoricidal protein-lipid complexes that kill cancer cells broadly, while sparing healthy, differentiated cells. Many and diverse tumor cell types are sensitive to the lethal effect, suggesting that HAMLET identifies and activates conserved death pathways in cancer cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis for the difference in sensitivity between cancer cells and healthy cells. Using a combination of small hairpin RNA inhibition, proteomic and metabolomic technology we identified the c-Myc oncogene as one essential determinant of HAMLET sensitivity. Increased c-Myc expression levels promoted the sensitivity to HAMLET and shRNA knockdown of c-Myc suppressed the lethal response, suggesting that oncogenic transformation with c-Myc creates a HAMLET-sensitive phenotype. Furthermore, the HAMLET sensitivity was modified by the glycolytic state of the tumor cells. Glucose deprivation sensitized tumor cells to HAMLET-induced cell death and in the shRNA screen Hexokinase 1, PFKFB1 and HIF1α modified HAMLET sensitivity. Hexokinase 1 was shown to bind HAMLET in a protein array containing approximately 8000 targets and Hexokinase activity decreased within 15 minutes of HAMLET treatment, prior to morphological signs of tumor cell death. In parallel, HAMLET triggered rapid metabolic paralysis in carcinoma cells. The glycolytic machinery was modified and glycolysis was shifted towards the pentose phosphate pathway. Tumor cells were also shown to contain large amounts of oleic acid and its derivatives already after 15 minutes. The results identify HAMLET as a novel anti-cancer agent that kills tumor cells by exploiting unifying features of cancer cells such as oncogene-addiction or the Warburg effect. PMID:21643007

  4. An introductory analysis of digital infrared thermal imaging guided oral cancer detection using multiresolution rotation invariant texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, M.; Das Gupta, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Anjum, N.; Patsa, S.; Ray, J. G.

    2017-03-01

    This manuscript presents an analytical treatment on the feasibility of multi-scale Gabor filter bank response for non-invasive oral cancer pre-screening and detection in the long infrared spectrum. Incapability of present healthcare technology to detect oral cancer in budding stage manifests in high mortality rate. The paper contributes a step towards automation in non-invasive computer-aided oral cancer detection using an amalgamation of image processing and machine intelligence paradigms. Previous works have shown the discriminative difference of facial temperature distribution between a normal subject and a patient. The proposed work, for the first time, exploits this difference further by representing the facial Region of Interest(ROI) using multiscale rotation invariant Gabor filter bank responses followed by classification using Radial Basis Function(RBF) kernelized Support Vector Machine(SVM). The proposed study reveals an initial increase in classification accuracy with incrementing image scales followed by degradation of performance; an indication that addition of more and more finer scales tend to embed noisy information instead of discriminative texture patterns. Moreover, the performance is consistently better for filter responses from profile faces compared to frontal faces.This is primarily attributed to the ineptness of Gabor kernels to analyze low spatial frequency components over a small facial surface area. On our dataset comprising of 81 malignant, 59 pre-cancerous, and 63 normal subjects, we achieve state-of-the-art accuracy of 85.16% for normal v/s precancerous and 84.72% for normal v/s malignant classification. This sets a benchmark for further investigation of multiscale feature extraction paradigms in IR spectrum for oral cancer detection.

  5. Do obesity and age effect the clinicopathological features and survival outcomes in premenopausal women with endometrial cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, S; Sozen, H; Vatansever, D; Iyibozkurt, A C; Ozgor, B Y; Bastu, E; Salihoglu, V; Berkman, S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis, demographic characteristics, and pathological features of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer, specifically before menopause. Patients that were diagnosed with endometrial cancer before menopause, were screened retrospectively. Between 1999 and 2011, 163 patients were identified while 40 were excluded. Patients were classified into three groups according to age (under 40 years, between 40-45 years, more than 45 years) and BMI (normal weight group, overweight group, and obese weight group). Demographical characteristics, histopathological features (Stage, grade and histology of the tumor, the presence of myometrial and/or lymphovascular invasion, history of diabetes mellitus, history of hypertension, hormonal contraception method, smoking, parity, infertility, family history, and recurrences) and survival rates were compared among the groups. In total, 123 patients with a mean of 65.0 months follow up were enrolled into the study. The majority of the patients had endometrioid type in all age-related subgroups. Advanced stage endometrium cancer (Stage 2 and greater) was seen more commonly in the group of patient over 45 years of age against the other age-related subgroups (27.9% vs. 8% vs. 3.3%). Ratio of myometrial invasion more than 50% and occurrence of well-differentiated tumor were seen with a similar ratio among the age-related subgroups. Ratio of nulliparity and infertility were found statistically significant in the group of patients under 45 years of age against the group of patients over 45 years of age (p = 0.001, p = 0.03). The five-year estimated disease-free survival rates of women under 40 years of, women with an age between 40-45 years, and women over the age of 45 years were calculated as 73%, 95%, and 87%, respectively (p = 0.152). Concerning the histopathological features, there were no statistical differences between weight related

  6. Low levels of serum testosterone in middle-aged men impact pathological features of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Llukani

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Among men aged 45–64 years low serum pretreatment FT and TT predicted more aggressive features of PrCa in prostatectomy specimens. In middle-aged patients low testosterone levels measured pre-operatively may indicate more aggressive disease parameters.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammography using an artificial neural network: predicting the invasiveness of breast cancers from image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Joseph Y.; Kim, Jeffrey; Baker, Jay A.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    The study aim is to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) for computer-aided diagnosis of mammography. Using 9 mammographic image features and patient age, the ANN predicted whether breast lesions were benign, invasive malignant, or noninvasive malignant. Given only 97 malignant patients, the 3-layer backpropagation ANN successfully predicted the invasiveness of those breast cancers, performing with Az of 0.88 plus or minus 0.03. To determine more generalized clinical performance, a different ANN was developed using 266 consecutive patients (97 malignant, 169 benign). This ANN predicted whether those patients were benign or noninvasive malignant vs. invasive malignant with Az of 0.86 plus or minus 0.03. This study is unique because it is the first to predict the invasiveness of breast cancers using mammographic features and age. This knowledge, which was previously available only through surgical biopsy, may assist in the planning of surgical procedures for patients with breast lesions, and may help reduce the cost and morbidity associated with unnecessary surgical biopsies.

  8. Comparison of Alu-PCR, microsatelite instability, and immunohistochemical analyses in finding features characteristic for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debniak, T; Gorski, B; Cybulski, C; Jakubowska, A; Kurzawski, G; Kladny, J; Lubinski, J

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate and compare alterations detected by Alu-PCR, microsatellite instability (MI), and absence of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression measured by immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses as features characteristic of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Alu-PCR, MI, and IHC analyses were performed in two groups of patients: (A) HNPCC diagnosed definitively or with high probability (11 patients); (B) sporadic late-onset colorectal cancers (15 patients). Quantitative alterations recorded by Alu-PCR were not characteristic for Lynch syndrome, occurring more frequently in sporadic late-onset CRC (73% in group B vs 45% in group A). Qualitative changes (occurrence of additional peaks or shifts) have been found to be associated with HNPCC with odds ratio (OR) 2.4, specificity approximately 70% and sensitivity approximately 55%. Findings in MI and IHC analyses have been recognized as features more characteristic of HNPCC suggesting Lynch syndrome with OR 4.8, specificity approximately 80%, sensitivity approximately 55% (MI) and OR 8.0, specificity approximately 93%, sensitivity approximately 36% (IHC). Molecular techniques allowing identification of patients with a high probability of having HNPCC include IHC and MI analyses. Our results suggest that their replacement by Alu-PCR analysis in diagnosis of HNPCC is not justified.

  9. Featured Article: Teriflunomide, an immunomodulatory drug, exerts anticancer activity in triple negative breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ou; Zhang, Weili; Zhi, Qiaoming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Liu, Hongchun; Shen, Daoming; Geng, Meiyu; Xie, Zuoquan

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a group of primary breast cancers lacking expression of estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) receptors, characterized by higher relapse rate and lower survival compared with other subtypes. Due to lack of identified targets and molecular heterogeneity, conventional chemotherapy is the only available option for treatment of TNBC, but non-discordant positive therapeutic efficacy could not be achieved. Here, we demonstrated that these TNBC cells were sensitive to teriflunomide, which was a well-known immunomodulatory drug for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). Potent anti-cancer effects in TNBC in vitro, including proliferation inhibition, cell cycle delay, cell apoptosis, and suppression of cell motility and invasiveness, could be achieved with this agent. Of note, we showed that multiple signals involved in TNBC proliferation, survival, migratory, and invasive potential were under regulation by teriflunomide. Among them, we identified down-regulation of growth factor receptors to abolish growth maintenance, suppression of c-Myc, and cyclin D1 to contribute to its anti-proliferative effect, modulation of components of cell cycle to induce S-phase arrest, degradation of Bcl-xL, and up-regulation of BAX via activation of MAPK pathway to induce apoptosis, and inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) expression, and inactivation of Src/FAK to reduce TNBC migration and invasion. The results identified teriflunomide may be of therapeutic benefit for the more aggressive and difficult-to-treat breast cancer subtype, indicating the use of teriflunomide for clinical trials for treatment of TNBC patients. PMID:25304315

  10. Use of genetic algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancers from image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Carey E., Jr.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Baker, Jay A.

    1996-04-01

    In this investigation we explore genetic algorithms as a technique to train the weights in a feed forward neural network designed to predict breast cancer based on mammographic findings and patient history. Mammograms were obtained from 206 patients who obtained breast biopsies. Mammographic findings were recorded by radiologists for each patient. In addition, the outcome of the biopsy was recorded. Of the 206 cases, 73 were malignant while 133 were benign at the time of biopsy. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to adjust the weights of an artificial neural network (ANN) so that the ANN would output the outcome of the biopsy when the mammographic findings were given as inputs. The GA is a technique for function optimization that reflects biological genetic evolution. The ANN was a fully connected feed- forward network using a sigmoid activation with 11 inputs, one hidden layer with 10 nodes, and one output node (benign/malignant). The GA approach allows much flexibility in selecting the function to be optimized. In this work both mean-squared error (MSE) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area (Az) were explored as optimization criteria. The system was trained using a bootstrap sampling. Optimizing for the two criteria result in different solutions. The 'best' solution was obtained by minimizing a linear combination of MSE and (1-Az). ROC areas were 0.82 plus or minus 0.07, somewhat less than those obtained using backpropagation for ANN training: 0.90 plus or minus 0.05. This is the first description of a genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis. The novel advantage of this technique is the ability to optimize the system for maximizing ROC area rather than minimizing mean squared error. A new technique for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer has been explored. The flexibility of the GA approach allows optimization of cost functions that have relevance to breast cancer prediction.

  11. Morphological and phenotypical features of ovarian metastases in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Inge T. A.; van der Steen, Merle A.; Huisman, Bertine W.; Hilders, Carina G. J .M.; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Sier, Cornelis F. M.; Trimbos, J. Baptist; Kuppen, Peter J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Autotransplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue is a method to preserve ovarian function and fertility in patients undergoing gonadotoxic therapy. In oncology patients, the safety cannot yet be guaranteed, since current tumor detection methods can only exclude the presence of malignant cells in ovarian fragments that are not transplanted. We determined the need for a novel detection method by studying the distribution of tumor cells in ovaries from patients with breast cancer. ...

  12. Potential Biomarkers of Fat Loss as a Feature of Cancer Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ebadi; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2015-01-01

    Fat loss is associated with shorter survival and reduced quality of life in cancer patients. Effective intervention for fat loss in cachexia requires identification of the condition using prognostic biomarkers for early detection and prevention of further depletion. No biomarkers of fat mass alterations have been defined for application to the neoplastic state. Several inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mediating fat loss associated with cachexia; however, plasma levels may no...

  13. Exercise and Prognosis on the Basis of Clinicopathologic and Molecular Features in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: The LACE and Pathways Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W; Kwan, Marilyn L; Weltzien, Erin; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Sternfeld, Barbara; Sweeney, Carol; Bernard, Philip S; Castillo, Adrienne; Habel, Laurel A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Langholz, Bryan M; Queensberry, Charles P; Dang, Chau; Weigelt, Britta; Kushi, Lawrence H; Caan, Bette J

    2016-09-15

    To investigate whether the impact of postdiagnosis exercise on breast cancer outcomes in women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer differs on the basis of tumor clinicopathologic and molecular features. Using a prospective design, 6,211 patients with early-stage breast cancer from two large population-based cohort studies were studied. Age-adjusted and multivariable Cox regression models were performed to determine the relationship between exercise exposure (total MET-hours/week) and recurrence and breast cancer-related death for: (i) all patients ("unselected" cohort), and on the basis of (ii) classic clinicopathologic features, (iii) clinical subtypes, (iv) PAM50-based molecular intrinsic subtypes, and (v) individual PAM50 target genes. After a median follow-up of 7.2 years, in the unselected cohort (n = 6,211) increasing exercise exposure was not associated with a reduction in the risk of recurrence (adjusted Ptrend = 0.60) or breast cancer-related death (adjusted Ptrend = 0.39). On the basis of clinicopathologic features, an exercise-associated reduction in breast cancer-related death was apparent for tumors exercise (recurrence: adjusted HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.88; breast cancer-related death: adjusted HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.86). The impact of exercise on cancer outcomes appears to differ as a function of pathologic and molecular features in early-stage breast cancer. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5415-22. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Association between pretreatment Glasgow prognostic score and gastric cancer survival and clinicopathological features: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang CX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Xiao Zhang,* Shu-Yi Wang,* Shuang-Qian Chen, Shuai-Long Yang, Lu Wan, Bin Xiong Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Glasgow prognostic score (GPS is widely known as a systemic inflammatory-based marker. The relationship between pretreatment GPS and gastric cancer (GC survival and clinicopathological features remains controversial. The aim of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the association between pretreatment GPS and survival and clinicopathological features in GC patients. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and BioMed databases for relevant studies. Combined analyses were used to assess the association between pretreatment GPS and overall survival, disease-free survival, and clinicopathological parameters by Stata Version 12.0. Results: A total of 14 studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 5,579 GC patients. The results indicated that pretreatment high GPS (HGPS predicted poor overall survival (hazard ratio =1.51, 95% CI: 1.37–1.66, P<0.01 and disease-free survival (hazard ratio =1.45, 95% CI: 1.26–1.68, P<0.01 in GC patients. Pretreatment HGPS was also significantly associated with advanced tumor–node–metastasis stage (odds ratio [OR] =3.09, 95% CI: 2.11–4.53, P<0.01, lymph node metastasis (OR =4.60, 95% CI: 3.23–6.56, P<0.01, lymphatic invasion (OR =3.04, 95% CI: 2.00–4.62, P<0.01, and venous invasion (OR =3.56, 95% CI: 1.81–6.99, P<0.01. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicated that pretreatment HGPS could be a predicative factor of poor survival outcome and clinicopathological features for GC patients. Keywords: Glasgow prognostic score, gastric cancer, survival, clinicopathological feature

  15. Pathological features of Breast Cancer seen in Northwestern Tanzania: a nine years retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyama Mange M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is more common in Western Countries compared to African populations. However in African population, it appears that the disease tends to be more aggressive and occurring at a relatively young age at the time of presentation. The aim of this study was to describe the trend of Breast Cancer in Northwestern Tanzania. Methods This was a retrospective study which involved all cases of breast cancer diagnosed histologically at Bugando Medical Center from 2002 to 2010. Histological results and slides were retrieved from the records in the Pathology department, clinical information and demographic data for patients were retrieved from surgical wards and department of medical records. Histology slides were re-evaluated for the histological type, grade (By modified Bloom-Richardson score, and presence of necrosis and skin involvement. Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS computer software version 15. Findings There were 328 patients histologically confirmed to have breast cancer, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.7 years (+/- 13.1. About half of the patients (52.4% were below 46 years of age, and this group of patients had significantly higher tendency for lymph node metastasis (p = 0.012. The tumor size ranged from 1 cm to 18 cm in diameter with average (mean of 5.5 cm (+/- 2.5, and median size of 6 cm. Size of the tumor (above 6 cm in diameter and presence of necrosis within the tumor was significantly associated with high rate of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.000. Of all patients, 64% were at clinical stage III (specifically IIIB and 70.4% had lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Only 4.3% of the patients were in clinical stage I at the time of diagnosis. Majority of the patients had invasive ductal carcinoma (91.5% followed by mucinous carcinoma (5.2%, Invasive lobular carcinoma (3% and in situ ductal carcinoma (0.3%. In all patients, 185 (56.4% had tumor with histological grade 3. Conclusion Breast cancer

  16. Association between bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features computed from the DCE-MRI images and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Chengjie; Zheng, Bin

    2013-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of breast yields high sensitivity but relatively lower specificity. To improve diagnostic accuracy of DCE-MRI, we investigated the association between bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features computed from the left and right breasts and breast cancer detection with the hypothesis that due to the growth of angiogenesis associated with malignant lesions, the average dynamic contrast enhancement computed from the breasts depicting malignant lesions should be higher than negative or benign breasts. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a database involving 130 DCE-MRI examinations including 81 malignant and 49 benign cases. We developed a computerized scheme that automatically segments breast areas depicted on MR images and computes kinetic features related to the bilateral asymmetry of contrast enhancement ratio between two breasts. An artificial neural network (ANN) was then used to classify between malignant and benign cases. To identify the optimal approach to compute the bilateral kinetic feature asymmetry, we tested 4 different thresholds to select the enhanced pixels (voxels) from DCE-MRI images and compute the kinetic features. Using the optimal threshold, the ANN had a classification performance measured by the area under the ROC curve of AUC=0.79+/-0.04. The positive and negative predictive values were 0.75 and 0.67, respectively. The study suggested that the bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features or contrast enhancement of breast background tissue could provide valuable supplementary information to distinguish between the malignant and benign cases, which can be fused into existing computer-aided detection schemes to improve classification performance.

  17. Auto-Segmentation of Head and Neck Cancer using Textural features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Højgaard, Liselotte

    intensity and tested with a paired t-test. Results: The JM analysis determined a combination of 8 textural features as appropriate for segmentation giving a distance of 1.1 out of 1.4.For the level set segmentation the DICE coefficient and sensitivity were 0.48±0.18 (mean ± standard deviation) and 0...... volumes (GTV) in a training set of 20 HNSCC patients and evaluate its performance in an independent test set of 25 patients. Materials and Methods: 100 PET/CT textural features were extracted from manual contours of GTV on a training set. The training set consisted of PET and CT scans from 20 patients...

  18. Long non-coding RNA lnc-MX1-1 is associated with poor clinical features and promotes cellular proliferation and invasiveness in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chen-Yi; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xing-Jie [Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080 (China); Ruan, Yuan [Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080 (China); Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Bei, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Hai; Jing, Yi-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, Qi [Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080 (China); Li, Jia; Han, Bang-Min [Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080 (China); Institute of Urology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Xia, Shu-Jie [Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080 (China); Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Institute of Urology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Zhao, Fu-Jun, E-mail: drzhaofujun@yahoo.com [Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080 (China); Institute of Urology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2016-02-12

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in human cancer genesis and progression, including prostate cancer. Large amount of lncRNAs have been found that differentially expressed between prostate cancer tissues and normal prostate tissues. Whether these lncRNAs could serve as a novel biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis or prognosis, and their biological functions in prostate cancer need further investigation. In the present study, we identified that lncRNA lnc-MX1-1 is over-expressed in prostate cancer tissues compared with their adjacent normal prostate tissues by gene expression array profiling. The expression of lnc-MX1-1 in 60 prostate cancer cases was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the correlations between lnc-MX1-1 expression and patients' clinical features were further analyzed. Next, we impaired lnc-MX1-1 expression using RNAi in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells to explore the effects of lnc-MX1-1 on proliferation and invasiveness of the cells. Our results showed that there was a significant association between over-expression of lnc-MX1-1 and patients' clinical features such as PSA, Gleason score, metastasis, and recurrence free survival. Moreover, knockdown of lnc-MX1-1 reduced both proliferation and invasiveness of LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that lnc-MX1-1 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for prostate cancer. - Highlights: • LncRNA lnc-MX1-1 is up-regulated in prostate cancer. • Overexpression of lnc-MX1-1 is correlated with poor prostate cancer clinical features. • Knockdown of lnc-MX1-1 reduces proliferation and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells.

  19. Breast cancer mitosis detection in histopathological images with spatial feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Abdülkadir; Bilgin, Gökhan

    2013-12-01

    In this work, cellular mitosis detection in histopathological images has been investigated. Mitosis detection is very expensive and time consuming process. Development of digital imaging in pathology has enabled reasonable and effective solution to this problem. Segmentation of digital images provides easier analysis of cell structures in histopathological data. To differentiate normal and mitotic cells in histopathological images, feature extraction step is very crucial step for the system accuracy. A mitotic cell has more distinctive textural dissimilarities than the other normal cells. Hence, it is important to incorporate spatial information in feature extraction or in post-processing steps. As a main part of this study, Haralick texture descriptor has been proposed with different spatial window sizes in RGB and La*b* color spaces. So, spatial dependencies of normal and mitotic cellular pixels can be evaluated within different pixel neighborhoods. Extracted features are compared with various sample sizes by Support Vector Machines using k-fold cross validation method. According to the represented results, it has been shown that separation accuracy on mitotic and non-mitotic cellular pixels gets better with the increasing size of spatial window.

  20. Morphological and molecular features of oral fluid-derived exosomes: oral cancer patients versus healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Dayan, Dan; Chaushu, Gavriel; Salo, Tuula; Vered, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer (OC) patients are at high risk to develop recurrent disease or secondary primary cancers with no available biomarkers to detect these events until a visible lesion is readily present and diagnosed by biopsy. Exosomes secreted by cancer cells are involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. We aimed to determine morphological and molecular differences between oral fluid (OF)-derived exosomes of OC patients and those isolated from healthy individuals (HI). OF from OC patients (n = 36) and HI (n = 25) was initially assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Following ultracentrifugation, exosomal pellets of OC patients and HI were morphologically examined by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting (WB) were used to analyze the expression of exosomal markers--CD9, CD81 and CD63. NTA showed that OC samples of OF had a significantly higher concentration of nanoparticles/ml (p = 0.01) and modal nanoparticle size (p = 0.002) compared to HI. The difference in size was structurally highlighted by AFM three-dimensional images applied on exosomal pellets. ELISA and WB showed differential expression of exosomal markers in OC exosomes compared to HI: lower expression of CD81 and CD9 in contrast to a higher expression of CD63 (~53 kDa). OF-derived exosomes from OC patients differ both morphologically and molecularly from exosomes present in HI. This study is a baseline that provides a starting point for finding exosomal biomarkers for early detection of malignant changes in high-risk patients without overt clinical signs/lesions.

  1. Morphological and phenotypical features of ovarian metastases in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Inge T A; van der Steen, Merle A; Huisman, Bertine W; Hilders, Carina G J M; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Sier, Cornelis F M; Trimbos, J Baptist; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2017-03-21

    Autotransplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue is a method to preserve ovarian function and fertility in patients undergoing gonadotoxic therapy. In oncology patients, the safety cannot yet be guaranteed, since current tumor detection methods can only exclude the presence of malignant cells in ovarian fragments that are not transplanted. We determined the need for a novel detection method by studying the distribution of tumor cells in ovaries from patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, we examined which cell-surface proteins are suitable as a target for non-invasive tumor-specific imaging of ovarian metastases from invasive breast cancer. Using the nationwide database of the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA), we identified a cohort of 46 women with primary invasive breast cancer and ovarian metastases. The localization and morphology of ovarian metastases were determined on hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections. The following cell-surface markers were immunohistochemically analyzed: E-cadherin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), human epidermal growth receptor type 2 (Her2/neu), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), αvβ6 integrin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). The majority of ovarian metastases (71%) consisted of a solitary metastasis or multiple distinct nodules separated by uninvolved ovarian tissue, suggesting that ovarian metastases might be overlooked by the current detection approach. Combining the targets E-cadherin, EMA and Her2/neu resulted in nearly 100% detection of ductal ovarian metastases, whereas the combination of EMA, Her2/neu and EpCAM was most suitable to detect lobular ovarian metastases. Examination of the actual ovarian transplants is recommended. A combination of targets is most appropriate to detect ovarian metastases by tumor-specific imaging.

  2. [Comparison of breast cancer in young and old women based on clinicopathological features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Borbála; Madaras, Lilla; Szentmártoni, Gyöngyvér; Szász, A Marcell; Baranyák, Zsuzsanna; Szittya, Liliána; Torgyík, László; Zergényi, Eva; Borbényi, Erika; Kenessey, István; Korompay, Anna; Langmár, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Kulka, Janina; Dank, Magdolna

    2010-03-01

    The two far ends of the age at the diagnosis of breast cancer are the age of younger than 35, and that of older than 70. Most probably, these two groups of patients differ in many ways. The aim of our present study was to underline the fact that age at the diagnosis of breast cancer is indeed a prognostic factor. Between October 1995 and March 2009, 80 old and 51 young breast cancer patients were treated at the Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest. The prognostic and predictive factors of the tumors were analysed together with the disease-free and overall survival data. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning the menstrual and reproductive factors, histological characteristics and immunophenotype of the tumors. Tumor size, nodal status and the Nottingham Prognostic Index did not show statistically significant differences. A trend to a shorter disease-free survival, higher rate of distant metastases and disease-specific death was seen in the group of young patients, but it was not significant. Overall survival was significantly shorter in the group of young patients. Therefore, we can state that young patients have a more aggressive disease and worse outcome. There is an increased importance of self examination in these groups, since both age groups are beyond the age limits of the screening population in Hungary. The media and primary school education as well should be involved in educating women concerning this aspect. The individual follow-up of young patients with positive family history should also be established.

  3. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of pregnancy associated breast cancer - a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Lilla; Kovács, Kristóf Attila; Szász, Attila Marcell; Kenessey, István; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Székely, Borbála; Baranyák, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Orsolya; Dank, Magdolna; Kulka, Janina

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC) manifests during pregnancy or within a year following delivery. We sought to investigate differences in management, outcome, clinical, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) characteristics of PABC and matched controls in a retrospective case control study. PABC and control patients were selected from breast cancer cases of women ≤45 years, diagnosed in the 2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary between 1998 and 2012. Histopathology information on tumor type, grade, size, T, N, lympho-vascular invasion (LVI), Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), associated in situ lesions and IHC charcteristics: ER, PgR, HER2, Ki67, p53 were recorded, IHC-based subtype was assessed, clinical, management and outcome data were analysed. Thirty-one breast cancer cases were pregnancy related. Clinical management data did not differ in cases and controls. Histopathology of disease at presentation was not significantly different, but NPI assessed the PABC group as having poor, whereas controls as having intermediate prognosis. Associated in situ lesion was more often high grade Extensive Intraductal Carcinoma Component (EIC) in PABC. Triple negative and LuminalB prol tumors predominated in PABC. Disease-free and overall survival was inferior compared to controls. PABC patients with LuminalB prol and Triple negative tumors had inferior outcomes. On multivariate analysis inferior prognosis of PABC was associated with pregnancy. Our study has demonstrated inferior outcome of PABC. Difference in tumor biology is reflected by the predominance of triple negative and LuminalB tumors in PABC. The strength of the study is the analysis of complete pathology and IHC data.

  4. Prognostic Value and Reproducibility of Pretreatment CT Texture Features in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, David V. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhou, Shouhao [Division of Quantitative Sciences, Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mawlawi, Osama [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Court, Laurence E., E-mail: LECourt@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether pretreatment CT texture features can improve patient risk stratification beyond conventional prognostic factors (CPFs) in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 91 cases with stage III NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy. All patients underwent pretreatment diagnostic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) followed by 4-dimensional CT (4D-CT) for treatment simulation. We used the average-CT and expiratory (T50-CT) images from the 4D-CT along with the CE-CT for texture extraction. Histogram, gradient, co-occurrence, gray tone difference, and filtration-based techniques were used for texture feature extraction. Penalized Cox regression implementing cross-validation was used for covariate selection and modeling. Models incorporating texture features from the 33 image types and CPFs were compared to those with models incorporating CPFs alone for overall survival (OS), local-regional control (LRC), and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM). Predictive Kaplan-Meier curves were generated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Patients were stratified based on whether their predicted outcome was above or below the median. Reproducibility of texture features was evaluated using test-retest scans from independent patients and quantified using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). We compared models incorporating the reproducibility seen on test-retest scans to our original models and determined the classification reproducibility. Results: Models incorporating both texture features and CPFs demonstrated a significant improvement in risk stratification compared to models using CPFs alone for OS (P=.046), LRC (P=.01), and FFDM (P=.005). The average CCCs were 0.89, 0.91, and 0.67 for texture features extracted from the average-CT, T50-CT, and CE-CT, respectively. Incorporating reproducibility within our models yielded 80.4% (±3.7% SD), 78.3% (±4.0% SD), and 78

  5. Elastic laminal invasion in colon cancer: diagnostic utility and histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro eKojima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Primary tumors of the colorectal cancers are assessed pathologically based on the tumor spread into the bowel wall. The assessment of serosal involvement, which may be relevant to pT4, can be challenging for pathologists, making the consistency of diagnoses questionable. As solutions to this problem, the following two strategies could be adopted. One would be to use special staining or immunohistochemical staining techniques for diagnostic assistance. The other would be to construct recommendations for the assessment of tumor spreading and to obtain a world-wide consensus on the criteria used to assess tumor spreading. Using elastic staining, we previously reported that peritoneal elastic laminal invasion (ELI could be objectively determined and would likely contribute to a simplified and more objective stratification of deep tumor invasion around the peritoneal surface. We also noted the importance of sampling, staining, and histo-anatomical knowledge in the application of elastic staining during routine pathological diagnosis. Here we review the history of primary tumor stratification leading to the present TNM classification and report on the current status of pathological assessments made at our hospital to summarize what has been established and what is further required for the pathological diagnosis of tumor spreading in patients with colorectal cancer.

  6. Do Histopathological Features and Microcalcification Affect the Elasticity of Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durhan, Gamze; Öztekin, Pelin Seher; Ünverdi, Hatice; Değirmenci, Tülin; Durhan, Abdullah; Karakaya, Jale; Nercis Koşar, Pınar; Necip Köseoğlu, Enver; Hücümenoğlu, Sema

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate any association between histological grade, molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and strain elastography, and to investigate whether microcalcification affects the stiffness of tumor in breast cancers with the same histological grade. Between April 2015 and March 2016, 94 lesions of 94 patients with the diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma were included in the study. Strain elastography was performed on all patients before biopsy. Histological grades (Grades 1, 2, and 3), molecular subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, Her-2, and basal-like), and strain ratio (SR) were compared. In the same histological grades, patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of microcalcifications, and the groups were compared with each other. Compared with Grades 1 (20.5) and 2 (23.7), Grade 3 (11.7) showed lower SR values (Grade 3-2, P = .01; Grade 3-1, P = .2). The groups with microcalcification had slightly higher SR in all histological grades, but not of statistical significance. In molecular subtypes, luminal A and B demonstrated higher SR, whereas HER2 and basal-like had lower SR (P > .05 for all group comparisons). Grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas are different from other grades with lower SR values. The presence of microcalcifications and molecular subtypes do not affect elasticity like a high histological grade does. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Transfer learning from RF to B-mode temporal enhanced ultrasound features for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shekoofeh; Mousavi, Parvin; Yan, Pingkun; Tahmasebi, Amir; Kwak, Jin Tae; Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2017-07-01

    We present a method for prostate cancer (PCa) detection using temporal enhanced ultrasound (TeUS) data obtained either from radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound signals or B-mode images. For the first time, we demonstrate that by applying domain adaptation and transfer learning methods, a tissue classification model trained on TeUS RF data (source domain) can be deployed for classification using TeUS B-mode data alone (target domain), where both data are obtained on the same ultrasound scanner. This is a critical step for clinical translation of tissue classification techniques that primarily rely on accessing RF data, since this imaging modality is not readily available on all commercial scanners in clinics. Proof of concept is provided for in vivo characterization of PCa using TeUS B-mode data, where different nonlinear processing filters in the pipeline of the RF to B-mode conversion result in a distribution shift between the two domains. Our in vivo study includes data obtained in MRI-guided targeted procedure for prostate biopsy. We achieve comparable area under the curve using TeUS RF and B-mode data for medium to large cancer tumor sizes in biopsy cores (>4 mm). Our result suggests that the proposed adaptation technique is successful in reducing the divergence between TeUS RF and B-mode data.

  8. MR imaging features associated with distant metastasis-free survival of patients with invasive breast cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung Eun; Shin, Sung Ui; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Ryu, Han Suk; Kim, Kwangsoo; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-04-01

    Preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of primary breast cancers may have the potential to act as prognostic biomarkers by providing morphologic and kinetic features representing inter- or intra-tumor heterogeneity. Recent radiogenomic studies reveal that several radiologist-annotated image features are associated with genes or signal pathways involved in tumor progression, treatment resistance, and distant metastasis (DM). We investigate whether preoperative breast MR imaging features are associated with worse DM-free survival in patients with invasive breast cancer. Of the 3536 patients with primary breast cancers who underwent preoperative MR imaging between 2003 and 2009, 147 patients with DM were identified and one-to-one matched with control patients (n = 147) without DM according to clinical-pathologic variables. Three radiologists independently reviewed the MR images of 294 patients, and the association of DM-free survival with MR imaging and clinical-pathologic features was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Of MR imaging features, rim enhancement (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.29, 2.51]; p = 0.001) and peritumoral edema (HR, 1.48 [95% CI 1.03, 2.11]; p = 0.032) were the significant features associated with worse DM-free survival. The significant MR imaging features, however, were different between breast cancer subtypes and stages. Preoperative breast MR imaging features of rim enhancement and peritumoral edema may be used as prognostic biomarkers that help predict DM risk in patients with breast cancer, thereby potentially enabling improved personalized treatment and monitoring strategies for individual patients.

  9. Preoperative MRI features associated with lymphovascular invasion in node-negative invasive breast cancer: A propensity-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Hyejin; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Seung Hyun; Shin, Kyung Min; Kim, Gab Chul; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Won Hwa

    2017-10-01

    In node-negative disease, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is reported to be an unfavorable prognostic factor. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative breast MRI features are associated with LVI in patients with node-negative invasive breast cancer by a propensity-matched analysis. Among 389 patients with node-negative invasive ductal breast cancer who had preoperative breast 3.0 Tesla MRI with precontrast T2-weighted fat-suppressed, pre- and dynamic postcontrast T1-weighted fat-suppressed sequences, 61 patients with LVI (LVI group) were matched with 183 patients without LVI (no LVI group) at a ratio of 1:3 in terms of age, histologic grade, tumor size, and hormone receptor status. Two radiologists reviewed the MRI features, following profiles of focal breast edema (peritumoral, prepectoral, subcutaneous), intratumoral T2 signal intensity, adjacent vessel sign, and increased ipsilateral whole-breast vascularity, in addition to 2013 Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The presence of peritumoral edema (45.9% [28/61] versus 30.6% [56/183], P = 0.030) and adjacent vessel sign (82.0% [50/61] versus 68.3% [125/183], P = 0.041) was significantly associated with LVI. Prepectoral edema was also more frequently observed in the LVI group than in the no LVI group with borderline significance (26.2% [16/61] versus 15.3% [28/183], P = 0.055). In cases of nonmass enhancement, regional enhancement was more frequently found in the LVI group than in the no LVI group (60.0% [3/4] versus 5.9% [1/4], P = 0.042). Preoperative breast MRI features may be associated with LVI in patients with node-negative invasive breast cancer. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1037-1044. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Applying quantitative adiposity feature analysis models to predict benefit of bevacizumab-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; More, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    How to rationally identify epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients who will benefit from bevacizumab or other antiangiogenic therapies is a critical issue in EOC treatments. The motivation of this study is to quantitatively measure adiposity features from CT images and investigate the feasibility of predicting potential benefit of EOC patients with or without receiving bevacizumab-based chemotherapy treatment using multivariate statistical models built based on quantitative adiposity image features. A dataset involving CT images from 59 advanced EOC patients were included. Among them, 32 patients received maintenance bevacizumab after primary chemotherapy and the remaining 27 patients did not. We developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (VFA) and visceral fat areas (SFA) and then extracted 7 adiposity-related quantitative features. Three multivariate data analysis models (linear regression, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression) were performed respectively to investigate the potential association between the model-generated prediction results and the patients' progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The results show that using all 3 statistical models, a statistically significant association was detected between the model-generated results and both of the two clinical outcomes in the group of patients receiving maintenance bevacizumab (p<0.01), while there were no significant association for both PFS and OS in the group of patients without receiving maintenance bevacizumab. Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using quantitative adiposity-related CT image features based statistical prediction models to generate a new clinical marker and predict the clinical outcome of EOC patients receiving maintenance bevacizumab-based chemotherapy.

  11. Potential Biomarkers of Fat Loss as a Feature of Cancer Cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C

    2015-01-01

    Fat loss is associated with shorter survival and reduced quality of life in cancer patients. Effective intervention for fat loss in cachexia requires identification of the condition using prognostic biomarkers for early detection and prevention of further depletion. No biomarkers of fat mass alterations have been defined for application to the neoplastic state. Several inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mediating fat loss associated with cachexia; however, plasma levels may not relate to adipose atrophy. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be a local catabolic mediator within adipose tissue rather than serving as a plasma biomarker of fat loss. Plasma glycerol and leptin associate with adipose tissue atrophy and mass, respectively; however, no study has evaluated their potential as a prognostic biomarker of cachexia-associated fat loss. This review confirms the need for further studies to identify valid prognostic biomarkers to identify loss of fat based on changes in plasma levels of biomarkers.

  12. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Arreguin Camacho, Lucrecia O

    2015-01-01

    -kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western...... blotting. RESULTS: HCC cell lines exposed to curcumin exhibited differential responses to curcumin and were classified as sensitive and resistant. In sensitive lines, curcumin-mediated induction of cell death was directly related to the extent of NF-kB inhibition. The treatment also led to a selective CSC......-depletion as evidenced by a reduced SP size, decreased sphere formation, down-regulation of CSC markers and suppressed tumorigenicity. Similarly, NF-kB inhibition by SN50 and siRNA against p65 suppressed tumor cell growth. In contrast, curcumin-resistant cells displayed a paradoxical increase in proliferation...

  13. Potential Biomarkers of Fat Loss as a Feature of Cancer Cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ebadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat loss is associated with shorter survival and reduced quality of life in cancer patients. Effective intervention for fat loss in cachexia requires identification of the condition using prognostic biomarkers for early detection and prevention of further depletion. No biomarkers of fat mass alterations have been defined for application to the neoplastic state. Several inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mediating fat loss associated with cachexia; however, plasma levels may not relate to adipose atrophy. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be a local catabolic mediator within adipose tissue rather than serving as a plasma biomarker of fat loss. Plasma glycerol and leptin associate with adipose tissue atrophy and mass, respectively; however, no study has evaluated their potential as a prognostic biomarker of cachexia-associated fat loss. This review confirms the need for further studies to identify valid prognostic biomarkers to identify loss of fat based on changes in plasma levels of biomarkers.

  14. Detection of metabolic syndrome features among childhood cancer survivors: A target to prevent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon1, Angela Maria Spinola-Castro1, Gil Guerra-Junior21Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo – UNIFESP/EPM, Brazil; 2Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, State University of Campinas – FCM/UNICAMP, BrazilAbstract: Along with the growing epidemic of obesity, the risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease morbidity, and mortality are increasing markedly. Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia commonly cluster together as a condition currently known as metabolic syndrome. Thus far, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction are the primary events of the metabolic syndrome. Several groups have recommended clinical criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonetheless, in what concerns children and adolescents, there are no unified definitions, and modified adult criteria have been suggested by many authors, despite major problems. Some pediatric disease states are at risk for premature cardiovascular disease, with clinical coronary events occurring very early in adult life. Survivors of specific pediatric cancer groups, particularly acute lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, testicular cancer, and following bone marrow transplantation, may develop metabolic syndrome traits due to: hormonal deficiencies (growth hormone deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, and gonadal failure, drug or radiotherapy damage, endothelial impairment, physical inactivity, adipose tissue dysfunction, and/or drug-induced magnesium deficiency. In conclusion, some primary and secondary prevention remarks are proposed in order to reduce premature cardiovascular disease risk in this particular group of patients.Keywords: metabolic syndrome X, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, obesity, growth hormone

  15. Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis of Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma: Experience of a Major Chinese Cancer Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqian Zhang

    Full Text Available Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC is a rare heterogeneous group of primary breast malignancies, with low hormone receptor expression and poor outcomes. To date, no prognostic markers for this tumor have been validated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics, the response to various therapeutic regimens and the prognosis of MBCs in a large cohort of patients from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital in China. Ninety cases of MBCs diagnosed in our hospital between January 2000 and September 2014 were retrieved from the archives. In general, MBCs presented with larger size, a lower rate of lymph node metastasis, and demonstrated more frequent local recurrence/distant metastasis than 1,090 stage-matched cases of invasive carcinoma of no specific type (IDC-NST, independent of the status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expressions. The five-year disease-free survival (DFS of MBC was significantly worse than IDC-NST. Using univariate analysis, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage at diagnosis, high tumor proliferation rate assessed by Ki-67 labeling, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR overexpression/gene amplification were associated significantly with reduced DFS, while decreased OS was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis and EGFR overexpression/gene amplification. With multivariate analysis, lymph node status was an independent predictor for DFS, and lymph node status and EGFR overexpression/gene amplification were independent predictors for OS. Histologic subtyping and molecular subgrouping of MBCs were not significant factors in prognosis. We also found that MBCs were insensitive to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, routine chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. This study indicates that MBC is an aggressive type of breast cancer with poor prognosis, and that identification and optimization of an effective comprehensive

  16. Mammographic, sonographic and MR imaging features of invasive micropapillary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharif, Shaza; Daghistani, Razan; Kamberoğlu, Elif Aşik; Omeroglu, Atilla; Meterissian, Sarkis; Mesurolle, Benoît, E-mail: benoit.mesurolle@muhc.mcgill.ca

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Describe mammographic, sonographic and MRI findings of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast. Materials and methods: Review of the pathology database identified 43 patients (mean age, 59.3 years) with the diagnosis of breast IMPC. Three patients had no available imaging studies. Mammograms (40), breast ultrasounds (33) and MRIs (8) were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists in consensus following the BI-RADS Lexicon. Clinical, histopathologic features, as well as hormone status were recorded. Results: Twenty patients presented with palpable abnormality (20/40, 50%). Thirty-five patients had an abnormal mammogram (87.5%, 35/40) showing 39 lesions, 29 corresponding to masses (29/39, 74.4%), 11 associated with microcalcifications and two associated with architectural distortion. Sonography identified 41 masses (in 33 patients) displaying an irregular shape (30/41, 73.2%), appearing hypoechoic (39/41, 95%), with spiculated or angular margins (26/41, 63.4%), non-parallel orientation (26/41, 63.4%) and combined acoustic posterior pattern (18/41, 44%). MRI identified 13 lesions (in eight patients), 12 as masses (12/13, 92.3%) with irregular or spiculated margins (12/12, 100%), eight displaying an irregular or lobulated shape (8/12, 66.7%), six with homogeneous internal enhancement (6/12, 50%) and eight with type 3 enhancement curve (8/12, 61.5%). Associated non-mass like enhancement was noted in two patients. Twenty-nine patients had associated lymphovascular invasion (29/40, 72.5%) and axillary lymph node metastases were present in 22 of the 39 patients (22/39, 56%). Conclusion: Invasive ductal carcinoma with IMPC features display imaging findings highly suspicious of malignant lesions. They are associated with high lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases rates.

  17. Mammographic density and structural features can individually and jointly contribute to breast cancer risk assessment in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer. We investigated the association between three different methods of measuring density or parenchymal pattern/texture on digitized film-based mammograms, and examined to what extent textural features independently...... and jointly with density can improve the ability to identify screening women at increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: The study included 121 cases and 259 age- and time matched controls based on a cohort of 14,736 women with negative screening mammograms from a population-based screening programme...... individually able to segregate women into different risk groups showing significant ORs for BI-RADS D3 and D4 (OR: 2.37; 1.32-4.25 and 3.93; 1.88-8.20), Tabár's PIII and PIV (OR: 3.23; 1.20-8.75 and 4.40; 2.31-8.38), and the highest quartile of the texture score (3.04; 1.63-5.67). AUCs for BI-RADS, Tabár...

  18. Adverse Disease Features in Gleason Score 3 + 4 "Favorable Intermediate-Risk" Prostate Cancer: Implications for Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlacco, Alessandro; Cheville, John C; Rangel, Laureano J; Gearman, Derek J; Karnes, R Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    According to a recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines update, patients with Gleason score (GS) 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa) and "favorable intermediate-risk" (FIR) characteristics might be offered active surveillance (AS). However, the risk of unfavorable disease features and its prediction in this subset of patients is not completely understood. To identify the risk of unfavorable disease and potential predictors of adverse outcomes among GS 3 + 4 FIR PCa patients. The study included patients with biopsy GS 3 + 4 and otherwise fulfilling the NCCN low-risk definition (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] 50% (OR 1.57), percentage of surface area (OR: 1.02), and perineural invasion (OR: 1.89) were significant predictors of unfavorable disease at RP. The retrospective design is a limitation. AS is a possible option for a subset of men with FIR GS 3 + 4. However, clinical models alone have a limited role in GS upgrade prediction, and alternative tools warrant further investigation. Patients with Gleason score 3 + 4 at biopsy, low prostate-specific antigen, and low stage might consider the option of active surveillance, but the use of clinical information alone might be not adequate for thorough risk-adapted counseling. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer Eligible for Active Surveillance by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottavio de Cobelli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS score in predicting pathologic features in a cohort of patients eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy.A total of 223 patients who fulfilled the criteria for "Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance", were included. Mp-1.5 Tesla MRI examination staging with endorectal coil was performed at least 6-8 weeks after TRUS-guided biopsy. In all patients, the likelihood of the presence of cancer was assigned using PIRADS score between 1 and 5. Outcomes of interest were: Gleason score upgrading, extra capsular extension (ECE, unfavorable prognosis (occurrence of both upgrading and ECE, large tumor volume (≥ 0.5 ml, and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and Decision Curve Analyses (DCA were performed for models with and without inclusion of PIRADS score.Multivariate analysis demonstrated the association of PIRADS score with upgrading (P < 0.0001, ECE (P < 0.0001, unfavorable prognosis (P < 0.0001, and large tumor volume (P = 0.002. ROC curves and DCA showed that models including PIRADS score resulted in greater net benefit for almost all the outcomes of interest, with the only exception of SVI.mpMRI and PIRADS scoring are feasible tools in clinical setting and could be used as decision-support systems for a more accurate selection of patients eligible for AS.

  20. Normed kernel function-based fuzzy possibilistic C-means (NKFPCM) algorithm for high-dimensional breast cancer database classification with feature selection is based on Laplacian Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, A. W.; Rustam, Z.

    2017-07-01

    In the last decade, breast cancer has become the focus of world attention as this disease is one of the primary leading cause of death for women. Therefore, it is necessary to have the correct precautions and treatment. In previous studies, Fuzzy Kennel K-Medoid algorithm has been used for multi-class data. This paper proposes an algorithm to classify the high dimensional data of breast cancer using Fuzzy Possibilistic C-means (FPCM) and a new method based on clustering analysis using Normed Kernel Function-Based Fuzzy Possibilistic C-Means (NKFPCM). The objective of this paper is to obtain the best accuracy in classification of breast cancer data. In order to improve the accuracy of the two methods, the features candidates are evaluated using feature selection, where Laplacian Score is used. The results show the comparison accuracy and running time of FPCM and NKFPCM with and without feature selection.

  1. Microbiological and host features associated with corynebacteriosis in cancer patients: a five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAS Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During a five-year period, 932 clinical isolates from cancer patients treated in a Brazilian reference centre were identified as corynebacteria; 86% of the cultures came from patients who had been clinically and microbiologically classified as infected and 77.1% of these patients had been hospitalised (71.1% from surgical wards. The adult solid tumour was the most common underlying malignant disease (66.7%. The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that hospitalised patients had a six-fold greater risk (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.15-26.30 p = 0.033 related to 30-day mortality. The predominant species were Corynebacterium amycolatum (44.7%, Corynebacterium minutissimum (18.3% and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (8.5%. The upper urinary tracts, surgical wounds, lower respiratory tracts, ulcerated tumours and indwelling venous catheters were the most frequent sources of C. amycolatum strains. Corynebacterium jeikeium infection occurred primarily in neutropenic patients who have used venous catheters, while infection caused by C. amycolatum and other species emerged mainly in patients with solid tumours.

  2. Correlation between non-metastatic protein 23 expression and clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J W; Chu, X Q

    2015-12-02

    The current meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between non-metastatic protein 23 (NM23) expression, tumor pathology, and disease prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) among Asians. English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (e.g., PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Springerlink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang databases, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP databases) were searched using search terms to identify published studies relevant to NM23 and CRC with immunohistochemistry. In total, 289 studies were identified through database searches, and 16 cohort studies (4 studies in English, 12 in Chinese) were chosen for meta-analysis, which included 1592 CRC patients. The results revealed that NM23 protein expression in CRC tissue was higher in patients with Dukes stages A and B than in patients with Dukes stages C and D. The NM23 protein was expressed at higher levels in well- and moderately differentiated tumors than in poorly differentiated tumors. The 5-year survival rate was also higher in CRC patients with NM23-positive tumors than in CRC patients with NM23-negative tumors. Significantly, 5-year tumor relapse and metastasis were lower in patients with NM23-positive tumors than in CRC patients with NM23-negative tumors. The findings suggest that NM23 expression status is associated with tumor aggressiveness and survival in CRC among Asians. Importantly, CRC patients with NM23-positive tumors had a better prognosis, and thus NM23 expression maybe used as a key prognostic indicator for CRC.

  3. Mammographic features of screening detected pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancer using BI-RADS lexicon

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    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane, E-mail: gsanta@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Velasco, Martín, E-mail: mvelasco@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Amo, Montse del, E-mail: mdelamo@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Arguis, Pedro, E-mail: parguis@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta, E-mail: mburrel@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Capurro, Sebastian, E-mail: scapurro@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Aim: To describe mammographic features in screening detected invasive breast cancer less than or equal to 10 mm using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon in full-field digital mammography. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 123 pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancers in women aged 50–69 years from our screening program. Radiologic patterns were: masses, calcifications, distortions, asymmetries and mixed. Masses: shape, margins and density, and calcifications: morphology, number of flecks and size of the cluster were taken into account, following Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology. Results: We found 61 masses (49.6%), 8 masses with calcifications (6.5%), 30 groups of calcifications (24.4%), 19 architectural distortions (15.4%), 1 architectural distortion with calcifications (0.8%), 4 asymmetries (3.2%). Sixty out of 69 masses were irregular in shape, 6 lobular, 2 ovals and 1 round. Thirty-four showed ill-defined margins, 29 spiculated and 6 microlobulated. Most of them showed a density similar to surrounding fibroglandular tissue. Calcifications were pleomorphic or fine linear in 24 of 30 (80%). Most of cases showed more than 10 flecks and a size greater than 1 cm. Conclusion: The predominant radiologic finding is an irregular, isodense mass those margins tend to share different descriptors, being ill-defined margins the most constant finding. Calcifications representing invasive cancer are predominantly pleomorphic with more than 10 flecks per cm. Architectural distortion and invasive tubular carcinoma are more common than reported in general series.

  4. Pathological features of lymph node metastasis for predicting biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sigrid V; Tafe, Laura J; Chade, Daher C; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Passoni, Niccolo; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Eastham, James; Scardino, Peter T; Fine, Samson W; Touijer, Karim A

    2013-04-01

    Subclassification of nodal stage may have prognostic value in men with lymph node metastasis at radical prostatectomy. We explored the role of extranodal extension, size of the largest metastatic lymph node and the largest metastasis, and lymph node density as predictors of biochemical recurrence. We reviewed pathological material from 261 patients with node positive prostate cancer. We examined the predictive value when adding the additional pathology findings to a base model including extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, radical prostatectomy Gleason score, prostate specific antigen and number of positive lymph nodes using the Cox proportional hazards regression and Harrell concordance index. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 14 (IQR 9, 20) and the median number of positive lymph nodes was 1 (IQR 1, 2). At a median followup of 4.6 years (IQR 3.2, 6.0) 155 of 261 patients experienced biochemical recurrence. The mean 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was 39% (95% CI 33-46). Median diameter of the largest metastatic lymph node was 9 mm (IQR 5, 16). On Cox regression radical prostatectomy specimen Gleason score (greater than 7 vs 7 or less), number of positive lymph nodes (3 or greater vs 1 or 2), seminal vesicle invasion and prostate specific antigen were associated with significantly increased risks of biochemical recurrence. On subset analysis metastasis size significantly improved model discrimination (base model Harrell concordance index 0.700 vs 0.655, p = 0.032). Our study confirms that the number of positive lymph nodes is a predictor of biochemical recurrence in men with node positive disease. The improvement in prognostic value of measuring the metastatic focus warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Specific features of current intraperitoneal therapy in patients with ovarian cancer

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    A. G. Kedrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today there are 3 trends in favor of intraperitoneal (IP chemotherapy: maintenance of its potential 5- and 10-year survival benefit in patients with ovarian cancer (OC; advantages of the IP administration of drugs even after nonoptimal surgery; enhancement of the efficiency of chemotherapy irrespective of the number of IP treatment cycles. There is also an expanded list of possible IP medicines and incorporation of novel targeted drugs into treatment regimens. However, the long-expected data of the most recent randomized trial GOG 0252 have proven deplorable and led to the activation of discussions on the role of IP therapy.Objective: to generalize the experience of 4 oncology departments with IP therapy in patients with disseminated OC and to compare the findings with those obtained by the world’s leading medical centers.Materials and methods. The retrospective analysis included 76 patients with Stage IIIC OC who had received IP chemotherapy in accordance with 3 regimens. For standardization of IP treatment procedures, the investigators assessed the following indicators: age; tumor morphological type; surgical radicality; catheter model and port placement procedure; drug administration route; number of treatment cycles; efficiency of therapy from expert ultrasonographic findings and CA-124, HE4, CA-19.9 marker levels, time to disease progression. The analysis also involved adverse manifestations, methods of their correction and the reasons for early treatment discontinuation were separately reported. The obtained data were processed using standard statistical programs.Results. 55 of the 76 patients could complete more than 4 IP therapy cycles. Among them, only 4 patients were observed to have disease progression at follow-ups lasting over 24 months.Conclusion. Current IP therapy is a safe and convenient drug treatment in patients with OC after optimal cytoreductive surgery. The mastery and standardization of the

  6. Quantitative profiling of colorectal cancer-associated bacteria reveals associations between fusobacterium spp., enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF and clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie S Viljoen

    Full Text Available Various studies have presented clinical or in vitro evidence linking bacteria to colorectal cancer, but these bacteria have not previously been concurrently quantified by qPCR in a single cohort. We quantify these bacteria (Fusobacterium spp., Streptococcus gallolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF, Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, and afaC- or pks-positive E. coli in paired tumour and normal tissue samples from 55 colorectal cancer patients. We further investigate the relationship between a the presence and b the level of colonisation of each bacterial species with site and stage of disease, age, gender, ethnicity and MSI-status. With the exception of S. gallolyticus, we detected all bacteria profiled here in both tumour and normal samples at varying frequencies. ETBF (FDR = 0.001 and 0.002 for normal and tumour samples and afaC-positive E. coli (FDR = 0.03, normal samples were significantly enriched in the colon compared to the rectum. ETBF (FDR = 0.04 and 0.002 for normal and tumour samples, respectively and Fusobacterium spp. (FDR = 0.03 tumour samples levels were significantly higher in late stage (III/IV colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium was by far the most common bacteria detected, occurring in 82% and 81% of paired tumour and normal samples. Fusobacterium was also the only bacterium that was significantly higher in tumour compared to normal samples (p = 6e-5. We also identified significant associations between high-level colonisation by Fusobacterium and MSI-H (FDR = 0.05, age (FDR = 0.03 or pks-positive E. coli (FDR = 0.01. Furthermore, we exclusively identified atypical EPEC in our cohort, which has not been previously reported in association with colorectal cancer. By quantifying colorectal cancer-associated bacteria across a single cohort, we uncovered inter- and intra-individual patterns of colonization not previously recognized, as well as important associations with clinicopathological

  7. Computer-based image studies on tumor nests mathematical features of breast cancer and their clinical prognostic value.

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    Lin-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The expending and invasive features of tumor nests could reflect the malignant biological behaviors of breast invasive ductal carcinoma. Useful information on cancer invasiveness hidden within tumor nests could be extracted and analyzed by computer image processing and big data analysis. METHODS: Tissue microarrays from invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 202 were first stained with cytokeratin by immunohistochemical method to clearly demarcate the tumor nests. Then an expert-aided computer analysis system was developed to study the mathematical and geometrical features of the tumor nests. Computer recognition system and imaging analysis software extracted tumor nests information, and mathematical features of tumor nests were calculated. The relationship between tumor nests mathematical parameters and patients' 5-year disease free survival was studied. RESULTS: There were 8 mathematical parameters extracted by expert-aided computer analysis system. Three mathematical parameters (number, circularity and total perimeter with area under curve >0.5 and 4 mathematical parameters (average area, average perimeter, total area/total perimeter, average (area/perimeter with area under curve <0.5 in ROC analysis were combined into integrated parameter 1 and integrated parameter 2, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that integrated parameter 1 (P = 0.040 was independent prognostic factor of patients' 5-year disease free survival. The hazard risk ratio of integrated parameter 1 was 1.454 (HR 95% CI [1.017-2.078], higher than that of N stage (HR 1.396, 95% CI [1.125-1.733] and hormone receptor status (HR 0.575, 95% CI [0.353-0.936], but lower than that of histological grading (HR 3.370, 95% CI [1.125-5.364] and T stage (HR 1.610, 95% CI [1.026 -2.527]. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated integrated parameter 1 of mathematical features (number, circularity and total perimeter of tumor nests could be a useful parameter to predict the

  8. Staging of cervical cancer based on tumor heterogeneity characterized by texture features on 18F-FDG PET images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wei; Chen, Zhe; Liang, Ying; Shen, Wei; Yang, Feng; Dai, Ruwei; Wu, Ning; Tian, Jie

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the staging value of the tumor heterogeneity characterized by texture features and other commonly used semi-quantitative indices extracted from 18F-FDG PET images of cervical cancer (CC) patients. Forty-two patients suffering CC at different stages were enrolled in this study. Firstly, we proposed a new tumor segmentation method by combining the intensity and gradient field information in a level set framework. Secondly, fifty-four 3D texture features were studied besides of SUVs (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV). Through correlation analysis, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves analysis, some independent indices showed statistically significant differences between the early stage (ES, stages I and II) and the advanced stage (AS, stages III and IV). Then the tumors represented by those independent indices could be automatically classified into ES and AS, and the most discriminative feature could be chosen. Finally, the robustness of the optimal index with respect to sampling schemes and the quality of the PET images were validated. Using the proposed segmentation method, the dice similarity coefficient and Hausdorff distance were 91.78   ±   1.66% and 7.94   ±   1.99 mm, respectively. According to the correlation analysis, all the fifty-eight indices could be divided into 20 groups. Six independent indices were selected for their highest areas under the ROC curves (AUROC), and showed significant differences between ES and AS (P  <  0.05). Through automatic classification with the support vector machine (SVM) Classifier, run percentage (RP) was the most discriminative index with the higher accuracy (88.10%) and larger AUROC (0.88). The Pearson correlation of RP under different sampling schemes is 0.9991   ±   0.0011. RP is a highly stable feature and well correlated with tumor stage in CC, which suggests it could differentiate ES and AS with high

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming

    2017-12-16

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  10. SU-E-J-243: Reproducibility of Radiomics Features Through Different Voxel Discretization Levels in F18-FDG PET Images of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altazi, B; Fernandez, D; Zhang, G; Biagioli, M; Moros, E; Moffitt, H. Lee [Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Site-specific investigations of the role of Radiomics in cancer diagnosis and therapy are needed. We report of the reproducibility of quantitative image features over different discrete voxel levels in PET/CT images of cervical cancer. Methods: Our dataset consisted of the pretreatment PET/CT scans from a cohort of 76 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IVA, age range 31–76 years, treated with external beam radiation therapy to a dose range between 45–50.4 Gy (median dose: 45 Gy), concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and MRI-based Brachytherapy to a dose of 20–30 Gy (median total dose: 28 Gy). Two board certified radiation oncologists delineated Metabolic Tumor volume (MTV) for each patient. Radiomics features were extracted based on 32, 64, 128 and 256 discretization levels (DL). The 64 level was chosen to be the reference DL. Features were calculated based on Co-occurrence (COM), Gray Level Size Zone (GLSZM) and Run-Length (RLM) matrices. Mean Percentage Differences (Δ) of features for discrete levels were determined. Normality distribution of Δ was tested using Kolomogorov - Smirnov test. Bland-Altman test was used to investigate differences between feature values measured on different DL. The mean, standard deviation and upper/lower value limits for each pair of DL were calculated. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) analysis was performed to examine the reliability of repeated measures within the context of the test re-test format. Results: 3 global and 5 regional features out of 48 features showed distribution not significantly different from a normal one. The reproducible features passed the normality test. Only 5 reproducible results were reliable, ICC range 0.7 – 0.99. Conclusion: Most of the radiomics features tested showed sensitivity to voxel level discretization between (32 – 256). Only 4 GLSZM, 3 COM and 1 RLM showed insensitivity towards mentioned discrete levels.

  11. Testing Map Features Designed to Convey the Uncertainty of Cancer Risk: Insights Gained From Assessing Judgments of Information Adequacy and Communication Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dolores J

    2015-02-01

    Barriers to communicating the uncertainty of environmental health risks include preferences for certain information and low numeracy. Map features designed to communicate the magnitude and uncertainty of estimated cancer risk from air pollution were tested among 826 participants to assess how map features influenced judgments of adequacy and the intended communication goals. An uncertain versus certain visual feature was judged as less adequate but met both communication goals and addressed numeracy barriers. Expressing relative risk using words communicated uncertainty and addressed numeracy barriers but was judged as highly inadequate. Risk communication and visual cognition concepts were applied to explain findings.

  12. A high degree of LINE-1 hypomethylation is a unique feature of early-onset colorectal cancer.

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    Marina Antelo

    Full Text Available Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC represents a clinically distinct form of CRC that is often associated with a poor prognosis. Methylation levels of genomic repeats such as LINE-1 elements have been recognized as independent factors for increased cancer-related mortality. The methylation status of LINE-1 elements in early-onset CRC has not been analyzed previously.We analyzed 343 CRC tissues and 32 normal colonic mucosa samples, including 2 independent cohorts of CRC diagnosed ≤ 50 years old (n=188, a group of sporadic CRC >50 years (MSS n=89; MSI n=46, and a group of Lynch syndrome CRCs (n=20. Tumor mismatch repair protein expression, microsatellite instability status, LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation, somatic BRAF V600E mutation, and germline MUTYH mutations were evaluated.Mean LINE-1 methylation levels (± SD in the five study groups were early-onset CRC, 56.6% (8.6; sporadic MSI, 67.1% (5.5; sporadic MSS, 65.1% (6.3; Lynch syndrome, 66.3% (4.5 and normal mucosa, 76.5% (1.5. Early-onset CRC had significantly lower LINE-1 methylation than any other group (p<0.0001. Compared to patients with <65% LINE-1 methylation in tumors, those with ≥ 65% LINE-1 methylation had significantly better overall survival (p=0.026, log rank test.LINE-1 hypomethylation constitutes a potentially important feature of early-onset CRC, and suggests a distinct molecular subtype. Further studies are needed to assess the potential of LINE-1 methylation status as a prognostic biomarker for young people with CRC.

  13. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF MITOTIC FIGURES IN BREAST CANCER HISTOPATHOLOGY IMAGES USING GABOR FEATURES AND DEEP NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqlin Paramanandam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The count of mitotic figures in Breast cancer histopathology slides is the most significant independent prognostic factor enabling determination of the proliferative activity of the tumor. In spite of the strict protocols followed, the mitotic counting activity suffers from subjectivity and considerable amount of observer variability despite being a laborious task. Interest in automated detection of mitotic figures has been rekindled with the advent of Whole Slide Scanners. Subsequently mitotic detection grand challenge contests have been held in recent years and several research methodologies developed by their participants. This paper proposes an efficient mitotic detection methodology for Hematoxylin and Eosin stained Breast cancer Histopathology Images using Gabor features and a Deep Belief Network- Deep Neural Network architecture (DBN-DNN. The proposed method has been evaluated on breast histopathology images from the publicly available dataset from MITOS contest held at the ICPR 2012 conference. It contains 226 mitoses annotated on 35 HPFs by several pathologists and 15 testing HPFs, yielding an F-measure of 0.74. In addition the said methodology was also tested on 3 slides from the MITOSIS- ATYPIA grand challenge held at the ICPR 2014 conference, an extension of MITOS containing 749 mitoses annotated on 1200 HPFs, by pathologists worldwide. This study has employed 3 slides (294 HPFs from the MITOS-ATYPIA training dataset in its evaluation and the results showed F-measures 0.65, 0.72and 0.74 for each slide. The proposed method is fast and computationally simple yet its accuracy and specificity is comparable to the best winning methods of the aforementioned grand challenges

  14. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer Bone Disease: Correlation With Bone Biopsy Histological and Molecular Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Raquel; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Figueiredo, Ines; Mateo, Joaquin; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; de Bono, Johann S; Tunariu, Nina

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) bone metastases with histological and molecular features of bone metastases. Forty-three bone marrow biopsies from 33 metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients with multiparametric MRI and documented bone metastases were evaluated. A second cohort included 10 CRPC patients with no bone metastases. Associations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), normalized b900 diffusion-weighted imaging (nDWI) signal, and signal-weighted fat fraction (swFF) with bone marrow biopsy histological parameters were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were analyzed. Median ADC and nDWI signal was significantly higher, and median swFF was significantly lower, in bone metastases than nonmetastatic bone (P < 0.001). In the metastatic cohort, 31 (72.1%) of 43 biopsies had detectable cancer cells. Median ADC and swFF were significantly lower and median nDWI signal was significantly higher in biopsies with tumor cells versus nondetectable tumor cells (898 × 10 mm/s vs 1617 × 10 mm/s; 11.5% vs 62%; 5.3 vs 2.3, respectively; P < 0.001). Tumor cellularity inversely correlated with ADC and swFF, and positively correlated with nDWI signal (P < 0.001). In serial biopsies, taken before and after treatment, changes in multiparametric MRI parameters paralleled histological changes. Multiparametric MRI provides valuable information about mCRPC bone metastases. These data further clinically qualify DWI as a response biomarker in mCRPC.

  15. Imaging and clinicopathological features of nivolumab-related cholangitis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hisato; Tanizaki, Junko; Tanaka, Kaoru; Haratani, Koji; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Takeda, Masayuki; Kamata, Ken; Takenaka, Mamoru; Kimura, Masatomo; Chikugo, Takaaki; Sato, Takao; Kudo, Masatoshi; Ito, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Background Nivolumab demonstrates promising efficacy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and other malignancies. The clinical benefit of nivolumab, however, may be hampered by specific immune-related adverse events (irAEs), and little is known regarding nivolumab-related cholangitis. Methods A computerized search of our clinical database identified 3 metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients with nivolumab-related cholangitis. All patients were treated with intravenous nivolumab monotherapy (3.0 mg/kg) every 2 weeks until disease progression or irAEs occurred. Clinical data regarding the duration of nivolumab treatment, symptoms, laboratory abnormalities, pathological findings of liver parenchyma biopsy specimens, and management of nivolumab-related cholangitis were analyzed. Results Our analysis revealed that nivolumab-related cholangitis was characterized by (1) localized extrahepatic bile duct dilation without obstruction; (2) diffuse hypertrophy of the extrahepatic bile duct wall; (3) a dominant increase in the biliary tract enzymes alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase relative to the hepatic enzymes aspartate and alanine aminotransferase; (4) normal or reduced levels of the serum immunological markers antinuclear antibody, antimitochondrial antibody, smooth muscle antibody, and immunoglobulin G4; (5) the pathological finding of biliary tract cluster of differentiation 8-positive T cell infiltration from liver biopsy; and (6) a moderate to poor response to steroid therapy. Conclusions Nivolumab-related cholangitis is associated with distinct imaging and clinicopathological features that distinguish it from acute cholangitis of common etiologies and other immune-related cholangitis. Further studies are warranted to establish the optimal management of patients with this irAE.

  16. Clinicopathologic features and outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinomas harboring BRAF mutations in the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaruz, Liza C; Socinski, Mark A; Abberbock, Shira; Berry, Lynne D; Johnson, Bruce E; Kwiatkowski, David J; Iafrate, A John; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Franklin, Wilbur A; Camidge, D Ross; Sequist, Lecia V; Haura, Eric B; Ladanyi, Mark; Kurland, Brenda F; Kugler, Kelly; Minna, John D; Bunn, Paul A; Kris, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    The advent of effective targeted therapy for BRAF(V600E) -mutant lung adenocarcinomas necessitates further exploration of the unique clinical features and behavior of advanced-stage BRAF-mutant lung adenocarcinomas. Data were reviewed for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas enrolled in the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium whose tumors underwent testing for mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), AKT1, BRAF, dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA); for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations; and for MET amplification. Twenty-one BRAF mutations were identified in 951 patients with adenocarcinomas (2.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4%-3.4%): 17 (81%; 95% CI, 60%-92%) were BRAF(V600E) mutations, and 4 were non-BRAF(V600E) mutations. Among the 733 cases tested for all 10 genes, BRAF mutations were more likely to occur than most other genotypic abnormalities in current or former smokers (BRAF vs sensitizing EGFR, 82% vs 36%, mid-P mutations, 49%, mid-P = .02; BRAF vs patients with more than 1 oncogenic driver [doubleton], 46%, mid-P = .04.) The double-mutation rate was 16% among patients with BRAF mutations but 5% among patients with other genomic abnormalities (mid-P = .045). Differences were not found in survival between patients with BRAF mutations and those with other genomic abnormalities (P > .20). BRAF mutations occurred in 2.2% of advanced-stage lung adenocarcinomas, were most commonly V600E, and were associated with distinct clinicopathologic features in comparison with other genomic subtypes and with a high mutation rate in more than 1 gene. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive genomic profiling in assessing patients with

  17. Feasibility of feature-based indexing, clustering, and search of clinical trials. A case study of breast cancer trials from ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M R; Miotto, R; Gao, J; Weng, C

    2013-01-01

    When standard therapies fail, clinical trials provide experimental treatment opportunities for patients with drug-resistant illnesses or terminal diseases. Clinical Trials can also provide free treatment and education for individuals who otherwise may not have access to such care. To find relevant clinical trials, patients often search online; however, they often encounter a significant barrier due to the large number of trials and in-effective indexing methods for reducing the trial search space. This study explores the feasibility of feature-based indexing, clustering, and search of clinical trials and informs designs to automate these processes. We decomposed 80 randomly selected stage III breast cancer clinical trials into a vector of eligibility features, which were organized into a hierarchy. We clustered trials based on their eligibility feature similarities. In a simulated search process, manually selected features were used to generate specific eligibility questions to filter trials iteratively. We extracted 1,437 distinct eligibility features and achieved an inter-rater agreement of 0.73 for feature extraction for 37 frequent features occurring in more than 20 trials. Using all the 1,437 features we stratified the 80 trials into six clusters containing trials recruiting similar patients by patient-characteristic features, five clusters by disease-characteristic features, and two clusters by mixed features. Most of the features were mapped to one or more Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, demonstrating the utility of named entity recognition prior to mapping with the UMLS for automatic feature extraction. It is feasible to develop feature-based indexing and clustering methods for clinical trials to identify trials with similar target populations and to improve trial search efficiency.

  18. Can non-malignant biopsy features identify men at increased risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer at re-screening after 4 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Tineke; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; van der Kwast, Theodorus H.; Roemeling, Stijn; van der Cruijsen-Koeter, Ingrid W.; Bangma, Chris H.; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.

    OBJECTIVES To identify pathological features in non-malignant sextant prostate needle biopsies and assess their predictive value for detecting prostate cancer on biopsy 4 years later. PATIENTS AND METHODS We selected and reviewed the biopsy specimens of 121 men that were diagnosed as non-malignant

  19. Radiological imaging features and clinicopathological correlation of hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor: experience in a single tertiary cancer center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Driscoll, Dearbhail; Athanasian, Edward; Hameed, Meera; Hwang, Sinchun [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the imaging features of hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT), which has a propensity towards local recurrence and the potential to transform into myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS). The study included 8 patients with a diagnosis of HFLT and imaging at a tertiary cancer center. Imaging studies included radiographs (n = 2), ultrasound (n = 3), and MRI (n = 16). Imaging features were evaluated including location, calcification, sonographic echogenicity, vascular flow, size, border, signal characteristics, contrast enhancement, and blooming on MRI. The HFLT was located in the ankle/foot in 4 out of 8 and was subcutaneous in 8 out of 8, ranging in size from 2 to 18 cm. Histology at initial diagnosis was HFLT in 5 out of 8 and HFLT with MIFS in 3 out of 8. None was calcified on radiography. On ultrasound 2 out of 3 were heterogeneously echogenic with ≥10 foci of vascular flow. Two out of 8 patients had MRI only at local recurrence. The tumor border was infiltrative in 4 out of 6 at initial diagnosis and in 2 patients with MRI at recurrence only. Fat and septae were present in 7 out of 8 at initial diagnosis and at recurrence. Signal intensity was iso-/hypointense to muscle on T1-weighted sequences in more than two thirds of the tumor in 4 out of 7 and hyperintense to muscle in at least one third of the tumor on fluid-sensitive sequences in 6 out of 8. Contrast enhancement was heterogeneous in 7 out of 7; blooming in two thirds of the tumor on gradient-echo sequence MRI indicated hemorrhage. The HFLT commonly presents as a mass with an infiltrative border, interspersed fat and septations at initial diagnosis and local recurrence on MRI regardless of histology of HFLT alone or with MIFS. Hemosiderin deposits may be detected as blooming on gradient-echo sequences. (orig.)

  20. High levels of EGFR expression in tumor stroma are associated with aggressive clinical features in epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang K; Li D; Sun L

    2016-01-01

    Ke Wang, Dan Li, Lu Sun Department of Gynecologic Cancer, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressed in tumor stroma of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistological sta...

  1. Hereditary factors are unlikely behind unusual pattern of early - Onset colorectal cancer in Egyptians: A study of family history and pathology features in Egyptians with large bowel cancer (cross-sectional study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A; Jumuah, Wael A; Ebied, Essam F; Abd El Samee Atia, Karim Sabry; El Ghamrini, Yasser; Somaie, Dina A

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer in Egypt has a higher incidence in young patients compared to western countries, where the disease is more prevalent in the old age group. This difference has been attributed to higher incidence of hereditary cancers in young Egyptian patients. The aim of this study is to compare the family history criteria and pathology features of tumors in young (≤40 years) and old (>40 years) Egyptian patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. This is the analysis of our prospectively collected data on the pathology features of tumors in 313 consecutive patients (133 young, 180 old) with colorectal cancer presenting to the Department of Surgery within an eight-year period. A detailed family history was obtained from 258 patients (112 young, 146 old). 41 young and 48 old patients reported family history of cancer, the difference was not statistically significant. Ten young patients (9%) reported a family history of colorectal cancer in a first degree relative (3 fitting into Amsterdam criteria, 7 fitting into less strict criteria) which was not significantly different from the old age group. The pathologic features of tumors in both groups resembled sporadic rather than hereditary cancer and there was no significant difference between groups in tumor location, degree of differentiation, mucin production, synchronous and metachronous colorectal tumors or polyps and grossly stricturing or ulcerating tumors. Extracolonic tumors developed in one young and two old patients. The characteristics of large bowel cancer in young Egyptian patients do not differ significantly from those in older patients. Despite the high incidence of large bowel cancer in young Egyptian patients, family history and pathologic features of tumors do not support a hereditary origin of colorectal cancer in this age group in Egypt. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Features of endometrial cancer in patients with 'metabolically healthy' versus 'standard' obesity: the decreasing frequency of metabolically healthy obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M; Poroshina, Tatyana E; Turkevich, Elena A; Vasilyev, Dmitry A; Baltrukova, Alexandra N; Kovalenko, Irina M; Berlev, Igor V

    2015-11-01

    As endometrial cancer (EC) prevalence increases with obesity, we aimed to determine whether EC characteristics depend upon obesity type: 'standard' (SO) or 'metabolically healthy obesity' (MHO). 258 EC patients were included. Data on anthropometry, blood hormones, lipids and glucose, and tumor features were collected. EC clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical stage correlate differently with BMI and obesity type. BMI is related inversely with tumor grade while SO patients are characterized by a more advanced clinical stage than those with MHO. Besides typical insulin resistance signs, EC patients with SO often display a higher serum leptin/adiponectin ratio compared with MHO patients. Historical data suggest a gradual increase in EC patient height and weight, and a decrease in MHO prevalence. It is currently unknown whether the latter observation reflects the evolution of EC, or obesity alongside the current epidemic. Regardless, the reduced MHO prevalence demonstrates the need for more intensive preventive measures aimed at obesity and obesity-associated conditions, including different EC subtypes.

  3. Update on Head and Neck Cancer: Current Knowledge on Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Molecular Features and Novel Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzuto, Francesca; Buonaguro, Luigi; Caponigro, Francesco; Ionna, Franco; Starita, Noemy; Annunziata, Clorinda; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are the main risk factors associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development due to their cytotoxic and mutagenic effects on the exposed epithelia of the upper aerodigestive tract. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), both encoding viral oncoproteins able to interfere with cell cycle control, have been recognized as the etiological agents of nasopharynx carcinoma and a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma, respectively. Head and neck SCC is a deadly disease and despite innovative treatments represents a major challenge for patients. Recently, a number of genomic studies have highlighted the molecular heterogeneity of head and neck SCC based on methylation profiles, microRNA expression, mutated genes and new druggable pathways which may represent new targets for cancer-tailored therapies. To date, cetuximab is the only FDA-approved anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy for the treatment of head and neck SCC. In addition, a number of monoclonal antibodies targeting AKT, mTOR and PI3K pathways are under evaluation. Several therapeutic vaccines against HPV16 and EBV proteins are also under study. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular features of head and neck SCC, with an emphasis on new therapies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Correlation analysis between expression of PCNA, Ki-67 and COX-2 and X-ray features in mammography in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoming; Mei, Jixin; Yin, Jianjun; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jinqi; Xie, Ming

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), proliferation-associated nuclear antigen (Ki-67) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in tissues of breast invasive ductal carcinoma, and analyzed the correlations between these indexes and X-ray features in mammography. A total of 90 patients who were admitted to Huangshi Central Hospital and diagnosed as breast invasive ductal carcinoma from January 2014 to January 2016 were selected. The expression of PCNA, Ki-67 and COX-2 in cancer tissues and cancer-adjacent normal tissues of patients were detected by immunohistochemical staining, and X-ray features in mammography of patients were observed. By using Spearman correlation analysis, the correlations between expression of PCNA, Ki-67 and COX-2 and X-ray features in mammography in breast cancer were investigated. As a result, the positive expression rates of PCNA, Ki-67 and COX-2 in cancer tissues of the patient groups were respectively 42.2, 45.6 and 51.1%, which were significantly higher than those in cancer-adjacent normal tissues of the control group (pcorrelation with age and tumor size (p>0.05). PCNA, Ki-67 and COX-2 expression in cancer tissues of the patient group had no correlation with the existence of lumps and localized density-increased shadows (p>0.05), but were associated with manifestations of architectural distortion, calcification as well as skin and nipple depression (pcorrelation analysis revealed that there was a significantly positive correlation between the expression of PCNA and COX-2 in cancer tissues of the patient group (r=0.676, pcorrelation between the expression of Ki-67 and COX-2 (r=0.724, pcorrelation with the expression of Ki-67 (p>0.05). In conclusion, PCNA, Ki-67 and COX-2 expression is of great significance in the occurrence, invasion and metastasis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma. There is a strong correlation between PCNA, Ki-67 and COX-2 expression levels and X-ray features in mammography in breast

  5. SU-E-J-258: Prediction of Cervical Cancer Treatment Response Using Radiomics Features Based On F18-FDG Uptake in PET Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altazi, B; Fernandez, D; Zhang, G; Biagioli, M; Moros, E; Moffitt, H. Lee [Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiomics have shown potential for predicting treatment outcomes in several body sites. This study investigated the correlation between PET Radiomics features and treatment response of cervical cancer outcomes. Methods: our dataset consisted of a cohort of 79 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IVA, age range 25–86 years, (median age at diagnosis: 50 years) all treated between: 2009–14 with external beam radiation therapy to a dose range between: 45–50.4 Gy (median= 45 Gy), concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and MRI-based brachytherapy to a dose of 20–30 Gy (median= 28 Gy). Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV) in patient’s primary site was delineated on pretreatment PET/CT by two board certified Radiation Oncologists. The features extracted from each patient’s volume were: 26 Co-occurrence matrix (COM) Feature, 11 Run-Length Matrix (RLM), 11 Gray Level Size Zone Matrix (GLSZM) and 33 Intensity-based features (IBF). The treatment outcome was divided based on the last follow up status into three classes: No Evidence of Disease (NED), Alive with Disease (AWD) and Dead of Disease (DOD). The ability for the radiomics features to differentiate between the 3 treatments outcome categories were assessed by One-Way ANOVA test with p-value < 0.05 was to be statistically significant. The results from the analysis were compared with the ones obtained previously for standard Uptake Value (SUV). Results: Based on patients last clinical follow-up; 52 showed NED, 17 AWD and 10 DOD. Radiomics Features were able to classify the patients based on their treatment response. A parallel analysis was done for SUV measurements for comparison. Conclusion: Radiomics features were able to differentiate between the three different classes of treatment outcomes. However, most of the features were only able to differentiate between NED and DOD class. Also, The ability or radiomics features to differentiate types of response were more significant than SUV.

  6. Construction of a lncRNA-mediated feed-forward loop network reveals global topological features and prognostic motifs in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shangwei; Gao, Yue; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiang; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Jizhou; Guo, Maoni; Han, Dong; Li, Xia

    2016-07-19

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), transcription factors and microRNAs can form lncRNA-mediated feed-forward loops (L-FFLs), which are functional network motifs that regulate a wide range of biological processes, such as development and carcinogenesis. However, L-FFL network motifs have not been systematically identified, and their roles in human cancers are largely unknown. In this study, we computationally integrated data from multiple sources to construct a global L-FFL network for six types of human cancer and characterized the topological features of the network. Our approach revealed several dysregulated L-FFL motifs common across different cancers or specific to particular cancers. We also found that L-FFL motifs can take part in other types of regulatory networks, such as mRNA-mediated FFLs and ceRNA networks, and form the more complex networks in human cancers. In addition, survival analyses further indicated that L-FFL motifs could potentially serve as prognostic biomarkers. Collectively, this study elucidated the roles of L-FFL motifs in human cancers, which could be beneficial for understanding cancer pathogenesis and treatment.

  7. Technology of building an expert system based on a set of quantitative features of tumor cell nuclei for diagnosing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Vladimir

    2013-06-01

    The technology of building an expert system for diagnosing malignant nature of invasive tumors of the mammary gland based on a set of quantitative features of the cell nuclei has been developed. Its peculiarity was the presence of weighting coefficients in all the features. Quantitative features were obtained by transforming the initial morphometric data with the help of simple (evaluation of mean values and building of histograms) and complex (regression analysis) mathematical operations. The expert system consisted of one-dimensional X-matrix used for investigations and two-dimensional standard S-matrix. The X-matrix elements were assigned for filling with the quantitative features of the studied sample with a nonestablished diagnosis. The S-matrix elements contained threshold values of quantitative features from the system of diagnostic decision criteria for malignant forms of diseases and their weighting coefficients. Threshold values of nuclear features (larger or smaller) were determined taking into account the range of their values in the groups of malignant and benign pathology. Significance of quantitative features in diagnosing diseases has been assessed. The presence of weighting coefficients allowed diagnosing malignant and benign pathology in a quantitative form by the diagnostic index value. Diagnostic index was calculated by the sum of weighting coefficients of features of the studied sample, which fell within the range of system of the S-matrix diagnostic decision criteria. Clinical trials revealed high efficiency of the developed approach while diagnosis of breast cancer invasive forms at a preoperative stage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Risk factors and clinical features of delayed anastomotic fistula following sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shenghui; Chi, Pan; Lin, Huiming; Lu, Xingrong; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Weizhong; Xu, Zongbin; Sun, Yanwu; Ye, Daoxiong; Wang, Xiaojie

    2016-04-01

    To explore the risk factors and clinical features of delayed anastomotic fistula (DAF) following sphincter-preserving operation for rectal cancer. Clinical data of 1 594 patients with rectal cancer undergoing sphincter-preserving operation in our department from January 2008 to May 2015 based on the prospective database of Dpartment of Colorectal Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty patients(3.8%) developed anastomotic fistula. Forty-one patients (2.6%) developed early anastomotic fistula (EAF) within 30 days after surgery while 19(1.2%) were DAF that occurred beyond 30 days. Univariate analyses were performed to compare the clinical features between EAF and DAF group. DAF was diagnosed at a median time of 194(30-327) days after anastomosis. As compared to EAF group, DAF group had lower tumor site [(6.1±2.3) cm vs. (7.8±2.8) cm, P=0.023], lower anastomosis site [(3.6±1.8) cm vs. (4.8±1.6) cm, P=0.008], higher ratio of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (84.2% vs. 34.1%, P=0.000), and receiving preventive stoma (73.7% vs. 14.6%, P=0.000). According to ISREC grading system for anastomotic fistula, DAF patients were grade A and B, while EAF cases were grade B and C(P=0.000). During the first hospital stay for anastomosis, DAF group did not have abdominal pain, general malaise, drainage abnormalities, peritonitis but 8 cases(42.1%) had fever more than 38centi-degree. In EAF group, 29 patients(70.7%) had abdominal pain and general malaise, and 29(70.7%) had drainage abnormalities. General or circumscribed peritonitis were developed in 25(61.0%) EAF patients, and fever occurred in 39(95.1%) EAF cases. There were 13(68.4%) cases with sinus or fistula formation and 9(47.4%) with rectovaginal fistula in DAF group, in contrast to 5 (12.2%) and 5 (12.2%) in EAF group respectively. In DAF group, 5 (26.3%) patients received follow-up due to stoma (no closure), 5 (26.3%) received bedside surgical drainage, while

  9. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Khorshid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate, toxicity and OS.

  10. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer M Fouad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate

  11. A Quantum Hybrid PSO Combined with Fuzzy k-NN Approach to Feature Selection and Cell Classification in Cervical Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Abdullah M; Fatichah, Chastine

    2017-12-19

    A quantum hybrid (QH) intelligent approach that blends the adaptive search capability of the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimisation (QPSO) method with the intuitionistic rationality of traditional fuzzy k-nearest neighbours (Fuzzy k-NN) algorithm (known simply as the Q-Fuzzy approach) is proposed for efficient feature selection and classification of cells in cervical smeared (CS) images. From an initial multitude of 17 features describing the geometry, colour, and texture of the CS images, the QPSO stage of our proposed technique is used to select the best subset features (i.e., global best particles) that represent a pruned down collection of seven features. Using a dataset of almost 1000 images, performance evaluation of our proposed Q-Fuzzy approach assesses the impact of our feature selection on classification accuracy by way of three experimental scenarios that are compared alongside two other approaches: the All-features (i.e., classification without prior feature selection) and another hybrid technique combining the standard PSO algorithm with the Fuzzy k-NN technique (P-Fuzzy approach). In the first and second scenarios, we further divided the assessment criteria in terms of classification accuracy based on the choice of best features and those in terms of the different categories of the cervical cells. In the third scenario, we introduced new QH hybrid techniques, i.e., QPSO combined with other supervised learning methods, and compared the classification accuracy alongside our proposed Q-Fuzzy approach. Furthermore, we employed statistical approaches to establish qualitative agreement with regards to the feature selection in the experimental scenarios 1 and 3. The synergy between the QPSO and Fuzzy k-NN in the proposed Q-Fuzzy approach improves classification accuracy as manifest in the reduction in number cell features, which is crucial for effective cervical cancer detection and diagnosis.

  12. Sensitivity of Image Features to Noise in Conventional and Respiratory-Gated PET/CT Images of Lung Cancer: Uncorrelated Noise Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jasmine A; Budzevich, Mikalai; Hunt, Dylan; Moros, Eduardo G; Latifi, Kujtim; Dilling, Thomas J; Feygelman, Vladimir; Zhang, Geoffrey

    2017-10-01

    The effect of noise on image features has yet to be studied in depth. Our objective was to explore how significantly image features are affected by the addition of uncorrelated noise to an image. The signal-to-noise ratio and noise power spectrum were calculated for a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanner using a Ge-68 phantom. The conventional and respiratory-gated positron emission tomography/computed tomography images of 31 patients with lung cancer were retrospectively examined. Multiple sets of noise images were created for each original image by adding Gaussian noise of varying standard deviation equal to 2.5%, 4.0%, and 6.0% of the maximum intensity for positron emission tomography images and 10, 20, 50, 80, and 120 Hounsfield units for computed tomography images. Image features were extracted from all images, and percentage differences between the original image and the noise image feature values were calculated. These features were then categorized according to the noise sensitivity. The contour-dependent shape descriptors averaged below 4% difference in positron emission tomography and below 13% difference in computed tomography between noise and original images. Gray level size zone matrix features were the most sensitive to uncorrelated noise exhibiting average differences >200% for conventional and respiratory-gated images in computed tomography and 90% in positron emission tomography. Image feature differences increased as the noise level increased for shape, intensity, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix features in positron emission tomography and for gray-level co-occurrence matrix and gray-level size zone matrix features in conventional computed tomography. Investigators should be aware of the noise effects on image features.

  13. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2008, Featuring Cancers Associated With Excess Weight and Lack of Sufficient Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eheman, Christie; Henley, S. Jane; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Jacobs, Eric J.; Schymura, Maria J.; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Pan, Liping; Anderson, Robert N.; Fulton, Janet E.; Kohler, Betsy A.; Jemal, Ahmedin; Ward, Elizabeth; Plescia, Marcus; Ries, Lynn A. G.; Edwards, Brenda K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Annual updates on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States are provided through collaboration between the American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR). This year’s report highlights the increased cancer risk associated with excess weight (overweight or obesity) and lack of sufficient physical activity (cancer incidence were obtained from the CDC, NCI, and NAACCR; data on cancer deaths were obtained from the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. Annual percent changes in incidence and death rates (age-standardized to the 2000 US population) for all cancers combined and for the leading cancers among men and among women were estimated by joinpoint analysis of long-term trends (incidence for 1992–2008 and mortality for 1975–2008) and short-term trends (1999–2008). Information was obtained from national surveys about the proportion of US children, adolescents, and adults who are overweight, obese, insufficiently physically active, or physically inactive. RESULTS Death rates from all cancers combined decreased from 1999 to 2008, continuing a decline that began in the early 1990s, among men and among women in most racial and ethnic groups. Death rates decreased from 1999 to 2008 for most cancer sites, including the 4 most common cancers (lung, colorectum, breast, and prostate). The incidence of prostate and colorectal cancers also decreased from 1999 to 2008. Lung cancer incidence declined from 1999 to 2008 among men and from 2004 to 2008 among women. Breast cancer incidence decreased from 1999 to 2004 but was stable from 2004 to 2008. Incidence increased for several cancers, including pancreas, kidney, and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, which are associated with excess weight. CONCLUSIONS Although improvements are reported in the US cancer burden, excess weight and lack of sufficient

  14. Epigenetic regulation of pluripotent genes mediates stem cell features in human hepatocellular carcinoma and cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Activation of the stem cell transcriptional circuitry is an important event in cancer development. Although cancer cells demonstrate a stem cell-like gene expression signature, the epigenetic regulation of pluripotency-associated genes in cancers remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the epigenetic regulation of the pluripotency-associated genes NANOG, OCT4, c-MYC, KLF4, and SOX2 in a variety of cancer cell lines and in primary tumor samples, and investigated the re-activation of pluripotency regulatory circuits in cancer progression. Differential patterns of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and gene expression of pluripotent genes were demonstrated in different types of cancers, which may reflect their tissue origins. NANOG promoter hypomethylation and gene upregulation were found in metastatic human liver cancer cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC primary tumor tissues. The upregulation of NANOG, together with p53 depletion, was significantly associated with clinical late stage of HCC. A pro-metastatic role of NANOG in colon cancer cells was also demonstrated, using a NANOG-overexpressing orthotopic tumor implantation mouse model. Demethylation of NANOG promoter was observed in CD133+(high cancer cells. In accordance, overexpression of NANOG resulted in an increase in the population of CD133+(high cells. In addition, we demonstrated a cross-regulation between OCT4 and NANOG in cancer cells via reprogramming of promoter methylation. Taken together, epigenetic reprogramming of NANOG can lead to the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. These results underscore the restoration of pluripotency circuits in cancer cells as a potential mechanism for cancer progression.

  15. Methylation in promoter regions of PITX2 and RASSF1A genes in association with clinicopathological features in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezkova, Eva; Kajo, Karol; Zubor, Pavol; Grendar, Marian; Malicherova, Bibiana; Mendelova, Andrea; Dokus, Karol; Lasabova, Zora; Plank, Lukas; Danko, Jan

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with very different responses to therapy and different length of survival. In many cases, however, the determination of the stage and histopathological characteristics of breast cancer is insufficient to predict prognosis and response to treatment for the vast heterogeneity of the disease. To understand the molecular signature of subtypes of breast cancer, we attempted to identify the methylation status of key tumour suppressor gene Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 isoform a (RASSF1A) and a member of the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor family which functions in left-right asymmetry development (PITX2) and to correlate results with known clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast carcinomas (n = 149) were used for DNA extraction. DNA was modified by bisulphite conversion. Detection of the methylation level of the genes mentioned above was performed by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting assay (MS-HRM). Based on MS-HRM results for RASSF1A and PITX2, we subdivided the samples into four groups according to methylation level (≤50 % methylated, >50 % methylated, 100 % methylated and completely unmethylated alleles). All degrees of methylation status for both genes underwent analysis of dependence with known clinicopathological features, and we found significant associations. In 134 of 149 (89.9 %) primary breast carcinomas, the RASSF1A promoter was methylated. Total hypermethylation of PITX2 was observed in 60 of 135 (44.4 %) breast cancer cases. RASSF1A hypermethylation had significant association with increased age (p PITX2 hypermethylation with tumour grade (p PITX2 and its relationship with clinicopathological features of 149 breast cancer patients. We noticed that immunohistopathological subtypes of breast cancer contain distinct promoter methylation patterns. All these data suggest that hypermethylation of the

  16. SU-D-207B-04: Morphological Features of MRI as a Correlate of Capsular Contracture in Breast Cancer Patients with Implant-Based Reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, N; Sutton, E; Hunt, M; Apte, A; Zhang, J; Oh, J; Mechalakos, J; Mehrara, B; Matros, E; Ho, A [Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Capsular contracture (CC) is a serious complication in patients receiving implant-based reconstruction for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to identify image-based correlates of CC using MRI imaging in breast cancer patients who received both MRI and clinical evaluation following reconstructive surgery. Methods: We analyzed a retrospective dataset of 50 patients who had both a diagnostic MR and a plastic surgeon’s evaluations of CC score (Baker’s score) within a six month period following mastectomy and reconstructive surgery. T2w sagittal MRIs (TR/TE = 3500/102 ms, slice thickness = 4 mm) were used for morphological shape features (roundness, eccentricity, solidity, extent and ratio-length) and histogram features (median, skewness and kurtosis) of the implant and the pectoralis muscle overlying the implant. Implant and pectoralis muscles were segmented in 3D using Computation Environment for Radiological Research (CERR) and shape and histogram features were calculated as a function of Baker’s score. Results: Shape features such as roundness and eccentricity were statistically significant in differentiating grade 1 and grade 2 (p = 0.009; p = 0.06) as well as grade 1 and grade 3 CC (p = 0.001; p = 0.006). Solidity and extent were statistically significant in differentiating grade 1 and grade 3 CC (p = 0.04; p = 0.04). Ratio-length was statistically significant in differentiating all grades of CC except grade 2 and grade 3 that showed borderline significance (p = 0.06). The muscle thickness, median intensity and kurtosis were significant in differentiating between grade 1 and grade 3 (p = 0.02), grade 1 and grade 2 (p = 0.03) and grade 1 and grade 3 (p = 0.01) respectively. Conclusion: Morphological shape features described on MR images were associated with the severity of CC. MRI may be important in objectively evaluating outcomes in breast cancer patients who undergo implant reconstruction.

  17. Trastuzumab-Resistant Luminal B Breast Cancer Cells Show Basal-Like Cell Growth Features Through NF-κB-Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Hirotaka; Mukhopadhya, Nishit K; Cui, Xiaojiang; Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Murali, Ramachandran

    2016-02-01

    A major clinical problem in the treatment of breast cancer is mortality due to metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with metastasis should aid in designing new therapeutic approaches for breast cancer. Trastuzumab is the main therapeutic option for HER2+ breast cancer patients; however, the molecular basis for trastuzumab resistance (TZR) and subsequent metastasis is not known. Earlier, we found expression of basal-like molecular markers in TZR tissues from patients with invasive breast cancer.(( 1 )) The basal-like phenotype is a particularly aggressive form of breast cancer. This observation suggests that TZR might contribute to an aggressive phenotype. To understand if resistance to TZR can lead to basal-like phenotype, we generated a trastuzumab-resistant human breast cancer cell line (BT-474-R) that maintained human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression and HER2 mediated signaling. Analysis showed that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was constitutively activated in the BT-474-R cells, a feature similar to the basal-like tumor phenotype. Pharmacologic inhibition of NF-κB improved sensitivity of BT-474-R cells to trastuzumab. Interestingly, activation of HER2 independent NF-κB is not shown in luminal B breast cancer cells. Our study suggests that by activating the NF-κB pathway, luminal B cells may acquire a HER2+ basal-like phenotype in which NF-κB is constitutively activated; this notion is consistent with the recently proposed "progression through grade" or "evolution of resistance" hypothesis. Furthermore, we identified IKK-α/IKK-β and nuclear accumulation of RelA/p65 as the major determinants in the resistant cells. Thus our study additionally suggests that the nuclear accumulation of p65 may be a useful marker for identifying metastasis-initiating tumor cells and targeting RelA/p65 may limit metastasis of breast and other cancers associated with NF-κB activation.

  18. A rare case of TFE-related pigmented renal tumor with overlapping features between melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer and Xp11 renal cell carcinoma with melanotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardili, Leonardo; Wrublevsky Pereira, Gregório; Viana, Cristiano Ribeiro

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of TFE3 rearrangement-associated tumors with melanotic features have been reported as primary neoplasm in different anatomical sites, including the kidney. Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer (MXTRC) and Xp11 renal cell carcinoma with melanotic features (XRCCM) have been proposed to be main categories for pigmented lesions in the microophthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF/TFE3) family of renal tumors that may show variable degrees of melanocytic differentiation. Herein we report a rare case of TFE3-related pigmented renal tumor showing unusual immunoexpression of cytokeratins (AE1/AE3) and renal cell carcinoma markers (RCC, CD10). Cathepsin-K and Vimentin were diffusely positive whereas melanocytic markers (HMB-45 and Melan-A) displayed weak and patchy expression. We found no labelling for PAX-8, muscle markers (desmin, smooth muscle actin, muscle-specific actin and caldesmon) and S-100. TFE3 fusion was confirmed by break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This case corroborates previous evidence for overlap in the TFE3-associated cancer family and illustrates that it may not be possible to set a clear cutoff between epithelial (XRCCM) and mesenchymal (MXTRC) subgroups. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Breast Abscessed Cancer in Nonlactating Women in Tropical Environment: Radiological, Bacteriological, and Anatomopathological Features about 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazamaesso Tchaou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of breast cancer and abscess is rare in daily practice. The authors report a short series of 3 cases of cancer of the breast in nonlactating women presented as breast abscess, reviewing aspects in radiology (ultrasound and mammography, correlating them with the histopathology findings and the bacteriological profile of the isolated germs.

  20. Incidence and clinicopathologic features of primary lung cancer: a North-Eastern Anatolia region study in Turkey (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Elif; Daloglu, Ferah; Gundogdu, Cemal; Calik, Muhammet; Sipal, Sare; Akgun, Metin

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer among men and second highest among women overall, including in Turkey. Cigarette smoking is the most important etiologic factor for the development of cancer in both men and women. To determine the lung cancer incidence in Northeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey with a focus on clinical properties, cancer subtypes, the relationships of tumors with cigarette smoking and radiological properties of the lesions. In a retrospective study design, 566 lung cancer cases diagnosed at the Pathology Department of Ataturk University in Erzurum over the last seven years extending from January 2006 to June 2012 were investigated. The results were compared with statistical analyses. The most common histopathological subtype of primary bronchogenic carcinoma in our study was found to be the squamous cell carcinoma, 46.1% (261 out of 566), and the second was small cell lung carcinoma 15.7% (89 out of 566). Based on our data, an overall male predominance was noted with a male/female ratio of 6.1/1. While 296 (52.2%) of the patients were found to be smokers at the time of diagnosis, 125 (22.0%) were nonsmokers and 145 (25.6%) were ex-smokers. Smoking status was found to have a strong correlation with primary lung cancer (p Turkey. Our findings stress the critical need for effective cancer prevention programs such as anti-smoking campaigns.

  1. Expression of BRCA1, HER-1 (EGFR) and HER-2 in sporadic breast cancer and relationships to other clinicopathological prognostic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansquer, Yan; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Lehy, Thérèse; Salomon, Laurence; Dhainaut, Caroline; Madelenat, Patrick; Feldmann, Gérard; Walker, Francine

    2005-01-01

    The BRCA1 caretaker gene is associated with poor prognostic features in hereditary breast cancer and may also play a role in sporadic breast cancer (SBC). HER-1 and HER-2 overexpression is associated with adverse prognosis in SBC. We studied whether BRCA1 expression was associated with HER1, HER2 and other prognostic features in SBC. Fifty newly-diagnosed SBC patients were studied for prognostic features and immunohistochemical expressions of BRCA1, HER-1 and HER-2. Tumors were positive for BRCA1 in 26%, HER-1 in 32% and HER-2 in 20% of cases. Lack of BRCA1 expression was associated with node metastases and decreased estrogen receptor. HER-2 expression was associated with young age, HER-1, Ki67 and decreased hormone receptors. No correlation was observed between BRCA1 and HER-1 or HER-2. In SBC, the lack of BRCA1 expression was associated with poor prognostic features, but unrelated to HER-1 and HER-2. HER2 and HER-1 were, however, highly correlated.

  2. MO-DE-207B-01: JACK FOWLER JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Between Somatic Mutations and PET-Based Radiomic Features in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, S; Coroller, T; Rios Velazquez, E; Parmar, C; Mak, R; Aerts, H [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, J [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Although PET-based radiomic features have been proposed to quantify tumor heterogeneity and shown promise in outcome prediction, little is known about their relationship with tumor genetics. This study assessed the association of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET-based radiomic features with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mutations. Methods: 348 NSCLC patients underwent FDG-PET/CT scans before treatment and were tested for genetic mutations. 13% (44/348) and 28% (96/348) patients were found to harbor EGFR (EGFR+) and KRAS (KRAS+) mutations, respectively. We evaluated nineteen PET-based radiomic features quantifying phenotypic traits, and compared them with conventional PET features (metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and maximum-SUV). The association between the feature values and mutation status was evaluated using the Wilcoxcon-rank-sum-test. The ability of each measure to predict mutations was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Noether’s test was used to determine if the AUCs were significantly from random (AUC=0.50). All p-values were corrected for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate (FDR{sub Wilcoxon} and FDR{sub Noether}) of 10%. Results: Eight radiomic features, MTV, and maximum-SUV, were significantly associated with the EGFR mutation (FDR{sub Wilcoxon}=0.01–0.10). However, KRAS+ demonstrated no significantly distinctive imaging features compared to KRAS− (FDR{sub Wilcoxon}≥0.92). EGFR+ and EGFR− were significantly discriminated by conventional PET features (AUC=0.61, FDR{sub Noether}=0.04 for MTV and AUC=0.64, FDR{sub Noether}=0.01 for maximum-SUV). Eight radiomic features were significantly predictive for EGFR+ compared to EGFR− (AUC=0.59–0.67, FDR{sub Noether}=0.0032–0.09). Normalized-inverse-difference-moment outperformed all features in predicting EGFR mutation (AUC=0.67, FDR{sub Noether}=0.0032). Moreover, only the radiomic feature normalized-inverse-difference-moment could

  3. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011, Featuring Incidence of Breast Cancer Subtypes by Race/Ethnicity, Poverty, and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Recinda L.; Howlader, Nadia; Jemal, Ahmedin; Ryerson, A. Blythe; Henry, Kevin A.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Cronin, Kathleen A.; Lake, Andrew; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Henley, S. Jane; Eheman, Christie R.; Anderson, Robert N.; Penberthy, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Background: The American Cancer Society (ACS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Cancer Institute (NCI), and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to produce updated, national cancer statistics. This Annual Report includes a focus on breast cancer incidence by subtype using new, national-level data. Methods: Population-based cancer trends and breast cancer incidence by molecular subtype were calculated. Breast cancer subtypes were classified using tumor biomarkers for hormone receptor (HR) and human growth factor-neu receptor (HER2) expression. Results: Overall cancer incidence decreased for men by 1.8% annually from 2007 to 2011. Rates for women were stable from 1998 to 2011. Within these trends there was racial/ethnic variation, and some sites have increasing rates. Among children, incidence rates continued to increase by 0.8% per year over the past decade while, like adults, mortality declined. Overall mortality has been declining for both men and women since the early 1990’s and for children since the 1970’s. HR+/HER2- breast cancers, the subtype with the best prognosis, were the most common for all races/ethnicities with highest rates among non-Hispanic white women, local stage cases, and low poverty areas (92.7, 63.51, and 98.69 per 100000 non-Hispanic white women, respectively). HR+/HER2- breast cancer incidence rates were strongly, positively correlated with mammography use, particularly for non-Hispanic white women (Pearson 0.57, two-sided P breast cancers, the subtype with the worst prognosis, were highest among non-Hispanic black women (27.2 per 100000 non-Hispanic black women), which is reflected in high rates in southeastern states. Conclusions: Progress continues in reducing the burden of cancer in the United States. There are unique racial/ethnic-specific incidence patterns for breast cancer subtypes; likely because of both biologic and social risk factors, including

  4. Serous ovarian and primary peritoneal cancers: A comparative analysis of clinico-pathological features, molecular subtypes and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lindemann, Kristina; Anderson, Lyndal; Fereday, Sian; Hung, Jillian; Alsop, Kathryn; Tothill, Richard W; Gebski, Val; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L; Harnett, Paul R; Bowtell, David D L; DeFazio, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Primary peritoneal cancer is rare and considered equivalent to stage III/IV ovarian cancer, but questions remain concerning its underlying biology, prognosis and optimal management. Clinico-pathological and treatment details of primary peritoneal (n=120) and ovarian cancer (n=635) were obtained on women recruited to the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study. Log-rank test was used to compare survival and cox proportional hazards models were fitted to obtain hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, both unadjusted and adjusted for age, grade, FIGO stage, residual disease and treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Molecular subtype was determined by gene expression profiling using published data. Compared with advanced serous ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer patients were older (mean age 65.5 vs. 60.2years, p<0.001), more often treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (38.4% vs. 11.4%, p<0.001). Gene expression profiling classified a substantially higher proportion of primary peritoneal carcinomas as C1 (mesenchymal, reactive stromal infiltration) subtype (70.6% vs. 32.1%, p=0.029), which was associated with lower complete surgical resection rate. Women with primary peritoneal cancer had significantly shorter progression-free (11.6 vs. 13.6months, p=0.007) and overall survival (31.7 vs. 39.8months, p=0.012). In multivariate analysis, residual disease and neoadjuvant chemotherapy were both independently associated with increased risk of progression and death. Primary peritoneal cancer patients were more frequently treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had inferior survival. Different tumor biology characterized by activated stromal fibrosis in primary peritoneal cancer may underlie the differences in treatment and clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of BRCA Mutation Types, Imaging Features, and Pathologic Findings in Patients With Breast Cancer With BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Su Min; Chae, Eun Young; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Choi, Woo Jung

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the relationships between the BRCA mutation types, imaging features, and pathologic findings of breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We identified patients with breast cancer with BRCA gene mutations from January 2000 to December 2014. After excluding patients who underwent lesion excision before MRI, 99 BRCA1 and 103 BRCA2 lesions in 187 women (mean age, 39.7 and 40.4 years, respectively) were enrolled. Mammographic, sonographic, and MRI scans were reviewed according to the BI-RADS lexicon (5th edition). Pathologic data were reviewed, including the immunohistochemistry findings. The relationships between the BRCA mutations and both imaging and pathologic findings were analyzed. The distribution of molecular subtypes of tumors significantly differed by the mutation type. BRCA1 tumors were associated with the triple-negative subtype, whereas BRCA2 tumors were associated with the luminal B subtype (p = 0.002). At MRI, breast cancers with BRCA1 mutations exhibited a circumscribed margin (p = 0.032) and rim enhancement (p = 0.013). No significant differences in mass shape or kinetic features were observed at MRI. Cancers in BRCA1 mutation carriers tended to develop in the posterior location in the breast (p = 0.034). At mammography, no significant difference in the prevalence of calcifications was observed according to the mutation type. At sonography, BRCA1 lesions were found to be associated with posterior acoustic enhancement (p mutations tend to exhibit benign morphologic features at MRI, mammography, and sonography, compared with BRCA2 mutations. Lesion location may represent another difference on imaging among various genetic phenotypes.

  6. TU-CD-BRB-10: 18F-FDG PET Image-Derived Tumor Features Highlight Altered Pathways Identified by Trancriptomic Analysis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, F [CHU Miletrie, Poitiers (France); INSERM UMR1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C; Dufour, X [CHU Miletrie, Poitiers (France); Hatt, M; Visvikis, D [INSERM UMR1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Valette, G; Potard, G [CHRU Brest, Brest (France); Corcos, L [INSERM, UMR 1078, Brest (France)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Several quantitative features can be extracted from 18F-FDG PET images, such as standardized uptake values (SUVs), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), shape characterization (SC) or intra-tumor radiotracer heterogeneity quantification (HQ). Some of these features calculated from baseline 18F-FDG PET images have shown a prognostic and predictive clinical value. It has been hypothesized that these features highlight underlying tumor patho-physiological processes at smaller scales. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of recovering alterations of signaling pathways from FDG PET image-derived features. Methods: 52 patients were prospectively recruited from two medical centers (Brest and Poitiers). All patients underwent an FDG PET scan for staging and biopsies of both healthy and primary tumor tissues. Biopsies went through a transcriptomic analysis performed in four spates on 4×44k chips (Agilent™). Primary tumors were delineated in the PET images using the Fuzzy Locally Adaptive Bayesian algorithm and characterized using 10 features including SUVs, SC and HQ. A module network algorithm followed by functional annotation was exploited in order to link PET features with signaling pathways alterations. Results: Several PET-derived features were found to discriminate differentially expressed genes between tumor and healthy tissue (fold-change >2, p<0.01) into 30 co-regulated groups (p<0.05). Functional annotations applied to these groups of genes highlighted associations with well-known pathways involved in cancer processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as with more specific ones such as unsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion: Quantitative features extracted from baseline 18F-FDG PET images usually exploited only for diagnosis and staging, were identified in this work as being related to specific altered pathways and may show promise as tools for personalizing treatment decisions.

  7. Intrinsic subtypes and tumor grades in breast cancer are associated with distinct 3-D power Doppler sonographic vascular features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yeun-Chung [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10041, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yao-Sian [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Chiun-Sheng [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10041, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor [Center for Functional Onco-Imaging and Department of Radiological Science, University of California Irvine, California, CA 92868 (United States); Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Ruey-Feng, E-mail: rfchang@csie.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler ultrasonographic (PDUS) vascular features of breast carcinoma according to intrinsic subtypes, nodal stage, and tumor grade. Materials and methods: Total 115 receiving mastectomy breast carcinomas (mean size, 2.5 cm; range, 0.7–6.5 cm), including 102 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), 10 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 3 invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) diagnosed after mastectomy, were used in this retrospective study. Sixty IDC had nodal status and histopathologic tumor grades available for analysis. Vascular features, including number of vascular trees (NV), longest path length (LPL), total vessel length (TVL), number of bifurcations (NB), distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), vessel diameter (VD), and vessel-to-volume ratio (VVR) were extracted using 3-D thinning method. The Mann–Whitney U test, Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal–Wallis test were performed as appropriate. Results: There was no significant difference of vascular features among IDC, DCIS and ILC. Except VD, vascular features in luminal type were significantly lower compared to HER2-enriched or triple negative types (p < 0.05). Compared to ER+ (estrogen receptor positive) tumors, all features in ER− (estrogen receptor negative) tumors were significantly higher (p < 0.01). Despite some significantly higher vascular features in high grade IDC compared to low and intermediate grade, there was no significant correlation between vascular features and nodal stages. Conclusion: Differences in 3-D PDUS vascular features among intrinsic types of IDC are attributed to their ER status. Vascular features extracted by 3-D PDUS correlate with tumor grades but not nodal stage in IDC.

  8. Impact of kinesin Eg5 inhibition by 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives on various breast cancer cell features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Bruna C; Ramos, Luciana M; Nolasco, Diego O; Nobrega, Catharine C; Andrade, Bárbara Y G; Pic-Taylor, Aline; Neto, Brenno A D; Corrêa, José R

    2015-04-14

    Breast cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease and is one of the leading causes of death among women. In addressing the need for treatments of this life-threatening illness, we studied 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (or thione) derivatives (DHPMs), a class of inhibitor molecules of the Eg5 motor spindle protein that shows pronounced antitumor activity against several cancer cell lines. An in vitro screening was performed for identification of DHPMs with potent antitumor effects on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and the selected DHPMs were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on Eg5 both in silico, using Molecular dynamics, and in vitro Eg5 inhibition assays. Analysis of cell death induction, proliferation, cell cycle and cancer stem cells (CSC) profile were performed by flow cytometry to assess the influence of the selected DPHMs on these important tumor features. Finally, the effects of DHPM treatment on tube formation were evaluated in vitro using HUVEC cells, and in vivo using a model on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized eggs. We identified five DHPMs with pronounced inhibitory activity on Eg5 motor protein interfering with the proper mitotic spindle assembly during cell division. These compounds impair the correct conclusion of cell cycle of the breast cancer cells and showed to be selective for tumor cells. Moreover, DHPMs modulate the CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype leading to a decrease in the CSC population in MDA-MB-231 cells, an important effect since CSC are resistant to many conventional cancer therapies and play a pivotal role in tumor initiation and maintenance. This observation was confirmed by the results which demonstrated that DHPM treated cells had impaired proliferation and were unable to sustain angiogenesis events. Finally, the DHMP treated cells were induced to apoptosis, which is one of the most pursued goals in drug development. The results of our study strongly suggest that DHPMs inhibit important tumorigenic features of breast

  9. The Research of Clinical Pathological Features of ALK Positive Lung Cancer 
in 525 Patients and the Discussion of Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang ZHU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The fusion (rearrangement of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene has been identified as an import factor to the tumorigenesis and development of lung cancer. ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs have been proved to have good effects to ALK positive lung cancers. The increasement of the relevance ratio of ALK will be very important to patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical pathological features of ALK positive lung cancer, and the roles of immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in screening and confirming the ALK positive cases in the testing flow of ALK. Methods IHC analysis of ALK in tumor specimens was performed on 525 lung cancer patients. 34 cases among them were confirmed by FISH. Results The positive incidence of ALK by IHC was 5.14% (27/525. The ALK positive patients were significantly younger than ALK negative patients (P<0.05, and femal was predominant (P<0.05. The proportion of solid predominant adenocarcinoma was significantly higher in ALK positive patients (P<0.05. While acinar and lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma were significantly lower in ALK positive patients (P<0.05. FISH was applied in 34 cases. The coincidence rate was increased with the increasement of positive intensity of IHC staining. All the IHC positive cases with or without EGFR mutation must be confirmed by FISH. Conclusion IHC is a reliable detection method to screening the ALK in lung cancer, and then enhance the relevance ration. To make a definite diagnosis of ALK positive lung cancer, FISH is a significant detection method.

  10. Vibrational biospectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis extracts potentially diagnostic features in blood plasma/serum of ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gemma L; Gajjar, Ketan; Trevisan, Júlio; Fogarty, Simon W; Taylor, Siân E; Da Gama-Rose, Bianca; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

    2014-04-01

    Despite numerous advances in "omics" research, early detection of ovarian cancer still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) or Raman spectroscopy could characterise alterations in the biomolecular signatures of human blood plasma/serum obtained from ovarian cancer patients compared to non-cancer controls. Blood samples isolated from ovarian cancer patients (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 30) were analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. For comparison, a smaller cohort of samples (n = 8) were analysed using an InVia Renishaw Raman spectrometer. Resultant spectra were pre-processed prior to being inputted into principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Statistically significant differences (P blood plasma, a diagnostic accuracy of 74% was achieved, while the same classifier showed 93.3% accuracy for IR spectra of blood plasma. These observations suggest that a biospectroscopy approach could be applied to identify spectral alterations associated with the presence of insidious ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Correlation of pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET tumor textural features with gene expression in pharyngeal cancer and implications for radiotherapy-based treatment outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shang-Wen [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Shen, Wei-Chih [China Medical University, Cancer Center and Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China); Asia University, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Taichung (China); Lin, Ying-Chun [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University and Academia Sinica, The Ph.D. Program for Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, Taichung (China); Chen, Rui-Yun [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Taichung (China); Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Asia University, Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Taichung (China)

    2017-04-15

    This study investigated the correlation of the matrix heterogeneity of tumors on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with gene-expression profiling in patients with pharyngeal cancer and determined the prognostic factors for radiotherapy-based treatment outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 57 patients with stage III-IV oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer who had completed definitive therapy. Four groups of the textural features as well as 31 indices were studied in addition to maximum standard uptake value, metastatic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis. Immunohistochemical data from pretreatment biopsy specimens (Glut1, CAIX, VEGF, HIF-1α, EGFR, Ki-67, Bcl-2, CLAUDIN-4, YAP-1, c-Met, and p16) were analyzed. The relationships between the indices and genomic expression were studied, and the robustness of various textural features relative to cause-specific survival and primary relapse-free survival was analyzed. The overexpression of VEGF was positively associated with the increased values of the matrix heterogeneity obtained using gray-level nonuniformity for zone (GLNUz) and run-length nonuniformity (RLNU). Advanced T stage (p = 0.01, hazard ratio [HR] = 3.38), a VEGF immunoreactive score of >2 (p = 0.03, HR = 2.79), and a higher GLNUz value (p = 0.04, HR = 2.51) were prognostic factors for low cause-specific survival, whereas advanced T stage, a HIF-1α staining percentage of ≥80%, and a higher GLNUz value were prognostic factors for low primary-relapse free survival. The overexpression of VEGF was associated with the increased matrix index of GLNUz and RLNU. For patients with pharyngeal cancer requiring radiotherapy, the treatment outcome can be stratified according to the textural features, T stage, and biomarkers. (orig.)

  12. A genomic analysis of mouse models of breast cancer reveals molecular features of mouse models and relationships to human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollern, Daniel P; Andrechek, Eran R

    2014-06-05

    Genomic variability limits the efficacy of breast cancer therapy. To simplify the study of the molecular complexity of breast cancer, researchers have used mouse mammary tumor models. However, the degree to which mouse models model human breast cancer and are reflective of the human heterogeneity has yet to be demonstrated with gene expression studies on a large scale. To this end, we have built a database consisting of 1,172 mouse mammary tumor samples from 26 different major oncogenic mouse mammary tumor models. In this dataset we identified heterogeneity within mouse models and noted a surprising amount of interrelatedness between models, despite differences in the tumor initiating oncogene. Making comparisons between models, we identified differentially expressed genes with alteration correlating with initiating events in each model. Using annotation tools, we identified transcription factors with a high likelihood of activity within these models. Gene signatures predicted activation of major cell signaling pathways in each model, predictions that correlated with previous genetic studies. Finally, we noted relationships between mouse models and human breast cancer at both the level of gene expression and predicted signal pathway activity. Importantly, we identified individual mouse models that recapitulate human breast cancer heterogeneity at the level of gene expression. This work underscores the importance of fully characterizing mouse tumor biology at molecular, histological and genomic levels before a valid comparison to human breast cancer may be drawn and provides an important bioinformatic resource.

  13. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer In US women, other than skin cancer the three most common cancers are: Breast cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer Some cancers are more common in certain parts of the world. For example, in Japan, there are many cases of stomach cancer . But ...

  14. The influence of uncertain map features on risk beliefs and perceived ambiguity for maps of modeled cancer risk from air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Maps are often used to convey information generated by models, for example, modeled cancer risk from air pollution. The concrete nature of images, such as maps, may convey more certainty than warranted for modeled information. Three map features were selected to communicate the uncertainty of modeled cancer risk: (a) map contours appeared in or out of focus, (b) one or three colors were used, and (c) a verbal-relative or numeric risk expression was used in the legend. Study aims were to assess how these features influenced risk beliefs and the ambiguity of risk beliefs at four assigned map locations that varied by risk level. We applied an integrated conceptual framework to conduct this full factorial experiment with 32 maps that varied by the three dichotomous features and four risk levels; 826 university students participated. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Unfocused contours and the verbal-relative risk expression generated more ambiguity than their counterparts. Focused contours generated stronger risk beliefs for higher risk levels and weaker beliefs for lower risk levels. Number of colors had minimal influence. The magnitude of risk level, conveyed using incrementally darker shading, had a substantial dose-response influence on the strength of risk beliefs. Personal characteristics of prior beliefs and numeracy also had substantial influences. Bottom-up and top-down information processing suggest why iconic visual features of incremental shading and contour focus had the strongest visual influences on risk beliefs and ambiguity. Variations in contour focus and risk expression show promise for fostering appropriate levels of ambiguity. PMID:22985196

  15. Prognostic impact of hexokinase and glucose transporter expressions and clinicopathologic features related to F-18-FDG uptake in esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Liesbeth M; Pultrum, Bareld B; Pavlov, Kirill; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Henk; Hollema, Harry; Plukker, John Theodorus

    39 Background: Elucidation of prognostic predictors based on biological viability may be useful for a better detection of patients with a high risk of relapse or death from esophageal cancer. METHODS: Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured in the preoperative 18F-FDG positron

  16. Clinical features of brain metastases in breast cancer: an implication for hippocampal-sparing whole-brain radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available San-Gang Wu,1,* Jia-Yuan Sun,2,* Qin Tong,3 Feng-Yan Li,2 Zhen-Yu He2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Xiamen Cancer Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of brain metastases (BM in breast cancer patients and investigate the risk factors for perihippocampal metastases (PHM. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics and patterns of BM was performed. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and PHM (the hippocampus plus 5 mm margin were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 1,356 brain metastatic lesions were identified in 192 patients. Patients with 1–3 BM, 4–9 BM, and ≥10 BM accounted for 63.0%, 18.8%, and 18.2%, respectively. There were only 7 (3.6% patients with hippocampal metastases (HM and 14 (7.3% patients with PHM. On logistic regression, the number of BM was an independent risk factor for PHM. Patients with ≥10 BM had a significantly higher risk of PHM compared with those with <10 BM. Breast cancer subtype (BCS was not associated with PHM. The number of BM was significantly correlated with various BCSs. Patients with hormone receptor (HR+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2+, HR-/HER2+, and HR-/HER2- subtypes had a higher probability of ≥10 BM, relative to patients with an HR+/HER2- subtype. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a low incidence of PHM may be acceptable to perform hippocampal-sparing whole-brain radiation therapy for breast cancer patients

  17. Association of MGMT promoter methylation with tumorigenesis features in patients with ovarian cancer: A systematic meta-analysis.

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    Qiao, Baoli; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Yanfang

    2018-01-01

    The MGMT is a key tumor suppressor gene and aberrant promoter methylation has been reported in many cancers. However, the relationship between MGMT promoter methylation and ovarian cancer remains controversial. This meta-analysis was first conducted to estimate the clinical significance of MGMT promoter methylation in ovarian carcinoma. Literature search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, EBSCO and Cochrane Library databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were summarized. Final 10 studies with 910 ovarian tissue samples were included in this meta-analysis. MGMT promoter methylation was significantly higher in ovarian cancer than in normal ovarian tissues (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 2.32-7.33, p < .001). The MGMT had a similar methylation status in cancer versus benign lesions and low malignant potential (LMP) samples (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 0.67-6.04, p = .212; OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.46-4.40, p = .543; respectively). MGMT promoter methylation was correlated with pathological types in which it was significantly lower in serous cancer than in nonserous cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.14-0.59, p = .001). The methylation of the MGMT promoter was not associated with clinical stage and tumor grade (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 0.71-3.02, p = .301; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.51-2.46, p = .767; respectively). MGMT promoter methylation may be correlated with the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer. It was associated with tumor histotypes, but not correlated with clinical stage and tumor grade. More prospective studies with lager sample sizes are necessary in the future. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The impact of a family history of prostate cancer on the prognosis and features of the disease in Korea: results from a cross-sectional longitudinal pilot study.

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    Lee, Kwang Suk; Koo, Kyo Chul; Chung, Byung Ha

    2017-12-01

    Reports on the impact of a family history of prostate cancer among Asians are scarce. We evaluated whether a positive prostate cancer family history is associated with the prognosis and features of the disease. From January 2006 to December 2015, patients who received treatment for pathologically diagnosed prostate cancer were enrolled. Information on family history was obtained via self-administered questionnaires between January 2015 and December 2016. The overall survival rate for all patients and the rate of biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy were assessed according to the presence of family history. Of 1266 patients (median age, 68.1 years; median prostate-specific antigen, 8.73 ng/mL; median follow-up, 40.0 months), 47 (3.8%) were identified as having a family history. Men with a family history had a younger age, higher proportion of cases diagnosed before 55 years of age, and lower stage than those without a family history. Family history was not a potential risk factor for overall survival. In an analysis of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (median prostate-specific antigen, 7.40 ng/mL; median follow-up, 40.5 months), no differences in pathologic characteristics were found between patients with (n = 39, 93.5%) and without (n = 567, 6.4%) a family history. Family history was not predictive of biochemical failure. A family history of prostate cancer seemed to have no effect on prognosis and disease aggressiveness. However, this study proposed a rationale for performing earlier prostate-specific antigen testing in men with a family history of prostate cancer.

  19. Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Wan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic factors in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy differ from those of early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical significance of potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A total of 145 stage II and III breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. We examined the clinical and biological factors (ER, PR, p53, c-erbB2, bcl-2, and Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed clinical outcome and their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters. Results Among the clinicopathologic parameters investigated, none of the marker was correlated with response rate (RR except triple negative phenotype. Patients with triple negative phenotype showed higher RR (83.0% in triple negative vs. 62.2% in non-triple negative, p = 0.012 and pathologic complete RR (17.0% in triple negative vs. 3.1% in non-triple negative, p = 0.005. However, relapse free survival (RFS and overall survival (OS were significantly shorter in triple negative breast cancer patients (p p = 0.021, respectively. Low histologic grade, positive hormone receptors, positive bcl-2 and low level of Ki-67 were associated with prolonged RFS. In addition, positive ER and positive bcl-2 were associated with prolonged OS. In our homogeneous patient population, initial clinical stage reflects RFS and OS more precisely than pathologic stage. In multivariate analysis, initial clinical stage was the only significant independent prognostic factor to impact on OS (hazard ratio 3.597, p = 0.044. Conclusion Several molecular markers provided useful predictive and prognostic information in stage II and III breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy. Triple negative phenotype was associated with shorter survival, even though it was associated

  20. Expression of semaphorin 3A and neuropilin 1 with clinicopathological features and survival in human tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Fu, Zhen; Ye, Jin; Liu, Lai; Song, Xiao; Wu, Yu

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the association between semaphorin 3A (SEMA 3A) and its receptor neuropilin 1 (NRP1) and the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with tongue cancer. Forty-three tongue squamous cell carcinoma specimens were included. Immunohistochemical staining of SEMA3A and NRP1 was performed on 15 normal tongue epithelium specimens and the 43 tumour specimens. Immunoreactivity was evaluated based on the staining intensity and distribution score. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-squared and Spearman tests and Kaplan-Meier analysis. SEMA3A was significantly down-regulated in tongue cancer compared with normal tongue (P=0.025), while NRP1 was over-expressed in tumours (Pcancer and might be useful prognostic markers in this tumour type.

  1. Diagnostic Benefit of Thyroglobulin Measurement in Fine-Needle Aspiration for Diagnosing Metastatic Cervical Lymph Nodes from Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Correlations with US Features

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    Jeon, Se Jeong; Kim, Eun Hee; Son, Kyu Ri; Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn; Na, Dong Gyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yoon Suk [Daerim Saint Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Our goals were to determine the added value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)-thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements over FNAB-cytology alone for diagnosing metastatic nodes, and to determine whether the ultrasound features of lymph nodes can be used to identify lymph nodes that may benefit from FNAB-Tg measurement in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 76 surgically proven cervical lymph nodes. Twenty-nine patients were awaiting surgery and 18 patients had undergone thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid cancer. Ultrasound-guided FNAB and Tg measurements were performed and the ultrasound features were evaluated. The accuracies, sensitivities, and specificities of FNAB-cytology, FNAB-Tg, and combined FNAB-Tg/cytology were 90%, 80%, and 100%; 92%, 95%, and 90%; and 93%, 96%, and 90%, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNAB-Tg for metastatic nodes was significantly higher than that of FNAB-cytology (p = 0.011). Furthermore, combined FNAB-Tg/cytology significantly increased sensitivity (p = 0.002) and accuracy (p = 0.03) as compared with FNAB-cytology. Combined FNAB-Tg/cytology is significantly more sensitive and accurate at detecting metastatic nodes than FNAB-cytology alone. FNAB-Tg was better at diagnosing metastases in small lymph nodes.

  2. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  3. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene copy number gain in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC: prevalence, clinicopathologic features and prognostic implication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most aggressive form of breast cancer, and its molecular pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and implication of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK copy number change in IBC patients.We retrospectively collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and medical records of IBC patients from several institutes in Korea. ALK gene copy number change and rearrangement were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assay, and ALK expression status was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC staining.Thirty-six IBC patients including those with HER2 (+ breast cancer (16/36, 44.4% and triple-negative breast cancer (13/36, 36.1% were enrolled in this study. ALK copy number gain (CNG was observed in 47.2% (17/36 of patients, including one patient who harbored ALK gene amplification. ALK CNG (+ patients showed significantly worse overall survival compared to ALK CNG (- patients in univariate analysis (24.9 months vs. 38.1 months, p = 0.033. Recurrence free survival (RFS after curative mastectomy was also significantly shorter in ALK CNG (+ patients than in ALK CNG (- patients (n = 22, 12.7 months vs. 43.3 months, p = 0.016. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with adjustment for HER2 and ER statuses showed significantly poorer RFS for ALK CNG (+ patients (HR 5.63, 95% CI 1.11-28.44, p = 0.037.This study shows a significant presence of ALK CNG in IBC patients, and ALK CNG was associated with significantly poorer RFS.

  4. Impact of Schwartz enhanced visualization solution on staging colorectal cancer and clinicopathological features associated with lymph node count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Brandon; Paquette, Cherie; Tooke, Chelsea; Schwartz, Michelle; Osler, Turner; Weaver, Donald; Wilcox, Rebecca; Hyman, Neil

    2013-09-01

    Stage-specific survival for colon cancer improves when more lymph nodes are reported in the surgical specimen. This has led to a minimum standard of identifying 12 lymph nodes as a quality indicator. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of Schwartz solution increases node yield and impacts pathologic staging. This is a prospective cohort study. The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Included were 104 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer. Lymph node counts before and after specimen treatment with Schwartz solution and incidence of upstaging were measured. An additional 20 minutes (interquartile range, 15-40 minutes) was spent searching for lymph nodes, increasing the median number of nodes from 22.5 to 29.0 nodes. However, only 1 patient was upstaged. Schwartz solution decreased the number of specimens with less than 12 lymph nodes from 15 to 6. The following factors were associated with Schwartz solution leading to the detection of additional nodes: number of nodes detected initially with formalin only (p Schwartz solution increased the number of nodes detected in 95% of patients and improved compliance with the 12-node standard for colon resection, there was minimal impact on cancer staging. Upstaging is unlikely to explain the increase in overall survival in patients with higher lymph node counts, casting doubt on the validity of this process measure as a meaningful quality indicator. Rather, the lymph node count may be a reflection of inherent tumor biology or host-related factors.

  5. Differences in morphological features and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient values among breast cancer subtypes using 3-tesla MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumi; Kudo, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiroko; Wang, Jeff; Hosoda, Mitsuchika; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Mimura, Rie; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Shirato, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    To compare the morphology and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values among breast cancer subtypes. Ninety-three patients, who underwent breast MRI and collectively had 98 pathologically proven invasive carcinomas, were enrolled. Morphology was evaluated according to BIRADS-MRI. Minimum ADC was measured. Morphology and minimum ADC were compared among subtypes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the characteristics associated with different subtypes. Oval/round shape was significantly associated with triple-negative (TN) cancer (TN vs. non-TN: 90.9% vs. 45.2%; p=0.0123). Rim enhancement was significantly less frequent in Luminal A (Luminal A vs. non-Luminal A: 34.2% vs. 76.1%; p=0.0003). The minimum ADC of Luminal A was significantly higher than that of Luminal B (HER2-negative) (834 vs. 748×10(-6)mm(2)/s; pminimum ADC of the TN-special type was significantly higher than that of TN-ductal (997 vs. 702×10(-6)mm(2)/s; pminimum ADC were significant factors. Morphology and minimum ADC would be useful in distinguishing breast cancer subtypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting the LOX/hypoxia axis reverses many of the features that make pancreatic cancer deadly: inhibition of LOX abrogates metastasis and enhances drug efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bryan W; Morton, Jennifer P; Pinese, Mark; Saturno, Grazia; Jamieson, Nigel B; McGhee, Ewan; Timpson, Paul; Leach, Joshua; McGarry, Lynn; Shanks, Emma; Bailey, Peter; Chang, David; Oien, Karin; Karim, Saadia; Au, Amy; Steele, Colin; Carter, Christopher Ross; McKay, Colin; Anderson, Kurt; Evans, Thomas R Jeffry; Marais, Richard; Springer, Caroline; Biankin, Andrew; Erler, Janine T; Sansom, Owen J

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. Despite significant advances made in the treatment of other cancers, current chemotherapies offer little survival benefit in this disease. Pancreaticoduodenectomy offers patients the possibility of a cure, but most will die of recurrent or metastatic disease. Hence, preventing metastatic disease in these patients would be of significant benefit. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified a LOX/hypoxia signature associated with poor patient survival in resectable patients. We found that LOX expression is upregulated in metastatic tumors from Pdx1-Cre Kras(G12D/+) Trp53(R172H/+) (KPC) mice and that inhibition of LOX in these mice suppressed metastasis. Mechanistically, LOX inhibition suppressed both migration and invasion of KPC cells. LOX inhibition also synergized with gemcitabine to kill tumors and significantly prolonged tumor-free survival in KPC mice with early-stage tumors. This was associated with stromal alterations, including increased vasculature and decreased fibrillar collagen, and increased infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into tumors. Therefore, LOX inhibition is able to reverse many of the features that make PDAC inherently refractory to conventional therapies and targeting LOX could improve outcome in surgically resectable disease. © 2015 Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. [Clinical-based study of ovarian cancer patients with and without BRCA1/2 genes mutation: clinical features and pedigree analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, T; Yang, J X; Shen, K; Cao, D Y

    2017-01-25

    Objective: To compare the clinical and histological features and prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer from different genetic background, and to make further understanding of the genetic model of BRCA genes used pedigree analysis. Methods: There were 71 patients from 67 independent families enrolled in our study from Apr. 2000 to Jun. 2009 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All exons of BRCA1/2 genes were analyzed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography(DHPLC) followed by direct sequencing, and clinical features of patients were compared by statistical analysis. Pedigree analysis of two families with BRCA genes mutation were performed. Results: The mutation rate of BRCA genes was 28% (20/71). The frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation was 23% (16/71) and 6% (4/71), respectively (P=0.004). Histology types of patients with and without BRCA genes mutation were different. The onset age between patients with and without BRCA genes mutation was similar (52.6 versus 54.6 years old, P=0.393), and tend to be early-onset breast or ovarian cancer in high-risk group. There was no significant difference of platinum-resistant rate, disease free survival and overall survival rate between patients with and without BRCA genes mutation (all P>0.05). According to the pedigree analysis, up to 100% of female offspring inherited pathogenic mutations, and male offspring could be a mutation carrier. Conclusions: The genetic screening and clinical intervention should be performed as early as possible for the members from families at risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. Genetic consulting is important for patients with high-grade papillary serous adenocarcinoma of ovary. It is still unknown that whether the patients with BRCA gene mutations have better prognosis than sporadic ones, and further perspective, randomized controlled trial is still needed.

  8. Early breast cancer detection with digital mammograms using Haar-like features and AdaBoost algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Yang, Clifford; Merkulov, Alex; Bandari, Malavika

    2016-05-01

    The current computer-aided detection (CAD) methods are not sufficiently accurate in detecting masses, especially in dense breasts and/or small masses (typically at their early stages). A small mass may not be perceived when it is small and/or homogeneous with surrounding tissues. Possible reasons for the limited performance of existing CAD methods are lack of multiscale analysis and unification of variant masses. The speed of CAD analysis is important for field applications. We propose a new CAD model for mass detection, which extracts simple Haar-like features for fast detection, uses AdaBoost approach for feature selection and classifier training, applies cascading classifiers for reduction of false positives, and utilizes multiscale detection for variant sizes of masses. In addition to Haar features, local binary pattern (LBP) and histograms of oriented gradient (HOG) are extracted and applied to mass detection. The performance of a CAD system can be measured with true positive rate (TPR) and false positives per image (FPI). We are collecting our own digital mammograms for the proposed research. The proposed CAD model will be initially demonstrated with mass detection including architecture distortion.

  9. SU-F-R-38: Impact of Smoothing and Noise On Robustness of CBCT Textural Features for Prediction of Response to Radiotherapy Treatment of Head and Neck Cancers

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    Bagher-Ebadian, H; Chetty, I; Liu, C; Movsas, B; Siddiqui, F [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the impact of image smoothing and noise on the robustness of textural information extracted from CBCT images for prediction of radiotherapy response for patients with head/neck (H/N) cancers. Methods: CBCT image datasets for 14 patients with H/N cancer treated with radiation (70 Gy in 35 fractions) were investigated. A deformable registration algorithm was used to fuse planning CT’s to CBCT’s. Tumor volume was automatically segmented on each CBCT image dataset. Local control at 1-year was used to classify 8 patients as responders (R), and 6 as non-responders (NR). A smoothing filter [2D Adaptive Weiner (2DAW) with 3 different windows (ψ=3, 5, and 7)], and two noise models (Poisson and Gaussian, SNR=25) were implemented, and independently applied to CBCT images. Twenty-two textural features, describing the spatial arrangement of voxel intensities calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices, were extracted for all tumor volumes. Results: Relative to CBCT images without smoothing, none of 22 textural features extracted showed any significant differences when smoothing was applied (using the 2DAW with filtering parameters of ψ=3 and 5), in the responder and non-responder groups. When smoothing, 2DAW with ψ=7 was applied, one textural feature, Information Measure of Correlation, was significantly different relative to no smoothing. Only 4 features (Energy, Entropy, Homogeneity, and Maximum-Probability) were found to be statistically different between the R and NR groups (Table 1). These features remained statistically significant discriminators for R and NR groups in presence of noise and smoothing. Conclusion: This preliminary work suggests that textural classifiers for response prediction, extracted from H&N CBCT images, are robust to low-power noise and low-pass filtering. While other types of filters will alter the spatial frequencies differently, these results are promising. The current study is subject to Type II errors. A much

  10. Background enhancement of mammary glandular tissue on breast dynamic MRI: imaging features and effect on assessment of breast cancer extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2012-07-01

    Just as mammographic breast density influences mammographic sensitivity, the degree of background enhancement in breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may influence the sensitivity of breast MRI. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of background enhancement on the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment using MRI and to assess the correlation between the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment and the kinetic analysis of background enhancement in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Seventy bilateral breast MRI examinations were evaluated to assess the extent of a known primary tumor. Background enhancement was classified into four categories by visual assessment: minimal, mild, moderate, and marked, in the early dynamic phase and in the late dynamic phase. The correlation of the results with histological findings was examined. Background enhancement grade showed a significant tendency to increase during dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. When classifying background enhancement at early dynamic phase, the accuracy of tumor extent assessment by MRI with moderate/marked background enhancement was 60%, which was lower than the 78% accuracy with minimal/mild background enhancement, but not significantly so (p = 0.153). When classifying background enhancement at late dynamic phase, the accuracy with moderate/marked background enhancement was 61%, which was significantly lower than the 83% accuracy with minimal/mild background enhancement (p = 0.034). There was no tumor-size-related bias between the groups (p = 0.089). The degree of background enhancement on breast MRI affects the accuracy of breast cancer extent assessment, especially at late dynamic phase.

  11. Elevated Microsatellite Alterations at Selected Tetranucleotide Repeats (EMAST) and Microsatellite Instability in Patients with Colorectal Cancer and Its Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Park, K U; Kim, D-W; Lhn, M H; Kim, W H; Seo, A N; Chang, H E; Nam, S K; Lee, S Y; Oh, H-K; Kang, S-B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a different type of microsatellite instability (MSI) instability designated 'elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats' (EMAST) has been reported in several neoplasms, but its clinical implications remain unclear. We aimed to determine the relationships among EMAST, MSI and clinicopathologic characteristics, including oncologic outcomes, in colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated 100 sporadic CRC cases subjected to surgery using five markers (MYCL1, D9S242, D20S85, D8S321, and D20S82) for EMAST and the Bethesda panel for MSI status. Immunohistochemical detection of hMSH3, c-erbB2, EGFR and thymidylate synthase was performed. Clinical characteristics and prognostic relevance were assessed. We identified 22 EMAST-positive tumors (22.0%) and 32 MSI-high (MSI-H) tumors (32.0%). EMAST was more frequent in colon cancer than rectal cancer (p=0.033), and associated with MSI-H phenotype (p<0.001), low expression of hMSH3 (p=0.004), and overexpression of thymidylate synthase (p=0.006). Among the 38 MSI-L tumors, only one (4.5%) showed EMAST. Long-term oncologic results in terms of overall and disease-free survival were similar between EMAST and non-EMAST tumors. EMAST is more closely related to MSI-H than MSI-L or MSS status. The clinical and molecular characteristics of EMAST were distinct in terms of tumor location, thymidylate synthase expression, MSI status and hMSH3 expression. Our preliminary findings support the utility of EMAST as a new potential classifier in CRC. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Breast cancer in male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients: is hormone receptor negativity a feature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Zhi Hao; Archampong, David; Gate, Tim

    2015-05-20

    A 41-year-old male-to-female (MtF) transgender patient presented with a symptomatic tender lump in the left breast. There was no family history of breast cancer. She had been receiving estrogen therapy for 14 years to maintain her secondary sexual characteristics. Triple assessment revealed a 13 mm triple-negative grade 3 invasive ductal carcinoma. The tumour was completely excised following a left wide local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy. There was no regional lymph node involvement. She was referred to the oncologist for adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Added Value of Computer-aided CT Image Features for Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis with Small Pulmonary Nodules: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Park, Seyoun; Yan, Rongkai; Lee, Junghoon; Chu, Linda C; Lin, Cheng T; Hussien, Amira; Rathmell, Joshua; Thomas, Brett; Chen, Chen; Hales, Russell; Ettinger, David S; Brock, Malcolm; Hu, Ping; Fishman, Elliot K; Gabrielson, Edward; Lam, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To test whether computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approaches can increase the positive predictive value (PPV) and reduce the false-positive rate in lung cancer screening for small nodules compared with human reading by thoracic radiologists. Materials and Methods A matched case-control sample of low-dose computed tomography (CT) studies in 186 participants with 4-20-mm noncalcified lung nodules who underwent biopsy in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was selected. Variables used for matching were age, sex, smoking status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease status, body mass index, study year of the positive screening test, and screening results. Studies before lung biopsy were randomly split into a training set (70 cancers plus 70 benign controls) and a validation set (20 cancers plus 26 benign controls). Image features from within and outside dominant nodules were extracted. A CAD algorithm developed from the training set and a random forest classifier were applied to the validation set to predict biopsy outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the prediction accuracy of CAD with the NLST investigator's diagnosis and readings from three experienced and board-certified thoracic radiologists who used contemporary clinical practice guidelines. Results In the validation cohort, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for CAD was 0.9154. By default, the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of the NLST investigators were 1.00, 0.00, and 0.43, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and negative predictive value of CAD and the three radiologists' combined reading were 0.95, 0.88, 0.86, and 0.96 and 0.70, 0.69, 0.64, and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion CAD could increase PPV and reduce the false-positive rate in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  14. The effect of visceral obesity on clinicopathological features in patients with endometrial cancer: a retrospective analysis of 200 Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuang; Wen, Hao; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Wu, Xiaohua

    2016-03-11

    To assess the effect of visceral adiposity on clinical and pathological characteristics in patients with endometrial cancer. A retrospective review of medical documentation was performed in surgically treated endometrial cancer patients from January to November 2015 in our institution. The visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured at the level of umbilicus on single-slice computerized tomography. Visceral adiposity (VAT%) was calculated as VAT/(VAT + SAT). A total of 200 cases were included in the study. Median age at diagnosis was 54 years old. Most patients presented with early-stage tumor (86.0% for I + II) and endometrioid histology (90.5%). Positive lymph node occurred in 11.0% (22/200) of the patients with the median number of retrieved nodes as 25 (range, 4-56). The entire population had a median body mass index (BMI) of 24.7 kg/m(2) and median VAT% of 31.89%. BMI correlated with total adipose tissue (correlation coefficient = 0.667, P obese patients tended to be old and post-menopausal (P obese patients were more likely to be old and have positive lymph node as well as extrauterine disease. Grade, lympho-vascular invasion presence and visceral adiposity were predictors of nodal disease.

  15. H-RAS mutation is a key molecular feature of pediatric urothelial bladder cancer. A detailed report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Collazo Lorduy, Ana; Gladoun, Nataliya; Hyun, Grace; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is a rare entity in the pediatric population, with an incidence of less than 0.4% in patients younger than 20 years. These patients overwhelmingly present with non-muscle-invasive low-grade disease and an indolent behavior. The aim was to determine the source of the different natural history between pediatric population and adults; we hypothesized that pediatric bladder cancer may stem from different molecular pathways. Our objective with this descriptive case series was to study the main genes involved in pediatric urothelial bladder carcinoma using immunohistochemical (IHC) and mutational analysis. By studying the genetic alterations and immunophenotype of the most commonly altered genes in bladder urothelial cancer in three pediatric tumors we could gain better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis in this rare disease. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue slides of urothelial bladder tumors from three pediatric patients were retrospectively identified at Columbia University pathology archives (1990-2011) and re-evaluated. FGFR3, H-RAS, and PI3K hotspots mutational analyses were conducted by polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing from the FFPE tissue blocks. IHC analysis was conducted using antibodies against p53, PTEN, RB, EGFR, and HER2. Proliferative rate was assessed by Ki-67 expression. Two patients had low-grade Ta disease, whereas the other tumor was classified as a papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential. None of the lesions recurred. Notably, all specimens showed H-RAS G12V mutation, whereas they were characterized by wild-type FGFR3 and PI3K. Nuclear p53 was not detected, whereas PTEN and RB expression were maintained. EGFR was expressed in the three cases and HER2 was negative. The proliferation rate was very low in all cases. It is difficult to draw strong conclusions from the study of three tumors treated at the same institution and from the same

  16. The differences in ultrasound and clinicopathological features between basal-like and normal-like subtypes of triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyao Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the ultrasound features and clinicopathological characteristics of basal-like subtype of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs.This study was approved by the ethical board of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. The patients' clinicopathological information was available. The ultrasound features of 62 tumors from 62 TNBC patients were interpreted. The immunohistochemical results of cytokertain5/6 (CK5/6 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR were used to classify the tumor into basal-like and normal-like groups. The association of the ultrasound features interpreted by experienced ultrasound doctors with the immunohistochemical classification was studied.Of the 62 TNBC cases, 42 (67.7% exhibited the basal-like phenotype and 20 (32.3% exhibited the normal-like phenotype based on the immunohistochemical CK5/6 and EGFR markers. Of all the tumors, 90.3% were invasive carcinomas. The basal-like tumors were significantly associated with a maximum diameter on ultrasound of more than 20 mm (36, 85.7% (P = 0.0014. The normal-like tumors usually exhibited lateral shadows (15, 75% (P = 0.0115 as well as microlobulated margins (12, 60% (P = 0.0204 compared to the basal-like subtype. Other ultrasound features showed no significant differences between the two groups.Although ultrasound cannot yet be used to differentiate between the basal-like subtype and normal-like subtype of TNBC, ultrasound can be used to provide some useful information to the clinicians.

  17. Quantifying Histological Features of Cancer Biospecimens for Biobanking Quality Assurance Using Automated Morphometric Pattern Recognition Image Analysis Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joshua D.; Simpson, Eleanor R.; Michalowski, Aleksandra M.; Hoover, Shelley B.; Simpson, R. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Biorepository-supported translational research depends on high-quality, well-annotated specimens. Histopathology assessment contributes insight into how representative lesions are for research objectives. Feasibility of documenting histological proportions of tumor and stroma was studied in an effort to enhance information regarding biorepository tissue heterogeneity. Using commercially available software, unique spatial-spectral algorithms were developed for applying automated pattern recognition morphometric image analysis to quantify histologic tumor and nontumor tissue areas in biospecimen tissue sections. Measurements were acquired successfully for 75/75 (100%) lymphomas, 76/77 (98.7%) osteosarcomas, and 60/70 (85.7%) melanomas. The percentage of tissue area occupied by tumor varied among patients and tumor types and was distributed around medians of 94% [interquartile range (IQR)=14%] for lymphomas, 84% for melanomas (IQR=24%), and 39% for osteosarcomas (IQR=44%). Within-patient comparisons from a subset, including multiple individual patient specimens, revealed ≤12% median coefficient of variation (CV) for lymphomas and melanomas. Phenotypic heterogeneity of osteosarcomas resulted in 33% median CV. Uniformly applied, tumor-specific pattern recognition software permits automated tissue-feature quantification. Furthermore, dispersion analyses of area measurements across collections, as well as of multiple specimens from individual patients, support using limited tissue slices to gauge features for some tumor types. Quantitative image analysis automation is anticipated to minimize variability associated with routine biorepository pathologic evaluations and enhance biomarker discovery by helping to guide the selection of study-appropriate specimens. PMID:21966258

  18. Essential roles of FoxM1 in Ras-induced liver cancer progression and in cancer cells with stem cell features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanja, Dragana; Pandey, Akshay; Kiefer, Megan; Wang, Zebin; Chandan, Neha; Carr, Janai R; Franks, Roberta; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Guzman, Grace; Maker, Ajay; Raychaudhuri, Pradip

    2015-08-01

    Overexpression of FoxM1 correlates with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, the Ras-signaling pathway is found to be ubiquitously activated in HCC through epigenetic silencing of the Ras-regulators. We investigated the roles of FoxM1 in Ras-driven HCC, and on HCC cells with stem-like features. We employed a transgenic mouse model that expresses the oncogenic Ras in the liver. That strain was crossed with a strain that harbor floxed alleles of FoxM1 and the MxCre gene that allows conditional deletion of FoxM1. FoxM1 alleles were deleted after development of HCC, and the effects on the tumors were analyzed. Also, FoxM1 siRNA was used in human HCC cell lines to determine its role in the survival of the HCC cells with stem cell features. Ras-driven tumors overexpress FoxM1. Deletion of FoxM1 inhibits HCC progression. There was increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the FoxM1 deleted HCC cells. Moreover, FoxM1 deletion caused a disproportionate loss of the CD44+ and EpCAM+ HCC cells in the tumors. We show that FoxM1 directly activates expression of CD44 in human HCC cells. Moreover, the human HCC cells with stem cell features are addicted to FoxM1 for ROS-regulation and survival. Our results provide genetic evidence for an essential role of FoxM1 in the progression of Ras-driven HCC. In addition, FoxM1 is required for the expression of CD44 in HCC cells. Moreover, FoxM1 plays a critical role in the survival of the HCC cells with stem cell features by regulating ROS. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. SPECIFIC FEATURE OF HORMONAL PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY AND RECURRENT BREAST CANCER AND THEIR ROLE IN THE EFFICIENCY OF CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kozlova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormonal background was studied in 32 menopausal patients who had primary breast cancer (Stage III or its recurrence in the postoperative scar. The patients with the primary process, unlike those with a recurrence, were found to have increased adrenocortical cortisol-forming activity and changed thyroid homeostasis. In both types of the neoplastic process, the blood concentrations of estradi- ol, testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones were disturbed in a substantial number of cases; the distinc- tive feature of the primary process and its recurrence lies in the opposite direction. An association of individual differences in the con- centrations of estradiol and testosterone with the efficiency of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed in patients with recurrent can- cer.

  20. Adverse genomic alterations and stemness features are induced by field cancerization in the microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castven, Darko; Fischer, Michael; Becker, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) commonly develops in chronically damaged liver tissues. The resulting regenerative and inflammatory processes create an adverse milieu that promotes tumor-initiation and progression. A better understanding of the hepatic tumor-microenvironment interaction might infer.......Prognostic significance of the permissive liver microenvironment might be a consequence of a pro-oncogenic field effect that is caused by chronic regenerative processes. Activation of key oncogenic features and immune-response signaling indicates that the cross-talk between tumor and microenvironment might be a promising...... profound therapeutic implications.Integrative whole genome and transcriptome analyses of different tumor regions, the invasive tumor border and tumor-surrounding liver (SL) were performed to identify associated molecular alterations and integrated with our existing HCC database. Expression levels...

  1. Hypermethylation of E-Cadherin and Estrogen Receptor-a Gene Promoter and Its Association with Clinicopathological Features of Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rasti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aberrant methylation of cytosine-guanine dinucleotideislands leads to inactivation of tumor suppressorgenes in breast cancer. Tumor suppressor genes are unmethylatedin normal tissue and often become hypermethylatedduring tumor formation, leading to gene silencing. We investigatedthe association between E-cadherin (CDH1 and estrogenreceptor-α (ESRα gene promoter methylation andmajor clinical and pathological features of breast cancer inIranian women.Methods: DNA was extracted from 67 primary breast tumorsand gene promoter methylation was analyzed by methylationspecificpolymerase chain reaction method.Results: Fifty percent of the samples showed aberrant methylationin at least one of the two tested loci. We detectedCDH1 hypermethylation in 41% of invasive tumors and receptor-α gene hypermethylation in 18% of invasive tumorsamples. We found no association between CDH1 and receptor-α gene hypermethylation (P=0.45. There was a correlationbetween hypermethylation of CDH1 locus and tumorsize ≥5 cm (P=0.019.Conclusion: Our data suggest that the malignant progressionof human ductal and lobular breast carcinoma in Iranianwomen involves a heterogeneous pattern of cytosine-guaninedinucleotide island hypermethylation of the CDH1 gene.

  2. Features a combined surgical treatment in preserving the quality of life in patients with invasive colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Abduzhapparov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the work was to study the effect of combined surgical treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer (RC with the invasion of the organs of the female reproductive system on the quality of life of patients.Materials and methods. Presents the diagnosis and treatment of 134 patients with the RC in age from 21 to 70 years, with the invasion of the organs of the female reproductive system. All patients carried the standard clinical and laboratory tests.Results. Half of the patients (50.7 % of cases T4N1M0 stage of the disease has been diagnosed. In 75 (56.0 % patients with tumor spread into the vagina, and in 16 (11.9 % patients – just a few of the reproductive system. In the study group of 64 patients with the RC, along with surgery on the rectum, combined organ-performed surgery reproductive organs. In the control group all 70 patients was performed hysterectomy with appendages.Conclusions. Quality of life according to the questionnaire MENQOL, was significantly higher in patients with organ-treatment, which showed a decrease in vasomotor and psychological symptoms, as well as smoothing of irregularities in the physical and sexual spheres. Studies have show the validity of the widespread introduction in the oncological practice combined simultaneous operations that preserve the reproductive organs in women with invasive RC, which is especially important for women of reproductive age.

  3. Staging primary breast cancer. Are there tumour pathological features that correlate with a false-negative axillary ultrasound?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S., E-mail: sarahjljohnson@gmail.co [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth International Business Park, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Brown, S.; Porter, G.; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R.; Holgate, C. [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth International Business Park, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To investigate whether the histopathological characteristics of primary breast cancer tumours could predict the likelihood of false-negative axillary ultrasound. Materials and methods: Screening and symptomatic patients were identified from pathology records and imaging and pathology records reviewed. True and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound groups were compared statistically in terms of tumour size, pathological type and grade, lymphovascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Results: Of 155 women with normal ultrasounds, 45 (29%) were node positive at axillary surgery. Breast tumour size was significantly different with the average size smaller in the true-negative group: 21 versus 30 mm (p < 0.02). The histological type varied significantly between the groups, with more lobular carcinomas in the false-negative group [6/110 (5%) versus 6/45 (13%), p < 0.001]. The false-negative group was also more likely to show lymphovascular invasion in the breast [6/110 (5%) versus 14/45 (31%), p < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in tumour grade or ER status. Conclusion: The present study has found significant differences in tumour characteristics between women with true-negative and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound in terms of size, primary tumour histological type and presence of lymphovascular invasion. In particular, axillary ultrasound in primary lobular carcinoma may be less accurate and a negative result is more likely to be spurious than with primary ductal carcinomas.

  4. Clinical features and molecular epidemiology of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes identified by fecal gastrointestinal multiplex nucleic acid amplification in patients with cancer and diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Andrew W; Bhatti, Micah; DuPont, Herbert L; Nataro, James P; Carlin, Lily G; Okhuysen, Pablo C

    2017-11-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes with differing epidemiology and clinical features, are known causes of disease with worldwide occurrence. At a major cancer center in the U.S., we studied patients with cancer and diarrhea for whom a GI Biofire FilmArray multiplex GI panel (BFM) was performed. An enteropathogen was identified in 382 of 2017 (19%) samples distributed across 311 patients. Of these, 60/311(19%) were positive for DEC. Patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) 29/60 (48%) or with a hematologic malignancy 17/60 (28%) accounted for the majority of DEC cases. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, n=35 [58%]), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, n=10 [17%]) and Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC, n=3 [5%]) were the most common DEC identified and peaked in the summer months. Stool cultures confirmed infections in 6/10 (60%) EAEC (five typical AggR + ), and EPEC was recovered in 8/35 (22%) samples (all atypical eaeA + , bfp - ). DEC was identified in 22 cases (37%) that developed diarrhea >48hours after admission suggesting health care acquisition. Chronic infections were found in 2 EPEC and 1 EAEC cases that were tested at 1month or beyond with shedding that ranged from 58 to >125days. Two patients that underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation carried EAEC strains resistant to multiple antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and expressed extended spectrum beta lactamases. While in some instances BFM results were not verified in culture and could represent false positives, DEC pathotypes, especially EPEC and EAEC, caused chronic infections with antimicrobial-resistant strains in a subset of immunosuppressed cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Promoter hypomethylation of NY-ESO-1, association with clinicopathological features and PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chüeh, Anderly C; Liew, Mun-Sem; Russell, Prudence A; Walkiewicz, Marzena; Jayachandran, Aparna; Starmans, Maud H W; Boutros, Paul C; Wright, Gavin; Barnett, Stephen A; Mariadason, John M; John, Thomas

    2017-09-26

    Cancer-Testis antigens (CTA) are immunogenic molecules with normal tissue expression restricted to testes but with aberrant expression in up to 30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Regulation of CTA expression is mediated in part through promoter DNA methylation. Recently, immunotherapy has altered treatment paradigms in NSCLC. Given its immunogenicity and ability to be re-expressed through demethylation, NY-ESO-1 promoter methylation, protein expression and its association with programmed death receptor ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression and clinicopathological features were investigated. Lung cancer cell line demethylation resulting from 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment was associated with both NY-ESO-1 and PD-L1 re-expression in vitro but not increased chemosensitivity. NY-ESO-1 hypomethylation was observed in 15/94 (16%) of patient samples and associated with positive protein expression ( P ESO-1 and PD-L1 expression, despite resultant re-expression of both by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Importantly, NY-ESO-1 hypomethylation was found to be an independent marker of poor prognosis in patients not treated with chemotherapy (HR 3.59, P = 0.003) in multivariate analysis. In patients treated with chemotherapy there were no differences in survival associated with NY-ESO-1 hypomethylation. Collectively, these results provided supporting evidence for the potential use of NY-ESO-1 hypomethylation as a prognostic biomarker in stage 3 NSCLCs. In addition, these data highlight the potential to incorporate demethylating agents to enhance immune activation, in tumours currently devoid of immune infiltrates and expression of immune checkpoint genes.

  6. Direct-Conversion Molecular Breast Imaging of Invasive Breast Cancer: Imaging Features, Extent of Invasive Disease, and Comparison Between Invasive Ductal and Lobular Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N; Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Boughey, Judy C; Rhodes, Deborah J

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the tumor appearance of invasive breast cancer on direct-conversion molecular breast imaging using a standardized lexicon and to determine how often direct-conversion molecular breast imaging identifies all known invasive tumor foci in the breast, and whether this differs for invasive ductal versus lobular histologic profiles. Patients with prior invasive breast cancer and concurrent direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Blinded review of direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations was performed by one of two radiologists, according to a validated lexicon. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings were matched with lesions described on the pathology report to exclude benign reasons for direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and to document direct-conversion molecular breast imaging-occult tumor foci. Associations between direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and tumor histologic profiles were examined using chi-square tests. In 286 patients, 390 invasive tumor foci were present in 294 breasts. A corresponding direct-conversion molecular breast imaging finding was present for 341 of 390 (87%) tumor foci described on the pathology report. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumor foci were more likely to be a mass (40% IDC vs 15% invasive lobular carcinoma [ILC]; p invasive disease in 79.8% of cases and was more likely to do so for IDC than for ILC (86.1% vs 56.7%; p invasive foci in 249 of 286 (87%) patients. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging features of invasive cancer, including lesion type and intensity, differ by histologic subtype. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging is less likely to show all foci of ILC compared with IDC.

  7. Phosphorylation of Sox2 at Threonine 116 is a Potential Marker to Identify a Subset of Breast Cancer Cells with High Tumorigenecity and Stem-Like Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Gopal, Keshav; Wu, Chengsheng; Alshareef, Abdulraheem; Chow, Alexandra; Wu, Fang; Wang, Peng; Ye, Xiaoxia; Bigras, Gilbert; Lai, Raymond

    2018-02-03

    We have previously identified a novel phenotypic dichotomy in breast cancer (BC) based on the response to a SRR2 (Sox2 regulatory region 2) reporter, with reporter responsive (RR) cells being more tumorigenic/stem-like than reporter unresponsive (RU) cells. Since the expression level of Sox2 is comparable between the two cell subsets, we hypothesized that post-translational modifications of Sox2 contribute to their differential reporter response and phenotypic differences. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found Sox2 to be phosphorylated in RR but not RU cells. Threonine 116 is an important phosphorylation site, since transfection of the T116A mutant into RR cells significantly decreased the SRR2 reporter luciferase activity and the RR-associated phenotype. Oxidative stress-induced conversion of RU into RR cells was accompanied by Sox2 phosphorylation at T116 and increased Sox2-DNA binding. In a cohort of BC, we found significant correlations between the proportion of tumor cells immuno-reactive with anti-phosphorylated Sox2T116 and a high tumor grade (p = 0.006), vascular invasion (p = 0.001) and estrogen receptor expression (p = 0.032). In conclusion, our data suggests that phosphorylation of Sox2T116 contributes to the tumorigenic/stem-like features in RR cells. Detection of phospho-Sox2T116 may be useful in identifying a small subset of tumor cells carrying stem-like/tumorigenic features in BC.

  8. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Lian

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. Methods The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. Results The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient. P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG. However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG, intestinal metaplasia (IM and dysplasia (DYS, and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high

  9. Superior cervical ganglion mimicking retropharyngeal adenopathy in head and neck cancer patients: MRI features with anatomic, histologic, and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, S.C.; Karandikar, A.; Goh, J.P.N. [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Ravanelli, M.; Farina, D.; Maroldi, R. [Department of Radiology, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Ling, E.A. [National University of Singapore, Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Tan, T.Y. [Changi General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the unique MRI findings of superior cervical ganglia (SCG) that may help differentiate them from retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLNs). A retrospective review of post-treatment NPC patients from 1999 to 2012 identified three patients previously irradiated for NPC that were suspected of having recurrent nodal disease in retropharyngeal lymph nodes during surveillance MRI. Subsequent surgical exploration revealed enlarged SCG only; no retropharyngeal nodal disease was found. A cadaveric head specimen was also imaged with a 3T MRI before and after dissection. In addition, SCG were also harvested from three cadaveric specimens and subjected to histologic analysis. The SCG were found at the level of the C2 vertebral body, medial to the ICA. They were ovoid on axial images and fusiform and elongated with tapered margins in the coronal plane. T2-weighted (T2W) signal was hyperintense. No central elevated T1-weighted (T1W) signal was seen within the ganglia in non-fat-saturated sequences to suggest the presence of a fatty hilum. Enhancement after gadolinium was present. A central ''black dot'' was seen on axial T2W and post-contrast images in two of the three SCG demonstrated. Histology showed the central black line was comprised of venules and interlacing neurites within the central portion of the ganglion. The SCG can be mistaken for enlarged RPLNs in post-treatment NPC patients. However, there are features which can help differentiate them from RPLNs, preventing unnecessary therapy. These imaging findings have not been previously described. (orig.)

  10. Adverse genomic alterations and stemness features are induced by field cancerization in the microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castven, Darko; Fischer, Michael; Becker, Diana; Heinrich, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Strand, Dennis; Sprinzl, Martin F; Strand, Susanne; Czauderna, Carolin; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Roessler, Stephanie; Weinmann, Arndt; Wörns, Marcus A; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Galle, Peter R; Matter, Matthias S; Lang, Hauke; Marquardt, Jens U

    2017-07-25

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) commonly develops in chronically damaged liver tissues. The resulting regenerative and inflammatory processes create an adverse milieu that promotes tumor-initiation and progression. A better understanding of the hepatic tumor-microenvironment interaction might infer profound therapeutic implications.Integrative whole genome and transcriptome analyses of different tumor regions, the invasive tumor border and tumor-surrounding liver (SL) were performed to identify associated molecular alterations and integrated with our existing HCC database. Expression levels and localization of established CSC markers were assessed in pre-neoplastic lesions and confirmed in two independent patient cohorts using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.Our results indicate that genomic and transcriptomic profiles between SL and different tumor regions are quite distinct. Progressive increase in genetic alterations and activation of pathways related to proliferation as well as apoptosis were observed in the tumor tissue, while activation of stemness markers was present in cirrhotic SL and continuously decreased from pre-neoplastic lesions to HCC. Interestingly, the invasive tumor border was characterized by inflammatory and EMT-related gene sets as well as activation of pro-survival signaling. Consistently, integration of gene expression signatures with two independent HCC databases containing 300 HCCs revealed that border signatures are predictive of HCC patient survival.Prognostic significance of the permissive liver microenvironment might be a consequence of a pro-oncogenic field effect that is caused by chronic regenerative processes. Activation of key oncogenic features and immune-response signaling indicates that the cross-talk between tumor and microenvironment might be a promising therapeutic and/or preventive target.

  11. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...... Java programs called Featureous that addresses this issue. Featureous allows a programmer to easily establish feature-code traceability links and to analyze their characteristics using a number of visualizations. Featureous is an extension to the NetBeans IDE, and can itself be extended by third...

  12. CD133+, CD166+CD44+, and CD24+CD44+ phenotypes fail to reliably identify cell populations with cancer stem cell functional features in established human colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Manuele Giuseppe; Mele, Valentina; Däster, Silvio; Han, Junyi; Heberer, Michael; Cesare Spagnoli, Giulio; Iezzi, Giandomenica

    2012-08-01

    Increasing evidence that cancers originate from small populations of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies and regenerating the original tumor, urges the development of novel CSC-targeted treatments. Screening of new anticancer compounds is conventionally conducted on established tumor cell lines, providing sufficient material for high-throughput studies. Whether tumor cell lines might comprise CSC populations resembling those of primary tumors, however, remains highly debated. We have analyzed the expression of defined phenotypic profiles, including CD133+, CD166+CD44+, and CD24+CD44+, reported as CSC-specific in human primary colorectal cancer (CRC), on a panel of 10 established CRC cell lines and evaluated their correlation with CSC properties. None of the putative CSC phenotypes consistently correlated with stem cell-like features, including spheroid formation ability, clonogenicity, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, and side population phenotype. Importantly, CRC cells expressing putative CSC markers did not exhibit increased survival when treated with chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro or display higher tumorigenicity in vivo. Thus, the expression of CD133 or the coexpression of CD166/CD44 or CD24/CD44 did not appear to reliably identify CSC populations in established CRC cell lines. Our findings question the suitability of cell lines for the screening of CSC-specific therapies and underline the urgency of developing novel platforms for anticancer drug discovery.

  13. Association between clinicopathological features and survival in patients with primary and paired metastatic colorectal cancer and KRAS mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xue-Lian Pang,* Qiao-Xin Li,* Zhi-Ping Ma, Yi Shi, Yu-Qing Ma, Xin-Xia Li, Wen-Li Cui, Wei Zhang Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The KRAS gene mutation is involved in several types of tumors. However, the potential role of the KRAS mutation in human primary and paired metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC among different nationalities is poorly understood. In the present study, we assessed the relationship between KRAS mutation status and overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS in 230 patients with primary and paired metastatic CRC. The KRAS mutation rate in primary CRC tissue was 43.0% (99/230, which was higher than in paired metastatic CRC, which was 31.9% (23/72; P<0.001. Clinicopathologically, the KRAS gene mutation rate was higher in tumors that had infiltrated more deeply (T3, T4 and in lymph node (LN metastases (N1/N2 (P=0.029 and P=0.010, respectively. The KRAS gene status did not differ between the Han and Uyghur nationalities in both primary and metastatic CRC. In 72 paired cases, the KRAS mutation rate in primary CRC was significantly higher than in metastatic CRC (P<0.001 and in metastatic CRC that had infiltrated more deeply (T3, T4 (P=0.034. In the metastatic cases, the KRAS gene mutation rate was higher in patients aged over 65 years (P=0.035. Specifically, KRAS mutation was correlated with a poorer OS and DFS (P=0.004 and P=0.029, respectively. In our study, 35 patients with wild-type KRAS who received cetuximab targeted therapy had a better DFS than patients with mutant KRAS (P=0.029. The results of the current study demonstrate that the KRAS status is significantly associated with infiltrating LN metastases and the TNM stage in primary CRC. In addition, the results show that the KRAS mutation is significantly more common in primary tumors than in paired metastatic CRC, and

  14. Clinicopathological, therapeutic and prognostic features of the triple-negative tumors in moroccan breast cancer patients (experience of Hassan II university hospital in Fez).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasbi, Yousra; Bennis, Sanae; Abbass, Fouad; Znati, Kawtar; Joutei, Khalid Amrani; Amarti, Afaf; Mesbahi, Omar El

    2011-11-16

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a group of breast carcinomas that are negative for expression of hormone receptors (ER, PR) and Her2, we can distinguish between two groups: basal-like (ER-, PR-, Her2-, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6+ and/or Her1+) and unclassified subtype (ER-, PR-, Her2-, Her1- and CK5/6-).The aim of this study is to determine the clinicopathological, histological, therapeutic and prognostic features associated with this type of breast cancer. This is a retrospective study of 366 female breast cancer patients, diagnosed between January 2007 and June 2010 at the Department of Pathology. Epidemiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic and evolutive data were analyzed. OS and DFS rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and a log-rank test to estimate outcome. A total of 64 women were identified as having TNBC (17.5% of all female breast cancer patients), 12.6% were basal-like, 4.9% were unclassified subtype, with a median age of 45 years. The median histological tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. TNBC were most often associated with a high grade, 49.2% grade III (53% for unclassified subtype, 47.6% for basal-like). Vascular invasion was found in 26.6% of cases (22% for unclassified subtype and 28.3% for basal-like). For the lymph node involvement: 51% had positive lymph nodes, and 22.4% had distant metastases. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 18% patients with 26% of complete pathologic response; therefore adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 82%. 98% received anthracycline based regimen and only 30% received taxanes.The Kaplan-Meier curves based showed the lowest survival probability at 3-years (49% of OS, and 39% of DFS). TNBC is associated with young age, high grade tumors, advanced stage at diagnosis, difference chemo response compared to other subtypes, and shortest survival. Critical to optimal future management is accurate identification of truly triple negative disease, and adequately powered prospective TNBC trials to

  15. Clinicopathological, therapeutic and prognostic features of the triple-negative tumors in moroccan breast cancer patients (experience of Hassan II university hospital in Fez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasbi Yousra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is defined as a group of breast carcinomas that are negative for expression of hormone receptors (ER, PR and Her2, we can distinguish between two groups: basal-like (ER-, PR-, Her2-, cytokeratin (CK 5/6+ and/or Her1+ and unclassified subtype (ER-, PR-, Her2-, Her1- and CK5/6-. The aim of this study is to determine the clinicopathological, histological, therapeutic and prognostic features associated with this type of breast cancer. Methods This is a retrospective study of 366 female breast cancer patients, diagnosed between January 2007 and June 2010 at the Department of Pathology. Epidemiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic and evolutive data were analyzed. OS and DFS rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and a log-rank test to estimate outcome. Results A total of 64 women were identified as having TNBC (17.5% of all female breast cancer patients, 12.6% were basal-like, 4.9% were unclassified subtype, with a median age of 45 years. The median histological tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. TNBC were most often associated with a high grade, 49.2% grade III (53% for unclassified subtype, 47.6% for basal-like. Vascular invasion was found in 26.6% of cases (22% for unclassified subtype and 28.3% for basal-like. For the lymph node involvement: 51% had positive lymph nodes, and 22.4% had distant metastases. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 18% patients with 26% of complete pathologic response; therefore adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 82%. 98% received anthracycline based regimen and only 30% received taxanes. The Kaplan-Meier curves based showed the lowest survival probability at 3-years (49% of OS, and 39% of DFS. Conclusion TNBC is associated with young age, high grade tumors, advanced stage at diagnosis, difference chemo response compared to other subtypes, and shortest survival. Critical to optimal future management is accurate identification of truly triple

  16. Phenotypic features and genetic characterization of male breast cancer families: identification of two recurrent BRCA2 mutations in north-east of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miolo GianMaria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer in men is an infrequent occurrence, accounting for ~1% of all breast tumors with an incidence of about 1:100,000. The relative rarity of male breast cancer (MBC limits our understanding of the epidemiologic, genetic and clinical features of this tumor. Methods From 1997 to 2003, 10 MBC patients were referred to our Institute for genetic counselling and BRCA1/2 testing. Here we report on the genetic and phenotypic characterization of 10 families with MBC from the North East of Italy. In particular, we wished to assess the occurrence of specific cancer types in relatives of MBC probands in families with and without BRCA2 predisposing mutations. Moreover, families with recurrent BRCA2 mutations were also characterized by haplotype analysis using 5 BRCA2-linked dinucleotide repeat markers and 8 intragenic BRCA2 polymorphisms. Results Two pathogenic mutations in the BRCA2 gene were observed: the 9106C>T (Q2960X and the IVS16-2A>G (splicing mutations, each in 2 cases. A BRCA1 mutation of uncertain significance 4590C>G (P1491A was also observed. In families with BRCA2 mutations, female breast cancer was more frequent in the first and second-degree relatives compared to the families with wild type BRCA1/2 (31.9% vs. 8.0% p = 0.001. Reconstruction of the chromosome phasing in three families and the analysis of three isolated cases with the IVS16-2A>G BRCA2 mutation identified the same haplotype associated with MBC, supporting the possibility that this founder mutation previously detected in Slovenian families is also present in the North East of our Country. Moreover, analysis of one family with the 9106C>T BRCA2 mutation allowed the identification of common haplotypes for both microsatellite and intragenic polymorphisms segregating with the mutation. Three isolated cases with the same mutation shared the same intragenic polymorphisms and three 5' microsatellite markers, but showed a different haplotype for 3' markers

  17. Câncer ano-reto-cólico - aspectos atuais: I - câncer anal Anal canal and colorectal cancer - current features: I - anal canal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César M. Santos Jr.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A inclusão do tema - câncer anal - nessa revisão, apesar de sua relativa raridade, responde, em parte, ao propósito de chamar atenção para o significativo aumento dessa lesão e sua estreita relação com doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, principalmente causadas pelo vírus do papiloma humano (HPV; seus aspectos nosológicos, sua epidemiologia, sua etiologia multifatorial, seus fatores de riscos, sua prevenção e, em parte, para revelar a definição atual do tratamento.The inclusion of the theme - anal cancer - in this revision, in spite of its relative rarity, it answers, partly, to the purpose of calling attention for the significant increase of that lesion and its narrow relationship with sexually transmissible diseases mainly caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV; its nosologic aspects, epidemiology, etiology, and the multifactorial nature of risk that is associated to the disease, its prevention, and, partly, to reveal the current definition of the treatment.

  18. SU-E-J-256: Predicting Metastasis-Free Survival of Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemo-Radiotherapy by Data-Mining of CT Texture Features of Primary Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, H; Wang, J; Shen, L; Hu, W; Wan, J; Zhou, Z; Zhang, Z [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between computed tomographic (CT) texture features of primary lesions and metastasis-free survival for rectal cancer patients; and to develop a datamining prediction model using texture features. Methods: A total of 220 rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT scans before CRT. The primary lesions on the CT images were delineated by two experienced oncologists. The CT images were filtered by Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (1.0–2.5: from fine to coarse). Both filtered and unfiltered images were analyzed using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis with different directions (transversal, sagittal, and coronal). Totally, 270 texture features with different species, directions and filter values were extracted. Texture features were examined with Student’s t-test for selecting predictive features. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed upon the selected features to reduce the feature collinearity. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression were applied to establish metastasis prediction models. Results: Forty-six of 220 patients developed metastasis with a follow-up time of more than 2 years. Sixtyseven texture features were significantly different in t-test (p<0.05) between patients with and without metastasis, and 12 of them were extremely significant (p<0.001). The Area-under-the-curve (AUC) of ANN was 0.72, and the concordance index (CI) of logistic regression was 0.71. The predictability of ANN was slightly better than logistic regression. Conclusion: CT texture features of primary lesions are related to metastasisfree survival of rectal cancer patients. Both ANN and logistic regression based models can be developed for prediction.

  19. The characteristics of Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells are modified by substrate topography with cell-like features and the polymer surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Hui; Sykes, Peter H; Alkaisi, Maan M; Evans, John J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional in vitro culture studies on flat surfaces do not reproduce tissue environments, which have inherent topographical mechanical signals. To understand the impact of these mechanical signals better, we use a cell imprinting technique to replicate cell features onto hard polymer culture surfaces as an alternative platform for investigating biomechanical effects on cells; the high-resolution replication of cells offers the micro- and nanotopography experienced in typical cell-cell interactions. We call this platform a Bioimprint. Cells of an endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line, Ishikawa, were cultured on a bioimprinted substrate, in which Ishikawa cells were replicated on polymethacrylate (pMA) and polystyrene (pST), and compared to cells cultured on flat surfaces. Characteristics of cells, incorporating morphology and cell responses, including expression of adhesion-associated molecules and cell proliferation, were studied. In this project, we fabricated two different topographies for the cells to grow on: a negative imprint that creates cell-shaped hollows and a positive imprint that recreates the raised surface topography of a cell layer. We used two different substrate materials, pMA and pST. We observed that cells on imprinted substrates of both polymers, compared to cells on flat surfaces, exhibited higher expression of β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase, and cytokeratin-18. Compared to cells on flat surfaces, cells were larger on imprinted pMA and more in number, whereas on pST-imprinted surfaces, cells were smaller and fewer than those on a flat pST surface. This method, which provided substrates in vitro with cell-like features, enabled the study of effects of topographies that are similar to those experienced by cells in vivo. The observations establish that such a physical environment has an effect on cancer cell behavior independent of the characteristics of the substrate. The results support the concept that the physical topography of a cell

  20. Improved visualization of breast cancer features in multifocal carcinoma using phase-contrast and dark-field mammography: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, Susanne; Scherer, Kai; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willer, Konstantin; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Auweter, Sigrid D; Pfeiffer, Franz; Bamberg, Fabian; Hellerhoff, Karin

    2015-12-01

    Conventional X-ray attenuation-based contrast is inherently low for the soft-tissue components of the female breast. To overcome this limitation, we investigate the diagnostic merits arising from dark-field mammography by means of certain tumour structures enclosed within freshly dissected mastectomy samples. We performed grating-based absorption, absolute phase and dark-field mammography of three freshly dissected mastectomy samples containing bi- and multifocal carcinoma using a compact, laboratory Talbot-Lau interferometer. Preoperative in vivo imaging (digital mammography, ultrasound, MRI), postoperative histopathological analysis and ex vivo digital mammograms of all samples were acquired for the diagnostic verification of our results. In the diagnosis of multifocal tumour growth, dark-field mammography seems superior to standard breast imaging modalities, providing a better resolution of small, calcified tumour nodules, demarcation of tumour boundaries with desmoplastic stromal response and spiculated soft-tissue strands extending from an invasive ductal breast cancer. On the basis of selected cases, we demonstrate that dark-field mammography is capable of outperforming conventional mammographic imaging of tumour features in both calcified and non-calcified tumours. Presuming dose optimization, our results encourage further studies on larger patient cohorts to identify those patients that will benefit the most from this promising additional imaging modality. • X-ray dark-field mammography provides significantly improved visualization of tumour features • X-ray dark-field mammography is capable of outperforming conventional mammographic imaging • X-ray dark-field mammography provides imaging sensitivity towards highly dispersed calcium grains.

  1. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT heterogeneity quantification through textural features in the era of harmonisation programs: a focus on lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnon, Charline [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Biologie et Therapies Innovantes des Cancers Localement Agressifs, Universite de Caen Normandie, INSERM, Caen (France); Normandie University, Caen (France); Majdoub, Mohamed; Lavigne, Brice; Visvikis, Dimitris [LaTIM, INSERM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Do, Pascal [Thoracic Oncology, Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Caen (France); Madelaine, Jeannick [Caen University Hospital, Pulmonology Department, Caen (France); Hatt, Mathieu [LaTIM, INSERM UMR 1101, Brest (France); CHRU Morvan, INSERM UMR 1101, Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), Groupe ' Imagerie multi-modalite quantitative pour le diagnostic et la therapie' , Brest (France); Aide, Nicolas [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Biologie et Therapies Innovantes des Cancers Localement Agressifs, Universite de Caen Normandie, INSERM, Caen (France); Normandie University, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France)

    2016-12-15

    Quantification of tumour heterogeneity in PET images has recently gained interest, but has been shown to be dependent on image reconstruction. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the EANM/EARL accreditation program on selected {sup 18}F-FDG heterogeneity metrics. To carry out our study, we prospectively analysed 71 tumours in 60 biopsy-proven lung cancer patient acquisitions reconstructed with unfiltered point spread function (PSF) positron emission tomography (PET) images (optimised for diagnostic purposes), PSF-reconstructed images with a 7-mm Gaussian filter (PSF{sub 7}) chosen to meet European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) 1.0 harmonising standards, and EANM Research Ltd. (EARL)-compliant ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) images. Delineation was performed with fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) algorithm on PSF images and reported on PSF{sub 7} and OSEM ones, and with a 50 % standardised uptake values (SUV){sub max} threshold (SUV{sub max50%}) applied independently to each image. Robust and repeatable heterogeneity metrics including 1st-order [area under the curve of the cumulative histogram (CH{sub AUC})], 2nd-order (entropy, correlation, and dissimilarity), and 3rd-order [high-intensity larger area emphasis (HILAE) and zone percentage (ZP)] textural features (TF) were statistically compared. Volumes obtained with SUV{sub max50%} were significantly smaller than FLAB-derived ones, and were significantly smaller in PSF images compared to OSEM and PSF{sub 7} images. PSF-reconstructed images showed significantly higher SUVmax and SUVmean values, as well as heterogeneity for CH{sub AUC}, dissimilarity, correlation, and HILAE, and a wider range of heterogeneity values than OSEM images for most of the metrics considered, especially when analysing larger tumours. Histological subtypes had no impact on TF distribution. No significant difference was observed between any of the considered metrics (SUV or heterogeneity features) that we

  2. Metastatic brain cancer: prediction of response to whole-brain helical tomotherapy with simultaneous intralesional boost for metastatic disease using quantitative MR imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harish; Bauman, Glenn; Rodrigues, George; Bartha, Robert; Ward, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    The sequential application of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and more targeted stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is frequently used to treat metastatic brain tumors. However, SRS has side effects related to necrosis and edema, and requires separate and relatively invasive localization procedures. Helical tomotherapy (HT) allows for a SRS-type simultaneous infield boost (SIB) of multiple brain metastases, synchronously with WBRT and without separate stereotactic procedures. However, some patients' tumors may not respond to HT+SIB, and would be more appropriately treated with radiosurgery or conventional surgery despite the additional risks and side effects. As a first step toward a broader objective of developing a means for response prediction to HT+SIB, the goal of this study was to investigate whether quantitative measurements of tumor size and appearance (including first- and second-order texture features) on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan acquired prior to treatment could be used to differentiate responder and nonresponder patient groups after HT+SIB treatment of metastatic disease of the brain. Our results demonstrated that smaller lesions may respond better to this form of therapy; measures of appearance provided limited added value over measures of size for response prediction. With further validation on a larger data set, this approach may lead to a means for prediction of individual patient response based on pre-treatment MRI, supporting appropriate therapy selection for patients with metastatic brain cancer.

  3. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion genes in non-small cell lung cancer patients with clinical features associated with EGFR mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaozhang, Zhou; Xiaomei, Lin; Aiping, Zeng; Jianbo, He; Xiangqun, Song; Qitao, Yu

    2012-10-01

    EML4-ALK fusion genes have been recognized as novel "driver mutations" in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). The frequency of EML4-ALK fusions in NSCLC patients who have clinical characteristics related to EGFR mutation remains unknown. We screened 102 Chinese patients with NSCLC based on one or more of the following characteristics: female, no or light smoking history, and adenocarcinoma histology. EML4-ALK fusion genes were identified by RT-PCR, whereas EGFR (Exons 18-21) and KRAS (Exons 1 and 2) mutations were detected by DNA sequencing. Eight specimens (8%) were positive for EML4-ALK fusions, with seven being Variant 1 and one Variant 2. There were 44 (43%) and 17 (16%) patients harboring EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively. Thirty-one (31%) cases were wild type for EML4-ALK, EGFR, and KRAS mutations. Of the eight patients with EML4-ALK, none had an EGFR mutation, whereas a KRAS mutation was detected in one patient. Histologically, five of the EML4-ALK positive tumors were adenocarcinoma and two were mixed adenosquamous carcinoma; only one was a squamous carcinoma. Our data support the conclusion that the EML4-ALK fusion gene defines a new molecular subset of NSCLC with distinct pathologic features. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Improved visualization of breast cancer features in multifocal carcinoma using phase-contrast and dark-field mammography: an ex vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandl, Susanne; Sztrokay-Gaul, Aniko; Auweter, Sigrid D.; Hellerhoff, Karin [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Scherer, Kai; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willer, Konstantin; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Pfeiffer, Franz [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Garching (Germany); Mayr, Doris [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Conventional X-ray attenuation-based contrast is inherently low for the soft-tissue components of the female breast. To overcome this limitation, we investigate the diagnostic merits arising from dark-field mammography by means of certain tumour structures enclosed within freshly dissected mastectomy samples. We performed grating-based absorption, absolute phase and dark-field mammography of three freshly dissected mastectomy samples containing bi- and multifocal carcinoma using a compact, laboratory Talbot-Lau interferometer. Preoperative in vivo imaging (digital mammography, ultrasound, MRI), postoperative histopathological analysis and ex vivo digital mammograms of all samples were acquired for the diagnostic verification of our results. In the diagnosis of multifocal tumour growth, dark-field mammography seems superior to standard breast imaging modalities, providing a better resolution of small, calcified tumour nodules, demarcation of tumour boundaries with desmoplastic stromal response and spiculated soft-tissue strands extending from an invasive ductal breast cancer. On the basis of selected cases, we demonstrate that dark-field mammography is capable of outperforming conventional mammographic imaging of tumour features in both calcified and non-calcified tumours. Presuming dose optimization, our results encourage further studies on larger patient cohorts to identify those patients that will benefit the most from this promising additional imaging modality. (orig.)

  5. La evolución del Índice de Desarrollo Humano del Brasil: 1975-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina el desempeño del índice de desarrollo humano (IDH del Brasil, así como sus indicadores de salud, educación y renta, a lo largo de los informes sobre desarrollo humano publicados por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD. El presente estudio busca completar este análisis haciendo un comparativo de la evolución del IDH del Brasil con el índice de los países de la América Latina y Caribe, entre 1975 y 2004, con base en un conjunto de estadísticas y metodologías pasible de comparación segundo el Informe sobre Desenvolvimiento Humano de 2004

  6. Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 Score Does Not Predict for Adverse Pathologic Features at Radical Prostatectomy or for Progression-free Survival in Clinically Localized, Intermediate- and High-risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, John V; Veruttipong, Darlene; Said, Jonathan W; Reiter, Robert E; Steinberg, Michael L; King, Christopher R; Kishan, Amar U

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether preoperative urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) scores predict for adverse pathologic features (APFs) or progression-free survival (PFS) in men with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). One hundred nine men with intermediate- (n = 52) or high-risk (n = 57) PCa who underwent RP were retrospectively identified. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of PCA3 score with various APFs (eg, extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, etc.). Among 78 men with ≥1 year of follow-up, the association between PCA3 score and PFS was assessed using Cox regression analysis. At RP, 52% of patients had at least 1 APF, and with median follow-up of 2.3 years, overall 3-year PFS was 70%. PCA3 was not a significant predictor of any APF on multivariate analysis (MVA), whereas canonical predictors (eg, biopsy Gleason score and initial prostate-specific antigen) remained predictive of various APFs. No significant predictors for PFS were found on MVA, although certain canonical predictors (eg, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group) were significant predictors of PFS on univariate analysis (UVA). PCA3 score was not a significant predictor of PFS on either UVA or MVA. Unlike in lower risk cohorts, increasing PCA3 score was not associated with any APF in this higher risk cohort, despite enrichment for APFs, nor was it associated with PFS. Notably, multiple known preoperative predictors for APFs were significant on MVA, and multiple predictors were associated with PFS on UVA. Therefore, PCA3 may not be a useful adjunct predictive marker in men with intermediate- or high-risk PCa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... 2009]). Classification accuracies are first measured without performing any feature selection. In the case of Parkinson's,. WDBC, dermatology and colon cancer data, FSICI helps classifiers obtain the best accuracies, whereas for rest of. Table 3. Comparison results of different feature selection algorithms for ...

  8. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  9. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  10. Feature Extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  11. Pre-operative MR evaluation of features that indicate the need of adjuvant therapies in early stage cervical cancer patients. A single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Stefania, E-mail: stefania.rizzo@ieo.it [Department of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Calareso, Giuseppina [Department of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Maccagnoni, Sara; Angileri, Salvatore Alessio [Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, via A.di Rudinì 8, 20142 Milan (Italy); Landoni, Fabio [Division of Gynecology, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Raimondi, Sara; Pasquali, Elena [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Lazzari, Roberta [Division of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [Department of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, via A.di Rudinì 8, 20142 Milan (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Objectives: This study compared the MR measurement of minimum uninvolved cervical stroma and maximum stromal invasion, and the detection of positive lymph nodes with the pathological results. In addition, tumour type and grade were correlated with nodal status and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Patients who underwent surgery and MR at our centre for early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IA1-IIB) were included. Data recorded included: age, date of MR, clinical FIGO (International Federation of Gynacology and Obstetrics) stage, histological type and grade, adjuvant therapy, pre-surgical conisation. MR evaluation included: measurement of the minimum uninvolved stroma, maximum thickness of stromal involvement, presence and site of positive pelvic lymph nodes, calculation of ADC values. Statistical analysis was performed to compare MR and pathological results. The agreement between MR and pathology in measuring depth of stromal invasion was analysed by Bland–Altman plot, calculating the limits of agreement (LoA). Results: 113/217 patients underwent adjuvant therapies. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of MR in evaluation of minimum thickness of uninvolved cervical stroma were 88%, 75%, 70%, 90% and 80%; the same values in evaluation of pelvic positive lymph nodes were 64%, 85%, 65%, 84% and 78%. The mean difference between MR and pathological results in measuring maximum depth of stromal invasion was −0.65 mm (95% LoA: −9.37 mm; 8.07 mm). Depth of stromal invasion was strongly related to positive nodal status (p < 0.001). ADC values (available in 51/217 patients) were not associated with the features assessed. Conclusions: Pre-surgical MR is accurate (80%) in evaluating the minimum thickness of uninvolved cervical stroma; MR measurements of maximum depth of stromal invasion differed ±9 mm from the pathological results in 95% of cases. Furthermore, a strong association was found between

  12. Computer-aided Diagnosis-generated Kinetic Features of Breast Cancer at Preoperative MR Imaging: Association with Disease-free Survival of Patients with Primary Operable Invasive Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Kim, Jin You; Kang, Hyun Jung; Shin, Jong Ki; Kang, Taewoo; Lee, Seok Won; Bae, Young Tae

    2017-07-01

    Purpose To retrospectively investigate the relationship between the kinetic features of breast cancer assessed with computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) at preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and disease-free survival in patients with primary operable invasive breast cancer. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The authors identified 329 consecutive women (mean age, 52.9 years; age range, 32-88 years) with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer who had undergone preoperative MR imaging and surgery between January 2012 and February 2013. All MR images were retrospectively reviewed by using a commercially available CAD system, and the following kinetic parameters were noted for each lesion: peak enhancement (highest pixel signal intensity in the first series obtained after administration of contrast material), angio-volume (total volume of the enhancing lesion), and delayed enhancement profiles (the proportions of washout, plateau, and persistently enhancing component within a tumor). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify the relationship between CAD-generated kinetics and disease-free survival after adjusting for clinical-pathologic variables. Results A total of 36 recurrences developed at a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 15-55 months). CAD-measured peak enhancement at preoperative MR imaging enabled differentiation between patients with and patients without recurrence (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.728; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.676, 0.775; P < .001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that a higher peak enhancement (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.001; 95% CI: 1.000, 1.002; P = .004), a higher washout component (HR = 1.029; 95% CI: 1.005, 1.054; P = .017), and lymphovascular invasion at histopathologic examination (HR = 3.011; 95% CI: 1.302, 6.962; P = .010) were associated with poorer disease

  13. Validation of High-Risk Computed Tomography Features for Detection of Local Recurrence After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peulen, Heike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mantel, Frederick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Guckenberger, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Belderbos, José [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hope, Andrew; Giuliani, Meredith [Department of Radiation Oncology University of Toronto and Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Grills, Inga [Department of Radiation Oncology Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Fibrotic changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are difficult to distinguish from local recurrences (LR), hampering proper patient selection for salvage therapy. This study validates previously reported high-risk computed tomography (CT) features (HRFs) for detection of LR in an independent patient cohort. Methods and Materials: From a multicenter database, 13 patients with biopsy-proven LR were matched 1:2 to 26 non-LR control patients based on dose, planning target volume (PTV), follow-up time, and lung lobe. Tested HRFs were enlarging opacity, sequential enlarging opacity, enlarging opacity after 12 months, bulging margin, linear margin disappearance, loss of air bronchogram, and craniocaudal growth. Additionally, 2 new features were analyzed: the occurrence of new unilateral pleural effusion, and growth based on relative volume, assessed by manual delineation. Results: All HRFs were significantly associated with LR except for loss of air bronchogram. The best performing HRFs were bulging margin, linear margin disappearance, and craniocaudal growth. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the number of HRFs to detect LR had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.0), which was identical to the performance described in the original report. The best compromise (closest to 100% sensitivity and specificity) was found at ≥4 HRFs, with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 85%. A model consisting of only 2 HRFs, bulging margin and craniocaudal growth, resulted in a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 100%, with an AUC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.9-1.0) (HRFs ≥2). Pleural effusion and relative growth did not significantly improve the model. Conclusion: We successfully validated CT-based HRFs for detection of LR after SBRT for early-stage NSCLC. As an alternative to number of HRFs, we propose a simplified model with the combination of the 2 best HRFs

  14. Tumor features and correlation between lymphocyte count and biochemical parameters in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated primary liver cancer with Yin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhiyun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the tumor features and the correlation between lymphocyte count and biochemical parameters in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated primary liver cancer (PLC with yin deficiency. MethodsA total of 148 PLC patients who were treated in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from July 2013 to February 2015 were enrolled and divided into yin-deficiency PLC group (52 patients and non-yin-deficiency PLC group (96 patients. The patients′ general information and laboratory markers were collected, including oncological parameters (alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA19-9, virological parameter (HBsAg, gross type (nodular type, massive type, bulky type, and diffuse type, radiological features (main portal vein diameter, portal vein tumor thrombus, and extrahepatic metastasis, biochemical parameters (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score, white blood cell, red blood cell, platelet (PLT, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin (TBil, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholinesterase, prothrombin time (PT, and prothrombin time activity (PTA, and lymphocyte count. The t-test was applied for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Pearson correlation analysis was applied for correlation analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Spearman correlation analysis was applied for correlation analysis. The chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsHBsAg showed a significant difference between the two groups (χ2=5.658, P=0.017. Compared with the non-yin-deficiency PLC group, the yin-deficiency PLC group had significantly increased CEA and CA19-9 (U=-2.200 and -2.194, both P<0.05, significantly increased MELD score, TBil, and PT (t=2.2, U=-2.0, U=-2

  15. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  16. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  17. EGFR Mutations in Surgically Resected Fresh Specimens from 697 Consecutive Chinese Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Relationships with Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyang Lai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to reveal the true status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after lung resections. EGFR mutations of surgically resected fresh tumor samples from 697 Chinese NSCLC patients were analyzed by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS. Correlations between EGFR mutation hotspots and clinical features were also explored. Of the 697 NSCLC patients, 235 (33.7% patients had tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs sensitive EGFR mutations in 41 (14.5% of the 282 squamous carcinomas, 155 (52.9% of the 293 adenocarcinomas, 34 (39.5% of the 86 adenosquamous carcinomas, one (9.1% of the 11 large-cell carcinomas, 2 (11.1% of the 18 sarcomatoid carcinomas, and 2 (28.6% of the 7 mucoepidermoid carcinomas. TKIs sensitive EGFR mutations were more frequently found in female patients (p < 0.001, non-smokers (p = 0.047 and adenocarcinomas (p < 0.001. The rates of exon 19 deletion mutation (19-del, exon 21 L858R point mutation (L858R, exon 21 L861Q point mutation (L861Q, exon 18 G719X point mutations (G719X, including G719C, G719S, G719A were 43.4%, 48.1%, 1.7% and 6.8%, respectively. Exon 20 T790M point mutation (T790M was detected in 3 squamous carcinomas and 3 adenocarcinomas and exon 20 insertion mutation (20-ins was detected in 2 patients with adenocarcinoma. Our results show the rates of EGFR mutations are higher in all types of NSCLC in Chinese patients. 19-del and L858R are two of the more frequent mutations. EGFR mutation detection should be performed as a routine postoperative examination in Chinese NSCLC patients.

  18. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... 76,690; deaths: 9,480. Read More "Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk ...

  19. Differences in histological features and PD-L1 expression between sporadic microsatellite instability and Lynch-syndrome-associated disease in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Rin; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Iijima, Takeru; Wakaume, Rika; Takao, Misato; Koizumi, Koichi; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Horiguchi, Shin-Ichiro

    2018-01-11

    The field of immunotherapy has recently focused on cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). These cancers include both Lynch-syndrome-associated tumors, which are caused by mismatch repair (MMR) germline mutations, and sporadic MSI tumors, which are mainly attributed to MLH1 promoter methylation. The present study aimed to clarify differences in the histological and PD-L1 expression profiles between these two types of MSI cancers in Japanese patients. Among 908 cases of colorectal cancer treated via surgical resection from 2008 to 2014, we identified 64 MSI cancers, including 36 sporadic MSI and 28 Lynch-syndrome-associated cancers, using a BRAF V600E mutation analysis and MLH1 methylation analysis. Of the latter subgroup, 21 (75%) harbored MMR germline mutations. The following were more frequent with sporadic MSI than with Lynch syndrome associated cancers: poor differentiation (50.0 vs. 7.1%, P = 0.0002), especially solid type (30.6 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.0061); medullary morphology (19.4 and 0%, P = 0.015), Crohn-like lymphoid reaction (50.0 vs. 25.0%, P = 0.042), and PD-L1 expression (25.0 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.034). However, the groups did not differ in terms of the mean invasive front and intratumoral CD8-positive cell densities. In a logistic regression analysis, PD-L1 expression correlated with poor differentiation (odds ratio: 7.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.55-37.7, P = 0.012), but not with the difference between sporadic MSI cancer and Lynch-syndrome-associated cancer (odds ratio: 4.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-45.0, P = 0.176). Therefore, compared with Lynch-syndrome-associated cancers, sporadic MSI cancers are more frequently solid, poorly differentiated medullary cancers that express PD-L1.

  20. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2007, Featuring Tumors of the Brain and Other Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Schymura, Maria J.; Eheman, Christie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Anderson, Robert N.; Ajani, Umed A.; Edwards, Brenda K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The American Cancer Society, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updated information on cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This year’s report highlights brain and other nervous system (ONS) tumors, including nonmalignant brain tumors, which became reportable on a national level in 2004. Methods Cancer incidence data were obtained from the National Cancer Institute, CDC, and NAACCR, and information on deaths was obtained from the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. The annual percentage changes in age-standardized incidence and death rates (2000 US population standard) for all cancers combined and for the top 15 cancers for men and for women were estimated by joinpoint analysis of long-term (1992–2007 for incidence; 1975–2007 for mortality) trends and short-term fixed interval (1998–2007) trends. Analyses of malignant neuroepithelial brain and ONS tumors were based on data from 1980–2007; data on nonmalignant tumors were available for 2004–2007. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Overall cancer incidence rates decreased by approximately 1% per year; the decrease was statistically significant (P cancer incidence. The death rates continued to decrease for both sexes. Childhood cancer incidence rates continued to increase, whereas death rates continued to decrease. Lung cancer death rates decreased in women for the first time during 2003–2007, more than a decade after decreasing in men. During 2004–2007, more than 213 500 primary brain and ONS tumors were diagnosed, and 35.8% were malignant. From 1987–2007, the incidence of neuroepithelial malignant brain and ONS tumors decreased by 0.4% per year in men and women combined. Conclusions The decrease in cancer incidence and mortality reflects progress in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment

  1. Prediction of Low versus High Recurrence Scores in Estrogen Receptor-Positive, Lymph Node-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer on the Basis of Radiologic-Pathologic Features: Comparison with Oncotype DX Test Recurrence Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialani, Vandana; Gaur, Shantanu; Mehta, Tejas S; Venkataraman, Shambhavi; Fein-Zachary, Valerie; Phillips, Jordana; Brook, Alexander; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To review mammographic, ultrasonographic (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and pathologic characteristics of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer and to determine the relationship of these characteristics to Oncotype DX (Genomic Health, Redwood City, Calif) test recurrence scores (ODRS) for breast cancer recurrence. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved retrospective study was performed in a single large academic medical center. The study population included patients with ER-positive, lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer who underwent genomic testing from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013. Imaging features of the tumor were classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon by breast imagers who were blinded to the ODRS. Mammography was performed in 86% of patients, US was performed in 84%, and MR imaging was performed in 33%, including morphologic and kinetic evaluation. Images from each imaging modality were evaluated. Each imaging finding, progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and tumor grade were then individually correlated with ODRS. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences for each imaging feature. Regression analysis was used to calculate prediction of recurrence on the basis of imaging features combined with histopathologic features. Results The 319 patients had a mean age ± standard deviation of 55 years ± 8.7 (range, 31-82 years). Imaging features with a positive correlation with ODRS included a well-circumscribed oval mass (P = .024) at mammography, vascularity (P = .047) and posterior enhancement (P = .004) at US, and lobulated mass (P = .002) at MR imaging. Recurrence scores were predicted by using these features in combination with PR and HER2 status and tumor grade by using the threshold of more than 30 as a high recurrence score. With a regression tree, there

  2. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  3. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  4. [Breast Cancer in Young Women - Correlation of Clinical Histomorphological, and Molecular-genetic Features of Breast Carcinoma in Women Younger than 35 Years of Age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelková, A; Skálová, A; Fínek, J

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the leading type of malignancy in women. For premenopausal women, the disease brings much higher risk as it is usually more aggressive with worse prognosis. In this retrospective study, 92 women treated at the Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy in Pilsen were selected from a basic cohort of 356 women under 35 years of age with breast cancer who were diagnosed between 2006 and 2015. The control group comprised 100 postmenopausal women over 65 years of age who were treated for invasive breast cancer. Overexpression of HER2/neu protein and a triple-negative immunoprofile and basal-like phenotype of cancer were more frequently seen in the women under 35 years of age. In addition, malignant cells were poorly differentiated and more aggressive, and prognostically favourable types were not often seen, in these women. In terms of the course of disease, the outcome was worse for the younger patients, and complete remission was reached less frequently and more cases of advanced disease and death due to the malignancy were detected. The incidence of invasive breast cancer in young women is low, representing around 2% of all cases of the disease, but this group of patients is prognostically very important. The cancers at such a young age are usually more aggressive (higher mitotic activity and higher grade), and prognostically worse types, such as triple-negative or basal-like, are seen significantly more often in younger patients. This retrospective study confirmed this premise. Moreover, breast cancer in young women is more often associated with genetic predisposition (e.g., hereditary mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes) than in older women.Key words: breast cancer - young women - triple negative breast cancer - BRCA mutation - basal-like - tumor-suppressor genes This work was partially supported by the Charles University research fund (project number SVV-2016-260 282). The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest

  5. Amplified 7q21-22 gene MCM7 and its intronic miR-25 suppress COL1A2 associated genes to sustain intestinal gastric cancer features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilzhalagan, Sembulingam; Rathinam, Dhanasekaran; Ganesan, Kumaresan

    2017-06-01

    Frequent amplification of 7q21-22 genomic region is known in gastric cancer. Multiple genes including SHFM1, MCM7, and COL1A2 were reported to be the potential cancer candidate genes of this 20 Mb amplicon. This amplicon has two polycistrionic miRNA clusters and in the present study, miR-106b-25 cluster located in intron-13 of MCM7 was identified to express in gastric tumors. Among the 7q21-22 candidate genes, SHFM1 and MCM7 are expressed in intestinal type gastric tumors, whereas COL1A2 is expressed in diffuse type gastric tumors. Across gastric tumors, miR-25 was identified to co-express with MCM7 and SHFM1. On the other hand, negative correlation was observed between miR-25 and COL1A2 expression. miR-25 originating from MCM7 was found capable of selectively targeting the adjacent gene COL1A2. Silencing of miR-25 was found capable of elevating the expression of COL1A2 and inhibiting E-cadherin expression, revealing the diffuse type gastric cancer suppressive role conferred by miR-25. miR-25 was also found to suppress p53, and activate c-Src revealing its intestinal type gastric cancer associated oncogenic functions. Genome-wide expression profiling upon miR-25 silencing reveals that miR-25 is capable of suppressing 40 genes which are co-expressed with COL1A2, involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis which are the typical diffuse type gastric cancer features. The results clearly demonstrate 7q21-22 amplification, MCM7, and its intronic miR-25 are the major molecular switches involved in the complex oncogenic circuits of gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prospective Evaluation of Infection Episodes in Cancer Patients in a Tertiary Care Academic Center: Microbiological Features and Risk Factors for Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Çalık Başaran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to determine the frequency, type, and etiology of infections and the risk factors for infections and mortality in hospitalized cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled adult cancer patients hospitalized in the internal medicine wards of a tertiary care academic center between January and August 2004. Patients were followed during their hospitalization periods for neutropenia, infections, culture results, and mortality. Results: We followed 473 cancer patients with 818 hospitalization episodes and 384 infection episodes in total. Seventy-nine percent of the infections were nosocomial, and febrile neutropenia (FN was observed in 196 (51% of the infection episodes. Bacteremia was found in 29% of FN episodes and in 8% of nonneutropenic patients. Gram-positive bacteria were the leading cause of bacteremia in both neutropenic and nonneutropenic cases (70% and 58%, respectively. Presence of an indwelling central catheter increased bacteremia risk by 3-fold. The overall mortality rate was 17%, whereas 34% of the patients with bloodstream infections died. Presence of bacteremia and advanced disease stage increased overall mortality by 6.1-fold and 3.7-fold, respectively. Conclusion: Nearly half of the cancer patients developed an infection during their hospital stays, with gram-positive bacteria being the predominant etiologic microorganisms. This demonstrates the changing trends in infections considering that, until 2004, gramnegative bacteria were the most predominant microorganisms among cancer patients in our institute.

  7. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemal, Ahmedin; Simard, Edgar P; Dorell, Christina; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Markowitz, Lauri E; Kohler, Betsy; Eheman, Christie; Saraiya, Mona; Bandi, Priti; Saslow, Debbie; Cronin, Kathleen A; Watson, Meg; Schiffman, Mark; Henley, S Jane; Schymura, Maria J; Anderson, Robert N; Yankey, David; Edwards, Brenda K

    2013-02-06

    The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updates on cancer incidence and death rates and trends in these outcomes for the United States. This year's report includes incidence trends for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination (recommended for adolescents aged 11-12 years). Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the CDC, NCI, and NAACCR, and data on mortality were obtained from the CDC. Long- (1975/1992-2009) and short-term (2000-2009) trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancers among men and among women were examined by joinpoint analysis. Prevalence of HPV vaccination coverage during 2008 and 2010 and of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing during 2010 were obtained from national surveys. Death rates continued to decline for all cancers combined for men and women of all major racial and ethnic groups and for most major cancer sites; rates for both sexes combined decreased by 1.5% per year from 2000 to 2009. Overall incidence rates decreased in men but stabilized in women. Incidence rates increased for two HPV-associated cancers (oropharynx, anus) and some cancers not associated with HPV (eg, liver, kidney, thyroid). Nationally, 32.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.3% to 33.6%) of girls aged 13 to 17 years in 2010 had received three doses of the HPV vaccine, and coverage was statistically significantly lower among the uninsured (14.1%, 95% CI = 9.4% to 20.6%) and in some Southern states (eg, 20.0% in Alabama [95% CI = 13.9% to 27.9%] and Mississippi [95% CI = 13.8% to 28.2%]), where cervical cancer rates were highest and recent Pap testing prevalence was the lowest. The overall trends in declining cancer death rates continue. However, increases in incidence rates for some HPV

  8. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2009, Featuring the Burden and Trends in Human Papillomavirus (HPV)–Associated Cancers and HPV Vaccination Coverage Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updates on cancer incidence and death rates and trends in these outcomes for the United States. This year’s report includes incidence trends for human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated cancers and HPV vaccination (recommended for adolescents aged 11–12 years). Methods Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the CDC, NCI, and NAACCR, and data on mortality were obtained from the CDC. Long- (1975/1992–2009) and short-term (2000–2009) trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancers among men and among women were examined by joinpoint analysis. Prevalence of HPV vaccination coverage during 2008 and 2010 and of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing during 2010 were obtained from national surveys. Results Death rates continued to decline for all cancers combined for men and women of all major racial and ethnic groups and for most major cancer sites; rates for both sexes combined decreased by 1.5% per year from 2000 to 2009. Overall incidence rates decreased in men but stabilized in women. Incidence rates increased for two HPV-associated cancers (oropharynx, anus) and some cancers not associated with HPV (eg, liver, kidney, thyroid). Nationally, 32.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.3% to 33.6%) of girls aged 13 to 17 years in 2010 had received three doses of the HPV vaccine, and coverage was statistically significantly lower among the uninsured (14.1%, 95% CI = 9.4% to 20.6%) and in some Southern states (eg, 20.0% in Alabama [95% CI = 13.9% to 27.9%] and Mississippi [95% CI = 13.8% to 28.2%]), where cervical cancer rates were highest and recent Pap testing prevalence was the lowest. Conclusions The overall trends in declining cancer death rates continue. However, increases

  9. Polycomb-group oncogenes EZH2, BMI1, and RING1 are overexpressed in prostate cancer with adverse pathologic and clinical features.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, G.J.L.H. van; Dukers, D.; Hessels, D.; Kieboom, S.W. van den; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Witjes, J.A.; Otte, A.P.; Meijer, C.J.; Raaphorst, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are involved in maintenance of cell identity and proliferation. The protein EZH2 is overexpressed in disseminated prostate cancer, implicating a role of PcG complexes in tumor progression. In this study, we evaluated the expression of eight members of both

  10. Association of polymorphisms in genes encoding hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 and LHCGR with the risk and clinical features of testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokken, Leon J S; Lundberg-Giwercman, Yvonne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is the most common malignancy in young men. Genetic variants known to be associated with risk of TGCC only partially account for the observed familial risks. We aimed to identify additional polymorphisms associated with risk as well as histological and clinical...

  11. Germ-line TP53 mutations in Finnish cancer families exhibiting features of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusko, P; Castrén, K; Launonen, V; Soini, Y; Pääkkönen, K; Leisti, J; Vähäkangas, K; Winqvist, R

    1999-07-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for a large portion of the inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. It was recently discovered that mutations in these two genes are less common in the Finnish population than expected. Because the genetic background of breast cancer, in particular, is largely obscure, it became necessary to search for mutations in other susceptibility genes. Because seven of our BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative families fulfilled the criteria of either Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) or Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (LFL), we decided to screen them for germ-line TP53 mutations in exons 5-8 using a dual-temperature single-strand conformation polymorphism assay (SSCP). Two missense mutations (Asn235Ser and Tyr220Cys) were identified. The clinical significance of these findings was evaluated by comparison to previously reported germ-line TP53 mutation data, and by using the tumor loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis. In addition, an immunohistochemical analysis of tumor specimens from mutation-positive individuals was performed. Our results suggest that the observed missense mutations confer susceptibility to cancer, and that germ-line TP53 mutations would therefore explain an additional fraction of hereditary breast cancer in Finland.

  12. WE-E-17A-05: Complementary Prognostic Value of CT and 18F-FDG PET Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumor Heterogeneity Features Quantified Through Texture Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desseroit, M; Cheze Le Rest, C; Tixier, F [CHU Poitiers Poitiers (France); INSERM LaTIM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Majdoub, M; Visvikis, D; Hatt, M [INSERM LaTIM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Guillevin, R; Perdrisot, R [CHU Poitiers Poitiers (France)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that CT or 18F-FDG PET intratumor heterogeneity features computed using texture analysis may have prognostic value in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), but have been mostly investigated separately. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential added value with respect to prognosis regarding the combination of non-enhanced CT and 18F-FDG PET heterogeneity textural features on primary NSCLC tumors. Methods: One hundred patients with non-metastatic NSCLC (stage I–III), treated with surgery and/or (chemo)radiotherapy, that underwent staging 18F-FDG PET/CT images, were retrospectively included. Morphological tumor volumes were semi-automatically delineated on non-enhanced CT using 3D SlicerTM. Metabolically active tumor volumes (MATV) were automatically delineated on PET using the Fuzzy Locally Adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) method. Intratumoral tissue density and FDG uptake heterogeneities were quantified using texture parameters calculated from co-occurrence, difference, and run-length matrices. In addition to these textural features, first order histogram-derived metrics were computed on the whole morphological CT tumor volume, as well as on sub-volumes corresponding to fine, medium or coarse textures determined through various levels of LoG-filtering. Association with survival regarding all extracted features was assessed using Cox regression for both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Several PET and CT heterogeneity features were prognostic factors of overall survival in the univariate analysis. CT histogram-derived kurtosis and uniformity, as well as Low Grey-level High Run Emphasis (LGHRE), and PET local entropy were independent prognostic factors. Combined with stage and MATV, they led to a powerful prognostic model (p<0.0001), with median survival of 49 vs. 12.6 months and a hazard ratio of 3.5. Conclusion: Intratumoral heterogeneity quantified through textural features extracted from both CT and FDG PET

  13. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Evaluation of Textural Feature Extraction for Radiotherapy Response Assessment of Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients Using Diffusion Weighted MRI and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y; Wang, C; Horton, J; Chang, Z [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using classic textural feature extraction in radiotherapy response assessment, we studied a unique cohort of early stage breast cancer patients with paired pre - and post-radiation Diffusion Weighted MRI (DWI-MRI) and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Methods: 15 female patients from our prospective phase I trial evaluating preoperative radiotherapy were included in this retrospective study. Each patient received a single-fraction radiation treatment, and DWI and DCE scans were conducted before and after the radiotherapy. DWI scans were acquired using a spin-echo EPI sequence with diffusion weighting factors of b = 0 and b = 500 mm{sup 2} /s, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated. DCE-MRI scans were acquired using a T{sub 1}-weighted 3D SPGR sequence with a temporal resolution of about 1 minute. The contrast agent (CA) was intravenously injected with a 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight dose at 2 ml/s. Two parameters, volume transfer constant (K{sup trans} ) and k{sub ep} were analyzed using the two-compartment Tofts kinetic model. For DCE parametric maps and ADC maps, 33 textural features were generated from the clinical target volume (CTV) in a 3D fashion using the classic gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCOM) and gray level run length matrix (GLRLM). Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine the significance of each texture feature’s change after the radiotherapy. The significance was set to 0.05 with Bonferroni correction. Results: For ADC maps calculated from DWI-MRI, 24 out of 33 CTV features changed significantly after the radiotherapy. For DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters, all 33 CTV features of K{sup trans} and 33 features of k{sub ep} changed significantly. Conclusion: Initial results indicate that those significantly changed classic texture features are sensitive to radiation-induced changes and can be used for assessment of radiotherapy response in breast cancer.

  14. Development of a Compact Wide-Slot Antenna for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Featuring Circular Array Full-View Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Tiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel planar type antenna printed on a high permittivity Rogers’ substrate is proposed for early stage microwave breast cancer detection. The design is based on a p-shaped wide-slot structure with 50 Ω microstrip feeding circuit to eliminate losses of transmission. The design parameters are optimized resulting in a good reflection coefficient at −10 dB from 4.5 to 10.9 GHz. Imaging result using inhomogeneous breast phantom indicates that the proposed antenna is capable of detecting a 5 mm size cancerous tumor embedded inside the fibroglandular region with dielectric contrast between the target and the surrounding materials ranging from 1.7 : 1 to 3.6 : 1.

  15. Quantification of cancer risk of each clinical and ultrasonographic suspicious feature of thyroid nodules: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Paolo; Ianni, Francesca; Rota, Carlo Antonio; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In order to quantify the risk of malignancy of clinical and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules (TNs), we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We did a literature search in MEDLINE for studies published from 1st January 1989 until 31st December 2012. Studies were considered eligible if they investigated the association between at least one clinical/ultrasonographic feature and the risk of malignancy, did not have exclusion criteria for the detected nodules, had histologically confirmed the diagnoses of malignancy, and had a univariable analysis available. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics and outcomes. The meta-analysis included 41 studies, for a total of 29678 TN. A higher risk of malignancy expressed in odds ratio (OR) was found for the following: nodule height greater than width (OR: 10.15), absent halo sign (OR: 7.14), microcalcifications (OR: 6.76), irregular margins (OR: 6.12), hypoechogenicity (OR: 5.07), solid nodule structure (OR: 4.69), intranodular vascularization (OR: 3.76), family history of thyroid carcinoma (OR: 2.29), nodule size ≥4 cm (OR: 1.63), single nodule (OR: 1.43), history of head/neck irradiation (OR: 1.29), and male gender (OR: 1.22). Interestingly, meta-regression analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for hypoechoic nodules in iodine-sufficient than in iodine-deficient geographical areas. The current meta-analysis verified and weighed out each suspicious clinical and ultrasonographic TN feature. The highest risk was found for nodule height greater than width, absent halo sign, and microcalcifications for ultrasonographic features and family history of thyroid carcinoma for clinical features. A meta-analysis-derived grading system of TN malignancy risk, validated on a large prospective cohort, could be a useful tool in TN diagnostic work-up.

  16. The clinical features of papillary thyroid cancer in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients from an area with a high prevalence of Hashimoto’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ling

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to identify the clinicopathological factors of co-existing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC in patients with Hashimoto���s thyroiditis (HT and provide information to aid in the diagnosis of such patients. Methods This study included 6109 patients treated in a university-based tertiary care cancer hospital over a 3-year period. All of the patients were categorised based on their final diagnosis. Several clinicopathological factors, such as age, gender, nodular size, invasive status, central compartment lymph node metastasis (CLNM and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level, were compared between the various groups of patients. Results There were 653 patients with a final diagnosis of HT. More PTC was found in those with HT (58.3%; 381 of 653 than those without HT (2416 of 5456; 44.3%; p Conclusion PTC and HT have a close relationship in this region of highly prevalent HT disease. Based on the results of our study, we hypothesise that long-term HT leads to elevated serum TSH, which is the real risk factor for thyroid cancer.

  17. Do clinical, histological or immunohistochemical primary tumour characteristics translate into different {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT volumetric and heterogeneity features in stage II/III breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David; Martineau, Antoine; Merlet, Pascal [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Majdoub, Mohamed; Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM, UMR 1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Tixier, Florent; Le Rest, Catherine Cheze [Miletrie Hospital, DACTIM, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Poitiers (France); Espie, Marc [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Roquancourt, Anne de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if some features of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET images, including volume and heterogeneity, reflect clinical, histological or immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with stage II or III breast cancer (BC). Included in the present retrospective analysis were 171 prospectively recruited patients with stage II/III BC treated consecutively at Saint-Louis hospital. Primary tumour volumes were semiautomatically delineated on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET images. The parameters extracted included SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and heterogeneity quantified using the area under the curve of the cumulative histogram and textural features. Associations between clinical/histopathological characteristics and {sup 18}F-FDG PET features were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were used to quantify the discriminative power of the features significantly associated with clinical/histopathological characteristics. T3 tumours (>5 cm) exhibited higher textural heterogeneity in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake than T2 tumours (AUC <0.75), whereas there were no significant differences in SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}. Invasive ductal carcinoma showed higher SUV{sub max} values than invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.008) but MATV, TLG and textural features were not discriminative. Grade 3 tumours had higher FDG uptake (AUC 0.779 for SUV{sub max} and 0.694 for TLG), and exhibited slightly higher regional heterogeneity (AUC 0.624). Hormone receptor-negative tumours had higher SUV values than oestrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours, while heterogeneity patterns showed only low-level variation according to hormone receptor expression. HER-2 status was not associated with any of the image features. Finally, SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean} and TLG significantly differed among the three

  18. Feature Selection in Hierarchical Feature Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ristoski, Petar; Paulheim, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection is an important preprocessing step in data mining, which has an impact on both the runtime and the result quality of the subsequent processing steps. While there are many cases where hierarchic relations between features exist, most existing feature selection approaches are not capable of exploiting those relations. In this paper, we introduce a method for feature selection in hierarchical feature spaces. The method first eliminates redundant features along paths in the hier...

  19. Immunohistochemical study of KiSS1 and KiSS1R expression in human primary breast cancer: Association with breast cancer receptor status, proliferation markers and clinicopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzabek, Katarzyna; Koda, Mariusz; Kozlowski, Leszek; Milewski, Robert; Wolczynski, Slawomir

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have raised doubts about the protective role of KiSS1/KiSS1R in breast malignancy progression. However, the role of the KiSS1/KiSS1R system in primary breast cancer remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the biology and invasiveness potential of primary breast cancer through evaluation of KiSS1/KiSS1R protein expression and cellular localization with regard to lymph node metastasis status, receptor status (ERs, PR and HER-2/neu), and expression of aromatase, MMP-9, Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 in primary invasive breast cancer tissues. We showed increased protein expression of both KiSS1/KiSS1R and MMP-9 in the cancerous tissues compared with noncancerous tissue adjacent to the breast tumour. In the studied group of breast cancer samples, we observed a positive correlation between KiSS1 and MMP-9. We also showed a positive correlation between KiSS1R and aromatase expression in all studied breast cancers. We did not notice any associations between system and cell cycle regulators. KiSS1/KiSS1R did not correlate either with Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 or with receptor status. However, we showed higher levels of KiSS1R expression in ERα-negative cases than in ERα-positive cases in patients with lymph node metastasis. Present data do not confirm the protective role of KiSS1/KiSS1R in breast cancer progression, but our results do support the hypothesis that the KiSS1/KiSS1R system is activated even in primary breast cancer and sustained during invasion to local lymph nodes.

  20. Down-regulation of UHRF1, associated with re-expression of tumor suppressor genes, is a common feature of natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schini-Kerth Valérie B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over-expressed in numerous cancers, Ubiquitin-like containing PHD Ring Finger 1 (UHRF1, also known as ICBP90 or Np95 is characterized by a SRA domain (Set and Ring Associated which is found only in the UHRF family. UHRF1 constitutes a complex with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 via its SRA domain and represses the expression of several tumour suppressor genes (TSGs including p16INK4A, hMLH1, BRCA1 and RB1. Conversely, UHRF1 is regulated by other TSGs such as p53 and p73. UHRF1 is hypothetically involved in a macro-molecular protein complex called "ECREM" for "Epigenetic Code Replication Machinery". This complex would be able to duplicate the epigenetic code by acting at the DNA replication fork and by activating the right enzymatic activity at the right moment. There are increasing evidence that UHRF1 is the conductor of this replication process by ensuring the crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modifications via the SRA and Tandem Tudor Domains, respectively. This cross-talk allows cancer cells to maintain the repression of TSGs during cell proliferation. Several studies showed that down-regulation of UHRF1 expression in cancer cells by natural pharmacological active compounds, favors enhanced expression or re-expression of TSGs, suppresses cell growth and induces apoptosis. This suggests that hindering UHRF1 to exert its role in the duplication of the methylation patterns (DNA + histones is responsible for inducing apoptosis. In this review, we present UHRF1 expression as a target of several natural products and we discuss their underlying molecular mechanisms and benefits for chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

  1. BTG2 Is Down-Regulated and Inhibits Cancer Stem Cell-Like Features of Side Population Cells in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Song; Zhai, Jing-Ming; Zhu, Xiao-Xu; Cai, Jian-Peng; Chen, Wei; Li, Jian-Hui; Yin, Xiao-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Our previous study found that B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) was hyper-methylated and down-regulated in side population (SP) cells of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. However, its clinical significances and biological impacts on HCC SP cells remained unclear. To investigate the prognostic value of BTG2 gene in HCC and its influences on cancer stem cells (CSCs)-like traits of HCC cell line SP cells. BTG2 expression in human HCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues was detected by immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR, and also obtained from GEO and TCGA data. Its prognostic values were assessed. Its biological influences on HCC cell line SP cells were evaluated using cell viability, cell cycle, plate clone-forming assay, and chemoresistance in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. BTG2 expression was significantly suppressed in human HCC compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. BTG2 expression was correlated with TNM stage, tumor size and vascular invasion. Lower expression of BTG2 was associated with poorer overall survival and disease-free survival. In vitro, overexpression of BTG2 substantially suppressed cell proliferation and accumulation of HCC cell line SP cells in G0/G1 phase. Colony formation ability was markedly suppressed by BTG2 overexpression. Moreover, sensitivity of HCC cell line SP cells to 5-fluorouracil was substantially increased by overexpression of BTG2. Furthermore, tumorigenicity of HCC cell line SP cells transfected with BTG2 plasmids was significantly reduced in vivo. BTG2 gene could regulate the CSC-like traits of HCC cell line SP cells, and it represented as a molecular prognostic marker for HCC.

  2. Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and CYR61 in primary breast cancers associated with more advanced features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, D; Nakachi, K; Wang, H; Elashoff, R; Koeffler, H P

    2001-12-15

    To gain insight into the role of the CCN genes in human breast carcinomas, we quantified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), WISP-1, CYR61, and human NOV (NOVH) mRNA expression levels in samples from 44 primary breast tumors and seven normal breasts using quantitative real-time PCR assay. Overexpression of CTGF, WISP-1, CYR61, and NOVH was found in 55 (24 of 44), 46 (20 of 44), 39 (17 of 44), and 11% (5 of 44) primary breast tumors, respectively. Statistical univariate analysis was performed to explore the links between expression of the CCN genes and clinical and pathological parameters. Interestingly, significant associations were found between CTGF expression versus stage, tumor size, lymph node status, and age at diagnosis; WISP-1 mRNA levels versus stage, tumor size, lymph node, and HER-2/neu overexpression; and CYR61 expression with stage, tumor size, lymph node, age, and estrogen receptor expression. In contrast to CTGF, WISP-1, and CYR61, no significant correlation was found between NOVH expression and any of the clinical and pathological factors. Furthermore, multivariate classification tree model analysis showed that stage and lymph node involvement were important for predicting CTGF expression in breast cancers; the stage, age, and HER-2/neu status were key factors for WISP-1 expression; and the stage, age, and estrogen receptor were valuable predictors for CYR61 expression. In summary, these results suggest that CTGF, WISP-1, and CYR61 may play a role in the progression of breast cancer and might serve as a valuable tool for monitoring tumor status of breast cancer patients.

  3. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 re-expression in colorectal cancer alters endothelial cell features through enhanced expression of TSP-1 and ICAM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçer, Sinem; Keşküş, Ayşe Gökçe; Çolakoğlu, Melis; Çimen, Ismail; Yener, Caner; Konu, Özlen; Banerjee, Sreeparna

    2017-11-01

    15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) oxygenates linoleic acid to 13(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE). The enzyme is widely suppressed in different cancers and its re-expression has tumor suppressive effects. 15-LOX-1 has been shown to inhibit neoangiogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC); in the present study we confirm this phenomenon and describe the mechanistic basis. We show that re-expression of 15-LOX-1 in CRC cell lines resulted in decreased transcriptional activity of HIF1α and reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conditioned medium (CM) was obtained from CRC or prostate cancer cell lines re-expressing 15-LOX-1 (15-LOX-1CM). 15-LOX-1CM treated aortic rings from 6-week old C57BL/6 mice showed significantly less vessel sprouting and more organized structure of vascular network. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) incubated with 15-LOX-1CM showed reduced motility, enhanced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and reduced tube formation but no change in proliferation or cell-cycle distribution. HUVECs incubated with 13(S)-HODE partially phenocopied the effects of 15-LOX-1CM, i.e., showed reduced motility and enhanced expression of ICAM-1, but did not reduce tube formation, implying the importance of additional factors. Therefore, a Proteome Profiler Angiogenesis Array was carried out, which showed that Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matrix glycoprotein known to strongly inhibit neovascularization, was expressed significantly more in HUVECs incubated with 15-LOX-1CM. TSP-1 blockage in HUVECs reduced the expression of ICAM-1 and enhanced cell motility, thereby providing a mechanism for reduced angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenic effects of 15-LOX-1 through enhanced expressions of ICAM-1 and TSP-1 are novel findings and should be explored further to develop therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Post traumatic painful shoulder – a delayed clinical feature of upper lobe lung cancer in a 74 year-old male. - case report -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Cristina Arghir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 74 year old Caucasian man, presents with a 6 week history of right sided chest pain including traumatic related painful right shoulder. Shoulder minor contusion was diagnosed and partial managed by symptomatic treatment associated to rehabilitation. The pain was initially eased with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use and finally changed worsening. He has evidence of moderate COPD on spirometry and has been commenced on inhalers. An invasive primitive adenocarcinoma lung cancer was confirmed by chest CT scan and lymphnode biopsy through mediastinoscopy

  5. Zone-size nonuniformity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET regional textural features predicts survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Keelung (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Fang, Yu-Hua Dean [Chang Gung University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taiyuan (China); Lee, Li-yu [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsan, Din-Li [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Hung-Ming [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Liao, Chun-Ta [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Yang, Lan-Yan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Biostatistics Unit, Clinical Trial Center, Taoyuan (China); Hsu, Ching-Han [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan (China); Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China)

    2014-10-23

    The question as to whether the regional textural features extracted from PET images predict prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) remains open. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of regional heterogeneity in patients with T3/T4 OPSCC. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 88 patients with T3 or T4 OPSCC who had completed primary therapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were the main outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis, a standardized uptake value of 2.5 (SUV 2.5) was taken as the cut-off value for the detection of tumour boundaries. A fixed threshold at 42 % of the maximum SUV (SUV{sub max} 42 %) and an adaptive threshold method were then used for validation. Regional textural features were extracted from pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images using the grey-level run length encoding method and grey-level size zone matrix. The prognostic significance of PET textural features was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Cox regression analysis. Zone-size nonuniformity (ZSNU) was identified as an independent predictor of PFS and DSS. Its prognostic impact was confirmed using both the SUV{sub max} 42 % and the adaptive threshold segmentation methods. Based on (1) total lesion glycolysis, (2) uniformity (a local scale texture parameter), and (3) ZSNU, we devised a prognostic stratification system that allowed the identification of four distinct risk groups. The model combining the three prognostic parameters showed a higher predictive value than each variable alone. ZSNU is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC, and may improve their prognostic stratification. (orig.)

  6. Feature Multi-Selection among Subjective Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sabato, Sivan; Kalai, Adam

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with subjective, noisy, or otherwise nebulous features, the "wisdom of crowds" suggests that one may benefit from multiple judgments of the same feature on the same object. We give theoretically-motivated `feature multi-selection' algorithms that choose, among a large set of candidate features, not only which features to judge but how many times to judge each one. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach for linear regression on a crowdsourced learning task of predicting...

  7. Pharmacological features of osthole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarząb, Agata; Grabarska, Aneta; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2017-05-15

    Coumarins are a group of naturally occurring compounds common in the plant world. These substances and their derivatives exhibit a broad range of biological activities. One of the naturally occurring coumarins is osthole, which can most frequently be found in plants of the Apiaceae family. Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson ex Juss. Angelica pubescens Maxim. and Peucedanum ostruthium (L.). It has anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and antiallergic properties; apart from that, inhibition of platelet aggregation has also been proved. The impact of osthole on bone metabolism has been demonstrated; also its hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties have been confirmed. The inhibitory effect of this metokcompound on the development of neurodegenerative diseases has been proved in experimental models. Anticancer features of osthole have been also demonstrated both in vitro on different cell lines, and in vivo using animals xenografts. Osthole inhibited proliferation, motility and invasiveness of tumor cells, which may be associated with the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle slowdown. The exact molecular mechanism of osthole anti-cancer mode of action has not been fully elucidated. A synergistic effect of osthole with other anti-tumor substances has been also reported. Modification of its chemical structure led to the synthesis of many derivatives with significant anticancer effects. To sum up, osthole is an interesting therapeutic option, due to both its direct effect on tumor cells, as well as its neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, there is a chance to use osthole or its synthetic derivatives in the treatment of cancer.

  8. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tobacco uselifestyle choices (such as diet and exercise)family historyfactors in your workplace and environment.How do I know if I am at ... you…Diet Choices to Prevent CancerRead Article >>Healthy Food ChoicesDiet Choices to ... is powered by © 2018 American Academy of Family Physicians

  9. Neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation of rectal cancer with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy: summary of technical and dosimetric features and early clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati Emanuela

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report about initial technical and clinical experience in preoperative radiation treatment of rectal cancer with volumetric modulated arcs with the RapidArc® (RA technology. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients (pts were treated with RA. All showed locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma with stage T2-T4, N0-1. Dose prescription was 44 Gy in 22 fractions (or 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Delivery was performed with single arc with a 6 MV photon beam. Twenty patients were treated preoperatively, five did not receive surgery. Twenty-three patients received concomitant chemotherapy with oral capecitabine. A comparison with a cohort of twenty patients with similar characteristics treated with conformal therapy (3DC is presented as well. Results From a dosimetric point of view, RA improved conformality of doses (CI95% = 1.1 vs. 1.4 for RA and 3DC, presented similar target coverage with lower maximum doses, significant sparing of femurs and significant reduction of integral and mean dose to healthy tissue. From the clinical point of view, surgical reports resulted in a down-staging in 41% of cases. Acute toxicity was limited to Grade 1-2 diarrhoea in 40% and Grade 3 in 8% of RA pts, 45% and 5% of 3DC pts, compatible with known effects of concomitant chemotherapy. RA treatments were performed with an average of 2.0 vs. 3.4 min of 3DC. Conclusion RA proved to be a safe, qualitatively advantageous treatment modality for rectal cancer, showing some improved results in dosimetric aspects.

  10. [Clinical-pathological features and survival in young women with cervical cancer: a retrospective analysis from the instituto nacional de enfermedades neoplásicas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Rossana; Serrano, Mariana; Ruiz, Eloy F; Mantilla, Raul; Valdivieso, Natalia; Olivera, Mivael; Álvarez, Manuel; Mas, Luis; Gomez, Henry L

    2017-01-01

    To determine the clinical and histological characteristics and prognostic factors of cervical cancer (CC) in young Peruvian patients. Retrospective analysis of patients younger than 35 years old diagnosed with CC between 2008 and 2012 in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. 449 patients had epithelial neoplasms. The main histological types were: squamous cell carcinoma (84.9%), adenocarcinoma (11.0%) and adenosquamous carcinoma (2.4%). The average tumor size was 4.98 cm. Anemia (55.7%), elevated creatinine (21.2%) and hydronephrosis (13.8%) were also identified. 82.3% of the patients presented locally advanced disease. Stages IIB (47.4%) and IIIB (25.8%) were the most common. Overall 5-year survival was 59.5% (I, 90.9%; II, 57.5%; III, 42.7% and IV, 13.3%). Elevated creatinine, anemia, tumor size, parametrial involvement and hydronephrosis were factors that affected survival. No significant relation was found between histological type and survival. The presence of anemia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%]: 1.6-4.0) and hydronephrosis (aHR: 1.6; CI 95%: 1.0-4.0) were independently associated with survival; likewise, the parametrial commitment with (aHR: 3.3; CI 95%: 1.5-7.2) or without (aRH: 2.6; CI 95%: 1.3-5.3) extension to the pelvic bone. Cervical cancer in young Peruvians is diagnosed in advanced stages. Overall survival in each stage is similar to the reported in older patients. The importance of conventional prognosis- related factors was confirmed. Anemia was an important independent prognostic factor requiring further investigations.

  11. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  12. SU-F-T-499: Anatomic Features for Selection of Electronic Tissue Compensation Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y; Gan, L; Chen, X; Zhang, T; Ren, G [Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, Chongqing (China); Zhang, M [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers The State University of New, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the correlations between anatomic features and dose-volumetric parameters in 3DCRT and eComp whole breast irradiation and identify the feasibility of anatomic parameters to predict the planning method selection. Methods: We compared the effectiveness between conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and electronic tissue compensation (eComp) for whole breast irradiation. 3DCRT and eComp planning techniques were used to generate treatment plans for 60 whole breast patients, respectively. The planning goal was to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 95% of the prescription dose while minimizing dose to lung, heart, and skin. Statistical analyses were performed between critical organ doses and patient anatomic features, i.e., central lung distance (CLD), maximal heart distance (MHD), maximal heart length (MHL) and breast separation (BS). Results: Comparing to 3DCRT plans, on the average, eComp treatment planning process was about 7 minutes longer, but resulted in lower lung V20Gy, lower mean skin dose, with similar heart dose. The benefits were more pronounced for larger breast patients. To keep the lung V20Gy lower than 20% and mean skin dose lower than 85% of the prescription dose, eComp was the preferred method for patients with more than 2.3 cm CLD or larger than 22.5 cm BS. Conclusion: The study results may be useful in providing a handy criterion in clinical practice allowing us to easily choose between different planning techniques to satisfy the planning goal with minimal increase in complexity and cost. This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 31420103915) and Chongqing Health and Family Planning Commission Project (2015MSXM012).

  13. Interim heterogeneity changes measured using entropy texture features on T2-weighted MRI at 3.0 T are associated with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Shelley; Lerski, Richard [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, Colin [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Michie, Caroline [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Oncology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Evans, Andrew; Vinnicombe, Sarah [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Johnston, Marilyn [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, Alastair M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate whether interim changes in hetereogeneity (measured using entropy features) on MRI were associated with pathological residual cancer burden (RCB) at final surgery in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for primary breast cancer. This was a retrospective study of 88 consenting women (age: 30-79 years). Scanning was performed on a 3.0 T MRI scanner prior to NAC (baseline) and after 2-3 cycles of treatment (interim). Entropy was derived from the grey-level co-occurrence matrix, on slice-matched baseline/interim T2-weighted images. Response, assessed using RCB score on surgically resected specimens, was compared statistically with entropy/heterogeneity changes and ROC analysis performed. Association of pCR within each tumour immunophenotype was evaluated. Mean entropy percent differences between examinations, by response category, were: pCR: 32.8%, RCB-I: 10.5%, RCB-II: 9.7% and RCB-III: 3.0%. Association of ultimate pCR with coarse entropy changes between baseline/interim MRI across all lesions yielded 85.2% accuracy (area under ROC curve: 0.845). Excellent sensitivity/specificity was obtained for pCR prediction within each immunophenotype: ER+: 100%/100%; HER2+: 83.3%/95.7%, TNBC: 87.5%/80.0%. Lesion T2 heterogeneity changes are associated with response to NAC using RCB scores, particularly for pCR, and can be useful across all immunophenotypes with good diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  14. A novel scoring system associating with preoperative platelet/lymphocyte and clinicopathologic features to predict lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Neng; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Pang, Wen-Yang; Arvine, Chandoo; Huang, Yin-Peng; Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Shen, Xian

    2017-03-01

    Precise determination of the lymph node status is critical for determining appropriate treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC). This study attempted to establish a simple, effective risk scoring system to predict lymph node metastasis (LNM) in EGC by investigating the relationship between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and EGC LNM. We retrospectively reviewed 312 operable patients with EGC. The clinical utility of PLR and NLR was tested by receiver operating characteristic curves. The scoring system was developed using independent risk factors. Finally, 89 EGC patients were collected from prospective database to validate the scoring system's accuracy. The optimal PLR and NLR cut-off values were 106 and 2.97, respectively. High NLR (P = 0.009) and PLR (P = 0.007) values were associated with LNM of EGC in univariate analyses, although only high PLR (P = 0.025) was an independent risk factor in multivariate analyses, together with age (P = 0.009), differentiation (P = 0.017), invasive depth (P system's accuracy for retrospective and prospective data was 0.781 (95% confidence interval: 0.721-0.841) and 0.817 (95% confidence interval 0.714-0.920), respectively. Preoperative PLR and NLR correlate with EGC LNM. Our scoring system is reliable, accurate, and effective in predicting LNM in EGC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical features, predictive correlates, and pathophysiology of immune-related adverse events in immune checkpoint inhibitor treatments in cancer: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoest, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Identification and characterization of T-cell regulatory mechanisms, or checkpoints, have led to a wave of drug development aimed at inhibiting these targets to "remove the brakes" of the immune system. This class of anticancer therapeutics, termed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has harnessed the potential of the body's own immune system to recognize cancerous cells and selectively eliminate them, in some cases with alarming success. This new breakthrough, however, has not been without its drawbacks. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are adverse events encountered during treatment with ICIs that are thought to be mediated through the patient's immune system which can manifest with a variety of symptoms which often resemble autoimmunity. These events range widely in presentation and severity and are reported frequently. Here, we will discuss a large selection of case reports in order to inform the clinician, laboratorian, and researcher of the scope of organ systems affected, the severity of the conditions being encountered, and the responses of these events to treatment, as well as explore the use of ICIs in the setting of preexisting autoimmunity. We will also consider the ability to detect autoantibodies before and during irAEs as well as the correlations that irAEs have with clinical outcomes. Finally, we will conclude by exploring the possibility that two distinct pathways may be contributing to the phenomenon of irAEs within this class of drugs, and the role that this might play in future research and clinical practice.

  16. Role of obesity and abdominal shape morphometric features to predict postoperative complications and quality of lymph node dissection of gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HasbahcecI, M; MehdI, E; Malya, F U; Kunduz, E; MemmI, N; YIgman, S; Akcakaya, A

    2017-09-12

    Obesity and abdominal shape morphometric features have been thought to be independent risk factors for surgical outcomes after gastrectomy.A total of 113 patients undergoing surgery for primary gastric adenocarcinoma from June 2011 to January 2015 were retrospectively included. Body mass index, visceral fatty area, anterior-posterior abdominal and transverse diameters and depth ratio at levels of the umbilicus, the gastroesophageal junction and the root of the celiac artery were measured or calculated. Patients were grouped according to body mass index (<25.0 kg/m2or ≥25.0 kg/m2) or median value of these parameters. Surgical outcomes including postoperative complications, total and metastatic lymph node numbers and their ratio were compared.There was a significant association between body mass index and abdominal shape indexes. Body mass index and abdominal shape indexes showed no statistical significance on development of complications. But, lymph node numbers and their ratio were negatively affected by depth ratio at the root of the celiac artery.Our findings showed that gastrectomy with curative intent can be performed safely in patients with higher body mass index and abdominal shape indexes. Therefore, there is no need to perform any change in surgical strategy according to these measurements and calculations.

  17. Overexpression of CDC25B, CDC25C and phospho-CDC25C (Ser216 in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas are associated with malignant features and aggressive cancer phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flørenes Vivi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CDC25 phosphatases are important regulators of the cell cycle. Their abnormal expression detected in a number of tumors implies that their dysregulation is involved in malignant transformation. However, the role of CDC25s in vulvar cancer is still unknown. To shed light on their roles in the pathogenesis and to clarify their prognostic values, expression of CDC25A, CDC25B and CDC25C in a large series of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas were examined. Methods Expression of CDC25A, CDC25B, CDC25C and phosphorylated (phospho-CDC25C (Ser216 were examined in 300 vulvar carcinomas using immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis was utilized to demonstrate CDC25s expression in vulvar cancer cell lines. Kinase and phosphatase assays were performed to exclude cross reactivity among CDC25s isoform antibodies. Results High nuclear CDC25A and CDC25B expression were observed in 51% and 16% of the vulvar carcinomas, respectively, whereas high cytoplasmic CDC25C expression was seen in 63% of the cases. In cytoplasm, nucleus and cytoplasm/nucleus high phospho-CDC25C (Ser216 expression was identified in 50%, 70% and 77% of the carcinomas, respectively. High expression of CDC25s correlated significantly with malignant features, including poor differentiation and infiltration of vessel for CDC25B, high FIGO stage, presence of lymph node metastases, large tumor diameter, poor differentiation for CDC25C and high FIGO stage, large tumor diameter, deep invasion and poor differentiation for phospho-CDC25C (Ser216. In univariate analysis, high expression of phospho-CDC25C (Ser216 was correlated with poor disease-specific survival (p = 0.04. However, such an association was annulled in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our results suggest that CDC25C and phospho-CDC25C (Ser216 play a crucial role and CDC25B a minor role in the pathogenesis and/or progression of vulvar carcinomas. CDC25B, CDC25C and phospho-CDC25C (Ser216 were associated with

  18. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Radmehr; Javanbakht, Javad; Atyabi, Nahid; Bahrami, Alimohammad; Kheradmand, Danial; Safaei, Reyhaneh; Khadivar, Farshid; Hosseini, Ehsan

    2013-08-13

    The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4 mm diameter needle attached to a 8 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4 μm thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage localized in the different

  19. Clinical map document based on XML (cMDX): document architecture with mapping feature for reporting and analysing prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, Okyaz; Hinkelammert, Reemt; Semjonow, Axel; Neumann, Joerg; Abbas, Mahmoud; Koepke, Thomas; Bettendorf, Olaf; Eltze, Elke; Dugas, Martin

    2010-11-15

    The pathology report of radical prostatectomy specimens plays an important role in clinical decisions and the prognostic evaluation in Prostate Cancer (PCa). The anatomical schema is a helpful tool to document PCa extension for clinical and research purposes. To achieve electronic documentation and analysis, an appropriate documentation model for anatomical schemas is needed. For this purpose we developed cMDX. The document architecture of cMDX was designed according to Open Packaging Conventions by separating the whole data into template data and patient data. Analogue custom XML elements were considered to harmonize the graphical representation (e.g. tumour extension) with the textual data (e.g. histological patterns). The graphical documentation was based on the four-layer visualization model that forms the interaction between different custom XML elements. Sensible personal data were encrypted with a 256-bit cryptographic algorithm to avoid misuse. In order to assess the clinical value, we retrospectively analysed the tumour extension in 255 patients after radical prostatectomy. The pathology report with cMDX can represent pathological findings of the prostate in schematic styles. Such reports can be integrated into the hospital information system. "cMDX" documents can be converted into different data formats like text, graphics and PDF. Supplementary tools like cMDX Editor and an analyser tool were implemented. The graphical analysis of 255 prostatectomy specimens showed that PCa were mostly localized in the peripheral zone (Mean: 73% ± 25). 54% of PCa showed a multifocal growth pattern. cMDX can be used for routine histopathological reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens and provide data for scientific analysis.

  20. Clinical features, predictive correlates, and pathophysiology of immune-related adverse events in immune checkpoint inhibitor tre