Sample records for canary islands

  1. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.


    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  2. Recent unrest at Canary Islands' Teide Volcano?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Troll, Valentin R; Pérez, Francisco J; Badiola, Eduardo Rodríguez; Machín, Alex Hansen; Paris, Raphael; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, Stéphane


    ... that the volcanic unrest might culminate in renewed eruptive activity. Such was the situation for Teide volcano, located on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, when a mild seismic swarm during April...

  3. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa


    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  4. The Caridean Crustacea of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.


    The present paper is based mainly on material collected at the Canary Islands during the spring of 1947 by Dr. G. Thorson of Universitetets Zoologiske Museum at Copenhagen and Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. Most of the specimens were collected by

  5. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 9. The amphipod genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea) in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.


    Pseudoniphargus was known from inland stygohabitats in the Iberian peninsula, the Azores, Madeira, N.W. Africa, and Bermuda, but not from the Canary Islands. Systematic sampling in six of the seven larger islands of the latter archipelago has revealed the presence of the genus in Tenerife (4

  6. [The ear of a boxer from Canary islands]. (United States)

    Navarrete, M L; Benítez, J; Vasallo, J R; Osorio, A; Perera, J; Cuyás, J M


    The canary fight is a sport with traditional character deeply-rooted in Spain. The pinna rubbing by bodies contact in hand-to-hand combat produce a typical deformity. We present this pathology not only due to its specific pathogenesis but also as part of the cultural patrimony of Canary Islands (Fortunate Islands).

  7. Volcano-structure of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becerril, L; Galve, J.P; Morales, J.M; Romero, C; Sánchez, N; Martí, J; Galindo, I


    The first complete volcano-structural map of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) has been developed in order to provide a tool for volcano-tectonic analyses and volcanic hazard evaluation on the island...

  8. Epigean freshwater Gammaridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from La Gomera (Canary Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Gabriele; Stock, Jan H.


    Description of two new species of freshwater amphipods from La Gomera (Canary Islands), both found in the higher parts of the island: Chaetogammarus chaetocerus n. sp. and Rhipidogammarus gomeranus n. sp. Both species have distinct Afro- Iberian relationships.

  9. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June,...

  10. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.


    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more

  11. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels (United States)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio


    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  12. Plant invasion and speciation along elevational gradients on the oceanic island La Palma, Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Irl, Severin David Howard; González-Mancebo, Juana Maria


    systematically along three elevational gradients covering large parts of the climatic range of La Palma, Canary Islands. Results: Species richness was negatively correlated with elevation, while the percentage of Canary endemic species showed a positive relationship. However, the percentage of Canary...... from high elevations indicating directional ecological filtering. Increasing ecological isolation with elevation drives diversification and thus increased percentages of Canary endemics. The best preserved eastern transect, including mature laurel forests is an exception. The high percentage of Canary......-Madeira endemics indicates the cloud forest’s environmental uniqueness – and thus ecological isolation - beyond the Macaronesian islands....

  13. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars


    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  14. (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from the Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Osmundea is a strongly supported monophyletic group within the Laurencia complex and shows a disjunct distribution occurring in the North-East and South-West Pacific, the Indian and Atlantic oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Its phenotypic plasticity on the Canary Islands may be the result of the high ...

  15. Canary Islands (Spain): Their Importance in NATO’s Strategy. (United States)


    in the western approach to the Strait, and over the cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the northern coast of Africa, although these are not included in...change to give rise to a clear threat against Spain. The two Spanish cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla, and the Canary Islands in front of...Islands and the cities of Ceuta and Melilla, 15 ~ ~~**% *~ %% ~ *%V%* ’%~*%** ***~% %V %’V with the Air Force being responsible for the support of

  16. New Oxidized Zoanthamines from a Canary Islands Zoanthus sp.

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    Francisco Cen-Pacheco


    Full Text Available Three new norzoanthamine-type alkaloids, named 2-hydroxy-11-ketonorzoan thamide B (1, norzoanthamide B (2 and 15-hydroxynorzoanthamine (3, were isolated from Zoanthus sp. specimens collected at the Canary Islands. Their structures were determined by interpretation of NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Relative configurations of their chiral centers were proposed on the basis of ROESY spectra and by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those of the well-known compound, norzoanthamine.

  17. An offshore wind atlas for the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Mederos, A.C. [Zona Eolica Canaria S.A., Veintinueve de Abril, 30, Las Palmas 35007 (Spain); Medina Padron, J.F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas (Spain); Feijoo Lorenzo, A.E. [Departamento de Enxeneria Electrica, Universidade de Vigo, ETSEI, Campus de Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)


    In this paper an analysis of the offshore wind potential in the Canary Islands is presented in the shape of a set of wind maps which constitute an offshore wind atlas. It has been drawn up using data processed from 40 weather stations and satellite. Results from satellite mapping, limited area modelling and mesoscalar modelling have been used by applying the technique known as 'one way nesting'. (author)

  18. The Grammar School at the Cathedral of the Canary Islands (1563-1851) (United States)

    Vera-Cazorla, Maria Jesus


    From 1563 until the death of the last teacher in 1851, there was a prebendary in the Cathedral of the Canary Islands in charge of the education of children. In fact, it could be said that this prebendary was the only continuous secondary school teacher there was in the Canary Islands until the beginning of the nineteenth century when the High…

  19. Radio ECCA: A Distance Learning System in the Canary Islands. DERG Papers, Number 5. (United States)

    Cepeda, Luis Espina

    The Cultural Radio Station of the Canary Islands (Radio ECCA), a distance learning system, is described. Various Spanish institutions have introduced the ECCA system of teaching into their respective provinces by collaborative agreements with Radio ECCA. The total enrollment of ECCA students in Spain (including the Canary Islands) reached 28,505…

  20. Mapping natural radioactivity of soils in the eastern Canary Islands. (United States)

    Arnedo, M A; Rubiano, J G; Alonso, H; Tejera, A; González, A; González, J; Gil, J M; Rodríguez, R; Martel, P; Bolivar, J P


    The Canary Islands archipielago (Spain) comprises seven main volcanic islands and several islets that form a chain extending for around 500 km across the eastern Atlantic, between latitudes 27°N and 30°N, with its eastern edge only 100 km from the NW African coast. The administrative province of Las Palmas comprises the three eastern Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria). An extensive study of terrestrial gamma dose rates in surface soils has been carried out to cover the entire territory of the province (4093 km2). The average outdoor gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above ground is 73 nGyh-1 at Gran Canaria, 32 nGyh-1 at Fuerteventura, and 25 nGyh-1 at Lanzarote. To complete the radiological characterization of this volcanic area, 350 soil samples at 0-5 cm depth were collected to cover all the geologic typologies of the islands. These samples were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry to determine the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The average values obtained were 25.2 Bq/kg, 28.9 Bq/kg, and 384.4 Bq/kg, respectively. Maps of terrestrial gamma activity, effective dose, and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K for the region have been developed through the use of geostatistical interpolation techniques. These maps are in accord with the geology of the islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochronological constraints on the evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Ubide, Teresa; Sudo, Masafumi; Martí, Joan; Galindo, Inés; Galé, Carlos; Morales, Jose María; Yepes, Jorge; Lago, Marceliano


    New age data have been obtained to time constrain the recent Quaternary volcanism of El Hierro (Canary Islands) and to estimate its recurrence rate. We have carried out 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on samples spanning the entire volcanostratigraphic sequence of the island and 14C geochronology on the most recent eruption on the northeast rift of the island: 2280 ± 30 yr BP. We combine the new absolute data with a revision of published ages onshore, some of which were identified through geomorphological criteria (relative data). We present a revised and updated chronology of volcanism for the last 33 ka that we use to estimate the maximum eruptive recurrence of the island. The number of events per year determined is 9.7 × 10-4 for the emerged part of the island, which means that, as a minimum, one eruption has occurred approximately every 1000 years. This highlights the need of more geochronological data to better constrain the eruptive recurrence of El Hierro.

  2. First Report of Vermamoeba vermiformis in the Island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

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    María Reyes-Batlle


    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are group of protozoa distributed worldwide in many habitats mainly water and soil related sources. Some members of FLA are able to act as opportunistic pathogens and are environmental carriers of other pathogenic agents such as bacteria and viruses. Vermamoeba vermiformis is a highly abundant FLA species in water bodies and has recently gained environmental importance as it acts as a vehicle of many pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila.Cases Report: In this study, water samples were collected from the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain during 2015. El Hierro island was designated by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve and it is currently the less populated of the Canary Islands. The water samples were culture on 2 % Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of FLA. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in the plates incubated at room temperature and 37 ºC. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirming that the isolated strain belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species.Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolation in the island of El Hierro and the second report of this species in the Canary Islands.

  3. Gymnopus beltraniae, a new species of section Vestipedes (Agaricales) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banares, Á.; Antonín, V.; Moreno, G.


    Gymnopus beltraniae, collected on the Canary Islands in ‘monteverde’ forest as well as mixed monteverde/Canary pine forest, is proposed as a new species belonging to sect. Vestipedes subsect. Vestipedes. It is compared with species from North and South America considered to represent the closest

  4. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Cabrera López, Carlos; Juliá Serdá, Gabriel; Cabrera Lacalzada, Cristina; Martín Medina, Ana; Gullón Blanco, José Antonio; García Bello, Miguel Ángel; Cabrera Navarro, Pedro


    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies significantly among the different geographical areas reported. In Spain, two epidemiological studies have shown a prevalence of 9-10% in the population aged over 40. However, neither of these studies included the Canary Islands, which are of interest due to their climatic conditions and high incidence of smoking. A random group of 1,353 subjects aged between 40 and 70years was selected from a sample population of 596,478 individuals. Participants completed a questionnaire and then performed spirometry with bronchodilator testing if obstruction was observed. COPD was diagnosed when the post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio was less than 0.70. The prevalence of COPD was 7.3% (95%CI: 5.5-9.5) and was higher in males than in females (8.7% vs. 6.3%, P=.134). The incidence of smoking was 29.4% (95%CI: 25.4-33.1) and was also higher in males than in females (35.1% vs 25.4%, P<.001). The prevalence of COPD stratified by severity of obstruction, according to the GOLD criteria, was 16% in groupi, 69.9% in groupii, 10.4% in groupiii and 3.3% in groupiv. 71.6% of the subjects were underdiagnosed and 63.5% undertreated. Despite having one of the highest rates of smoking in Spain, the prevalence of COPD in the Canary Islands is lower than in most of the Spanish regions studied. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Description of a new species of Glycymeris (Bivalvia: Arcoidea) from Madeira, Selvagens and Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.; Gulden, G.


    After revision of the Glycymerididae in the collection of the National Museum of Natural history, a new species, Glycymeris vanhengstumi is described here. It occurs off the coast of Madeira, the Selvagens and the Canary Islands.

  6. Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Guerrero, E.R.


    Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands are described and illustrated: Peristenus angifemoralis spec. nov. from Tenerife, and P. gloriae spec. nov. from Gran Canaria and Tenerife.

  7. Aridity, desalination plants and tourism in the eastern Canary Islands

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    José-León García-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the easternmost of the Canary Islands, and are located on the southern edge of the temperate zone, in the subtropical anticyclone belt. With less than 150 mm of rainfall a year, they are classified as an arid zone. Their inhabitants have devised original agricultural systems to combat the aridity, although low yields have historically limited socio-economic development and population growth. These systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the arrival of tourism in the last third of the twentieth century, which improved living standards for the local population but also led to a cultural transition. Nevertheless, these farming systems have left behind an important regional heritage, with an environmental and scenic value that has played an integral role in the latest phase of development. The systems have become a tourist attraction and have been central to the two islands being designated biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This article aims to analyse the main socioeconomic and land-use changes that have come about as a result of desalination technology.

  8. Microplastic and tar pollution on three Canary Islands beaches: An annual study. (United States)

    Herrera, A; Asensio, M; Martínez, I; Santana, A; Packard, T; Gómez, M


    Marine debris accumulation was analyzed from three exposed beaches of the Canary Islands (Lambra, Famara and Las Canteras). Large microplastics (1-5mm), mesoplastics (5-25mm) and tar pollution were assessed twice a month for a year. There was great spatial and temporal variability in the Canary Island coastal pollution. Seasonal patterns differed at each location, marine debris concentration depended mainly of local-scale wind and wave conditions. The most polluted beach was Lambra, a remote beach infrequently visited. The types of debris found were mainly preproduction resin pellets, plastic fragments and tar, evidencing that pollution was not of local origin, but it cames from the open sea. The levels of pollution were similar to those of highly industrialized and contaminated regions. This study corroborates that the Canary Islands are an area of accumulation of microplastics and tar rafted from the North Atlantic Ocean by the southward flowing Canary Current. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

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    Verloove, F.


    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  10. Analysis of hybrid systems for La Graciosa Island (Canary Islands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Departament of Process Engineering Industrial Enviromental Section, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Leon, V. [Red Electrica de Espana, Polygono de la Majuelos 38108 San Cristobal de La Laguna (Spain); Nuez, I. [Departament of Electronic and Automatic Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)


    The main objectives of the study are the integration of the renewable energies, the study of the production of the hydrogen and the utilization in areas where have a high potential of renewable origin sources and a low capacity of drinkable water and energy power. In this work, it has been done the study of the actual energy necessity of the island and it is posed a series of solutions to its energy system. It is analyzed three cases. In the first step, it is exposed an isolated system with renewable energies and hydrogen as energy storage; in the second step, it is studied a system with renewable energies, hydrogen and an electricity-generating group as support; and in the third step, it is analyzed a case with renewable energy and connexion to the network (in this case, it would already not be an isolated system). (authors)

  11. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

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    Morales-Mateos, J. B.


    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  12. A geographical distribution database of the genus Dysdera in the Canary Islands (Araneae, Dysderidae) (United States)

    Macías-Hernández, Nuria; López, Salvador de la Cruz; Roca-Cusachs, Marcos; Oromí, Pedro; Arnedo, Miquel A.


    Abstract The ground-dweller spider genus Dysdera shows very high species richness on the oceanic archipelago of the Canary Islands, providing one of the most outstanding examples of island radiation among spiders, only paralleled by Tetragnatha spiders on the Hawaiian archipelago. A georeferenced database of the 48 Dysdera species occurring in the Canary Islands was assembled to facilitate ongoing and future research on this remarkable lineage. All species are endemic to the archipelago except for the cosmopolitan Dysdera crocata. The dataset consists of 794 distributional records documented from 1971 to 2015, each locality being represented only once per species. Distribution maps are provided for each species, along with basic diversity and distribution information. The database and geographical maps included in this article stand for the most updated, accurate and complete information on the distribution of the spider genus Dysdera in the Canary Islands. PMID:27833424

  13. Boring sponges (Porifera, Clionidae) collected during the "Tydeman" Canary Islands expedition Cancap-II, 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.A.


    INTRODUCTION AND MATERIAL The boring sponges of the Canary Islands have never been studied in any detail, but the boring fauna of this archipelago cannot be expected to be very rich. All islands are volcanic and calcareous rocks are not common. Consequently, in most areas large shells and rhodophyte

  14. Assessing qualitative long-term volcanic hazards at Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Martí, Joan; Bartolini, Stefania; Geyer, Adelina


    Conducting long-term hazard assessment in active volcanic areas is of primary importance for land-use planning and defining emergency plans able to be applied in case of a crisis. A definition of scenario hazard maps helps to mitigate the consequences of future eruptions by anticipating the events that may occur. Lanzarote is an active volcanic island that has hosted the largest (> 1.5 km3 DRE) and longest (6 years) eruption, the Timanfaya eruption (1730-1736), on the Canary Islands in historical times (last 600 years). This eruption brought severe economic losses and forced local people to migrate. In spite of all these facts, no comprehensive hazard assessment or hazard maps have been developed for the island. In this work, we present an integrated long-term volcanic hazard evaluation using a systematic methodology that includes spatial analysis and simulations of the most probable eruptive scenarios.

  15. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu


    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species.

  16. Determinants of specific food consumption in the Canary Islands (Spain). (United States)

    Núñez-González, Eduardo; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Fika-Hernándo, Mariluz; Fernández-Vallhonrat, Blanca; Bravo-Martínez, José; Martín-Ferrer, Juan M; Chas-Barbeito, Cristina; Bautista-Castaño, Inmmaculada


    The consumption of specific functional foods (FF) and some determinants of FF item selection were assessed using a questionnaire administered to 1112 individuals in the Canary Islands (Spain). Food items considered were Milk products: easily digestible milk (or milk low in lactose), milk enriched with vitamins and/or minerals, skimmed milk with soluble fiber, milk with royal jelly, milk with modified fatty acids (omega 3), milk products low in fat, pro-biotic foods (yoghurt and fermented milk) and yoghurt with phytosterols; Cereals: fortified breakfast cereals, wholemeal cereals and energy bars; Drinks: juices and enriched drinks, stimulating drinks and isotonic drinks; DHA-enriched, low cholesterol eggs; Meat products: low salt sausages and cooked low fat ham; Fats: enriched margarine, margarine rich in phytosterols and sunflower oil rich in oleic acid; Condiments: iodated salt. These food items were organized into 7 FF groups (milk products, cereals, fortified drinks, DHA eggs, meat product, fats, condiments). The results indicated that the highest prevalence was fortified drinks (63.6%; 95% CI: 60.7-66.5). Overall FF consumption prevalence was 80.1% (95% CI: 77-83): single FF item consumption being rare. There were significant inter-group relationships, and some group intakes (milk products, cereals and drinks) were related to age but with no overall relationship between consumption and age. The education level was significantly related to the consumption of cereals, drinks, meat products and condiments (χ2 test p = 0.04). Some specific FF item consumption segregated with environment (rural or urban) but with no overall significant relationship between the FF group and environment or gender.

  17. [Estimated prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in the Canary Islands]. (United States)

    Fortea Sevilla, M S; Escandell Bermúdez, M O; Castro Sánchez, J J


    To make an initial estimate of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children in the province of Las Palmas (Spain). Descriptive study was conducted on 1,796 children between the ages of 18 and 30 months of age, all part of the Child Health Surveillance of the Canary Islands, more specifically the province of Las Palmas, with a population of 1,090,605. The parents of children involved completed the Spanish version of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT/ES) in the paediatric clinic. The positive cases were then diagnosed by experts by means of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADIR) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). A 0.61% prevalence of ASDs was determined, similar to that reported in previous studies using the same tools. The ratio was six girls for every five boys. This was contrary to the results of previous studies which suggested more boys than girls were affected. This may have been due to the sample size, which will have to be increased in future studies to confirm this outcome. An increased sample size and also spread to other age ranges should be used in order to obtain a more reliable estimate of prevalence. As regards the gender ratio, this could be a result of the small size of the sample researched, and should therefore be confirmed by further studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. First record of Holocentrus ascensionis (Osbeck, 1765 (Osteichthyes: Holocentridae in the Canary Islands (Central-east Atlantic

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    José J. Castro-Hernández


    Full Text Available The capture of a specimen of Holocentrus ascensionis (Osbeck, 1765, a species previously unrecorded in the Eastern Atlantic north of Gabon, is reported from Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, Central-East Atlantic.

  19. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain)


    J. F. Betancort; A. Lomoschitz; Meco, J.


    Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communicatio...

  20. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine


    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  1. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust


    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  2. Canine Leishmania infantum infection: an imported case in UK after staying in the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Dandrieux, J R S; Sacchini, F; Harms, G; Globokar, M; Balzer, H-J; Pantchev, Nikola


    Leishmaniosis is reported in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, but the Canary Islands are deemed free. In the present communication, we report a clinical leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum in a dog that was presumptively infected during its stay on Tenerife. The result of Leishmania serology (whole-cell based ELISA with L. infantum antigen) was high positive (test score of 82.2 at a cut-off value of 12.0). This result was further confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for Leishmania spp. on a blood sample. A medium load of parasites was detected (48 parasites/ml blood). L. infantum was identified by RFLP analysis of the ITS-1 PCR product. Confirmation that leishmaniosis is endemic to the Canary Islands would further require study on local dogs with no travel history as well as reassessment on frequency and distribution of Phlebotomus spp. as well as Leishmania spp. detection in the sand fly vector. However, this case strongly suggests that L. infantum is present on the Canary Islands. Although transmission seems to be still exceptional, preventive measures in dogs travelling to the Canaries should be considered.

  3. Teachers' Opinions of Student Dropout from Formal Music Education Centres of the Canary Islands (United States)

    Lorenzo Socorro, Sonia; Escandell Bermúdez, María Olga; Castro Sánchez, José Juan


    One hundred and eighty-five teachers were surveyed to determine their opinion of student dropout from formal music centres in the Canary Islands. The goal of the study was to investigate the causes of dropout and strategies to prevent it. Teachers' opinions were collected by means of a questionnaire. The influence of the environment on the…

  4. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species


    Otto, R.; Verloove, F.


    Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands) yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia), Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, D...

  5. In search of greener pastures? Boat-migrants from Senegal to the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeze, M.


    This Masters thesis is the winner of the ASC's Africa Thesis Award 2009. It examines the decision-making process of Senegalese men to make use of the dangerous boat journey to the Canary Islands in an effort to reach Europe. Moving beyond conventional micro- and macro-theories on migration

  6. Revision of the Cerobasis annulata group (Psocoptera: Trogiidae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baz, A.


    The species of the Cerobasis annulata group from the Canary Islands are revised. A key to the seven species is provided; the Holarctic C. annulata is added for comparison. Five new species are described: Cerobasis rosae spec. nov., C. ericaceus spec. nov., C. anagaensis spec. nov., C. longicornis

  7. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.


    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  8. A new species of Sarcodictyon (Anthozoa: Stolonifera) from Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.; Nuñez, J.


    A new species of Stolonifera, Sarcodictyon canariensis, from Tenerife, Canary Islands, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by its large size, the form of its sclerites and internal anatomy. The material was collected at a depth of 95-130 m in the community of Dendrophyllia ramea

  9. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands (United States)

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi


    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  10. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur


    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

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    Amorim António


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times. Results Autochthonous (E-M81 and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267 Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today. Conclusion The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.

  12. Modern pollen rain in Canary Island ecosystems and its implications for the interpretation of fossil records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nascimento, Lea; Nogué, Sandra; Fernández-Lugo, Silvia


    Vegetation history in the Canary Islands, one of the most biodiverse regions within Europe, has recently and for the first time, been the subject of palaeoecological studies. The interpretation of fossil records may be limited by several uncertainties regarding how well the different vegetation...... indicator taxa of the local occurrence of their source plants by their high fidelity and low dispersibility index scores. Extra-regional types (taxa without potential source plants in the Canary Islands) were not detected in our traps. However, several important floristic elements are either over...... types are represented in the pollen rain. In this study we address this key knowledge gap within Canarian vegetation science, taking the island of Tenerife as a model. Based on quantitative and qualitative data we analysed pollen-vegetation relationships to test whether different vegetation types can...

  13. Confirmation of the presence of Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842 on the Canary Islands

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    Sánchez–Guillén R. A.


    Full Text Available The presence of one or two species of damselflies of the genus Ischnura in the Canary Islands has been a matter of debate in the recent years. The first published records listed I. senegalensis as the only zygopteran inhabiting the archipelago, but this proved to be wrong, and until recently, all specimens of Ischnura captured in the islands were unanimously regarded as belonging to I. saharensis. Recent photographic evidence, however, is compatible with the presence of I. senegalensis. In this study, we give morphological and genetic evidence of the presence of I. senegalensis in the Canary Islands, and we discuss the importance of voucher specimens to correctly identify very similar species.

  14. Genetically depauperate in the continent but rich in oceanic islands: Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae in the Canary Islands.

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    Mario Fernández-Mazuecos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population genetic theory holds that oceanic island populations are expected to have lower levels of genetic variation than their mainland counterparts, due to founder effect after island colonization from the continent. Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae is distributed in both the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean region. Numerous phylogenetic results obtained in the last years allow performing further phylogeographic analyses in Cistus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sequences from multiple plastid DNA regions in 47 populations of Cistus monspeliensis from the Canary Islands (21 populations and the Mediterranean basin (26 populations. The time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogeographic analyses yielded the following results: (1 a single, ancestral haplotype is distributed across the Mediterranean, whereas 10 haplotypes in the Canary Islands; (2 four haplotype lineages are present in the Canarian Islands; (3 multiple colonization events across the archipelago are inferred; (4 the earliest split of intraspecific lineages occurred in the Early to Middle Pleistocene (<930,000 years BP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The contrasting pattern of cpDNA variation is best explained by genetic bottlenecks in the Mediterranean during Quaternary glaciations, while the Canarian archipelago acted as a refugium of high levels of genetic diversity. Active colonization across the Canarian islands is supported not only by the distribution of C. monspeliensis in five of the seven islands, but also by our phylogeographic reconstruction in which unrelated haplotypes are present on the same island. Widespread distribution of thermophilous habitats on every island, as those found throughout the Mediterranean, has likely been responsible for the successful colonization of C. monspeliensis, despite the absence of a long-distance dispersal mechanism. This is the first example of a plant species with higher genetic variation among oceanic island

  15. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.


    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  16. Study of the the Tenerife island (Canaries, Spain) unrest via geodetic observations (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Camacho, A. G.; Prieto, J. F.; Rodríguez-Velasco, G.; Tiampo, K. F.; Puglisi, G.; Guglielmino, F.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Mallorqui, J. J.; Tunini, L.; Willert, V.; Charco, M.; Navarrete, D.; Duque, S.; González-Matesanz, J.; Valdés, M.; Carrasco, D.


    After a quite period larger than 90 years from the last eruption, a significantly unusual seismic activity started in April 2004 on the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It marked the first observationally documented unrest in the island with more than 3000 seismic events in the following twenty two months. The geophysical signature of the reactivation includes felt earthquakes, gas emissions, surface displacements and gravity changes. Here we present the observed anomalies detected using geodetic observation (GPS and InSAR) of this unrest up to 2006, and their interpretation in order to shed light on the causative sub-surface processes for the unrest, its time and spatial evolution.

  17. Diet of the extinct Lava mouse Malpaisomys insularis from the Canary Islands: insights from dental microwear (United States)

    Firmat, Cyril; Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Hutterer, Rainer; Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Michaux, Jacques


    Malpaisomys insularis is a mouse-like rodent endemic to the eastern Canary Islands. It became extinct during the fourteenth century. It was a remarkable species living under hyperarid conditions. A dental microwear analysis was performed in order to determine its former diet. The elevated number of fine scratches found in Malpaisomys molars suggests that it consumed a significant part of Poaceae, grass consumption leaving the most distinctive features on dental wear facets. A graminivorous diet with a high amount of abrasive items is in agreement with the broad teeth of Malpaisomys, considered as adapted to grass consumption. However, in the absence of potential competitors over its native range, it is likely that Malpaisomys also foraged on dicots to meet higher nutrient and energetic requirements. The ecology of Malpaisomys is discussed from these results in the context of the desertic climatic conditions of the eastern Canary Islands and with a special concern on its small body size in contrast to other large-sized island murine species such as the giant rats of the central Canary Islands.

  18. On the problem of type 2 diabetes-related mortality in the Canary Islands, Spain. The DARIOS Study. (United States)

    Marcelino-Rodríguez, Itahisa; Elosua, Roberto; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Guembe, María Jesús; Alonso, Tomás Vega; Félix, Francisco Javier; González, Delia Almeida; Ortiz-Marrón, Honorato; Rigo, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Gavrila, Diana; Segura, Antonio; Fitó, Montserrat; Peñafiel, Judith; Marrugat, Jaume; de León, Antonio Cabrera


    To compare diabetes-related mortality rates and factors associated with this disease in the Canary Islands compared with other 10 Spanish regions. In a cross-sectional study of 28,887 participants aged 35-74 years in Spain, data were obtained for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic syndrome. Healthcare was measured as awareness, treatment and control of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Standardized mortality rate ratios (SRR) were calculated for the years 1981 to 2011 in the same regions. Diabetes, obesity, and hypertension were more prevalent in people under the age of 64 in the Canary Islands than in Spain. For all ages, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance (IR) were also more prevalent in those from the Canary Islands. Healthcare parameters were similar in those from the Canary Islands and the rest of Spain. Diabetes-related mortality in the Canary Islands was the highest in Spain since 1981; the maximum SRR was reached in 2011 in men (6.3 versus the region of Madrid; pCanary Islands population than in any other Spanish region. The high mortality and prevalence of IR warrants investigation of the genetic background associated with a higher incidence and poor prognosis for diabetes in this population. The rise in SRR calls for a rapid public health policy response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


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    Roxana - Andreea SARAGEA


    Full Text Available In the context of increased competition on the international tourism market, the assessment of destination image has become a research subject for both managers aiming to improve destination positioning and academic researchers. In order to obtain a competitive advantage, every tourist destination must identify, maintain and reinforce, through appropriate marketing policies, unique items that form and build over time "the destination' s image". Accordingly, the ultimate target of the tourist destinations' promoters should be to achieve a high level of coincidence between the promoted or projected image and the perceived image of the destination, held by potential and actual tourists. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to illustrate promotional techniques and methods used by the authorities of the Canary Islands over the years (projected image, and to identify, through a survey among the citizens of Braşov, the image that they have of the Canary Islands (perceived image.

  20. Status and distribution of breeding seabirds in the northern islets of Lanzarote, Canary Islands


    Rodríguez, Beneharo; León, Leandro de; Martín, Aurelio; Alonso, Jesús; Nogales, Manuel


    We describe the results of a survey of breeding seabirds carried out between 2000 and 2002 in the northern islets of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, with particular emphasis on their status and distribution. For White-faced Stormpetrel Pelagodroma marina, Madeiran Storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro, Lesser Blackhacked Gull Larus [fuscus] graellsii and Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans atlantis, somenew colonies were discovered on different islets. All species have maintained their numbers over the ...

  1. GIS application to holocene volcanism of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Example of El Draguillo Volcano


    Rodríguez González, A.; Pérez Torrado, Francisco J.; Hansen, A.; Fernández Turiel, J. L.; Aulinas, Maritxell


    The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) represent a power ful tool in many scientific fields, included the volcanology. The present work shows its application to the Holocene volcanism of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) with an example of El Draguillo volcano. The inclusion of all the geological data (detailed cartography, geochronology, petrology, geochemistry, etc) of this volcano in a GIS provides a better visualization of its spatial-temporal evolution by means of the use of ...

  2. Carbonate system distribution south of the Canary Islands in spring 2000

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    Iván R. Ucha


    Full Text Available The measurement of the surface molar fraction of CO2 (atmosphere and sea water and water column pHT, total alkalinity, AT, nutrients and oxygen were carried out in spring 2000 at the European Station for Time Series in the Ocean at the Canary Islands (ESTOC and in the area located south of the Canary Islands. The significant eddy field strongly affecting the pattern of the chemical and carbonate system variables is presented and discussed. A mixing model based on the thermohaline properties of the water masses was established. The model explained over 97% of the variability found in the distribution of the chemical variables. Intermediate waters to the south of the Canary Islands show a high contribution of Antarctic waters with about 5% of pure Antarctic Intermediate Water. Moreover, the surface structure affected the atmosphere-ocean carbon dioxide exchange, making the area act as a CO2 sink taking up 9.1 mmol m-2 week-1, corresponding to 0.03 Mt of CO2 which were taken up by the area in a week at the end of March 2000.

  3. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

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    R. Otto


    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  4. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.


    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  5. Women and irregular mobility flows in the European Ultraperiphery: the example of the Canary Islands


    Domínguez Mujica, Josefina; Guerra Talavera, Raquel


    During the last fifty years, the Canary Islands have experienced a radical change in terms of foreign mobility flows. On the strength of the tourist boom that took place during the 1960s and 70s, the Islands changed their traditional emigratory role into an immigratory one. Over the last few years, these migration flows have reached their peak with over 61,000 new foreign residents registered. This development has led to this Ultraperipheral Region having the second highest rate of resident f...

  6. Deformation Analysis Employing the Coherent Pixel Technique and Envisat and ERS Images in Canary Islands (United States)

    Arjona, A.; Monells, D.; Fernandez, J.; Duque, S.; Mallorqui, J.


    Geodetic measurements in volcanic areas are crucial as they serve as input information to the deformation analysis techniques in order to achieve pre-eruption ground displacement predictions. In particular, Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has been proven to be a useful and powerful tool in this kind of areas. We present some results obtained by applying the Coherent Pixel Technique, an Advanced Differential SAR Interferometry algorithm, which reveal surface deformation episodes in Canary Islands (La Palma and Tenerife Island). The study is carried out by employing DInSAR interferograms concerning the 1992-2008 period corresponding to both ascending and descending images acquired by the ENVISAT and ERS sensors.

  7. The diversity of phytoseiid mite communities in the Maghreb comparisons with the fauna of one of the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Serge, Kreiter; Marie-Stephane, Tixier; Latifa, Allam


    Phytoseiid mite diversity was surveyed on wild and cultivated plants in Morocco and Tunisia from 1994 to 2003. Results were associated with those obtained in previous surveys conducted by other authors in Algeria and in one of the Canary Islands (Gran Canaria). They showed, 21 species are known from Tunisia (1 was known before), 53 from Algeria, 41 from Morocco (15 were known before) and 23 from the Canary Island. Eight were known from all these islands before the data published in 2003 concerning only Gran Canaria, which represent a very small area compared to the three large countries, above all to Algeria. Ten species were common to all the four countries, 4 to Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, 1 to Algeria and Tunisia. One species was in Tunisia and Morocco, suggesting that this species might also be present in Algeria, 1 was present in Morocco, Algeria and in the Canary Island. Nine species were found in Algeria and Morocco and one species in Algeria and the Canary Island. The authors detected a new genus and a new species in Tunisia, 8 new species in Morocco, and published data mentioned 6 new species in the Canary Island. The considerations on biogeography were also given.

  8. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.


    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for land-use planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure quality and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterisation of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted on the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyse the past eruptive activity to determine the spatial and temporal probability, and likely style of a future eruption on the island, i.e. the where, when and how. By studying the past eruptive behaviour of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result, through the combination of the most probable scenarios (lava flows, pyroclastic density currents and ashfall), is the first qualitative integrated volcanic hazard map of the island.

  9. Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi (Guerne and Richard, 1890) in the Canary Islands (Copepoda: Calanoida: Paradiaptominae). Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 19

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.


    Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi is widespread on Lanzarote, where it occurred at 22 of the 105 stations. On Fuerteventura it was found at only 2 of the 53 stations, both in the extreme northwest part of the island. It was also found in a reservoir on the south side of the small island of Alegranza.

  10. Bias in density estimations using strip transects in dry open-country environments in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrascal, L. M.


    Full Text Available We studied bias in density estimations derived from strip transects in dry open-country in the Canary Islands. We also present some critical remarks on García-del-Rey’s (2005 paper regarding strip transects and the validity of comparisons based on population densities of birds in scrublands on Tenerife island using two different methods: territory mapping and strip transect sampling. Although strip transects with census belts of 25 m do not account for detectability, this method only slightly undervalues true density estimates, and allowed to detect more than 85% of birds present in poorly vegetated environments in the Canary Islands. Previously published works on distribution and abundance of terrestrial birds in the Canary Islands using the strip transect sampling with belts of 25 m on both sides of the observer, thus provide reliable information that only slightly underestimates true densities.

  11. Constraints on the geometry of the shallow magmatic system of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Aragó, Silvia; Geyer, Adelina; Marti, Joan


    The geological evolution of Tenerife (Canary Island) involves the construction of a basaltic shield ( 3.5 Ma to Present). Towards the end of the main shield-building episode (Old Basaltic Series), volcanic activity migrated to the central part of the island. This lead to the formation of shallow magma chambers and the construction of the Central Volcanic Complex through a series of cycles always characterized by a similar events sequence: 1) continuous ascent of mantle-derived basaltic magmas; 2) formation of discrete shallow phonolitic magma chambers and related eruptions; 3) a final caldera-forming event destroying the constructed volcanic edifice and the associated magmatic reservoir; 4) eruption of basaltic magmas in the central part of the island; and 5) formation of a new shallow magma chamber. As the latter may emplace at a new location, the locus of phonolitic volcanic activity migrated to other sectors of the central part of Tenerife. During the last 1.56 Ma years, this long-term (>200 ka) cycle of phonolitic explosive activity has repeated thrice culminating in the Ucanca, Guajara and Diego Hernandez overlapping vertical collapses; altogether referred to as Las Cañadas Caldera. The present Teide-Pico Viejo complex is interpreted to be the beginning of the fourth cycle. The objective of this work is to determine the geometrical constraints (including volume, depth, location and shape) of the shallow magmatic reservoirs active during each eruptive cycle. For this, we use new fieldwork data collected along Las Cañadas caldera wall where an important amount of phonolitic dykes have been identified. These include cone-sheets, radial and concentric dykes. The cross cutting relationship between the different dyke families indicate several intrusion episodes from diverse magma sources during the construction of the Central Complex. New 3D Finite Element Model results obtained provide a first-order characterization of the different shallow magma chambers from

  12. Survey of diseases caused by Fusarium spp. on palm trees in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Hernández-Hernández


    Full Text Available Between 2006 and 2007, palm trees growing in both gardens and public parks and natural palm groves in the Canary Islands (Spain, and showing symptoms of wilt and dieback, were surveyed. Isolates were recovered from affected tissues of the crowns, leaves and vascular fragments on potato dextrose agar (PDA. After incubation, the Fusarium spp. colonies recovered were single-spored. They were transferred to PDA and Spezieller Nahrstoffarmer Agar (SNA for morphological identification. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Canariensis was confirmed by PCR with the specific primers HK66 and HK67, which amplified a fragment of 567 bp. Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. canariensis was found on 54 Phoenix canariensis trees growing on four islands: Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, La Palma and Tenerife. F. proliferatum occurred on fifteen palms (10 P. canariensis, 1 P. dactylifera, 3 Roystonea regia and 1 Veitchia joannis located in Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Tenerife. Both these Fusarium species were found only in diseased palms from gardens and public parks, but not in natural palm groves. The results show that Fusarium wilt of P. canariensis is common in the Canary Islands and for the first time report F. proliferatum affecting different palm species in those islands.

  13. ECHEYDE. Teide volcano and protohistoric Guanche settlements of Tenerife, Canary islands (United States)

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Barrera Rodriguez, Sergio; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria


    The volcanic origin and activity of the Canary island territory represent one of inhabitants growing factors of the along the recent geology, besides, the rich land fertility due to lava flows, was one of the reasons of their colonization by guanche culture. In general their social structure, based on chiefdom, as the Menceyatos, poor on technologies and strictly related to natural resources, could be considered as a real winning survival strategy face to an active volcanic island. The locational analysis carried out in this brief study shows that the western menceyatos were almost populated despite the possible high risks resulting from eruptions, landslides and lava flows. On the contrary, it seems clear that there was a total adaptation to the landscape, given by the high proportion of occupations in cave. Resilient mechanisms were probably transmitted during local assemblies, as a common strategy to face the events, despite the Spanish chronicles didn't inform of any particular guanche cultural tradition associated with Teide volcano and related hazards. The volcanic eruptions with low explosive features during last 10.000 years did not caused major cultural changes, whereas large ash falls produced a real damages with the consequence of human displacements along the limited island territories. [Canary Islands, Guanche, Volcanic Activity, Resilience

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes. (United States)

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald


    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of the climate on the epidemiology of Dirofilaria immitis in the pet population of the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, J A; Carretón, E; Morchón, R; Silveira-Viera, L; Falcón, Y; Simón, F


    Cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis (heartworm) is a zoonotic vector borne disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis which affects domestic dogs and cats. Two of the seven Canary Islands are historically hyperendemic areas of dirofilariosis, although no epidemiological study has ever been carried out which includes the other islands. The aim of the study was to complete the epidemiological status of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in the canine and feline population throughout all the Canary Islands. 1643 client-owned dogs and 707 client-owned cats were tested for D. immitis antigens (dogs), and anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies (cats). The prevalence of canine dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands was 15.7%, and the seroprevalence of feline dirofilariosis was 18.1%. A remarkable disparity was found when evaluating the results by island separately, which ranged from from 0% in Lanzarote and El Hierro, low prevalences and seroprevalences in Fuerteventura (1.8% and 2.5% in dogs and cats, respectively), to higher prevalences on the other 4 islands; ranging between 15.7% (dogs) and 14.3% (cats) in La Palma 22.5% (dogs) and 24.1% (cats) in Tenerife. In addition, prevalences and seroprevalences were very variable within each island, these differences being associated to local climate conditions. The distribution and prevalence of dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands is heterogeneous and related to climate, demographic factors and management of pets in the studied areas. Dirofilariosis remains hyperendemic in 4 of the 7 Islands. Since D. immitis is a zoonosis, veterinary and health authorities should be aware of the current prevalence and seroprevalence of animal dirofilariosis. The results show the need for awareness raising campaigns to promote the implementation of prophylactic measures in pets, in order to achieve a decrease in the prevalence of animal dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Institutional Approach to Bordering in Islands: The Canary Islands on the African-European Migration Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Godenau


    Full Text Available Islands play a significant role in international irregular maritime migration. Frequently they are part of maritime interstitial spaces between states, and their location, combined with institutional membership, makes them part of international migration routes and subject to border management strategies. In this paper borders are analysed as social institutions used for regulating relative permeability through rules of entry and exit for persons, goods and capital. Borders institutionalize territoriality and are politically implemented by states. They are selective, also in migration, and irregular border transit is not always indicative of an inability to control. The Canary Islands are used as an illustrative example of how border management at the southern edge of the European Union has evolved towards more coercive deterrence and tighter surveillance. The Canary Islands experienced irregular maritime immigration from the west African coasts during the first decade of the 21st century and most of these migrants intended to use the islands as transit space towards the European continent. Increasing surveillance in countries of origin, enforcement of border controls and stricter return policies were used to stop flows. The so-called “cayuco crisis” in 2006 induced institutional change in border management and forced the active involvement of the EU through FRONTEX.

  17. Crude oil as a stranding cause among loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2011). (United States)

    Camacho, María; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge


    We report the number of strandings caused by crude oil among loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands between 1998 and 2011 and analyze the impact of the designation of the Canary Islands as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) in 2005. Among 1,679 stranded loggerhead turtles, 52 turtles stranded due to crude oil (3.1%). The survival rate of the turtles stranded by crude oil was 88%. All turtles that died because of crude oil stranding had signs of ingestion of crude oil and lesions, included esophageal impaction, necrotizing gastroenteritis, necrotizing hepatitis, and tubulonephrosis. The number of strandings caused by crude oil after 2005 was significantly lower than it was before 2006. We show that the designation of the Canary Islands as a PSSA in 2005 by the International Maritime Organization was associated with a reduction of sea turtle strandings caused by crude oil.

  18. Improving GNSS time series for volcano monitoring: application to Canary Islands (Spain) (United States)

    García-Cañada, Laura; Sevilla, Miguel J.; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza


    The number of permanent GNSS stations has increased significantly in recent years for different geodetic applications such as volcano monitoring, which require a high precision. Recently we have started to have coordinates time series long enough so that we can apply different analysis and filters that allow us to improve the GNSS coordinates results. Following this idea we have processed data from GNSS permanent stations used by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) for volcano monitoring in Canary Islands to obtained time series by double difference processing method with Bernese v5.0 for the period 2007-2014. We have identified the characteristics of these time series and obtained models to estimate velocities with greater accuracy and more realistic uncertainties. In order to improve the results we have used two kinds of filters to improve the time series. The first, a spatial filter, has been computed using the series of residuals of all stations in the Canary Islands without an anomalous behaviour after removing a linear trend. This allows us to apply this filter to all sets of coordinates of the permanent stations reducing their dispersion. The second filter takes account of the temporal correlation in the coordinate time series for each station individually. A research about the evolution of the velocity depending on the series length has been carried out and it has demonstrated the need for using time series of at least four years. Therefore, in those stations with more than four years of data, we calculated the velocity and the characteristic parameters in order to have time series of residuals. This methodology has been applied to the GNSS data network in El Hierro (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 eruption and the subsequent magmatic intrusions (2012-2014). The results show that in the new series it is easier to detect anomalous behaviours in the coordinates, so they are most useful to detect crustal deformations in volcano monitoring.

  19. A Subtropical Cyclone in the Canary Islands: the October 2014 event (United States)

    Quitian, Lara; Martin, Maria Luisa; Jesús González-Alemán, Juan; Santos-Muñoz, Daniel; Valero Rodríguez, Francisco


    Depending on the thermal structure and dynamics, there are different types of cyclones in the troposphere. Subtropical cyclones (STC) are low pressure systems that share tropical and extratropical characteristics, having hybrid thermal structures. In October 2014, a cyclonic system landfall the Canary Islands, causing widespread damages. The system began to develop in October 18 and its effects lasted until October 21. Here, the diagnosis and identification of such cyclone as STC is carried out, examining its dynamical and thermal evolution. Diverse fields have been obtained from three different numerical models, and several diagnostic tools and cyclone phase space diagrams have been used. The cyclone evolved from a typical extratropical cyclone, detached from the atmospheric circulation which was highly meridional and became a stationary cut-off low. The meridional intrusion of the trough as well as a low-level baroclinic zone favored the formation of a STC northwestern of the Canary Islands. Several cyclone phase space diagrams are used to classify the cyclone as a STC, highlighting a deep cold core in its early stages that develops into a shallow warm core. High potential vorticity areas associated with the cyclone promoted strong winds and precipitation over the Islands. Throughout the event, an increased conditional instability is observed in the different soundings, leading to strong vertical wind shear. Moreover, relatively warm sea surface temperature is obtained, establishing the conditions to favor the organization of long-lived convective structures.

  20. Biogeographic ranges do not support niche theory in radiating Canary Island plant clades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Field, Richard; Fernández-Palacios, José María


    species in radiating clades in oceanic archipelagos, where closely related species exist in both sympatry and allopatry and the species’ entire ranges are known. We took advantage of this natural experimental system to test whether the climatic niche relationships predicted by the two hypotheses are found....... Location: Canary Islands. Methods: For the plant clades Aeonium, Argyranthemum, Descurainia, Echium, Lotus and Sonchus, separately, we tested relationships between phylogenetic distance and climatic niche differentiation (in temperature, precipitation and their combination), using a high-resolution dataset...

  1. Meteorological Patterns and Fog Water in the Canary Islands and Morocco (United States)

    Marzol, M. V.; Sanchez Megía, J. L.; Yanes, A.; Bargach, J.; Derhem, A.


    The Stratocumulus cloud formation is very common in the Canary Islands (Spain) and on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. This cloud formation behaves as if it was fog when it comes into contact with the relief and its liquid content can be captured by artificial systems. The origin of this cloud formation is connected with the Azores anti-cyclone and with the anomalous structure of the low layers of the atmosphere caused by a subsidence thermal inversion. The aim of this article is to define a pattern of the most favourable meteorological and atmospheric conditions for this cloud formation to appear. In order to do this, a database has been compiled with the information about the days on which water has been collected in Morocco since June, 2006. This was when the collaboration with the Si Hmad Derhem Foundation (Casablanca) began. As well as meteorological data and data on water quantities, weather maps, thermodynamic soundings and satellite images are also analysed. The following two sites were studied: Anaga, on the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, 864 m a.s.l. and 4 km from the coast, and Boutmezguida, Morocco, 1,225 m a.s.l. and 30 km from the coast. The research was conducted in three stages. The first stage consisted of looking for the most appropriate sites to obtain the greatest efficiency in fog water collection; the Standard Fog Collector (SFC, Schemenauer and Cereceda, 1994) was used for this purpose. The second stage consisted of studying the most favourable meteorological conditions for water collection where the Quarter Fog Collector (QFC, Marzol, 2002) connected to an automatic weather station providing information on temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction and the amount of water collected on the netting every ten minutes was used to do this. The aim of the third stage, which was by nature an applied stage, was to construct large-sized fog collectors (Large Fog Collector, LFC) so that the water collected could be put to

  2. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes


    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the

  3. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: [Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)


    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m{sup −2} year{sup −1} of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may

  4. Pathology and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (1999-2005). (United States)

    Arbelo, Manuel; Los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa de; Herráez, Pedro; Andrada, Marisa; Sierra, Eva; Rodríguez, Francisco; Jepson, Paul D; Fernández, Antonio


    Between 1999 and 2005, 233 stranded cetaceans (comprising 19 species) were reported in the waters of the Canary Islands. Of these, 138/233 (59.2%) were subjected to a complete or partial standardized necropsy, including 4 Balaenopteridae, 9 Physeteridae, 8 Kogiidae, 27 Ziphiidae and 90 Delphinidae. Of these, 46/138 (33.3%) cetaceans were diagnosed with anthropogenic pathological categories (i.e. the cause of death was anthropogenic). These included fishing interaction (bycatch) (19 individuals), 'atypical' mass stranding events linked to naval exercises (13), ship collisions (8) and other anthropogenic-related pathology (6). 'Natural' (i.e. non-anthropogenic) causes of death accounted for another 82/138 (59.4%) cases, including infectious and non-infectious diseases (63), neonatal pathology (8), intra- and interspecific interactions (6) and mass strandings (5). The cause(s) of death could not be determined in 10/138 (7.3%) necropsied animals. The most common causes of death were ship collisions in 6/9 (66.6%) Physeteridae, 'atypical' mass stranding linked to naval exercises in 13/27 (48.1%) Ziphiidae, and 'natural' infectious and non-infectious diseases in 55/90 (61.1%) Delphinidae. Interaction with fishing activities was established as cause of death in 15/90 (16.7%) Delphinidae. These data show that a range of anthropogenic and natural single and mass mortality events occur in multiple cetacean species stranded in the Canary Islands.

  5. Unusual Vermamoeba Vermiformis Strain Isolated from Snow in Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Reyes-Batlle


    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. Thermophilic amoebae are among the most common FLA in water bodies, being Vermamoeba vermiformis one of the most common species reported worldwide from these sources. Interestingly, V. vermiformis has often been reported to survive at high temperatures and osmotic pressure worldwide.Materials and Methods: In this study, snow samples were collected from Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands during the winter season of 2014. The samples were culture on non nutrient agar plates and checked daily for the presence of FLA. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in the plates incubated at room temperature and 37ºC.Results: Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirmed that the isolated strain belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species.Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolation from such an inusual habitat (low temperatures and high altitude and the first report of these species in the Canary islands.

  6. Hospitalizations realted to herpes zoster infection in the Canary Islands, Spain (2005-2014). (United States)

    García-Rojas, Amós; Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Núñez-Gallo, Domingo Ángel; Matute-Cruz, Petra; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel


    Herpes zoster is an important problem of public health especially among the elderly in Spain. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in the Canary Islands, Spain was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos. Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster in any position and cases of primary diagnosis (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0-053.9) during a 10-year period (2005-2014), were selected. A total of 1088 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster were identified during the study period. Annually there were 6.99 hospitalizations by herpes zoster per 100,000 population. It increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥85 years of age (43.98 admissions per 100,000). Average length of hospitalization was 16 days and 73 patients died, with a case-fatality rate of 4.03%. In 22% of the cases hospitalized, herpes zoster was the primary diagnosis. The hospitalization burden of herpes zoster in adults in the Canary Islands was still important during the last decade and justify the implementation of preventive measures, like vaccination in the elderly or other high risk groups to reduce the most severe cases of the disease.

  7. Multi-event behavior of El Golfo landslide (El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago) (United States)

    León, Ricardo; Biain, Ander; Urgeles, Roger; Somoza, Luis; Ferrer, Mercedes; García-Crespo, Jesús; Francisco Mediato, José; Galindo, Inés; Yepes, Jorge; Gimenez-Moreno, Julia


    Based on the re-interpretation of a vast onshore-offshore data set, a new morpho-structural characterization of the El Golfo giant landslide in the island of El Hierro (Canary Archipelago, Spain) is presented. Offshore multibeam echosounder data, chirp sub-bottom profiles, multichannel seismic reflection data and onshore information from water wells and galleries have been analyzed to determine the nature of the event. The subaerial headscarp shows a non-continuous arcuate profile formed by two nested semi-circular amphitheaters that extend offshore along a smooth chute, suggesting the occurrence of at least two large retrogressive events. Channels/gullies and escarpments developed along the submarine sector of the scar also indicate smaller-scale events and predominance of sediment bypass. At the base of submerged island, two subunits within the related submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) are identified on multichannel seismic reflection profiles confirming the multi-event nature of the landslide. The MTD, identified as a debris avalanche, has a total estimated volume of 318 km3: 84 km3 and 234 km3, for the lower and upper subunits respectively. Data from wells and galleries show abrasion platforms with beach deposits at sea-level (0 masl) formed after the landslide scar and buried by the El Golfo post-collapse infill lavas, suggesting an age at least older than 23.5-82.5 ka for the landslide. This work has been supported by the projects IGCP-640 S4SLIDE, High resolution seabed mapping EASME/EMFF/2016/005 and CTM2010-09496-E. Keywords: Submarine landslides, volcanic islands, debris avalanche, Canary Islands

  8. The 1677 eruption of La Palma, Canary Islands

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    Rodríguez Badiola, E.


    Full Text Available The 1677 volcanic eruption, located close to the town of Fuencaliente at the south end of La Palma, has been associated with the large volcanic cone of San Antonio, an emission centre showing relatively high energy phreatomagmatic phases. However, detailed geological mapping and a reinterpretation of available eye-witness accounts elearly prove the San Antonio emission centre to be a preexisting volcano related to an eruption that occurred several thousands years earlier. The 1677 eruption, or Volcán de Fuencaliente is a low magnitude eruption composed of a small strombolian vent and a cluster of aligned spatter vents. About 75-125 x 106 m3 of lavas from these spatter vents covered an area of 4.5 x 106 m2 and formed a wide coastal platform with 1.6 x 106 m2 of new land gained from the sea. This modest magnitude eruption is in better accord with the negligible damage caused to the area reported in the contemporary accounts. This revision of the 1677 eruption and its magnitude is relevant for the precise reconstruction of the recent volcanism of La Palma and the correct definition of volcanic hazards in the island.La erupción de 1677, localizada cerca de la población de Fuencaliente en el S de la isla de La Palma, ha sido asociada hasta ahora con el cono volcánico denominado San Antonio. Este centro de emisión presenta fases eruptivas de energía relativamente elevada. El estudio geológico de detalle de esta erupción y la reinterpretación de los relatos de la época indican que el volcán San Antonio es, en realidad, un aparato volcánico preexistente, relacionado con algún episodio eruptivo de varios miles de años de antigüedad. La verdadera erupción de 1677 o Volcán de Fuencaliente, es de baja magnitud y está formada por pequeños centros eruptivos estrombolianos y conos alineados de escorias. El volumen de lavas emitidas es de unos 75-125 x 106 m3 y cubre una extensión de aproximadamente 4.5 x 106 m2, de los cuales 1.6 x 106 m2

  9. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Phlebotomidae) of Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain): Ecological survey and evaluation of the risk of Leishmania transmission. (United States)

    Morillas-Márquez, Francisco; Díaz-Sáez, Victoriano; Morillas-Mancilla, María Jesús; Corpas-López, Victoriano; Merino-Espinosa, Gemma; Gijón-Robles, Patricia; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina


    Phlebotomine sandflies are natural vectors of Leishmania spp. and their expansion throughout has been evidenced in the last few years due to the global warming and changes in human behavior, worsening leishmaniasis problem. However, phlebotomine sandflies have been captured in small numbers on the Canary Islands, particularly on the island of Lanzarote, where only one limited survey was carried out almost thirty years ago. The proximity of this island to Morocco, in addition to the high number of tourists, sometimes accompanied by their dogs, from leishmaniasis endemic regions, highlights the importance of studying the sandfly fauna on this island in order to determine the transmission risk of leishmaniasis Thirty-eight sampling sites spread across the island were studied, and ecological features were gathered to identify the ecological traits associated to the presence of sandflies. Only 85 sandfly specimens were captured (1.18/m2) with the following species distribution: Sergentomyia minuta (0.15 specimens/m2), which was reported for the first time on this island, and S. fallax (1.03/m2). Sandfly captured were achieved in only 7 out of 38 stations. No specimen of the Phlebotomus genus was captured and given that none of the species captured has been demonstrated vectors of human pathogenic Leishmania and considering that they were captured in low frequency and density, it can be concluded that the current leishmaniasis transmission risk is null. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Archaeology in the Canary Islands during the Franco regime: the original settlement of the Islands as paradigm (1939-1969

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    Farrujia de la Rosa, A. José


    Full Text Available In the present article, we analyze the contributions of the authors linked to the Provincial Commissary for Archaeological Excavations in the Canaries. Their studies led to the development of a nationalist prehistory of these islands. Developed during Franco’s regime, this prehistory was directly influenced by the theoretical, practical and ideological guidelines that gave meaning to the studies of peninsular prehistory at this time. An approach to the topic of the original colonization of the Canary Islands, allows us to highlight the relationship that existed between politics and archaeology, and therefore, between the power and the generation of the scientific knowledge.

    Durante el franquismo, la aportación de los distintos autores vinculados con las Comisarías Provinciales de Excavaciones Arqueológicas de Canarias daría pie al desarrollo de una lectura nacionalista de la prehistoria canaria, directamente influenciada por las directrices teóricas, prácticas e ideológicas que por entonces daban sentido a la prehistoria peninsular. Una aproximación al estudio del primitivo poblamiento de las Islas Canarias durante este período nos ha permitido sacar a relucir la estrecha relación que existió entre la política y la arqueología y, por ende, entre el poder y la generación del conocimiento científico.

  11. Petrological and geochemical studies of mantle xenoliths from La Palma, Canary Islands (United States)

    Janisch, Astrid; Ntaflos, Theodoros


    La Palma is the second youngest island, after El Hierro, of the Canary archipelago. The archipelago consists of seven large islands, forming an east-west-trending island chain, and several seamounts. All together they form a volcanic belt of around 800 km length and 450 km width, which presumably comprises roughly the Canary hotspot. The islands are located off the western coast of Morocco, Africa. The distance ranges from 100 km to 500 km. Concurrently with the distance, subaerial volcanism age progresses from the oldest lava in the east to the youngest in the west of the archipelago. Presently, La Palma is in the shield building stage of growth (alongside with El Hierro and Tenerife) and is furthermore the fastest growing island of the Canary archipelago. Historical volcanic eruptions are restricted on the younger islands, La Palma and El Hierro, with the last eruption at the south end of La Palma in 1971. Mantle xenoliths described in this work were collected at the slopes of San Antonio Volcano, Fuencaliente, brought to the surface during the 1677/1678 eruption. The mantle xenolith collection comprises sp-lherzolites, sp-harzburgites and pyroxenites. The texture can be distinguished between coarse-grained matrix and fine-grained veins in various thicknesses, mostly with olivine and pyroxene but also with amphibole, phlogopite as well as apatite. Mineral analyses reveal the existence of primary and secondary ol, cpx and opx. Primary ol has Fo contents of 89.2 to 91.7 and NiO ranging from 0.3 to 0.45 wt.%, whereas secondary ol show Fo values of 78.4 to 91.9 but with NiO below 0.3 wt.%. Primary cpx are predominantly Cr-Diopsides with En48.7-51.9-Wo43.5-44.3-Fs4.1-4.9 and Mg# of 91.5 to 92.4. Secondary cpx, primarily Ti-Augit, display En36.7-44.4-Wo47.7-49.6-Fs6.7-13.0 and Mg# of 75.3 to 90.8. Primary opx compositions are in range of En89.3-90.6-Wo1.3-1.5-Fs8.1-9.3 with Mg# between 90.7 and 92.0. Secondary opx exhibit En88.7-89.2-Wo1.7-1.9-Fs9.1-9.5 and Mg# of 90

  12. Felsic volcanism in a basic shield (El Hierro, Canary Islands). Implications in terms of volcanic hazards. (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Meletlidis, Stavros; Galindo Jiménez, Inés


    El Hierro, the southwesternmost and smallest island of the Canary Archipelago, is a complex basaltic shield volcano characterized by mainly effusive volcanism with both Strombolian and Hawaiian activity. Explosive felsic volcanism is not a common feature of the archipelago and, so far, it has only been reported on the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, where it has been responsible for the formation of large central volcanic complexes. The presence of felsic rocks on the other islands of the archipelago and specifically on El Hierro is mostly restricted to subvolcanic intrusions and a few lava flows, generally associated with the oldest parts of the islands. We hereby report the presence of a trachytic pumice deposit on the island of El Hierro, referred to here as the Malpaso Member. A detailed stratigraphic, lithological, and sedimentological study was carried out on the deposits of this explosive episode of felsic composition, which is the only one found on the Canary Islands apart from those of Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Four different subunits were identified on the basis of their lithological and granulometrical characteristics. The products of the eruption correspond to a single eruptive event and cover an area of about 13 km2. This deposit originated from a base-surge-type explosive eruption with a subsequent radial emplacement of dilute PDC currents, was emplaced from the vent that would have been located in a similar position to the volcano of Tanganasoga. The low vesicularity of juvenile fragments and the morphological characteristics of the fine particles, as well as the high proportion of lithic fragments and the ash-rich nature of the deposit, suggest that magma/water interaction controlled the dynamics of the eruption. This study demonstrates that magmas from El Hierro could have the potential for producing an explosive eruption, in an environment in which the majority of the eruptions are basaltic and effusive in nature. Bearing in mind

  13. Window Dressing or Transformation? Intercultural Education Influenced by Globalization and Neoliberalism in a Secondary School in the Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Perez, Lidia Cabrera; Montero-Sieburth, Martha; Gonzalez, Elisa Trujillo


    This article profiles intercultural education efforts at schools on the Canary Islands. After a brief profile of this autonomous community of Spain, descriptions of national efforts to promote intercultural education as they are enacted in one particular school setting are provided. Successes and limitations of these efforts are detailed.…

  14. Chasing the European Dream: Unaccompanied African Youths' Educational Experience in a Canary Islands' Reception Centre and Beyond (United States)

    Auger-Voyer, Valérie; Montero-Sieburth, Martha; Perez, Lidia Cabrera


    In the last two decades, Spain's Canary Islands have received thousands of undocumented migrants arriving by boat from the coasts of North and West Africa. The sharp increase of unaccompanied minors has presented a particular challenge, as these minors fall under the State's protection system and are entitled to an education and other rights, once…

  15. Possible mechanisms of host resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands (United States)

    The blood feeder parasite Haemonchus contortus appears to be the most economically important helminth species for small ruminant production in many regions of the world. The two sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands display distinctly different resistant phenotypes under both natural and experim...

  16. Planck intermediate results XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories

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    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.


    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-i...

  17. Eusarsiella bedoyai (Myodocopida, Sarsiellidae), a new ostracode species from a marine lava cave in the Canary Islands

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    Baltanás, Angel


    A new species of the ostracode genus Eusarsiella (Myodocopida, Sarsiellidae) is described from a marine lava tube in Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and compared with other species known to occur in the same geographical area. Eusarsiella bedoyai n. sp. is the second species in that genus described from

  18. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo


    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  19. Determinants of organochlorine levels detectable in the amniotic fluid of women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Mahtani, Vikesh; Troyano, Juan M; Alvarez de la Rosa, Margarita; Padilla-Pérez, Ana I; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida, Maira; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Boada, Carlos; Boada, Luis D


    Organochlorines (OCs) tend to accumulate in human tissues and can be measured in amniotic fluid (AF). The detection of OCs in AF samples reflects intrauterine exposure of human beings to these persistent organic pollutants. The present study was performed to evaluate the level of contamination of AF by OCs in 100 pregnant women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes, including 7 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners and 18 OC pesticides and metabolites. The majority of the AF samples (67%) showed some detectable OC-residue, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) being the most frequently detected compound (66% of the samples) and at the highest concentration (median 0.023 ng/ml). Lindane was also detected in 28% of the samples. Inverse associations were found between previous lactation and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and cyclodienes in the group of younger women (p = 0.037 and p = 0.027, respectively). Unexpectedly, serum values of HCB (r = -0.414; p = 0.04), gamma-HCH (r = -0.294; p = 0.035), and SigmaOCs (r = -0.350; p = 0.014) were negatively related to age. Even more, women with detectable levels of HCH isomers were younger (33.9 +/- 4.9 years) than women with undetectable levels of them (36.1 +/- 4.9 years; p = 0.035). We conclude that approximately one in two fetuses in the Canary Islands is exposed to OCs in utero, and that, therefore, the exposure of young women from these Islands to some HCH isomers persists nowadays. Because prenatal exposure to these chemicals may be a causative factor in adverse health trends, further studies are required to enhance preventive measures.

  20. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters (United States)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio


    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  1. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain using extreme value theory

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    R. Sobradelo


    Full Text Available The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 yr, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. This is done in three steps: First, we analyze the historical eruptive series to assess independence and homogeneity of the process. Second, we perform a Weibull analysis of the

  2. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain

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    Feliu Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats and R. microstoma (in mice showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce

  3. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain) (United States)


    Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda) of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats) and R. microstoma (in mice) showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission

  4. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain

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    J. F. Betancort


    Full Text Available Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain. These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain)

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    Betancort, J.F.; Lomoschitz, A.; Meco, J.


    Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  6. Administrative organization and function during the identification process for mass disasters--Canary Islands crash. (United States)

    Wolcott, J H; Hanson, C A; Menzies, R; Ballo, J; Donahue, E; Hoffa, N


    The administrative functions associated with large-scale medical and identification efforts in accident investigations are substantial and contribute directly to the overall conduct of the operation. We envisioned the administrative role as one primarily responsible for integration of all antemortem and postmortem information. This required each individual involved to be thoroughly familiar with the data. This required constructions of numerous lists, charts, and records. Secondly, its role involved data storage to document the identifications made. Finally, its role required summary status reporting both during and after the main investigation. Fortunately, we haven't had many accidents the size of the one occuring in the Canary Islands. However, this leaves us with little corporate knowledge on handling administrative matters. This article is designed to explain the who, what, why, and how administration was handled in this accident, and the lessons we learned.

  7. The necessity of reconceptualizing the migration of unaccompanied minors to the Canary Islands of Spain

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    Esther Torrado Martín-Palomino


    Full Text Available The migration of unaccompanied foreign minors (menores extranjeros no acompañados, MENA represents a new model for international mobility in Spain, one with its own particularities compared with other migratory flows. The dual nature of being unaccompanied and unauthorized leads to conflicts in the care and integration of these new migrants. However, this dual nature is one of the main prerequisites for the development of this mobility model (but not the only one and for developing strategies specific to this group. The Canary Islands, because of their position on the southern intercontinental border and their insularity, offer particular models of individual migration flows of primarily highly vulnerable African children and a close relationship with human smuggling and trafficking networks.

  8. Methane emission to the atmosphere from landfills in the Canary Islands (United States)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez, Fátima; Alonso, Mar; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel A.; Hernández-Abad, Marta; Pérez, Erica; Alonso, Monica; Tassi, Franco; Raco, Brunella; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Methane (CH4) is one of the most powerful greenhouse gases, and is increasing in the atmosphere by 0.6% each year (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, 2013). This gas is produced in landfills in large quantities following the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. The IPCC has estimated that more than 10% of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 are originated in landfills. Even after years of being no operative (closed), a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through its surface as diffuse or fugitive degassing. Many landfills currently report their CH4 emissions to the atmosphere using model-based methods, which are based on the rate of production of CH4, the oxidation rate of CH4 and the amount of CH4 recovered (Bingemer and Crutzen, 1987). This approach often involves large uncertainties due to inaccuracies of input data and many assumptions in the estimation. In fact, the estimated CH4 emissions from landfills in the Canary Islands published by the Spanish National Emission and Pollutant Sources Registration (PRTR-Spain) seem to be overestimated due to the use of protocols and analytical methodologies based on mathematical models. For this reason, direct measurements to estimate CH4 emissions in landfills are essential to reduce this uncertainty. In order to estimate the CH4 emissions to the atmosphere from landfills in the Canary Islands 23 surveys have been performed since 1999. Each survey implies hundreds of CO2and CH4 efflux measurements covering the landfill surface area. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Samples of landfill gases were taken in the gas accumulated in the chamber and CO2 and CH4 were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux measurent was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio

  9. Reproductive pattern of Pterocladiella capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta at Canary Islands (Spain, Atlantic Ocean

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    Mascha Stroobant


    Full Text Available Objective: To record the reproductive pattern of a natural population of Pterocladiella capillacea from G áldar (Canary Islands, Spain from February to August in relation to temperature, irradiance and photoperiod environmental conditions. Methods: Field observation of reproductive thalli was used at different seasons in the year. Results: Tetrasporophytes and vegetative thalli were observed during all the period of study, while female gametophytes bearing cystocarps have been found from May to August in correspondence with the highest water temperature and irradiance values. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the temperature may be the determining factor which regulates the presence of tetrasporophytes in the field. The constant presence of tetrasporophytes could depend on the low excursion range of water temperature (4-5 °C throughout the period of study, with the highest abundance in February at 20 °C.

  10. Resilient futures of a small island: A participatory approach in Tenerife (Canary Islands) to address climate change. (United States)

    Hernandez, Yeray; Guimarães Pereira, Ângela; Barbosa, Paulo


    Adaptation to climate change has been considered to be crucial to current societies, especially for small islands. In this paper the case of Tenerife (in the Canary Islands) is analysed. Tenerife is a small island located northwest of the African continent, in the Atlantic Ocean. Tenerife presents a high vulnerability to heatwaves and Saharan dust events as a consequence of its closeness to the Saharan desert. In fact, increasing frequency of heatwaves and Saharan dust events has been reported and could worsen in the future due to global warming. An exploration of adaptation strategies to an increase of the frequency and intensity of these phenomena is therefore needed. Different social actors have been engaged in a participatory process aiming at exploring pathways for adaptation to extreme weather events. Resilience was argued as the relevant framing to address those hazards. Four focus group sessions were carried out in order to explore key transformative elements necessary to make resilient futures for Tenerife. The results highlight the need for broader climate-based policies across all sectors to assure that the island becomes resilient to climatic and non-climatic shocks.

  11. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, A.


    Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400–500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500–600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s − 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s − 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.

  12. Cardiovascular comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Canary Islands (CCECAN study). (United States)

    Figueira Gonçalves, Juan Marco; Dorta Sánchez, Rafael; Rodri Guez Pérez, María Del Cristo; Viña Manrique, Pedro; Díaz Pérez, David; Guzmán Saenz, Cristina; Palmero Tejera, Juan Manuel; Pérez Rodríguez, Alicia; Pérez Negrín, Lorenzo

    Numerous studies have shown a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidity in a Canary Islands population diagnosed with COPD, and compared it with data from the general population. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 300 patients with COPD and 524 subjects without respiratory disease (control group). The two groups were compared using standard bivariate methods. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the cardiovascular risks in COPD patients compared to control group. Patients with COPD showed a high prevalence of hypertension (72%), dyslipidaemia (73%), obesity (41%), diabetes type 2 (39%), and sleep apnoea syndrome (30%) from mild stages of the disease (GOLD 2009). There was a 22% prevalence of cardiac arrhythmia, 16% of ischaemic heart disease, 16% heart failure, 12% peripheral vascular disease, and 8% cerebrovascular disease. Compared to the control group, patients with COPD had a higher risk of dyslipidaemia (OR 3.24, 95% CI; 2.21-4.75), diabetes type 2 (OR 1.52, 95% CI; 1.01-2,28), and ischaemic heart disease (OR 2.34, 95% CI; 1.22-4.49). In the case of dyslipidaemia, an increased risk was obtained when adjusted for age, gender, and consumption of tobacco (OR 5.04, 95% CI; 2.36-10.74). Patients with COPD resident in the Canary Islands have a high prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, ischaemic heart disease, and cardiac arrhythmia. Compared to general population, patients with COPD have a significant increase in the risk of dyslipidaemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Bereavement care interventions and outcome criteria planned by community nurses in the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvaro, Martín; García-Hernández, Alfonso Miguel; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Domingo Ángel


    Nursing care in bereavement is complex. Primary health care is the ideal setting to support the bereaved, but we do not know much about the care plans designed by primary health care nurses in the treatment of grief. To identify the outcomes criteria and interventions planned by nurses for mourners with and without complications in the Canary Islands. Retrospective longitudinal study, using the electronic health records of the Canary Islands health service of people with a diagnosis of grieving, risk of complicated grieving and complicated grieving, in the period 2009-2014. NOC outcomes criteria were recorded in 67% of the mourners, and up to 24 different outcomes were identified. The main outcomes measures were Grief resolution; Psychosocial adjustment, Life change; Coping; Family coping; Family social climate and Caregiver emotional health. The remaining outcomes were present in less than 1% of the mourners. Although the outcomes criteria proposed by nurses in the mourners with and without complications were quite homogeneous, differences in interventions were found. In 67% of the cases, NIC interventions were reported. Ninety-nine different interventions were identified in the mourners; the most frequent were Emotional support; Grief work facilitation; Active listening; Coping enhancement and counselling. The remaining identified interventions were present in less than 5% of patients. The main interventions in the mourners with complications were Grief work facilitation; Coping enhancement; Active listening; Counselling and Family integrity promotion. Nurses state that there are more interventions and outcomes in mourners with complications. Given the few methodologically reliable studies that prove their effectiveness, continued research in this area is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Methodology for an appreciative, dynamic and collaborative process: 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan]. (United States)

    O'Shanahan Juan, José Joaquín; Hernández Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Del Otero Sanz, Laura; Henríquez Suárez, José Andrés; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita

    The need for new approaches to strategic planning by incorporating the perspectives of professionals and inhabitants has led to a new model for the 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan (IIIPSC). A dual-phase participatory process using qualitative techniques is proposed: 1) local phase: a quantitative and qualitative study based on training and a research-action-participation initiative; and 2) insular phase: health conferences with face-to-face discussion of results in each health area (island) and proposals for action. The process prioritises problems and establishes a specific action plan for each island through initiatives that are considered to be viable, grouped by themes and weighted according to the potential impact on priority problems. This process of interaction may help to guide planning model changes and health policy decision-making, and was included in the IIIPSC Project for its parliamentary procedure. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Agrotourism, sustainable tourism and Ultraperipheral areas: The Case of Canary Islands

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    Parra López, Eduardo


    Full Text Available Ultraperipheral regions share certain common characteristics, such as their remoteness from the major supplying centres, their scanty resources, their island status or isolated location and consequent fragmentation of markets. Over the past decades, there has been an increasing awareness of the impact of ultraperiphericity on the development of a number of regions and islands. The concept of “ultraperiphericity” includes specific geographic circumstances that influence the development and specialisation of economies, competitiveness and business strategies. Agrotourism is playing an ever increasingly important role in the diversification of the agriculture, farming and tourism sectors into the Ultraperipheral Regions. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the economic development of rural areas in Ultraperipheral Areas and to the reappraisal of agriculture, which is closely connected with tourism. Agrotourism is essential to diversify, transform and improve the competitiveness and quality of farms. This paper examines the impact of Agrotourism as an alternative to sun and sand tourism, resulting in the growth of family income, in rural development and, in short, in new approaches to the tourism industry. A further goal of the paper is to develop a strategic analysis of Agrotourism, studying both supply and demand in the Canary Islands

  16. Mesoscale structures viewed by SAR and AVHRR near the Canary islands

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    E. D. Barton


    Full Text Available Comparison of Synthetic Aperture Radar and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometry images of sea surface backscatter and temperature during the peak of the summer Trade winds reveals many aspects of the regional oceanography of the Canary Islands. A strong correspondence occurs between the SAR and AVHRR signals. The generally uniform wind field is perturbed as it flows past the islands producing regions of calm immediately downstream. These are bounded by lines of strong horizontal wind shear that coincide with temperature fronts between warmer lee waters and the cooler surrounding ocean. Weaker winds prevail up to 50 km downstream while enhanced wind speed on the boundaries of the lee can extend more than 150 km. Lee waves are excited in the atmospheric inversion layer where the wind passes over abrupt island topography. Quantitative estimates of wind speed made with the CMOD4 algorithm are unreliable in the downstream region because wind direction is variable and unknown and because spatial gradients in air-sea temperature difference affect atmospheric boundary layer stability. A large anticyclone south of Tenerife strongly influenced the estimated wind speed probably because higher ocean temperatures in its centre caused atmospheric instability and increased radar backscatter. The temperature fronts marking boundaries of the upwelling filament and strong eddies observed in AVHRR appear as lines of current shear in the SAR images.

  17. Volcano monitoring with a multiparametric station placed inside a subhorizontal gallery in Tenerife (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Torres-González, Pedro; Moure-García, David; Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Jiménez-Mejías, María; Jiménez-Abizanda, Ana Isabel; García-Fraga, Jose Manuel; Soler-Javaloyes, Vicente; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza


    Measuring gaseous emissions from a volcano is one of the main tasks in volcano monitoring. These emissions can occur inside an active crater as fumaroles or plumes or along the whole volcanic area as diffuse emissions through porous soils or using preferential paths like dikes, faults or fractures. H2O, CO2, SO2 and H2S are the main species released by volcanoes. Among them, CO2 has received special attention in the last years. It has been used as an unrest and/or eruption early warning signal due to his low magma solubility and easily measurement. In the Canary Islands (oceanic volcanic islands) during the last century hundreds of galleries, subhorizontal drillings with lengths from few meters to kilometers and a 2x2 meters mean section, have been drilled to obtain groundwater. In the island of Tenerife there are about 1200. These infrastructures can cut across some preferential rising paths like dikes or fractures, so they turn to be optimum places to measure volcanic gas emissions. In addition, atmospheric parameters influence significantly decreases inside the galleries. In this work, we present data analysis from a three years registration period of a station placed at 1600 meters from the entrance of a gallery in Tenerife. This station measures several parameters like ambient and soil temperature and CO2 and Radon air concentrations inside the gallery. We also show how outside atmospheric parameters affect the microclimate inside the gallery.

  18. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.


    The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...... discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands....... evidence that such traits have been acquired through convergent evolution on islands comes from molecular phylogenies; however, direct evidence of their selective value rarely is obtained. The importance of hybridization in the evolution of island plants is also considered as part of a more general...

  19. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands) (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier


    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  20. Some water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia from Caldera de Taburiente National Park (La Palma, Canary Islands

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    Valdecasas, A. G.


    Full Text Available Protzia cf. lata, Lebertia fimbriata Thor, 1899; Limnesia martianezi Lundblad, 1962; Atractides gomerae Lundblad, 1962 are mentioned for the first time for the island of La Palma: Feltria menzeli Walter, 1922 and Aturus atlantica Lundblad, 1942 for the first time in the Canary islands. It is the first record of the genus Feltria Koenike, 1892 in Macaronesia.

    Protzia cf. lata, Lebertia fimbriata Thor, 1899; Limnesia martianezi Lundblad, 1962; Atractides gomerae Lundblad, 1962 han sido encontradas por primera vez en la isla de La Palma: Feltria menzeli Walter, 1922 y Aturus atlantica Lundblad, 1942 son nueva cita para las islas Canarias y es la primera vez que se registra el género Feltria Koenike, 1892 en Macaronesia.


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    Ana María López Sala


    Full Text Available This article describes and analyses the presence and trading activities of the Sindhi community in the Canary Islands. This group is one of the oldest Asian diasporas in Spain, and is characterised by its hectic trading activity and, particularly, by the fact that it maintains a network of transnational contacts that shows that the community is established in over 100 countries. The starting point of the analysis is the historical, geographic and cultural context that favoured the exodus and arrival of this community to these islands. As other authors have mentioned in studies on transnationalism, and as these authors highlight very clearly with the group examined in this article, relations with members of the same community residing in other countries become forms of capital that provide information and communication on business opportunities and strategies in local enclaves, such as the loaning of capital and training opportunities in commercial activities and specific newly-created businesses that are adapted to certain geographic areas. The Sindhis are a community that, while it has remained faithful to its traditions and is relatively secretive, since the 1950s and with the rise of tourism, it has diversified in its areas of business and its establishment in the territory.

  2. Comments on Uncertainty in Groundwater Governance in the Volcanic Canary Islands, Spain

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    Emilio Custodio


    Full Text Available The uncertainty associated with natural magnitudes and processes is conspicuous in water resources and groundwater evaluation. This uncertainty has an essential component and a part that can be reduced to some extent by increasing knowledge, improving monitoring coverage, continuous elaboration of data and accuracy and addressing the related economic and social aspects involved. Reducing uncertainty has a cost that may not be justified by the improvement that is obtainable, but that has to be known to make the right decisions. With this idea, this paper contributes general comments on the evaluation of groundwater resources in the semiarid Canary Islands and on some of the main sources of uncertainty, but a full treatment is not attempted, nor how to reduce it. Although the point of view is local, these comments may help to address similar situations on other islands where similar problems appear. A consequence of physical and hydrological uncertainty is that different hydrogeological and water resource studies and evaluations may yield different results. Understanding and coarsely evaluating uncertainty helps in reducing administrative instability, poor decisions that may harm groundwater property rights, the rise of complaints and the sub-optimal use of the scarce water resources available in semiarid areas. Transparency and honesty are needed, but especially a clear understanding of what numbers mean and the uncertainty around them, to act soundly and avoid conflicting and damaging rigid attitudes. However, the different situations could condition that what may be good in a place, may not always be the case in other places.

  3. Highlights of consumption and satisfaction in nautical tourism. A comparative study of visitors to the Canary Islands and Morocco


    Lam González, Yen E.; Carmelo J. León González; Javier de León Ledesma


    Nautical tourism is considered to be an under-exploited research area, taking into account its evolution and growth prospects. The present study was conducted with nautical tourists during their visit to the Canary Islands and Morocco between 2013 and 2014. Our aim is to better guide the creation of new joint businesses by determining the most demanded activities among the nautical tourists that visit this part of the world. Some findings indicate that tourists’ consumption and satisfaction v...

  4. Endoparasites of Trachurus picturatus (Pisces: Carangidae from the Madeira and Canary Islands: Selecting parasites for use as tags

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    Graça Costa


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of parasites as biological tags to identify populations of the oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus, two samples of 100 fish each, caught off the Madeira and Canary Islands from January to June 2009, were examined for the presence of anisakids, trypanorhynchs, acanthocephalans and liver coccidians. In T. picturatus from Madeira, prevalence of the coccidian Goussia cruciata reached 82%, whereas prevalence of the nematode Anisakis sp., the acanthocephalan Rhadinorhynchus cadenati and the trypanorhynch Nybelinia lingualis were 12.0%, 8.9% and 7.0%, respectively. In samples from the Canary Islands, prevalence of G. cruciata was 8.0%, Anisakis sp. and R. cadenati reached 5.0% and 42.0% respectively, and N. lingualis was not recovered. The absence of N. lingualis and the lower prevalence of Anisakis sp. appear to be related to the smaller size of the oceanic horse mackerels examined from the Canary Islands. Although significant differences in prevalence of two parasites, G. cruciata and R. cadenati, were found between the two regions investigated (χ2=125.13, df=1, p=0.000 and χ2=40.77, df=1, p=0.000, only G. cruciata was considered useful as a biological tag for the identification of populations of T. picturatus. In order to reach sound conclusions, an expansion of the temporal and spatial sampling strategy is recommended.

  5. Processing of radon time series in underground environments: Implications for volcanic surveillance in the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, Ronaldo [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Eff-Darwich, Antonio [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail:; Soler, Vicente [Volcanological Station of the Canary Islands, IPNA-CSIC, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Luis, Maria C. [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Quesada, Maria L. [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Nuez, Julio de la [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)


    The analysis of temporal and spatial variations in the flux of soil gases across the soil-air interface is a useful tool to study geo-dynamical processes associated with volcanic and/or seismic activity. However, many of these variations are induced by external variables, such as temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall and other meteorological variables. In an attempt to filter out non-endogenous variations in the emissions of gases, the optimal choice of the monitoring sites with numerical filtering techniques based on multi-variate and frequency domain analysis of the time series for gaseous emissions were combined, in the case of radon ({sup 222}Rn). Monitoring sites are located in underground galleries in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Since the effect of wind, rainfall and temperature variations are very small inside galleries, a first natural filtering process of external parameters in the emissions of gases was achieved. This new approach has been successfully tested and as a result, the background level for radon emissions at various locations has been defined, by which correlations between gaseous emissions and the volcanic and/or seismic activity could be carried out.

  6. Active tectonics on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) from the analysis of CGPS data (United States)

    Riccardi, Umberto; Arnoso, Jose; Benavent, María Teresa; Velez, Emilio; Tammaro, Umberto; González Montesinos, Fuensanta


    We report on the analysis of about three years of CGPS data collected on a small network consisting in five permanent stations, with the largest baseline up to 40 km, spread over Timanfaya National Park in Lanzarote Island. The GPS stations are operated by different institutions, as follows: CAME is co-operated by the Institute of Geosciences (CSIC-UCM), DiSTAR and the Geodesy Research Group of University Complutense of Madrid (GRG-UCM), while LACV is operated by (CSIC-UCM and GRG-UCM). Stations HRIA, TIAS, YAIZ, belong to GRAFCAN (Cartographical Service of the Government of Canary Islands). Lanzarote is the most Northeast and the oldest island of the Canarian Archipelago (Spain), which is located on a transitional zone, a passive margin, between oceanic and continental crust. Due to some peculiarities in geochemistry and geochronology of the rocks as well as tectonics, the origin of the archipelago from a hot spot is still debated. In fact, the most recent Holocenic volcanism is scattered over the islands and the last eruption was a submarine one, occurred in October 2011 at El Hierro Island. The last eruption in Lanzarote was a 7 years voluminous eruptive cycle, occurred during the 18th century. Historical seismicity registered in the region, is customarily attributed to diffuse tectonic activity. This study is intended to contributing to shed light on the active tectonics on Lanzarote island and to separate between local and regional strain fields. With the aid of Gamit 10.6 software, we compute from the GPS observations the "ionofree" linear combinations in order to obtain the positions of the stations in ITRF2008 frame using daily sessions, and IGS precise ephemeris. The frame referencing of the network is realized by eleven IGS GPS stations. Then through a Kalman filtering procedure, implemented in GLOBK software, we obtain the final daily solutions by constraining the fiducial GPS stations to their ITRF2008 coordinates. For a reliable strain field retrieval

  7. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

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    Guillermo Burillo-Putze


    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  8. Influence of the submarine volcanic eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands) on the mesopelagic cephalopod's metal content. (United States)

    Lozano-Bilbao, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Ángel José; Hardisson, Arturo; Rubio, Carmen; González-Weller, Dailos; Aguilar, Natacha; Escánez, Alejandro; Espinosa, José María; Canales, Paula; Lozano, Gonzalo


    This work investigates whether a submarine volcanic eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 influenced the metal contents of two deep water cephalopod species: Abraliopsis morisii and Pyroteuthis margaritifera. This was assessed by comparing metal contents in specimens collected off the island of El Hierro and in the neighbouring islands of La Palma and Tenerife during an experimental deep water fishing trip. The concentration of 20 heavy metals was analyzed in 180 specimens of A. morisii and P. margaritifera collected around the three islands to test for inter-island differences for each species and metal. While both species showed geographical differences in metal concentrations, the main finding was that A. morisii could be a bioindicator species for metals such as Li, Sr and Ca. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seismic tomography model reveals mantle magma sources of recent volcanic activity at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Prudencio, Janire


    We present a 3-D model of P and S velocities beneath El Hierro Island, constructed using the traveltime data of more than 13 000 local earthquakes recorded by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN, Spain) in the period from 2011 July to 2012 September. The velocity models were performed using the LOTOS code for iterative passive source tomography. The results of inversion were thoroughly verified using different resolution and robustness tests. The results reveal that the majority of the onshore area of El Hierro is associated with a high-velocity anomaly observed down to 10-12-km depth. This anomaly is interpreted as the accumulation of solid igneous rocks erupted during the last 1 Myr and intrusive magmatic bodies. Below this high-velocity pattern, we observe a low-velocity anomaly, interpreted as a batch of magma coming from the mantle located beneath El Hierro. The boundary between the low- and high-velocity anomalies is marked by a prominent seismicity cluster, thought to represent anomalous stresses due to the interaction of the batch of magma with crust material. The areas of recent eruptions, Orchilla and La Restinga, are associated with low-velocity anomalies surrounding the main high-velocity block. These eruptions took place around the island where the crust is much weaker than the onshore area and where the melted material cannot penetrate. These results put constraints on the geological model that could explain the origin of the volcanism in oceanic islands, such as in the Canaries, which is not yet clearly understood.

  10. Flank stability and processes off the western Canary Islands: a review from El Hierro and La Palma

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    Roger Urgeles


    Full Text Available The morphological characterisation of the western submarine island flanks of El Hierro and La Palma differentiates four type-zones that may give new insights into the evolution of oceanic island slopes. The different type-zones result from the interplay between constructive volcanic processes, hemipelagic settling and volcano collapses. The latter results in massive debris avalanche deposits, which form large volcaniclastic aprons. In most cases, the headwall scarps are clearly exposed on the emerged part of the islands. The events that occurred in the youngest and westernmost islands of El Hierro and La Palma have vertical runouts exceeding 6,000 m and volumes that can reach several hundred km3. The landslide frequency for the entire Canaries is one major event per 90 ka. Triggering mechanisms are closely related to magmatic processes. The increase in the shear stress is directly linked with the forceful intrusion of magma along ridge-rift systems, while in the western Canary Islands it seems that the main process reducing shear resistance may be related to the rise in pore pressure due to hydrothermal circulation.

  11. Predation upon Diadema aff. Zantillarum in barren grounds in the Canary Islands

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    Sabrina Clemente


    Full Text Available Experimental studies were carried out to determine the effects of predation on populations of the sea urchin Diadema aff. antillarum in barren grounds at the Canary Islands. The studied urchin populations were dominated by small to medium sized individuals (24-38 mm and were variable in space. Tethering experiments showed that predation rates on D. aff. antillarum were very low and no differences were found between sites. Predation was found to be most intense on juveniles ( 40 mm were not preyed upon whatsoever. We have experimentally demonstrated that there is an absolute predator ‘escape size’ of around 40 mm for D. aff. antillarum individuals in barren grounds. Predation rates obtained for juveniles show that a sufficient number may escape predation and sustain the adult population, maintaining the urchin barren habitat. Recruitment and topographic complexity, rather than predation, seem to determine the structure of urchin populations in barren grounds. We conclude that predation in fished barren grounds of the Canarian Archipelago is not of sufficient magnitude to substantially alter dense urchin populations and cause community-level effects.

  12. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands (United States)

    Srncik, M.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.


    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange using Dowex 1x2 (Dow Chemical Co.). Furthermore a new chemical procedure with tandem columns to separate Pu and U from the matrix was tested. For the determination of the uranium and plutonium isotopes by alpha spectrometry thin sources were prepared by microprecipitation techniques. Additionally these fractions separated from the soil samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to get information on the isotopic ratios 236U/238U, 240Pu/239Pu and 236U/239Pu, respectively. The 236U concentrations [atoms/g] in each surface layer (∼2 cm) were surprisingly high compared to deeper layers where values around two orders of magnitude smaller were found. Since the isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu indicated a global fallout signature we assume the same origin as the probable source for 236U. Our measured 236U/239Pu value of around 0.2 is within the expected range for this contamination source. PMID:21481502

  13. Fish associated with fish aggregation devices off the Canary Islands (Central-East Atlantic

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    J. J. Castro


    Full Text Available Sixteen fish aggregation devices (FADs were deployed in 50 to 500 m deep of water in the Canary Islands. Species composition and abundance were determined by visual census carried out by divers on 55 occasions from April to October 1995 and from August 1996 to May 1997. A total of 15 species representing nine families of fish were observed. Pseudocaranx dentex (Bloch and Schneider, 1810, Seriola spp. and Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus, 1758 were the most abundant species. The number of species associated with FADs increased with immersion time, but fish biomass did not increase. The maximum number of fish species registered exactly under the FADs at any one time was five. The average estimated biomass was 9.47 Kg per FAD (SD= 25.2. However, when only baitfish were taken into account, the mean aggregated fish biomass was 3.20 Kg (SD= 4.32. The estimated biomass was higher when Coryphaena spp. was present, increasing to 53.9 Kg per FAD (SD=53.6. A significantly lower fish biomass and number of species was observed in FADs deployed in shallower waters (50-100 m depth.

  14. Greenhouse gas measurements over a 144 km open path in the Canary Islands

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    J. S. A. Brooke


    Full Text Available A new technique for the satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere via the absorption of short-wave infrared laser signals transmitted between counter-rotating satellites in low Earth orbit has recently been proposed; this would enable the acquisition of a long-term, stable, global set of altitude-resolved concentration measurements. We present the first ground-based experimental demonstration of this new infrared-laser occultation method, in which the atmospheric absorption of CO2 near 2.1 μm was measured over a ~144 km path length between two peaks in the Canary Islands (at an altitude of ~2.4 km, using relatively low power diode lasers (~4 to 10 mW. The retrieved CO2 volume mixing ratio of 400 ppm (±15 ppm is consistent within experimental uncertainty with simultaneously recorded in situ validation measurements. We conclude that the new method has a sound basis for monitoring CO2 in the free atmosphere; other greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and water vapour can be monitored in the same way.

  15. Mantle to surface degassing of carbon- and sulphur-rich alkaline magma at El Hierro, Canary Islands (United States)

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Stix, John; Klügel, Andreas; Shimizu, Nobumichi


    Basaltic volcanoes transfer volatiles from the mantle to the surface of the Earth. The quantification of deep volatile fluxes relies heavily on estimates of the volatile content of primitive magmas, the best archive of which is provided by melt inclusions. Available data from volcanoes producing mafic alkaline lavas in a range of tectonic settings suggest high volatile fluxes, but information remains sparse, particularly for intraplate ocean islands. Here we present measurements of volatile and trace element concentrations, as well as sulphur speciation, in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glasses from quenched basanite lava balloon samples from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands. The results reveal remarkably high concentrations of dissolved volatiles and incompatible trace elements in this magma, with ∼80 ppm Nb and up to 3420 ppm CO2, 3.0 wt.% H2O and 5080 ppm S. Reconstructed primitive CO2 contents, considering CO2/Nb systematics and possible CO2 sequestration in shrinkage bubbles, reach weight percent levels, indicating that carbon is a major constituent of Canary Island magmas at depth and that exsolution of a CO2-rich fluid begins in the mantle at pressures in excess of 1 GPa. Correlations between sulphur concentration, sulphur speciation and water content suggest strong reduction of an initially oxidised mantle magma, likely controlled by coupled H2O and S degassing. This late-stage redox change may have triggered sulphide saturation, recorded by globular sulphide inclusions in clinopyroxene and ulvöspinel. The El Hierro basanite thus had a particularly high volatile-carrying capacity and released a minimum of 1.3-2.1 Tg CO2 and 1.8-2.9 Tg S to the environment, causing substantial stress on the local submarine ecosystem. These results highlight the important contribution of alkaline ocean island volcanoes, such as the Canary Islands, to volatile fluxes from the mantle.

  16. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan


    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  17. Photosynthetic response and zonation of three species of Gelidiales from Tenerife, Canary Islands

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    Domíguez-Álvarez, S.


    Full Text Available Three species of Gelidiales (Gelidium arbuscula, Gelidium canariense and Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyta were selected due to their abundance in the marine lower intertidal of the north coast of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, to assess, using PAM fluorescence, the importance of irradiance and exposure to air on vertical distribution. We compared tolerance to emersion by air-drying fronds under simulated emersion, and results suggest that recovery of photosynthesis after emersion plays a major role in the vertical distribution of these three species. Morphological traits such as clumped fronds explain the higher tolerances, and reduced water loss of the species upper on the shore. Local differences between sites may be related to slight differences in the light regime related to topography.

    Se han seleccionado tres especies de Gelidiales (Gelidium arbuscula, Gelidium canariense y Pterocladiella capillacea que son abundantes en los niveles inferiores del intermareal de la costa N de Tenerife para establecer, utilizando fluorescencia tipo PAM, la importancia de la cantidad de luz y la exposición al aire en su zonación vertical. Se ha comparado la tolerancia a la emersión en frondes expuestas al aire, y los resultados sugieren que la capacidad de recuperación de la fotosíntesis tras la emersión tiene un papel fundamental en la explicación de la posición vertical de estas tres especies. Además, características morfológicas como el apelotonamiento de las frondes pueden coadyuvar a la mayor tolerancia, al reducir la pérdida de agua en emersión en las especies de niveles más altos. Las variaciones entre sitios se pueden deber a desigualdades locales en la cantidad de luz provocadas por diferencias topográficas.

  18. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands. A potential commercial species?

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    Alejandro Escanez


    Full Text Available Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera. These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem.

  19. Some additions and corrections to the Coleoptera fauna of the Canary Islands

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    Machado, Antonio


    Full Text Available Two endomychid species described from El Hierro (Canary Islands are removed from the Canarian fauna: Dapsa hierrensis Franz, 1976 is a synonym of Archipines intricata (Gorham, 1889, nov. syn., and the single specimen (holotype was probably collected in Central America. Dapsa curta Franz, 1976 is also poorly described and based on a single female. Without a male it is not possible to assess with full confidence if it belongs to the African genus Danae or more probably to the Oriental genus Tragoscelis, and to which species. It is for sure not a Dapsa and its Canarian origin relates probably to another labeling error of the author, who also collected in Borneo, where this latter genus is present with 5 species. Consequently, Dapsa curta Franz, 1996 is proposed as nomen dubium. Furthermore, three genera are recorded for the Canaries for the first time: Silpha puncticollis Lucas, 1854 (Silphidae, the coffee bean borer Araecerus fasciculatus (DeGeer, 1775, and Bruchela rufipes (Olivier, 1790 both Anthribidae. Only the latter species can be considered as native; the other two are introduced recently and the Coffee bean weevil could become a pest.Dos especies de endomíquidos descritos de El Hierro (islas Canarias se eliminan de la fauna canaria: Dapsa hierrensis Franz, 1976 es una sinonimia posterior de Archipines intricata (Gorham, 1889, nov. syn., y el único ejemplar conocido (holotipo fue colectado probablemente en América Central. La descripción de Dapsa curta Franz, 1976 es muy pobre y se basa en una única hembra. Sin conocer el macho es imposible determinar con garantías si se trata del género Danae o, lo más probable, del género oriental Tragoscelis, o a cuál de sus especies pertenece, si no es nueva. Es seguro que no se trata de una Dapsa y el presunto origen canario radica seguramente en otro error de etiquetado del autor, que también colectó en Borneo, donde se conocen cinco especies de Tragoscelis. En consecuencia, se propone

  20. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 457 g m-2 d-1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d-1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d-1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t d-1 (Melián et

  1. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western African islands (Canary Islands and Cape Verde). (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Plata-Luis, Josué; Del Castillo-Figueruelo, Borja; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Feliu, Carlos; Cabral, Marilena D; Valladares, Basilio


    Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii and T. gondii in the north-western African archipelagos of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. Between 2009 and 2013, 108 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 77 mice (Mus musculus) were analysed for the presence of Coxiella and Toxoplasma antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), respectively. Our results showed a wide distribution of C. burnetii and T. gondii, except for T. gondii in Cape Verde, in both rodent species. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was 12.4%; 21.1% for Cape Verde and 10.2% for the Canary Islands. With respect to T. gondii, seropositive rodents were only observed in the Canary Islands, with an overall seroprevalence of 15%. Considering the fact that both pathogens can infect a large range of hosts, including livestock and humans, the results are of public health and veterinary importance and could be used by governmental entities to manage risk factors and to prevent future cases of Q fever and toxoplasmosis.

  2. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgars have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain (United States)

    Common bean and Medicago rhizobia isolated from five locations on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, by partial analysis of 10 chromosomal genes were shown to exhibit close similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several bean isolates from Lanzarote, mainland Spain and Tunisia nodulated Leu...

  3. A new Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn (VERDI): Application to El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Becerril, L.; Martí, J.


    One of the most important issues in modern volcanology is the assessment of volcanic risk, which will depend - among other factors - on both the quantity and quality of the available data and an optimum storage mechanism. This will require the design of purpose-built databases that take into account data format and availability and afford easy data storage and sharing, and will provide for a more complete risk assessment that combines different analyses but avoids any duplication of information. Data contained in any such database should facilitate spatial and temporal analysis that will (1) produce probabilistic hazard models for future vent opening, (2) simulate volcanic hazards and (3) assess their socio-economic impact. We describe the design of a new spatial database structure, VERDI (Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn), which allows different types of data, including geological, volcanological, meteorological, monitoring and socio-economic information, to be manipulated, organized and managed. The root of the question is to ensure that VERDI will serve as a tool for connecting different kinds of data sources, GIS platforms and modeling applications. We present an overview of the database design, its components and the attributes that play an important role in the database model. The potential of the VERDI structure and the possibilities it offers in regard to data organization are here shown through its application on El Hierro (Canary Islands). The VERDI database will provide scientists and decision makers with a useful tool that will assist to conduct volcanic risk assessment and management.

  4. Anomalous changes of diffuse CO_{2} emission and seismic activity at Teide volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)

    García-Hernández, Rubén; Melián, Gladys; D'Auria, Luca; Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Padilla, Germán D.; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Barrancos, José; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Pérez, Aarón; Calvo, David; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Tenerife (2034 km2) is the largest of the Canary Islands and hosts four main active volcanic edifices: three volcanic rifts and a central volcanic complex, Las Cañadas, which is characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. Laying inside Las Cañadas a twin stratovolcanoes system, Pico Viejo and Teide, has been developed. Although there are no visible gas emanations along the volcanic rifts of Tenerife, the existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system beneath Teide volcano is suggested by the occurrence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around the summit cone of Teide. Soil CO2 efflux surveys have been performed at the summit crater of Teide volcano since 1999, to determine the diffuse CO2 emission from the summit crater and to evaluate the temporal variations of CO2 efflux and their relationships with seismic-volcanic activity. Soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature have been always measured at the same 38 observation sites homogeneously distributed within an area of about 6,972 m2 inside the summit crater. Soil CO2 diffuse effluxes were estimated according to the accumulation chamber method by means of a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) LICOR-820 CO2 analyzer. Historical seismic activity in Tenerife has been characterized by low- to moderate-magnitude events (M <2.5), and most of the earthquake's epicenters have been clustered in an offshore area SE of Tenerife. However, very few earthquakes have occurred in other areas, including Teide volcano. At 12:18 of January 6, 2017, the Canary Seismic Network belonged to the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) registered an earthquake of M 2.5 located in the vertical of Teide volcano with a depth of 6.6 km. It was the strongest earthquake located inside Cañadas caldera since 2004. Between October 11 and December 13, 2016, a continuous increase on the diffuse CO2 emission was registered, from 21.3 ± 2.0 to 101.7 ± 20.7 t d-1, suggesting the occurrence

  5. The Continuous Presence of News in the Ballad Tradition of the Canary Islands

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    Monroy Caballero, Andrés


    Full Text Available The author approaches the textual study of the oral tradition of ballads in the Canary Islands by focusing on the imprints left on these compositions by the events of History, Big and Small. Known as “Noticierismo”, this expression of popular culture —that of inserting historical news in such texts— has existed in the Islands for quite a long time. By considering the different ballad genres and revealing that noticierismo can be traced back to the late Middle Ages, he argues that its primary function, both in the Islands and elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world, especially with regard to the 18th Century-like compositions, has been that of spreading the word about those events from the past which most impressed its practitioners. From one generation to the next, the centuries-old tradition has kept the memory of such events alive to the present day.

    Nos acercamos al estudio textual del romancero recogido en la tradición oral de Canarias a través de las huellas que la pequeña o gran historia ha ido perpetuando en estas composiciones, como reflejo de la continuación de la práctica del noticierismo romancístico desde finales de la Edad Media hasta la actualidad. Mediante el análisis de los géneros romancísticos y la persistencia de esta tendencia noticiera en los textos, demostramos que el romancero noticiero en Canarias —y en el mundo hispánico en general— ha estado muy activo (sobre todo en los pliegos dieciochescos, modernos y locales, con la función primordial de dar publicidad a aquellos acontecimientos que más impresionaron en una época pretérita y que se han mantenido vigentes hasta la actualidad gracias a la labor de conservación de sus transmisores.

  6. Spatio-temporal occurrence of eruptions in El Hierro (Canary Islands). Sequential steps for long-term volcanic hazard assessment. (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Bartolini, Stefania; Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; María Morales, José; Galindo, Inés; Geyer, Adelina


    Long term volcanic hazard assessment requires the attainment of several sequential steps, including the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterization of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios to get qualitative and representative results. Volcanic hazard assessment has not been yet systematically conducted in the Canary Islands, in spite of being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest and latest island affected by an eruption in the Canary Islands. We analyze the past eruptive activity (how), the spatial probability (where), and the temporal probability (when) on the island. Looking at the past eruptive behavior of the island, and assuming future eruptive patterns will be similar, we try to identify the most likely set of volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards that could occur in the future (eg. lava flows, pyroclastic fallout, and pyroclastic density currents) and estimate their probability of occurrence. The final result shows the first volcanic hazard map of the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of long term volcanic hazard at El Hierro Island with regard to previous studies. The obtained results should represent the main pillars on which to build risk mitigation programs as it is required for territorial planning and to develop emergency plans. This research was partially funded by IGME, CSIC and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO"), and MINECO grant GL2011-16144-E.

  7. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands). (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Arístegui, Javier; González, José M; Montero, María F; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Gasol, Josep M


    The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea) to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012). Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells) of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m), coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index) decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria). Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer observed.

  8. Melt inclusion study of the most recent basanites from El Hierro and Lanzarote, Canary Islands (United States)

    Gomez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Huertas, Maria Jose; Ancochea, Eumenio


    The latest eruptions of both Lanzarote (one of the oldest and easternmost of the Canary Island archipelago) and El Hierro (the youngest and westernmost) produced basanite lavas. Major, volatile and trace element concentrations of melt inclusion (MI) hosted in olivine for both eruptions have been analysed. The basanites display primitive mantle normalized trace element spectra suggesting a magma source largely composed of recycled oceanic crust. In addition, beneath Lanzarote an interaction with a carbonatitic fluid phase or metasome would explain eccentric Ba/U and other trace element ratios. Contribution of carbonatitic component would readily account for extremely volatile-rich (Cl, F, S) MI from Lanzarote (Cl=1577-2500 ppm) whereas the maximum for El Hierro is 1080 ppm. The submarine character of the 2011-12 eruption off El Hierro appears to have affected the degassing behavior, whereas estimated sulfur emission to the atmosphere during the historical Lanzarote eruptions are amongst the highest observed so far. An estimated magma volume (VDRE) of 0.02 km3 yields atmospheric mass loading of 0.2 Mt SO2 from the 1824 Lanzarote eruption. Scaling the volume of the 1824 Lanzarote eruption to that of the previous Timanfaya eruption (1730-6; 5 km3) results in estimated 12 Mt SO2, an atmospheric mass loading only outnumbered by the historical Laki and Eldgjá eruptions in Iceland. The significantly greater volatile budget of basanites from Lanzarote compared to El Hierro is thus controlled by more fertile source composition closer to the African continent.

  9. A survey of the Rubus species (Rosaceae described from the Canary Islands

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    Matzke-Hajek, Günter


    Full Text Available Taxonomy, nomenclatura and distribution of the bramble species (Rubus L., subgen. Rubus described from the Canary Islands are studied. Apart from the widespread Mediterranean R. ulmifolius Schott two species occur: R. bollei Focke (Syn.: R. canariensis Focke, R. suspiciosus Menezes and R. palmensis A. Hansen. The latter is not an endemic of La Palma as assumed by its discoverer, but is recorded for the first time also in Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Complete descriptions are provided, and illustrations of distinctive features often lacking in herbarium specimens are presented. Problems concerning the typification are discussed. Rubus x wolfredoi-wildpretii H. E. Weber nothospec. nov., the frequent hybrid between Rubus bollei and R. ulmifolius is described as new to science. Rubus bornmuelleri Focke from Gran Canaria is based on a specimen dubium and has to be deleted from the list of Canarían species.Se han estudiado la taxonomía, la nomenclatura y la distribución de las especies de zarzas (Rubus L., subgen. Rubus descritas de las Islas Canarias. Junto a Rubus ulmifolius Schott, especie muy frecuente en el Mediterráneo, se encontraron dos especies: R. bollei Focke (Syn.: R. canariensis Focke, R. suspiciosus Menezes y R. palmensis A. Hansen. Se incluyen descripciones completas e ilustraciones de algunas características relevantes y que no siempre se han observado en especímenes de herbario revisados. Además, se discuten problemas de tipificación y se describe como nuevo para la ciencia Rubus x wolfredoi-wildpretii H.E. Weber nothospec. nov., híbrido frecuente entre R. bollei y R. ulmifolius. R. bornmuelleri Focke de Gran Canaria debe ser excluido de la lista de las especies canarias, al estar basada su descripción en un specimen dubium.

  10. Transient changes in bacterioplankton communities induced by the submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ferrera

    Full Text Available The submarine volcanic eruption occurring near El Hierro (Canary Islands in October 2011 provided a unique opportunity to determine the effects of such events on the microbial populations of the surrounding waters. The birth of a new underwater volcano produced a large plume of vent material detectable from space that led to abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of the water column. We combined flow cytometry and 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons (V1-V3 regions for Bacteria and V3-V5 for Archaea to monitor the area around the volcano through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases (November 2011 to April 2012. Flow cytometric analyses revealed higher abundance and relative activity (expressed as a percentage of high-nucleic acid content cells of heterotrophic prokaryotes during the eruptive process as compared to post-eruptive stages. Changes observed in populations detectable by flow cytometry were more evident at depths closer to the volcano (~70-200 m, coinciding also with oxygen depletion. Alpha-diversity analyses revealed that species richness (Chao1 index decreased during the eruptive phase; however, no dramatic changes in community composition were observed. The most abundant taxa during the eruptive phase were similar to those in the post-eruptive stages and to those typically prevalent in oceanic bacterioplankton communities (i.e. the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 group, the Flavobacteriia class of the Bacteroidetes and certain groups of Gammaproteobacteria. Yet, although at low abundance, we also detected the presence of taxa not typically found in bacterioplankton communities such as the Epsilonproteobacteria and members of the candidate division ZB3, particularly during the eruptive stage. These groups are often associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents or sulfur-rich springs. Both cytometric and sequence analyses showed that once the eruption ceased, evidences of the volcano-induced changes were no longer

  11. Andromonoecy and buzz pollination in Solanum species (Solanaceae endemic to the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont, Yoko Luise


    Full Text Available We investigated the pollination and reproductive biology of two Canary Island endemics, Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii (Solanaceae. We measured male function (pollen development, female function (fruit initiation and spatial arrangement of reproductive parts within flowers and inflorescences. Furthermore, we observed flower visitors and monitored visitation rates. Both species of Solanum display andromonoecy: Longstyled flowers are functionally hermaphrodite and borne proximally on the inflorescences, while short-styled flowers are functionally male and borne distally on inflorescences. Large bees capable of buzzing were the main flower visitors. In particular, the endemic Canarian bumblebee, Bombus terrestris canariensis, was a frequent visitor and pollen vector of S. vespertilio.Se estudiaron la polinización y biología reproductiva de dos especies endémicas de las Islas Canarias: Solanum vespertilio y S. lidii (Solanaceae. Se midieron la función masculina (desarrollo polínico, la función femenina (iniciación de fruto y la disposición espacial de los órganos reproductivos, tanto en las flores como en las inflorescencias. Se registraron además los visitantes de las flores y su frecuencia. Ambos Solanum son andromonoicos: las flores con estilo largo son funcionalmente hermafroditas y proximales en las inflorescencias, mientras que las flores con estilo corto son funcionalmente masculinas y distales en la inflorescencia. Los visitantes más asiduos fueron grandes abejas y abejorros zumbadores. El abejorro endémico Bombus terrestris canariensis, en particular, fue un visitante frecuente y un vector de polen para S. vespertilio.

  12. Estimating building exposure and impact to volcanic hazards in Icod de los Vinos, Tenerife (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Marti, J.; Spence, R.; Calogero, E.; Ordoñez, A.; Felpeto, A.; Baxter, P.


    Principal and subsidiary building structure characteristics and their distribution have been inventoried in Icod, Tenerife (Canary Islands) and used to evaluate the vulnerability of individual buildings to three volcanic hazards: tephra fallout, volcanogenic earthquakes and pyroclastic flows. The procedures described in this paper represent a methodological framework for a comprehensive survey of all the buildings at risk in the area around the Teide volcano in Tenerife. Such a methodology would need to be implemented for the completion of a comprehensive risk assessment for the populations under threat of explosive eruptions in this area. The information presented in the paper is a sample of the necessary data required for the impact estimation and risk assessment exercises that would need to be carried out by emergency managers, local authorities and those responsible for recovery and repair in the event of a volcanic eruption. The data shows there are micro variations in building stock characteristics that would influence the likely impact of an eruption in the area. As an example of the use of this methodology for vulnerability assessment, we have applied a deterministic simulation model of a volcanic eruption from Teide volcano and its associated ash fallout which, when combined with the vulnerability data collected, allows us to obtain the vulnerability map of the studied area. This map is obtained by performing spatial analysis with a Geographical Information System (GIS). This vulnerability analysis is included in the framework of an automatic information system specifically developed for hazard assessment and risk management on Tenerife, but which can be also applied to other volcanic areas. The work presented is part of the EU-funded EXPLORIS project (Explosive Eruption Risk and Decision Support for EU Populations Threatened by Volcanoes, EVR1-2001-00047).

  13. Using two light-pollution models to investigate artificial sky radiances at Canary Islands observatories (United States)

    Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.


    Astronomical observations are increasingly limited by light pollution, which is a product of the over-illumination of the night sky. To predict both the angular distribution of scattered light and the ground-reaching radiative fluxes, a set of models has been introduced in recent decades. Two distinct numerical tools, MSNsRAu and ILLUMINA, are compared in this paper, with the aim of identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The numerical experiment comprises the simulation of spectral radiances in the region of the Canary Islands. In particular, the light fields near the Roque de los Muchachos and Teide observatories are computed under various turbidity conditions. It is shown that ILLUMINA has enhanced accuracy at low elevation angles. However, ILLUMINA is time-consuming because of the two scattering orders incorporated into the calculation scheme. Under low-turbidity conditions and for zenith angles smaller than 70° the two models agree well, and thus can be successfully applied to typical cloudless situations at the majority of observatories. MSNsRAu is well optimized for large-scale simulations. In particular, the grid size is adapted dynamically depending on the distance between a light source and a hypothetical observer. This enables rapid numerical modelling for large territories. MSNsRAu is also well suited for the mass modelling of night-sky radiances after ground-based light sources are hypothetically changed. This enables an optimum design of public lighting systems and a time-efficient evaluation of the optical effects related to different lamp spectra or different lamp distributions. ILLUMINA provides two diagnostic geographical maps to help local authorities concerned about light-pollution control. The first map allows the identification of the relative contribution of each ground element to the observed sky radiance at a given viewing angle, while the second map gives the sensitivity, basically saying how each ground element contributes per lumen

  14. Interannual variations of soil organic carbon fractions in unmanaged volcanic soils (Canary Islands, Spain). (United States)

    Armas-Herrera, Cecilia María; Mora, Juan Luis; Arbelo, Carmen Dolores; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Antonio


    The stability over time of the organic C stocked in soils under undisturbed ecosystems is poorly studied, despite being suitable for detecting changes related to climate fluctuations and global warming. Volcanic soils often show high organic C contents due to the stabilization of organic matter by short-range ordered minerals or Al-humus complexes. We investigated the dynamics of different organic C fractions in volcanic soils of protected natural ecosystems of the Canary Islands (Spain) to evaluate the stability of their C pools. The study was carried out in 10 plots, including both undisturbed and formerly disturbed ecosystems, over two annual periods. C inputs to (litterfall) and outputs from (respiration) the soil, root C stocks (0-30 cm), soil organic C (SOC) fractions belonging to C pools with different degrees of biogeochemical stability -total oxidisable C (TOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), water soluble C (WSC), hot-water extractable C (HWC), humic C (HSC), - and total soil N (TN) (at 0-15 and 15-30 cm) were measured seasonally.A statistically significant interannual increase in CO(2) emissions and a decrease in the SOC, mainly at the expense of the most labile organic forms, were observed, while the root C stocks and litterfall inputs remained relatively constant over the study period. The observed changes may reflect an initial increase in SOC resulting from low soil respiration rates due to drought during the first year of study. The soils of nearly mature ecosystems were more apparently affected by C losses, while those undergoing the process of active natural regeneration exhibited disguised C loss because of the C sequestration trend that is characteristic of progressive ecological succession.

  15. [Spinal cord injuries resulting from diving accidents in the Canary Islands]. (United States)

    Bárbara-Bataller, Enrique; Méndez-Suárez, José Luis; Alemán-Sánchez, Carolina; Sánchez-Enríquez, Jesús; Sosa-Henríquez, Manuel

    Diving accidents is one of the leading causes of spinal cord injury after falls and car accidents. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these patients in our setting to better prevent these injuries. We performed a retrospective, descriptive study of patients who have suffered from a traumatic spinal cord injury after a diving accident in the Canary Islands, Spain from 2000 to 2014. These patients were admitted to the Spinal Cord Unit of Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria. Of the 264 patients admitted to our unit for acute traumatic spinal cord injury, 23 (8.7%) cases were due to diving. Grouping the patients into 5years periods, 56% of the injuries occurred in 2000-2005, 17% in 2006-2010 and 26% in 2011-2014. All patients were male, with a mean age of 29years. Approximately 65% were under 30years. A total of 22/23 patients had a fracture and injury most commonly occurred to the C5 vertebra. Burst fractures were the most common. A total of 86% of cases underwent surgery. All the spinal cord injuries were cervical, with C6 being the neurological level most often affected. A total of 65% of spinal cord injuries were complete injuries. Spinal cord injury secondary to diving accidents is the third leading cause of traumatic spinal cord injury in our setting. It affects young males and the most common clinical presentation is a complete cervical spinal cord injury. Given the irreversible nature of the injury, prevention, aimed mainly at young people, is of great importance. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Main pigmentary features and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene polymorphisms in the population of the Canary Islands. (United States)

    de-Misa, Ricardo F; Pérez-Méndez, Lina I; Hernández-Jiménez, José G; Rodríguez, María del Cristo; Vilar, María Concepción; Suárez, José; Claveríe-Martín, Félix


    Sun exposure, light skin pigmentation, and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants are independent risk factors for skin cancer. The Canary Islands have a sunny and temperate climate, but data regarding the phenotypic and genotypic risk factors among the population are lacking. The main phenotypic features (skin color, hair color, eye color, and freckling) of 5116 healthy individuals are described. The genotypic findings of six MC1R gene variants (V60L, D84E, R150C, R160W, R163Q, and T314T) in 116 healthy individuals from a population-based cohort with at least three generations of Canary Islands' ancestry are evaluated. The variants were analyzed by SNaPshot. Fifty per cent of the population showed at least one phenotypic risk factor (fair skin, 34.3%; freckling, 17.4%; green or blue eyes, 16.8%; red or blonde hair, 7.8%), although brown skin (65.7%), dark eyes (83.2%), and dark hair (92.2%) prevailed. Forty-three per cent of the individuals showed at least one of the MC1R variants studied. Allelic frequencies for V60L, D84E, R150C, R160W, R163Q, and T314T were 9.1%, 1.7%, 3.0%, 0.8%, 3.0%, and 8.2%, respectively. A significant proportion of the population showed risk factors for skin cancer. The inhabitants of the Canary Islands are phenotypically and genotypically close to Mediterranean populations.

  17. "Canary Islands (NE Atlantic) as a biodiversity 'hotspot' of Gambierdiscus: Implications for future trends of ciguatera in the area". (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Fraga, Santiago; Ramilo, Isabel; Rial, Pilar; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Riobó, Pilar; Bravo, Isabel


    In the present study the geographical distribution, abundance and composition of Gambierdiscus was described over a 600km longitudinal scale in the Canary Islands. Samples for cell counts, isolation and identification of Gambierdiscus were obtained from five islands (El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote). Average densities of Gambierdiscus spp. between 0 and 2200cellsg(-1) blot dry weight of macrophyte were recorded. Morphological (light microscopy and SEM techniques) and molecular analyses (LSU and SSU rDNA sequencing of cultures and single cells from the field) of Gambierdiscus was performed. Five Gambierdiscus species (G. australes, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. excentricus and G. silvae), together with a new putative species (Gambierdiscus ribotype 3) were identified. These results suggest that some cases of CFP in the region could be associated with the accumulation of ciguatoxins in the marine food web acquired from local populations of Gambierdiscus. This unexpected high diversity of Gambierdiscus species in an area which a priori is not under risk of ciguatera, hints at an ancient settlement of Gambierdiscus populations, likely favored by warmer climate conditions in the Miocene Epoch (when oldest current Canary Islands were created), in contrast with cooler present ones. Currently, warming trends associated with climate change could contribute to extend favorable environmental conditions in the area for Gambierdiscus growth especially during winter months. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mantacaprella macaronensis, a new genus and species of Caprellidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Canary Islands and Cape Verde. (United States)

    Maite, Vázquez-Luis; José M, Guerra-García; Susana, Carvalho; Lydia Png-Gonzalez


    Mantacaprella macaronensis new genus, new species, is described based on specimens collected from Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Mantacaprella is close to the genera Parambus, Pseudolirius, Propodalirius and Paracaprella, but can be distinguished by the combination of the following characteristics: pereopods 3, 4 and 5 two-articulate; pereopods 6 and 7 six-articulate; mandibular molar present and palp absent; male abdomen with a pair of well-developed appendages. The new species has been found living in Cymodocea nodosa meadows and Caulerpa prolifera beds from 8.8 to 14.6 m depth in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), and in natural rocky and artificial habitats (shipwrecks) at 25 m in Sal Island (Cape Verde). Even though the new species is one of the dominant amphipods inhabiting meadows of Cymodocea nodosa in Gran Canaria and in Cape Verde, it had not been described so far. This reflects the lack of knowledge on Macaronesian invertebrates, such as amphipods, and the need of further taxonomical studies to better characterise the whole biodiversity of this region and to design adequate programmes of management and conservation.

  19. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin


    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129I and 127I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129I and it...... species along the transect, whereas less change and variation are observed for the total 127I and its species. Transport of 129I from the western English Channel via Biscay Bay is the main source of 129I in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean....

  20. A methodology for optimization of wind farm allocation under land restrictions: the case of the Canary Islands (United States)

    Castaño Moraga, C. A.; Suárez Santana, E.; Sabbagh Rodríguez, I.; Nebot Medina, R.; Suárez García, S.; Rodríguez Alvarado, J.; Piernavieja Izquierdo, G.; Ruiz Alzola, J.


    Wind farms authorization and power allocations to private investors promoting wind energy projects requires some planification strategies. This issue is even more important under land restrictions, as it is the case of Canary Islands, where numerous specially protected areas are present for environmental reasons and land is a scarce resource. Aware of this limitation, the Regional Government of Canary Islands designed the requirements of a public tender to grant licences to install new wind farms trying to maximize the energy produced in terms of occupied land. In this paper, we detail the methodology developed by the Canary Islands Institute of Technology (ITC, S.A.) to support the work of the technical staff of the Regional Ministry of Industry, responsible for the evaluation of a competitive tender process for awarding power lincenses to private investors. The maximization of wind energy production per unit of area requires an exhaustive wind profile characterization. To that end, wind speed was statistically characterized by means of a Weibull probability density function, which mainly depends on two parameters: the shape parameter K, which determines the slope of the curve, and the average wind speed v , which is a scale parameter. These two parameters have been evaluated at three different heights (40,60,80 m) over the whole canarian archipelago, as well as the main wind speed direction. These parameters are available from the public data source Wind Energy Map of the Canary Islands [1]. The proposed methodology is based on the calculation of an initially defined Energy Efficiency Basic Index (EEBI), which is a performance criteria that weighs the annual energy production of a wind farm per unit of area. The calculation of this parameter considers wind conditions, windturbine characteristics, geometry of windturbine distribution in the wind farm (position within the row and column of machines), and involves four steps: Estimation of the energy produced by

  1. New data on the Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Canary Islands, with a description of a new species of Apseudopsis. (United States)

    Esquete, Patricia; Ramos, Eva; Riera, Rodrigo


    Benthic samples from two harbours at El Hierro and Tenerife (Canary Islands) yielded three species of Tanaidacea. Tanais dulongii and Leptochelia savignyi are recorded for the first time in Tenerife and El Hierro, respectively. A new species of Apseudomorpha, Apseudopsis rogi, was collected in both harbours and can be differentiated from other species of the genus by the male having a cheliped merus with a distinctive, cylindrical dorso-proximal spur. This is the first species of Apseudopsis described for the Macaronesian region. A key to the Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Apseudopsis is provided.

  2. Lithospheric magma dynamics beneath the El Hierro Volcano, Canary Islands: insights from fluid inclusions (United States)

    Oglialoro, E.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.; Tiraboschi, C.; Principe, C.; Groppelli, G.; Villa, I. M.


    At active volcanoes, petrological studies have been proven to be a reliable approach in defining the depth conditions of magma transport and storage in both the mantle and the crust. Based on fluid inclusion and mineral geothermobarometry in mantle xenoliths, we propose a model for the magma plumbing system of the Island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The peridotites studied here were entrained in a lava flow exposed in the El Yulan Valley. These lavas are part of the rift volcanism that occurred on El Hierro at approximately 40-30 ka. The peridotites are spinel lherzolites, harzburgites, and dunites which equilibrated in the shallow mantle at pressures between 1.5 and 2 GPa and at temperatures between 800 and 950 °C (low-temperature peridotites; LT), as well as at higher equilibration temperatures of 900 to 1100 °C (high-temperature peridotites; HT). Microthermometry and Raman analyses of fluid inclusions reveal trapping of two distinct fluid phases: early type I metasomatic CO2-N2 fluids ( X N2 = 0.01-0.18; fluid density (d) = 1.19 g/cm3), coexisting with silicate-carbonate melts in LT peridotites, and late type II pure CO2 fluids in both LT (d = 1.11-1.00 and 0.75-0.65 g/cm3) and HT ( d = 1.04-1.11 and 0.75-0.65 g/cm3) peridotites. While type I fluids represent metasomatic phases in the deep oceanic lithosphere (at depths of 60-65 km) before the onset of magmatic activity, type II CO2 fluids testify to two fluid trapping episodes during the ascent of xenoliths in their host mafic magmas. Identification of magma accumulation zones through interpretation of type II CO2 fluid inclusions and mineral geothermobarometry indicate the presence of a vertically stacked system of interconnected small magma reservoirs in the shallow lithospheric mantle between a depth of 22 and 36 km (or 0.67 to 1 GPa). This magma accumulation region fed a short-lived magma storage region located in the lower oceanic crust at a depth of 10-12 km (or 0.26-0.34 GPa). Following our model

  3. New structural, hydrogeological and hydrothermal insights on Cumbre Vieja (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Barde-Cabusson, S.; Finizola, A.; Torres, P.; Víctor Villasante-Marcos, V.; Abella, R.; Aragó, S.; Berthod, C.; Ibarra, P.; Geyer Traver, A.


    Determining the link between shallow structure and volcanism is a topic of interest in Volcanology. We carried out a geophysical study devoted to the characterization of the major structural limits influencing volcanic hydrothermal activity and underground meteoric circulations in La Palma (Canary Islands). Since 1 Ma volcanic activity concentrates at the southern half of the island, on the Cumbre Vieja volcanic rift-zone. During the 1949 eruption a N-S fault system, facing west, developed in the summit area of Cumbre Vieja. This was interpreted as the surface expression of an incipient deformation zone on the western flank. The distribution of the recent activity and faulting indicate that a discontinuity may be present beneath the western flank of Cumbre Vieja, along which a future collapse may occur. Our study, which combines the application of self-potential and soil temperature measurements, provides new information to characterize and locate the limits guiding upward or downward fluid circulation and possibly associated to future failures and potential landslides on the Cumbre Vieja rift-zone. We found a clear asymmetry of the self-potential signal between the eastern and the western flanks of Cumbre Vieja. Strong infiltration of meteoric water seems to affect most of the summit axis while we observe poor variation in the self-potential values on the western flank. This could be explained by a constant thickness of the vadose zone on this flank, i.e., the presence of an impermeable layer at constant depth. This layer could correspond to the landslide interface associated to the previous Cumbre Nueva edifice destruction, on which Cumbre Vieja is currently growing. This constant self-potential pattern is interrupted by at least one other main infiltration zone, near Tajuya volcano, at 1200 m a.s.l. on the western flank, where field observation allowed identifying a small horst-graben system. However it is not clear if this fault system results from local

  4. Shape and Size Complexity of Deep Seafloor Mounds on the Canary Basin (West to Canary Islands, Eastern Atlantic: A DEM-Based Geomorphometric Analysis of Domes and Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sánchez-Guillamón


    Full Text Available Derived digital elevation models (DEMs are high-resolution acoustic technology that has proven to be a crucial morphometric data source for research into submarine environments. We present a morphometric analysis of forty deep seafloor edifices located to the west of Canary Islands, using a 150 m resolution bathymetric DEM. These seafloor structures are characterized as hydrothermal domes and volcanic edifices, based on a previous study, and they are also morphostructurally categorized into five types of edifice following an earlier classification. Edifice outline contours were manually delineated and the morphometric variables quantifying slope, size and shape of the edifices were then calculated using ArcGIS Analyst tools. In addition, we performed a principal component analysis (PCA where ten morphometric variables explain 84% of the total variance in edifice morphology. Most variables show a large spread and some overlap, with clear separations between the types of mounds. Based on these analyses, a morphometric growth model is proposed for both the hydrothermal domes and volcanic edifices. The model takes into account both the size and shape complexity of these seafloor structures. Grow occurs via two distinct pathways: the volcanoes predominantly grow upwards, becoming large cones, while the domes preferentially increase in volume through enlargement of the basal area.

  5. Three-armed rifts or masked radial pattern of eruptive fissures? The intriguing case of El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Martí, J.; Gudmundsson, A.


    Using new surface structural data as well as subsurface structural data obtained from seventeen water galleries, we provide a comprehensive model of the volcano-tectonic evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands). We have identified, measured and analysed more than 1700 volcano-structural elements including vents, eruptive fissures, dykes and faults. The new data provide important information on the main structural patterns of the island and on its stress and strain fields, all of which are crucial for reliable hazard assessments. We conducted temporal and spatial analyses of the main structural elements, focusing on their relative age and association with the three main cycles in the construction of the island: the Tiñor Edifice, the El Golfo-Las Playas Edifice, and the Rift Volcanism. A radial strike distribution, which can be related to constructive episodes, is observed in the on-land structures. A similar strike distribution is seen in the submarine eruptive fissures, which are radial with respect to the centre of the island. However, the volcano-structural elements identified onshore and reflecting the entire volcano-tectonic evolution of the island also show a predominant NE-SW strike, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary archipelago as a whole. Two other dominant directions of structural elements, N-S and WNW-ESE, are evident from the establishment of the El Golfo-Las Playas edifice, during the second constructive cycle. We suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses in each of the volcanic edifices. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures reflect local stress fields related to the formation of mega-landslides and masking the general and regional radial patterns.

  6. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Peridomestic and Wild Animals and Ticks in an Endemic Region (Canary Islands, Spain). (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Noe F; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis


    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65). Globally, eight rodents (8%) and two rabbits (1.5%) were found to be positive, with the spleen being the most affected organ. Tick species identified were Hyalomma lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Hyalomma lusitanicum (80%) was the main species identified in vegetation, livestock, and wild animals, whereas Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most prevalent in domestic dogs. Overall, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 6.1% of the processed ticks, distributed between those removed from livestock (11.3%), domestic dogs (6.9%), and from wild animals (6%). Ticks from vegetation were all negative. Results suggest that, in the Canary Islands, C. burnetii develops in a peridomestic rather than a wild cycle.

  7. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to DDT by breast milk analysis in Canary Islands. (United States)

    Vall, Oriol; Gomez-Culebras, Mario; Puig, Carme; Rodriguez-Carrasco, Ernesto; Gomez Baltazar, Arelis; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar


    The use of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the proximity to countries where it is still used. Seventy-two consecutive lactating women were prospectively included in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). A validated questionnaire was used to obtain socioeconomic, demographics data, and daily habits during pregnancy. DDT levels in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography with-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Anthropometrics measurements in newborns were obtained. Thirty-four out of 72 (47.2%) of the analysed milk samples presented detectable levels of DDT (mean: 0.92 ng/g), ranging between 0.08 to 16.96 ng/g. The socio-demographic variables did not significantly differ between detectable DDT and non-detectable DDT groups. We found positive association between DDT levels and vegetables (OR (95%CI): 1.23 (1.01-1.50)) and poultry meat (OR (95%CI): 2.05 (1.16-3.60)) consumption, and also between the presence of DDT in breast milk and gestational age (OR (95%CI): 0.59 (0.40-0.90)). DDT is present in breast milk of women at the time of delivery. Residual levels and the spread from countries still using DDT explain DDT detection from vegetables and from animal origin food. The presence of this compound in breast milk represents a pre- and postnatal exposure hazard for foetuses and infants due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination, with possible deleterious effects on health. This data should be used to raise awareness of the risks of OCs exposure and to help establish health policies in order to avoid its use worldwide and thus, to

  8. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to DDT by breast milk analysis in Canary Islands.

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    Oriol Vall

    Full Text Available The use of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the proximity to countries where it is still used.Seventy-two consecutive lactating women were prospectively included in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain. A validated questionnaire was used to obtain socioeconomic, demographics data, and daily habits during pregnancy. DDT levels in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography with-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. Anthropometrics measurements in newborns were obtained.Thirty-four out of 72 (47.2% of the analysed milk samples presented detectable levels of DDT (mean: 0.92 ng/g, ranging between 0.08 to 16.96 ng/g. The socio-demographic variables did not significantly differ between detectable DDT and non-detectable DDT groups. We found positive association between DDT levels and vegetables (OR (95%CI: 1.23 (1.01-1.50 and poultry meat (OR (95%CI: 2.05 (1.16-3.60 consumption, and also between the presence of DDT in breast milk and gestational age (OR (95%CI: 0.59 (0.40-0.90.DDT is present in breast milk of women at the time of delivery. Residual levels and the spread from countries still using DDT explain DDT detection from vegetables and from animal origin food. The presence of this compound in breast milk represents a pre- and postnatal exposure hazard for foetuses and infants due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination, with possible deleterious effects on health. This data should be used to raise awareness of the risks of OCs exposure and to help establish health policies in order to avoid its use worldwide and thus

  9. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to DDT by Breast Milk Analysis in Canary Islands (United States)

    Vall, Oriol; Gomez-Culebras, Mario; Puig, Carme; Rodriguez-Carrasco, Ernesto; Gomez Baltazar, Arelis; Canchucaja, Lizzeth; Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar


    Introduction The use of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the proximity to countries where it is still used. Methods Seventy-two consecutive lactating women were prospectively included in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). A validated questionnaire was used to obtain socioeconomic, demographics data, and daily habits during pregnancy. DDT levels in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography with-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Anthropometrics measurements in newborns were obtained. Results Thirty-four out of 72 (47.2%) of the analysed milk samples presented detectable levels of DDT (mean: 0.92 ng/g), ranging between 0.08 to 16.96 ng/g. The socio-demographic variables did not significantly differ between detectable DDT and non-detectable DDT groups. We found positive association between DDT levels and vegetables (OR (95%CI): 1.23 (1.01–1.50)) and poultry meat (OR (95%CI): 2.05 (1.16–3.60)) consumption, and also between the presence of DDT in breast milk and gestational age (OR (95%CI): 0.59 (0.40–0.90)). Conclusions DDT is present in breast milk of women at the time of delivery. Residual levels and the spread from countries still using DDT explain DDT detection from vegetables and from animal origin food. The presence of this compound in breast milk represents a pre- and postnatal exposure hazard for foetuses and infants due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination, with possible deleterious effects on health. This data should be used to raise awareness of the risks of OCs exposure and to help establish health policies

  10. Monitoring fugitive CH4 and CO2 emissions from a closed landfill at Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Tompkins, Mitchell R. K.; Turtle, Lara A. K.; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Rodrígez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Solid waste must be managed systematically to ensure environmental best practices. One of the ways to manage this huge problem is to systematic dispose waste materials in locations such as landfills. However, landfills could face possible threats to the environment such as groundwater pollution and the release of landfill gases (CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) to the atmosphere. These structures should be carefully filled, monitored and maintained while they are active and for up to 30 years after they are closed. Even after years of being closed, a systematically amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through its surface in a diffuse and fugitive form. During the period 1999-2016, we have studied the spatial-temporal distribution of the surface fugitive emission of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere in a cell in the Arico's municipal landfill (0.3 km2) at Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This cell was operative until 2004, when it was filled and closed. Monitoring these diffuse landfill emissions provides information of how the closed landfill is degassing. To do so, we have performed 9 gas emission surveys during the period 1999-2016. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at around 450 sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases taken in the chamber were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. CH4 efflux measurements were computed combining CO2 efflux measurements and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. In general, a decrease in the CO2 emission is observed since the cell was closed (2004) to the present. The total CO2 and CH4 diffuse emissions estimated in the 2016 survey were 4.54 ± 0.14 t d-1 and 268.65 ± 17.99 t d-1, respectively

  11. The continental slope current system between Cape Verde and the Canary Islands

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    Jesús Peña-Izquierdo


    Full Text Available We use hydrographic, velocity and drifter data from a cruise carried out in November 2008 to describe the continental slope current system in the upper thermocline (down to 600 m between Cape Verde and the Canary Islands. The major feature in the region is the Cape Verde Frontal Zone (CVFZ, separating waters from tropical (southern and subtropical (northern origin. The CVFZ is found to intersect the slope north of Cape Blanc, between 22°N and 23°N, but we find that southern waters are predominant over the slope as far north as 24°N. South of Cape Blanc (21.25°N the Poleward Undercurrent (PUC is a prominent northward jet (50 km wide, reaching down to 300 m and indistinguishable from the surface Mauritanian Current. North of Cape Blanc the upwelling front is found far offshore, opening a near-slope northward path to the PUC. Nevertheless, the northward PUC transport decreases from 2.8 Sv at 18°N to 1.7 Sv at 24°N, with about 1 Sv recirculating ofshore just south of Cape Blanc, in agreement with the trajectory of subsurface drifters. South of the CVFZ there is an abrupt thermohaline transition at σϴ=26.85 kg m–3, which indicates the lower limit of the relatively pure (low salt and high oxygen content South Atlantic Central Water (SACW variety that coexists with the dominant locally-diluted (salinity increases through mixing with North Atlantic Central Water but oxygen diminishes because of enhanced remineralization Cape Verde (SACWcv variety. At 16°N about 70% of the PUC transport corresponds to the SACW variety but but this is transformed into 40% SACWcv at 24°N. However, between Cape Verde and Cape Blanc and in the 26.85 < σϴ < 27.1 layer, we measure up to 0.8 Sv of SACWcv being transported south. The results strongly endorse the idea that the slope current system plays a major role in tropical-subtropical water-mass exchange.

  12. Metals emitted by the young submarine volcano Tagoro (El Hierro, Canary Islands): quantification in seawater and plankton and their potential impact


    Oosterbaan, M. (Marijn)


    The concentrations of twenty metal elements in seawater and in plankton around the recently erupted submarine volcano Tagoro just South of the island El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) were investigated in order to assess their potential hazard to the marine environment. Samples of the seawater and the plankton were collected from 2013 to 2016 during the Vulcano and Vulcana monitoring cruises, using a rosette with Niskin bottles and a WP2 net (200 m mesh size). Significantly ...

  13. Temporal evolution of the gonad index of the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoida: Echinidae) and Diadema africanum (Diadematoida: Diadematidae) in the Canary Islands (Spain).


    González-Henríquez, Nieves; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; Catoira Gómez, José Luis; Ruiz de la Rosa, Manuel; Louzara Fernández, Gregorio; Girard Berard, Dominique Girard


    There are three main species of regular sea urchins in the Canary Islands. To establish the optimal fishing seasons for two of them, we studied the evolution of the gonadal index in several years and locations, of Paracentrotus lividus (April 2006 to March 2008 on Tenerife island in two locations: Las Galletas and La Jaca and from April 2006 to January 2009 in Gran Canaria island in two locations: Ojos de Garza and Gando), and Diadema africanum (January 2010 to May 2011 on Gran Canaria island...

  14. Relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal system, Maspalomas, Canary Islands (United States)

    Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Espino, Emma Pérez-Chacón


    This paper explores the relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal dune system, specifically the dune field of Maspalomas (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). The aim is to understand the strategies of colonization and survival that plant communities have developed in slacks that face dune advance. The relationship between plant colonization and dune migration was performed by following Tamarix canariensis and Traganum moquinii plants for several years. Morphological data about each individual as well as the distance of each plant to the dune were measured. A study of the colonization patterns developed by T. moquinii, T. canariensis, Cyperus laevigatus and Launaea arborescens communities was performed by analyzing the evolution of consolidated plant patches and adult plants in relation to the dune advance. This was achieved using digital orthophotos and spatial analysis from geographic information systems. Initiation of plant colonization over transgressive dunes occurs on both wet and dry slacks. The results show that both plant colonization and development of adult plants are largely related to dune mobility. Thus, survival of T. moquinii and T. canariensis plants under dune migration conditions is related to both distance to the dune front and plant height at the moment of burial. Distance from the dune front and plant height increases chance of survival. The dynamics of adult plants is also related to dune displacement rates. Thus, each community has different thresholds of resistance to mobility rates. The T. canariensis community withstands average rates higher than 3 m/year. Its arboreal structure allows this species to grow high enough to resist the advance of the dunes and burial. For the T. moquinii community, the population decreases gradually to eventually disappear when dune mobility rates exceed 4 m/year. The C. laevigatus community develops at dune mobility rates lower than 3 m/year, decreasing its surface

  15. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo


    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  16. Morphometric interpretation of the northwest and southeast slopes of Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)


    Both the northwest and southeast slopes of Tenerife, Canary Islands, owe their morphology to catastrophic sediment failures. An area of 4100 km2 and a volume of about 2362 km3 were involved in the failure. A 100- to 600-m-high scarp on the upper slope separates the sediment failures in the Orotova and Icod de los Vinos Valleys on the northwest coast from those on the slope. A similar (700 m high) scarp also separates the failures on the southeast slope from the failure in Güimar Valley on land. The sediment failure off Las Bandas Del Sur volcanic fan does not have any land counterparts and was the result of the failure of the front (1700 m high) of this depocenter; two generations of debris flows are mappable off this depocenter. We infer that the slopes off Orotova, Icod, and Güimar represent the front of the debris avalanche and/or creep deposits that were created during the formation of the valleys. Downslope from the debris avalanche fronts are irregular surfaced masses extending to the base of the slope. The front may define the contact between the more dense deposits onshore and upper slope and the more fluid deposits on the lower slope. Incised on the debris avalanche on the northwest lower slope are three channeled debris flows grading seaward into turbidites. Only one of these channels occurs on the southeast slope. The breakaway surface of these sediment failures was the front of the debris avalanches and/or creep. We ascribe the failure of this front mainly to its rapid buildup, although groundwater sapping also may have contributed to its failure. On the southeast slope, movement along the northeast trending fault between Gran Canaria and Tenerife also may have been a contributing factor to the failure of the front. The debris flow deposits triggered by the failure of the sediment front on the northwest slope are characterized by ridges formed either by pressure between flows moving at different velocities or by scouring; at least one volcanic edifice

  17. Spaces of transition: Young people’s social practices in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

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    Díaz-Rodríguez, Mª Carmen


    Full Text Available Within the context of the growing interest in the study of young people in urban environments, the present article examines their relational spaces in a southern European city: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain –with a view to identifying the places they frequent and establishing whether or not the most widely-used ones form a spatial network offering them different recreational opportunities. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods, the paper explores the social practices of young people. The information obtained reveals the significance of open public spaces and shopping malls for young people generally, although differences are seen in their practices according to age, gender and social background. The results also suggest that, in the routes they take and their stays in the aforementioned places, young people create a network of meeting spaces that owes more to the construction of their identity than to the existence of complementary formulas for recreation.

  18. Spatial and seasonal variation of the gonad index of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata:Echinoidea in the Canary Islands

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    José Carlos Hernández


    Full Text Available Diadema antillarum Philippi occurs in high density populations in the Canary Islands, creating extensive barren areas. During one year we determined seasonal changes in the algal abundance and population densities, test diameter, gut contents and gonad index of sea urchins in two localities (Abades and Boca Cangrejo. Boca Cangrejo shows higher algae cover and species richness than Abades. The sea urchin population at Abades had a higher density and smaller urchins than Boca Cangrejo. Boca Cangrejo sea urchins showed higher specific richness in gut contents than Abades urchins. The sea urchin population at Abades did not have a clearer reproductive periodicity or higher gonad index than the Boca Cangrejo population. Temporal and spatial changes in gonad periodicity of Diadema antillarum are attributed, at least in part, to benthic food availability (algal cover and algal species number and intra-specific competition.

  19. Occurrence of contamination by controlled substances in Euro banknotes from the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D


    The social problems of drug abuse are a matter of increasing global problem. Nowadays, international agencies need fresh methods to monitor trends of the use of illicit drugs. In this sense, small amounts of drugs are transferred to banknotes and they could be detected and quantified. An analytical procedure based upon extraction with organic solvent, liquid chromatography separation, and mass spectrometric detection allowed the identification of 21 drugs and metabolites in 120 used Euro banknotes collected in the Canary Islands (Spain). Most of the banknotes analyzed showed detectable drug residues (92.5%). Cocaine was the most frequently detected drug, present in approximately 90% of the samples. In addition, 75%, 35%, and 15% of the banknotes showed residues of amphetamine derivatives, opiates, and benzodiazepines, respectively. An average of three drug residues per banknote was detected. In summary, the presence of drug residues in banknotes could be useful as tracer for drugs prevalence. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Planck intermediate results. XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Ferragamo, A.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Hempel, A.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Levrier, F.; Lietzen, H.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Streblyanska, A.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-imaging observations were obtained for most of these sources; spectroscopic observations in either in long-slit or multi-object modes were obtained for many. We effectively used 37.5 clear nights. We found optical counterparts for 73 of the 78 candidates. This sample includes 53 spectroscopic redshift determinations, 20 of them obtained with a multi-object spectroscopic mode. The sample contains new redshifts for 27 Planck clusters that were not included in the first Planck SZ source catalogue (PSZ1).

  1. Giraudia sphacelarioides (Phaeophyceae) at the Canary Islands and in Danish waters: a study in ecotypic differentiation and its biogeographical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Aase; Pedersen, Poul Møller


    Comparative culture studies on isolates from Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and from Danish waters of Giraudia sphacelarioides show that temperature plays the key role to determine its geographical distribution. Experiments show that the upper lethal temperature is the same for both isolates 26...... in relation to temperature, while the macrothalli occur only when more suitable conditions exist in nature. In the North Atlantic Ocean G. sphacelarioides is distributed over approximately 30° latitudes with severe winter temperatures especially in Danish waters. This distribution can only be explained...... by ecotypic differentiation. In Danish waters salinity decreases from c. 30 ‰ in the northern Kattegat to below 8 ‰ in the inner parts and therefore becomes an important factor for the immigration of species into the Baltic Sea. Combined salinity (30-20-10-5 ‰) and temperature (4 to 30°C) experiments show...

  2. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

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    Noé Francisco Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.


    Sierra, Eva; Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Arbelo, Manuel; Andrada, Marisa; Sacchini, Simona; Fernández, Antonio


    An adult male striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded alive at Arico, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. The most remarkable gross findings were two fleshy masses of approximately 1 cm diameter, near the tip of the penis. These masses were composed of hyperplastic epithelial cells with pigmentary incontinence. Ballooning degeneration and margination of chromatin was observed within the stratum corneum of the epidermis. A universal nested PCR assay that amplifies a conserved region within the polymerase gene of Herpesviridae was positive. The sequenced product was most closely related to a gammaherpesvirus that shared nucleotide identities of 93% with penile lesions from Atlantic and Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). This similarity supports the hypothesis of sexual transmission between species.

  4. Under the volcano: phylogeography and evolution of the cave-dwelling Palmorchestia hypogaea (Amphipoda, Crustacea at La Palma (Canary Islands

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    Oromí Pedro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave habitats. A surface-dwelling closely related species (Palmorchestia epigaea lives in the humid laurel forest on the same island. Previous studies have suggested that an ancestral littoral Orchestia species colonized the humid forests of La Palma and that subsequent drought episodes in the Canaries reduced the distribution of P. epigaea favouring the colonization of lava tubes through an adaptive shift. This was followed by dispersal via the hypogean crevicular system. Results P. hypogaea and P. epigaea did not form reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial DNA clades. They showed geographically highly structured and genetically divergent populations with current gene flow limited to geographically close surface locations. Coalescence times using Bayesian estimations assuming a non-correlated relaxed clock with a normal prior distribution of the age of La Palma, together with the lack of association of habitat type with ancestral and recent haplotypes, suggest that their adaptation to cave life is relatively ancient. Conclusion The data gathered here provide evidence for multiple invasions of the volcanic cave systems that have acted as refuges. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the extant species of Palmorchestia is needed, as the division of the two species by habitat and ecology is unnatural. The information obtained here, and that from previous studies on hypogean fauna, shows the importance of factors such as the uncoupling of morphological and genetic evolution, the role of climatic change and regressive evolution as key processes in leading to subterranean biodiversity.

  5. Reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales (Rhodophyta in two macroalgal communities from Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain

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    Polifrone, Milena


    Full Text Available The reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea, was analysed seasonally for a period of one year in two localities on the West coast of Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain. Considerations are provided on sex ratio, maximum length and branch order of uprights and on the length of the thalli for each sexual and asexual phase of the Canary Islands populations. The three species were characterized by a high percentage of tetrasporophytes, while female and male gametophytes have been observed only in little proportion. Only G. canariense showed gametophytes in all seasons while the occurrence of gametophytes in G. arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea demonstrated a clear seasonality.

    La fenología reproductiva de tres especies de Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea, ha sido analizada estacionalmente por un periodo de un año en dos localidades de la costa este de Tenerife (Oceano Atlántico, Islas Canarias, España. Se realizan consideraciones sobre sex ratio, longitud máxima y orden de ramificación de los ramets y se aporta información sobre la longitud del talo por cada fase sexual y asexual de las poblaciones canarias. Las tres especies se caracterizan por presentar un elevado porcentaje de tetrasporofitos, mientras que los gametofitos masculinos y femeninos han sido observados en proporciones reducidas. Sólo G. canariense presenta gametofitos en todas las estaciones, mientras que en G. arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea demostraban una clara estacionalidad.

  6. Linguistic Decipherment of the Lettering on the (Original Carving of the Virgin of Candelaria from Tenerife (Canary Islands

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    Vicente Jara Vera


    Full Text Available The wooden carving of Our Lady of Candelaria, discovered in the municipality of the same name on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands during the first half of the fifteenth century, had nearly two hundred letters of the Latin alphabet inscribed on her garments. Unfortunately the original carving disappeared after the storm that took place in 1826. Once the original letters on the first image were discovered by means of analysing both textual and artistic documentation and sources, we conclude that the text is archaic-Berber language used by the islanders, Insular-Amazigh, which no longer exists in the present day. Having discussed lexical, morphological, syntactic and phonetic aspects of this archaic language, as well as conducted a semantic analysis of the carving both from the native aboriginal perspective and the Christian one, we expound here our proposal of the meaning of the letters engraved on the Marian carving of Candelaria from its lexical voices and roots of their Berber and Insular-Amazigh languages, with the previous proposed solutions.

  7. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

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    Rayco Marrero-Diaz


    Full Text Available The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical sampling. The potential contribution of chloride to groundwater from endogenous HCl gas may invalidate the CMB method. The chloride-to-bromide molar ratio was an efficient tracer used to select recharge water samples having atmospheric origin of chloride. Yearly net aquifer recharge was 631 mm year−1, i.e., 69% of yearly precipitation. This result is in agreement with potential aquifer recharge estimated through an independent lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model operated by the Insular Water Council of Tenerife. This paper illustrates basic procedures and routines to use the CMB method for aquifer recharge in active volcanic oceanic islands having sparse-data coverage and groundwater receiving contribution of endogenous halides.

  8. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  9. Uranium-series ages of corals, sea level history, and palaeozoogeography, Canary Islands, Spain: an exploratory study for two Quaternary interglacial periods (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Meco, Joaquín; Simmons, Kathleen R.


    We present the first U-series ages of corals from emergent marine deposits on the Canary Islands. Deposits at + 20 m are 481 ± 39 ka, possibly correlative to marine isotope stage (or MIS) 11, while those at + 12 and + 8 m are 120.5 ± 0.8 ka and 130.2 ± 0.8 ka, respectively, correlative to MIS 5.5. The age, elevations, and uplift rates derived from MIS 5.5 deposits on the Canary Islands allow calculations of hypothetical palaeo-sea levels during the MIS 11 high sea stand. Estimates indicate that the MIS 11 high sea stand likely was at least + 9 m (relative to present sea level) and could have been as high as + 24 m. The most conservative estimates of palaeo-sea level during MIS 11 would require an ice mass loss equivalent to all of the modern Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets; the more extreme estimates would require additional ice mass loss from the East Antarctic ice sheet. Extralimital southern species of mollusks, found in both MIS 11 and MIS 5.5 deposits on the Canary Islands, imply warmer-than-modern sea surface temperatures during at least a part of MIS 11 and much warmer sea surface temperatures during at least a part of MIS 5.5. Both MIS 11 and MIS 5.5 marine deposits on the Canary Islands contain extralimital northern species of mollusks as well, indicating cooler-than-present waters at times during these interglacial periods. We hypothesize that the co-occurrence of extralimital southern and northern species of marine invertebrates in the fossil record of the Canary Islands reflects its geographic location with respect to major synoptic-scale controls on climate and ocean currents. Previous interglacials may have been characterized by early, insolation-forced warming, along with northward migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), accompanied by weakened trade winds and diminished upwelling. This allowed the arrival of extralimital southern taxa from the tropical Senegalese faunal province. During later parts of the MIS 11 and 5

  10. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan


    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  11. Textures in spinel peridotite mantle xenoliths using micro-CT scanning: Examples from Canary Islands and France (United States)

    Bhanot, K. K.; Downes, H.; Petrone, C. M.; Humphreys-Williams, E.


    Spinel pyroxene-clusters, which are intergrowths of spinel, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in mantle xenoliths, have been investigated through the use of micro-CT (μ-CT) in this study. Samples have been studied from two different tectonic settings: (1) the northern Massif Central, France, an uplifted and rifted plateau on continental lithosphere and (2) Lanzarote in the Canary Islands, an intraplate volcanic island on old oceanic lithosphere. μ-CT analysis of samples from both locations has revealed a range of spinel textures from small < 2 mm microcrystals which can be either spatially concentrated or distributed more evenly throughout the rock with a lineation, to large 4-12 mm individual clusters with ellipsoidal complex vermicular textures in random orientation. Microprobe analyses of pyroxenes inside and outside the clusters show broadly similar compositions. Spinel-pyroxene clusters are the result of a transition of shallow lithospheric mantle from the garnet stability field to the spinel stability field. Both the northern Massif Central and Lanzarote are regions that have experienced significant lithospheric thinning. This process provides a mechanism where the sub-solidus reaction of olivine + garnet = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + spinel is satisfied by providing a pathway from garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite. We predict that such textures would only occur in the mantle beneath regions that show evidence of thinning of the lithospheric mantle. Metasomatic reactions are seen around spinel-pyroxene clusters in some Lanzarote xenoliths, so metasomatism post-dated cluster formation.

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of a Naegleria strain from a recreational water fountain in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, Jose E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob


    Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Among the pathogenic genera included in this group Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris have been reported to be causative agents of lethal encephalitis, disseminated infections and keratitis. Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic FLA species which causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). At present there are not many available data on the distribution of Naegleria species in Spain from environmental sources. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of this genus in recreational water sources in the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. In this study, ten samples collected from recreational water fountains were checked for the presence of Naegleria spp. using morphological and molecular identification tools. From the analysed samples, only one sample (seawater fountain) was positive for Naegleria spp. interestingly, not many reports of Naegleria spp. in seawater are available in the literature and thus awareness should be raised among the environmental and public health professionals.

  13. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

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    Perez, Yannick [Universite de Paris-Sud 11, Groupe Reseaux Jean-Monnet-ADIS, 27 Avenue Lombart Bureau C 309, 92260 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Ramos Real, Francisco Javier [Departamento de Analisis Economico e Instituto de Desarrollo Regional, Camino de La Hornera s/n, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna. SC de Tenerife (Spain)


    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  14. Salmonellosis and charter tourism: epidemiology and trends of imported human cases to Norway from the Canary Islands and Thailand, 1994-2008. (United States)

    Emberland, K E; Nygård, K; Aavitsland, P


    More than 70% of reported human Salmonella infections in Norway are infected abroad. The Canary Islands and Thailand are two of the most popular charter tourist destinations for Norwegians. Using surveillance data for the years 1994-2008, and denominator data on travel to the Canary Islands 2000-2008 and to Thailand 1997-2008, we present the epidemiology and trends of Salmonella infections in Norwegian tourists to these destinations. We found a declining trend in risk of salmonellosis in tourists returning from the Canary Islands, and a change in serovar distribution in travellers to Thailand with more S. Enteritidis infections, similar to that observed in Western European countries. The use of denominator data is important when studying risk of travel-related disease, as surveillance data tend to reflect travel activity more than the risk. Infections among tourists do not always affect the local residents and therefore may not be detected by local public health authorities. Sharing knowledge on the epidemiology of infections in tourists could be useful for observation of changes in trends in the countries visited, and in future outbreak investigations.

  15. Non-controlled biogenic emissions to the atmosphere from Lazareto landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands. (United States)

    Nolasco, Dácil; Lima, R Noemí; Hernández, Pedro A; Pérez, Nemesio M


    [corrected] Historically, landfills have been the simplest form of eliminating urban solid waste with the minimum cost. They have been the most usual method for discarding solid waste. However, landfills are considered authentic biochemical reactors that introduce large amounts of contaminants into the environment in the form of gas and leachates. The dynamics of generation and the movement of gas in landfills depend on the input and output parameters, as well as on the structure of the landfill and the kind of waste. The input parameters include water introduced through natural or artificial processes, the characteristics of the urban solid waste, and the input of atmospheric air. The main output parameters for these biochemical reactors include the gases and the leachates that are potentially pollutants for the environment. Control systems are designed and installed to minimize the impact on the environment. However, these systems are not perfect and a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as Non-controlled emission. In this paper, the results of the Non-controlled biogenic gas emissions from the Lazareto landfill in Tenerife, Canary Islands, are presented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of CH4 and CO2 in the soil gas of the landfill cover, the CH4 and CO2 efflux from the surface of the landfill and, finally, to compare these parameters with other similar landfills. In this way, a better understanding of the process that controls biogenic gas emissions in landfills is expected. A Non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out during February and March, 2002. The sampling sites were selected in order to obtain a well-distributed sampling grid. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site on the surface landfill together with soil gas collection and ground temperatures at a depth of 30

  16. Relative and probabilistic non linear relocation of the seismicity of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Implications for the 2011-2012 eruption. (United States)

    Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; De Angelis, Silvio; Prudencio, Janire; Ibañez, Jesus M.; Morales, José; Koulakov, Ivan


    El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, SPAIN) has recently attracted the interest of the international volcanological community. During a prolonged period of seismic and volcanic unrest, between July 2011 and April 2013, the local seismic network recorded more than 15,000 earthquakes accompanied by a submarine eruption. In this study we present an exhaustive relocation analysis of the original seismic catalog using two well established methods double-difference relative relocation (HypoDD), and probalistic non-linear location (NLLoc). Our relocations are based on 3D velocity models that were obtained from an active-source tomography experiment in the Canary Islands. The relocations constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity, and help to shed light on the patterns of stress propagation, and areas of crustal weakness under the island. The results show that the seismicity each of unrest recorded during this period is located within a small region close to the center of the island and located around 12 to 14 km depth. Then, the seismicity migrates away from the island. We confirm the presence of a high-velocity block centered underneath El Hierro (up to 15km depth) observed by other authors. This block may represent a barrier to magma propagation and it corresponds to the location of the bulk of seismicity at the beginning of each phase.

  17. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen


    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  18. CO2-SO3-rich (carbonate-sulfate) melt/fluids in the lithosphere beneath El Hierro, Canary Islands. (United States)

    Oglialoro, E.; Ferrando, S.; Malaspina, N.; Villa, I. M.; Frezzotti, M. L.


    Mantle xenoliths from the island of El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands, have been studied to characterize fluxes of carbon in the lithosphere of an OIB volcanism region. Fifteen xenoliths (4-10 cm in diameter) were collected in a rift lava flow (15-41 ka) at a new xenolith locality in El Julan cliff (S-SW of the island). Peridotites consist of protogranular to porphyroblastic spinel harzburgites, lherzolites, and subordinate dunites. One spinel clinopyroxenite, and one olivine-websterite were also analyzed. Ultramafic xenoliths were classified as HEXO (harzburgite and dunite with exsolved orthopyroxene), HLCO (harzburgite and lherzolite containing orthopyroxene without visible exsolution lamellae), and HTR (transitional harzburgite with exsolved orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, and poikilitic orthopyroxene) following [1]. While HLCO and HTR peridotites contain mostly CO2 fluid inclusions, HEXO peridotites preserve an early association of melt/fluid inclusions containing dominantly carbonate/sulfate/silicate glass, evolving to carbonate/sulfate/phosphate/spinel aggregates, with exsolved CO2 (± carbonates, anhydrite and H2O). Chemical and Raman analyses identify dolomite, Mg-calcite, anhydrite, sulfohalite [Na6(SO4)2FCl] (± other anhydrous and hydrous alkali-sulfates), apatite, and Cr-spinel in the inclusions. Sulfides are noticeably absent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the metasomatic fluids indicate that the peridotites were infiltrated by a carbonate-sulfate-silicate melt/fluid enriched in CO2, H2O, and P. A mantle origin for this fluid is supported by high densities of CO2inclusions (> 1g/cm3), determined by Raman microspectroscopy and cross-checked by microthermometry. Consequently, El Julan peridotites provide the first evidence for liberating oxidized C and S fluxes from the Earth lithosphere in an OIB source region, and suggest that oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can occur during small-degree partial melting of the upper mantle

  19. The 2011 volcanic crisis at El Hierro (Canary Islands): monitoring ground deformation through tiltmeter and gravimetric observations (United States)

    Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.; Vélez, E. J.


    El Hierro is an ocean island located at the western end of the Canary Islands, and along with Tenerife and La Palma islands have been the most geologically active in the recent past. The island has a triple armed rift and, presently, is at the stage of growth, representing the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the seafloor at depth of 4000 m up to 1501 m above the sea level (Münn et al., 2006; Carracedo et al., 1999). Since July 19th, 2011 seismic activity has produced more than 11950 events up to date. The seismic crisis resulted in a volcanic eruption that began on October 10th, being still currently active. The new volcano is located 2 km off the coast and about 300 m depth, in the submarine flank of the southern rift of the island, which is extended some 40 km length. Since September 2004 until November 2010 two continuous tilt stations were installed at the north, Balneario site (BA), and at the center of the island, Aula de la Naturaleza (AU) site. Both stations were used to assess the pattern of local ground movements in the island. When seismic swarm started on past July 2011, we have reinstalled both tilt stations (BA and AU) and 2 new ones located at the south of the island, namely Montaña Quemada (MQ) and Restinga (RE) sites. We have used short base platform tiltmeters that measure ground tilts with resolutions varying from 0.1 up to 0.01 microradians (µrad). On October 8th, a 4.4 magnitude earthquake took place and is supposed that fractured the ocean crust at some 8-10 km off the south coast of the island and about 1000 m depth. Typical spike signals were observed at the tilt stations. Two days after, the eruption onset was recorded also at tilt stations through a remarkable increase of the high frequency signal, being of large amplitude the components (radial) orientated towards the new volcano edifice. When compared with previous tiltmeter records in the island, tilt pattern were clearly modified several times at the stations when strong

  20. Out of sight, out of mind: threats to the marine biodiversity of the Canary Islands (NE Atlantic Ocean). (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Becerro, Mikel A; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Delgado, Juan D; Edgar, Graham J


    Lack of knowledge of the marine realm may bias our perception of the current status and threats to marine biodiversity. Less than 10% of all ecological literature is related to the ocean, and the information we have on marine species that are threatened or on the verge of extinction is scarce. This lack of information is particularly critical for isolated areas such as oceanic archipelagos. Here we review published and grey literature on the current status of marine organisms in the Canary Islands as a case description of the consequences that current out-of-sight out-of-mind attitudes may have on this unique environment. Global change, as represented by coastal development, pollution, exotic species and climate change, are currently affecting the distribution and abundance of Canarian marine organisms, and pose multiple threats to local species and communities. Environmental risks are significant at community and species levels, particularly for threatened species. Failure to address these trends will result in shifts in local biodiversity with important ecological, social, and economic consequences. Scientists, policy makers, educators, and relevant societal groups need to collaborate to reverse deleterious coastal biodiversity trends. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Digger wasp fauna (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Crabronidae of La Palma (Canary Islands - a survey with description of a new species

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    Ljubomirov, T.


    Full Text Available Asurvey of the digger wasp fauna of La Palma (Canary Islands is made. Eleven species are confirmed as present and five of them –Liris nigricans nigricans (Walker, 1871, Miscophus eatoni E. Saunders, 1903, Tachysphex nitidus (Spinola, 1806, Solierella insidiosa de Beaumont, 1964, and Nitela laevigata sp. n.– are recorded for the first time for the fauna of La Palma. A brief evaluation of the digger wasp species richness of La Palma is provided.

    Se presenta un estudio de la fauna de Crabronidae y Sphecidae de la isla de La Palma (Islas Canarias. Se considera probada la presencia de once especies, cinco de las cuales –Liris nigricans nigricans (Walker, 1871, Miscophus eatoni E. Saunders, 1903, Tachysphex nitidus (Spinola, 1806, Solierella insidiosa de Beaumont, 1964 y Nitela laevigata sp. n.– se registran por vez primera para la fauna de La Palma. Se adjunta una breve evaluación de la riqueza específica de ambas familias en la isla.

  2. Highlights of consumption and satisfaction in nautical tourism. A comparative study of visitors to the Canary Islands and Morocco

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    Yen E. Lam González


    Full Text Available Nautical tourism is considered to be an under-exploited research area, taking into account its evolution and growth prospects. The present study was conducted with nautical tourists during their visit to the Canary Islands and Morocco between 2013 and 2014. Our aim is to better guide the creation of new joint businesses by determining the most demanded activities among the nautical tourists that visit this part of the world. Some findings indicate that tourists’ consumption and satisfaction vary between a nautical tourist that sails and a tourist motivated by other nautical activities, regardless of the destination they choose. The study also differentiates the nautical tourists’ preferences according to the most popular activities carried out at the destinations they are visiting, highlighting the role that resources such as “sea” and “nature” play as the main tourists’ motivations behind the trip. Finally, the results also reveal which elements of the nautical tourism products and services in offer are the current destinations’ weaknesses, according to the nautical tourists.

  3. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae on the Canary Islands

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    Ye Sun


    Full Text Available Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat. The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife, this west–east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago.

  4. Parasitism of dolfinfhishes, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands

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    Enrique Carbonell


    Full Text Available A total of 648 dolphinfishes were examined for internal and external parasites in western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands waters in order to make a comparative study between the two areas. The specimens studied from the Mediterranean Sea was Coryphaena hippurus, with 62 large individuals captured from May to September and 497 juveniles captured from August to December. The specimens studied from the central-eastern Atlantic were 39 adult C. hippurus and 49 adult Coryphaena equiselis. Parasites were found in 70% of the fish examined, and represented a total of nine endoparasitic taxa: six digeneans (Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea; Dinurus tornatus, Dinurus breviductus, Dinurus longisinus, Lecithocladium excisum, Bathycotyle branchialis and Hirudinella sp., two nematodes (Class Nematoda, Order Spirurida; Philometroides sp. and Metabronema magna and one acanthocephalan (Phyllum Acanthocephala; Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Seven crustacean copepod ectoparasites were identified: Caligus quadratus, Caligus productus, Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae (Family Caligidae and Euryphorus nymphae (Family Euriphoridae were found in gill mucus masses or on the inner surface of the operculum, the lernaeopodid Neobrachiella coryphaenae (Family Lernaeopodidae was attached to gill filaments and the pennellid Pennella filosa (Family Pennellidae was anchored to fins and rays or, deeply, to muscular tissue and abdominal cavity. The relationships between feeding habits, parasite recruitment and parasite transmission were analysed, some ecological aspects of all the parasitic species are discussed, and some comments are made on parasite-host relationships.

  5. Fusion of WorldView-2 and LiDAR Data to Map Fuel Types in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Alonso-Benito


    Full Text Available Wildland fires are one of the factors causing the deepest disturbances on the natural environment and severely threatening many ecosystems, as well as economic welfare and public health. Having accurate and up-to-date fuel type maps is essential to properly manage wildland fire risk areas. This research aims to assess the viability of combining Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and the fusion of a WorldView-2 (WV2 image and low density Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data in order to produce fuel type maps within an area of complex orography and vegetation distribution located in the island of Tenerife (Spain. Independent GEOBIAs were applied to four datasets to create four fuel type maps according to the Prometheus classification. The following fusion methods were compared: Image Stack (IS, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF, as well as the WV2 image alone. Accuracy assessment of the maps was conducted by comparison against the fuel types assessed in the field. Besides global agreement, disagreement measures due to allocation and quantity were estimated, both globally and by fuel type. This made it possible to better understand the nature of disagreements linked to each map. The global agreement of the obtained maps varied from 76.23% to 85.43%. Maps obtained through data fusion reached a significantly higher global agreement than the map derived from the WV2 image alone. By integrating LiDAR information with the GEOBIAs, global agreement improvements by over 10% were attained in all cases. No significant differences in global agreement were found among the three classifications performed on WV2 and LiDAR fusion data (IS, PCA, MNF. These study’s findings show the validity of the combined use of GEOBIA, high-spatial resolution multispectral data and low density LiDAR data in order to generate fuel type maps in the Canary Islands.

  6. Volcanic geomorphosites and geotourism in Las Cañadas del Teide National Park, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Dóniz-Paéz, Javier; Becerra-Ramírez, Rafael; González-Cárdenas, Elena; Rodriguez, Fátima


    Geomorphosites and geoturism studies are increasing for the high scientific, societal, cultural, and aesthetic values of the relief. Volcanic areas are exciting targets for such studies for their geodiversity. The aim of these study is an inventory of volcanic geomorphosites and its relationship to geotourism. Las Cañadas del Teide National Park (LCTNP) is a volcanic complex area located in the central part of Tenerife island (Canary Islands, Spain). This area is a volcanic paradise rich in spectacular landforms: stratovolcanoes, calderas, cinder cones, craters, pahoehoe, aa, block and balls lavas, gullies, etc. The national park is registered in the world heritage list (UNESCO) in 2007 as a natural site. The LCTNP receives more than 2,5 million tourists per year and it has 21 main pahts and 14 secondary ones. For the selection of the geomophosites the LCTNP was divided into four geomorphological units (Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes, Las Cañadas Caldera wall, the bottom of Las Cañadas and the basaltic volcanic field) and each one of them is selected the most representative geomorphosites by its geodiversity, because of its geomorphological heritage, its landscapes and its tourist potential with the paths. All selected geomorphosites are within areas where public use is allowed in the park. The inventory classifies the 23 geomorphosites in two main categories: (a) direct volcanic with 17 geomorphosites (stratovolcanoes, domes, cinder cones, pahoehoe, aa and bloc lava flows, etc.) and (b) eroded volcanic landforms with 6 (wall of Las Cañadas caldera, talusees, foodplains, etc.). The Teide-Pico Viejo unit is which has more geomorphosites with 8 and the Las Cañadas wall unit possessing less with 5. The assessment evaluates the scientific, cultural/historical, and use values and helps to define priorities in site management. These geomorphosites demonstrate the volcanic history and processes of the LCTNP.

  7. Different pattern of contamination by legacy POPs in two populations from the same geographical area but with completely different lifestyles: Canary Islands (Spain) vs. Morocco. (United States)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Arellano, José Luis Pérez; Carranza, Cristina; Sánchez, Nieves Jaén; Almeida-González, Maira; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D


    The archipelago of the Canary Islands is one of the so-called ultra-peripheral territories of the European Union due to its geographical location away from the continent. Although the level of socioeconomic development and lifestyle of this region is comparable to that of any other of the European Union, it is just 100 km off the coast of Morocco, in the African continent. The population of the Canaries has been extensively studied with respect to their levels of POPs, and it has been described that their levels are relatively high compared to other European regions. It has been speculated with that the proximity to Africa may be associated with this level of contamination, but so far this theory has not been verified. This paper describes for the first time the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a sample of the population of Morocco (n = 131), which were compared with those of a similar sample of the population of permanent residents in the Canary Islands (n = 100) in order to check this hypothesis. Our results showed that Moroccans have higher median values of OCPs than the residents in the Canaries (∑ OCP = 150.2 ng/g lw vs. 83.4 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). Regarding the PCBs, although recent studies have reported that new environmental sources of PCBs exist in several African countries (including Morocco), the plasma levels of most congeners were significantly higher in Canarians than in Moroccans, especially for the dioxin-like PCBs (median = 7.3 ng/g lw vs. 0.0 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). The detailed analysis of our results suggests that the levels of these pollutants in the Canarian people are more influenced by their lifestyle and the previous use of these chemicals in the archipelago than by its geographical vicinity with Morocco.

  8. Soil degradation under reclaimed wastewater in arenados (Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.; Jimenez, C.; Hernandez-Moreno, J. M.; Diaz, F.


    In the Island of Lanzarote, one of the most arid zones of the EU, a traditional farming system based on the soil mulching with basaltic tephra, locally known as arenados, was developed since the 18th century. This dry-framing system accounts currently for more than 21% of the island surface. However, in the last decades, this system has been transformed with the incorporation of irrigation, due to the availability of new non-conventional water resources (desalinised and reclaimed municipal wastewater). (Author)

  9. Northernmost record of the pantropical portunid crab Cronius ruber in the eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands: natural range extension or human-mediated introduction?

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    José A. González


    Full Text Available The pantropical crab Cronius ruber (Lamarck, 1818 (Brachyura: Portunidae is recorded for the first time from the Canary Islands. Previously known from off Cape Verde Islands and Senegal, this is the northernmost record of the species in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Crabs have been caught by means of a collecting small trap for sampling in shallow waters, and then identified by both morphological characters and DNA barcoding (16S. Cytochrome c oxidase I partial sequence has been obtained for this species for the first time. This relatively large and very aggressive crab species seems to be rapidly occupying both hard substrates (sublittoral caves and soft substrates (sand with seagrass meadow adjacent to shallow rocky bottoms, at depths between 2 and 10 m, in the warm southern waters of Gran Canaria Island. The reasons for this species’ occurrence are discussed herein. Among them, natural range extension may be a consequence of tropicalization in the eastern Atlantic. Also, a human-mediated introduction could be based on the heavy traffic of ships (ballast waters or oil platforms arriving at the Canary Islands from African countries and from Brazil in the last decade.

  10. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling (United States)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.


    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  11. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo


    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  12. Diffuse degassing He/CO2 ratio before and during the 2011-12 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands (United States)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David


    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island, culminating with the eruption onset in October 12. Since at El Hierro Islands there are not any surface geothermal manifestation (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Between July 2011 to March 2012, seventeen diffuse CO2 and He emissions soil gas surveys were undertaken at El Hierro volcanic system (600 observation sites) with the aim to investigate the relationship between their temporal variations and the volcanic activity (Padrón et al., 2013; Melián et al., 2014). Based on the diffuse He/CO2 emission ratio, a sharp increase before the eruption onset was observed, reaching the maximum value on September 26 (6.8×10-5), sixteen days before the occurrence of the eruption. This increase coincided with an increase in seismic energy release during the volcanic unrest and occurred together with an increase on the 3He/4He isotopic ratio in groundwaters from a well in El Hierro Island (Padrón et al., 2013; from 2-3 RA to 7.2 RA where RA = 3He/4He ratio in air), one month prior to the eruption onset. Early degassing of new gas-rich magma batch at depth could explain the observed increase on the He/CO2 ratio, causing a preferential partitioning of CO2 in the gas phase with respect to the He, due to the lower solubility of CO2 than that of He in basaltic magmas. During the eruptive period (October 2011-March 2012) the prevalence of a magmatic CO2-dominated component is evident, as indicated by the generally lower He/CO2 ratios and high 3He/4He values (Padrón et al., 2013). The onset of the submarine eruption might have produced a sudden release of volcanic gases, and consequently, a decrease in the volcanic gas pressure of the magma bodies moving beneath the island, reflected by a drastic decrease in

  13. Mercury and selenium status of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): A study in stranded animals on the Canary Islands. (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Natalia; Fernández, Antonio; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Almunia, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P


    The mercury (Hg) level in the marine environment has tripled in recent decades, becoming a great concern because of its high toxic potential. This study reports Hg and selenium (Se) status, and the first Se/Hg molar ratio assessment in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the waters of the Canary Islands. Total Hg and Se concentrations were determined in the blubber and liver collected from 30 specimens stranded along the coasts of the archipelago from 1997 to 2013. The median values for total Hg in the blubber and liver were 80.83 and 223.77 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw), and the median levels for Se in both tissues were 7.29 and 68.63 μg g(-1) dw, respectively. Hg concentrations in the liver were lower than 100 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww), comparable to those obtained in bottlenose dolphins from the North Sea, the Western Atlantic Ocean and several locations in the Pacific Ocean. The Mediterranean Sea and South of Australia are the most contaminated areas for both elements in this cetacean species. In addition, it must be stressed that the levels of Hg and Se in the liver showed an increasing trend with the age of the animals. As expected, a strong positive correlation between Hg and Se was observed (rs=0.960). Surprisingly, both younger and older specimens had a Se/Hg molar ratio different from 1, suggesting that these individuals may be at greater toxicological risk for high concentrations of both elements or a deficiency of Se without a protective action against Hg toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Retrieval and validation of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor for the Canary Islands IR-laser occultation experiment (United States)

    Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.; Brooke, J. S. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Thomas, C. B.; Wang, J.-G.; Tereszchuk, K. A.; González Abad, G.; Hargreaves, R. J.; Beale, C. A.; Harrison, J. J.; Martin, P. A.; Kasyutich, V. L.; Gerbig, C.; Loescher, A.


    The first ground-based experiment to prove the concept of a novel space-based observation technique for microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites was performed in the Canary Islands between La Palma and Tenerife. For two nights from 21 to 22 July 2011 the experiment delivered the infrared-laser differential transmission principle for the measurement of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the free atmosphere. Such global and long-term stable measurements of GHGs, accompanied also by measurements of thermodynamic parameters and line-of-sight wind in a self-calibrating way, have become very important for climate change monitoring. The experiment delivered promising initial data for demonstrating the new observation concept by retrieving volume mixing ratios of GHGs along a ~144 km signal path at altitudes of ~2.4 km. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the measurements, following a recent publication that introduced the experiment's technical setup and first results for an example retrieval of CO2. We present the observational and validation data sets, the latter simultaneously measured at the transmitter and receiver sites; the measurement data handling; and the differential transmission retrieval procedure. We also determine the individual and combined uncertainties influencing the results and present the retrieval results for 12CO2, 13CO2, C18OO, H2O and CH4. The new method is found to have a reliable basis for monitoring of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2O in the free atmosphere.

  15. [Purchase of local foods for school meals in Andalusia, the Canary Islands and the Principality of Asturias (Spain)]. (United States)

    Soares, Panmela; Caballero, Pablo; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen

    To explore and compare the characteristics of Primary Education Centres (PEC) in Andalusia, the Canary Islands and the Principality of Asturias depending on whether or not they make local food purchases (LFP) for school meals and to explore the opinion of cafeteria managers about the benefits and challenges of this type of purchase. Information on the characteristics of 186 PECs and opinions of cafeteria managers about the benefits/challenges of LFP was collected through an electronic questionnaire. Data were stratified according to how the products were purchased (LFP: yes/no), and the chi square test was applied. 38.2% of the PECs studied make LFP. This is more frequent in rural areas (51.0 with self-managed cafeterias (80.0%), and their own kitchen (65.5%). These centres have less expensive menus than their peers (69.8%), participate more frequently in healthy eating programmes (81.5%) and purchase more organic food products (65.8%). According to the majority of the participants whose centres engage in LFP, the benefits include: supporting the local economy (97.2%), the offer of fresh foods (97.2%) and environmental sustainability (93.0%). The challenges include: productive capacity of the region (50.7%), the seasonal variation in food production (71.8%), and the lack of support (42.3%) and information from the government (46.5%). The location of the centres, the management of the cafeteria and the availability of a kitchen on site can influence the development of LFP in schools. Government support could help to integrate LFP in schools, improving school meals at a lower economic and environmental cost. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

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    Andrea Fais

    Full Text Available Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0 = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418 within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  17. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities? (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha


    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands.

  18. After Timanfaya: overpopulation and soil erosion in the north of Lanzarote (Canary Islands); Tras Timanfaya: susperpoblacion y erosion de suelo en el norte de Lanzarote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado, C.; Romero, C.; Solar, V.


    The eruption of Timanfaya (1730-1736) has been the most important volcanic activity on Canary Islands during historical times (after XV Century). The lave flows and piroclastic layers buried at least 1/4 of Lanzarote surface. Overall the island we can see artificial cross-sections showing ash layers, overlapping paleargids soils or interbedded between alluvial sediment on the bottom of in filled valleys. Sedimentological analysis has been applied on four cross-section located along the island. These data, together with historical information and pottery remains, allow conclude a very recent age for many of this layers, produced by a strong erosion input started by the overgrazing produced by the concentration of livestock during the volcanic crisis. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Post-fire soil erosion on vineyards and canary pine-stands on the subtropical island of La Palma: scope of application of TLS? (United States)

    Umstaedter, Kathrin; Haas, Florian; Becht, Michael


    Land use is considered as a main factor regarding post-fire soil erosion. Especially in the subtropical climate with extreme rainfall events in winter and drought periods during summer times, soil erosion can clearly exceed the soil reproduction rate. On the Canary Island of La Palma frequent wildfires and steep slopes contribute to a high likelihood of post-fire soil erosion. For a quantitative measurement of the erosion rate a terrestrial Laser Scanner with high resolution in combination with a dGPS is used. The main target of this study is to quantify the post-fire soil erosion rates on study sites with a different land use on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands). The investigation focuses on two land use forms; both are very common and widespread on the island: canary pine stands and vineyard areas. The study sites are characterized by a varying steepness, a different fire history (wildfires in 2000, 2009 and 2012) and different stages of soil development. Both denudation and gully erosion processes are spread over the sites. Intense precipitation events can trigger debris flows and extensive soil erosion on post-fire sites, like in the year 2009 in the south or in 2012 on the west and east side of La Palma. Regarding that, erosion is not just a problem for agriculture, but for the infrastructure. For our project we assume, that different topography, different land use and different forest fire history can result in a different soil erosion rate and type (gully incision, denudation processes). To calculate the post-fire erosion rates of the two land use forms, 24 study sites - 10 sites in vineyard areas, 14 in canary pines stands - were selected. By means of a 3D terrestrial Laser Scanner (Riegl LMS Z420i), high resolution digital terrain models of the study sites were compiled. The data acquisition was carried out in October 2011, May 2012 and December 2012 and subsequently the terrain models were compared. With this method not only erosion rates can be

  20. Time lag between deformation and seismicity along monogenetic volcanic unrest periods: The case of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Lamolda, Héctor; Felpeto, Alicia; Bethencourt, Abelardo


    Between 2011 and 2014 there were at least seven episodes of magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island, but only the first one led to a submarine eruption in 2011-2012. In order to study the relationship between GPS deformation and seismicity during these episodes, we compare the temporal evolution of the deformation with the cumulative seismic energy released. In some of the episodes both deformation and seismicity evolve in a very similar way, but in others a time lag appears between them, in which the deformation precedes the seismicity. Furthermore, a linear correlation between decimal logarithm of intruded magma volume and decimal logarithm of total seismic energy released along the different episodes has been observed. Therefore, if a future magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island follows this behavior with a proper time lag, we could have an a priori estimate on the order of magnitude the seismic energy released would reach.

  1. Cyclic thermal behavior associated to the degassing process at El Hierro submarine volcano, Canary Islands. (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.


    One year after the ceasing of magmatic activity in the shallow submarine volcano of the island of El Hierro, significant physical-chemical anomalies produced by the degassing process as: (i) thermal anomalies increase of +0.44 °C, (ii) pH decrease of -0.034 units, (iii) total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT increase by +43.5 µmol kg-1 and (iv) total alkalinity, AT by +12.81 µmol kg-1 were still present in the area. These evidences highlight the potential role of the shallow degassing processes as a natural ecosystem-scale experiments for the study of significant effects of global change stressors on marine environments. Additionally, thermal time series obtained from a temporal yo-yo CTD study, in isopycnal components, over one of the most active points of the submarine volcano have been analyzed in order to investigate the behavior of the system. Signal processing of the thermal time series highlights a strong cyclic temperature period of 125-150 min at 99.9% confidence, due to characteristic time-scales revealed in the periodogram. These long cycles might reflect dynamics occurring within the shallow magma supply system below the island of El Hierro.

  2. Lead and cadmium levels in coastal benthic algae (seaweeds) of Tenerife, Canary Islands. (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lafuente, María Anunciación


    Lead and cadmium levels of some species of brown-algae (Phaeophyta) from the mesolittoral (intertidal area) of the Island of Tenerife (central-eastern Atlantic) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The quality control was carried out using a standard "CRM 279 Ulva lactuca". The mean, minimum and maximum concentrations were 11.21, 2.090 and 81.795 microg/g/dw; and 1.13, 0.190 and 5.130 microg/g/dw for lead and cadmium, respectively. The fact that samples registering the highest cadmium concentrations were the same as those which showed the highest lead level corresponding to a sampling station nearby an urban water outlet could be relevant.

  3. Subtidal soft-bottom macroinvertebrate communities of the Canary Islands. An ecological approach

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    Oscar Monterroso


    Full Text Available The Canarian archipelago is characterized by a mosaic of soft-bottoms such as Cymodocea nodosa meadows, Caulerpa spp. meadows, mäerl bottoms, sabellid fields and bare sandy seabeds, including various macroinfaunal communities. Vegetated habitats (e.g. Cymodocea and Caulerpa maintain more diverse communities than the non-vegetated seabeds. The results indicated that Caulerpa meadows and, to a lesser extent, Cymodocea nodosa and sabellid fields are the richest and most diverse ecosystems in the study area. Moreover, biodiversity differences among islands could be detected with maximum values on the eastern islands (Lanzarote and Gran Canaria and lowest values on the western ones (La Palma.O arquipélago das Canárias é caracterizado por um mosaico de fundos inconsolidados contendo bancos de Cymodocea nodosa, Caulerpa spp., fundos calcários, bancos de sabelídeos e sedimento não biogênico, que abrigam diferentes comunidades da macrofauna. Ambientes vegetados (Cymodocea e Caulerpa possuem comunidades mais diversificadas quando comparados aos ambientes de fundos não vegetados. Os resultados do presente estudo indicaram que os bancos de Caulerpa, primeiramente, e em seguida os bancos de Cymodocea nodosa e de sabelídeos, formam os sistemas mais ricos e diversificados da área. Além disso, puderam também ser detectadas diferenças de biodiversidade entre as ilhas do arquipélago, sendo os valores mais altos localizados nas ilhas ao leste (Lanzarote e Gran Canaria e os menores nas ilhas à oeste (La Palma.

  4. Evidence for long-term uplift on the Canary Islands from emergent Mio Pliocene littoral deposits (United States)

    Meco, Joaquín; Scaillet, Stéphane; Guillou, Hervé; Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Carlos Carracedo, Juan; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan-Francisco; Cilleros, Antonio


    Several islands in the Canarian archipelago show marine deposits with identical fossil faunas, which are generally assigned to different glacioeustatic marine episodes: mainly Pleistocene episodes in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, and Mio-Pliocene ones in Gran Canaria. Three fossil species ( Saccostrea chili, Nerita emiliana and Strombus coronatus) characterize all the marine deposits from southern Lanzarote, to the west and south of Fuerteventura and northeast of Gran Canaria. Three other species ( Ancilla glandiformis, Rothpletzia rudista and Siderastraea miocenica) confirm the chronostratigraphic attribution of these deposits. Other more occasional fossils (as Chlamys latissima, Isognomon soldanii and Clypeaster aegyptiacus) fit an upper Miocene and lower Pliocene age. This agrees with new K/Ar ages obtained from pillow lavas emplaced into the marine deposits (ca. 4.1 Ma in Gran Canaria, ca. 4.8 Ma in Fuerteventura) and from underlying (ca. 9.3 Ma in Gran Canaria) or overlying (ca. 9.8 Ma in Lanzarote) lava flows. The marine deposits are eroded but large continuous segments are preserved sloping gently towards the coast. Variations in the highest and the lowest elevations of the deposits apsl (above present sea level) indicate post-depositional uplift movements. Glacioeustatic causes are unlikely to be responsible for these variations on the basis of the coastal location of the deposits and their equatorial fauna characteristic of Mio-Pliocene corals. Differential uplift of the deposits across the archipelago is argued to result from the progressive seaward tilting of the islands along the insular volcanic trail marking the westward migration of hot spot head since 20 Ma. Successive westward accretion of younger volcanic edifices resulted in increasing lithostatic load of the crust with progressive (diachronous) tilting of the older edifices and their palaeo-shorelines marked by past coastal deposits.

  5. Diffuse CO_{2} degassing monitoring of the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Norrie, Janice; Withoos, Yannick; García-Merino, Marta; Melián, Gladys; Padrón, Eleazar; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Even during repose periods, volcanoes release large amounts of gases from both visible (fumaroles, solfataras, plumes) and non-visible emanations (diffuse degassing). In the last 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the study of diffuse degassing as a powerful tool in volcano monitoring programs, particularly in those volcanic areas where there are no visible volcanic-hydrothermal gas emissions. Historically, soil gas and diffuse degassing surveys in volcanic environments have focused mainly on CO2 because it is, after water vapor, the most abundant gas dissolved in magma. As CO2 travels upward by advective-diffusive transport mechanisms and manifests itself at the surface, changes in its flux pattern over time provide important information for monitoring volcanic and seismic activity. Since 1998, diffuse CO2 emission has been monitored at El Hierro Island, the smallest and south westernmost island of the Canarian archipelago with an area of 278 km2. As no visible emanations occur at the surface environment of El Hierro, diffuse degassing studies have become the most useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity in this volcanic island. The island experienced a volcano-seismic unrest that began in July 2011, characterized by the location of a large number of relatively small earthquakes (MHierro at depths between 8 and 15 km. On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption was confirmed during the afternoon of October 12, 2011 by visual observations off the coast of El Hierro, about 2 km south of the small village of La Restinga in the southernmost part of the island. During the pre-eruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second

  6. Continuous Monitoring of Diffuse Gas Emission From Teide Volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Lima, R.; Melian, G.; Galindo, I.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.


    Teide volcano (3,717 m a.s.l.) is located in the central part of Tenerife island, at the intersection of three major volcanic rift-zones. Low temperature fumaroles (81-85°C) occur in the summit cone, where significant amounts of diffuse CO2 degassing have been measured about 400 of tons per day (Hernandez et al., 1998; Gonzalez et al., 2001). Chemical and isotopic composition of these gases show a mixing of CO2-rich deep-seated gas and atmospheric air. In order to improve the volcanic surveillance program of Teide volcano, a geochemical station for continuous monitoring of the diffuse degassing was installed at the summit (3,575 m a.s.l.) in April 1999. Soil CO2 and H2S efflux (WEST Systems, Italy), soil temperature, soil water content, rainfall, and meteorological variables (wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, air temperature and air humidity) are continuously measured in an hourly basis and real-time radio-transmitted to ITER facilities 25 Km far. Soil gas composition, collected at 70 cm deep, as well as 4He/40Ar, 4He/CO2, N2/40Ar, and 40Ar/36Ar ratios are also routinely measured using an Omnistar quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). Teide geochemical station is also integrated by an electrostatic-type SARAD alpha detector, which allows measuring 222Rn and 220Rn from its radioactive progeny, 214Po, 216Po and 218Po hourly. Diffuse degassing at Teide volcano is dominated by a large and variable CO2 content (<66.7%V) and CO2 efflux <29 Kgm-2d^{-1}. Despite the air-like ^{40}Ar/^{36}Ar (<310) and N_{2}/O_{2} (~3.4) ratios, the ^{4}He/^{40}Ar (9.3 10^{-4}) and ^{4}He/CO_{2} (2.6 10^{-5}) ratios showed the contribution of deep-seated derived gas. Soil gas ^{222}Rn content has a median value of 1.18 KBqm^{-3}$ and is quite variable depending on the meteorological conditions at the observation site (wind speed, barometric pressure and soil water content). These promising results are a relevant key within the geochemical monitoring program for the seismic

  7. The seasonal planktonic cycle in coastal waters of the Canary Islands

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    Javier Arístegui


    Full Text Available The short-term temporal variation in the phytoplankton and mesozooplankton cycles was studied in a coastal area off east Gran Canaria Island. A small phytoplankton bloom, split into two peaks, appeared during late winter (end of February and March, coinciding with the lowest temperatures in the water column. A clear inverse relationship was observed between the biomasses in mesozooplankton and phytoplankton during the bloom period. The peaks in primary production and phytoplankton biomass were uncoupled in time, suggesting that biomass could depend on consumer control (grazing, and primary production on resource control (nutrients. Mesozooplankton grazing represented less than 20% of the primary production, an indication that small zooplankton and protozoans controlled the phytoplankton populations, dominated by picoplanktonic cells (> 60% of the primary production. The ratio between depth-integrated primary production and community respiration (P/R covaried with primary production (P, showing that changes in P control the trophic status of the system. At P > 400 mgC m-2 day-1 the P/R ratio is > 1, switching the system from heterotrophy to autotrophy, a situation that takes place during the phytoplankton growth period.

  8. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, S.; Arnoso Sampedro, J.; Gonzalez Montesinos, F.; Martí Molist, J.


    Gravity changes occurring during the initial stage of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the preeruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LaCoste and Romberg gPhone-054. On 15 September 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 μGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, is consistent with a lateral magma migration that occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on 10 October 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on 6-11 October 2011, pointing to an occurring interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 μGal, during the first 3 days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which could indicate that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  9. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process (United States)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón


    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  10. Contrasting recruitment seasonality of sea urchin species in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (eastern Atlantic

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    Full Text Available Despite sea-urchins can play an important role affecting the community structure of subtidal bottoms, factors controlling the dynamics of sea-urchin populations are still poorly understood. We assessed the seasonal variation in recruitment of three sea-urchin species (Diadema africanum, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula at Gran Canaria Island (eastern Atlantic via monthly deployment of artificial collectors throughout an entire annual cycle on each of four adjacent habitat patches (seagrasses, sandy patches, ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens and macroalgal-dominated beds within a shallow coastal landscape. Paracentrotus lividus and A. lixula had exclusively one main recruitment peak in late winter-spring. Diadema africanum recruitment was also seasonal, but recruits appeared in late summer-autumn, particularly on ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens with large abundances of adult conspecifics. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated non-overlapping seasonal recruitment patterns of the less abundant species (P. lividus and A. lixula with the most conspicuous species (D. africanum in the study area.

  11. Air pollution and mortality in the Canary Islands: a time-series analysis. (United States)

    López-Villarrubia, Elena; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Peral, Nieves


    The island factor of the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, along with their proximity to Africa and their meteorology, create a particular setting that influences the air quality of these cities and provides researchers an opportunity to analyze the acute effects of air-pollutants on daily mortality. From 2000 to 2004, the relationship between daily changes in PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone levels and daily total mortality and mortality due to respiratory and heart diseases were assessed using Generalized Additive Poisson models controlled for potential confounders. The lag effect (up to five days) as well as the concurrent and previous day averages and distributed lag models were all estimated. Single and two pollutant models were also constructed. Daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were found to be associated with an increase in respiratory mortality in Santa Cruz de Tenerife and with increased heart disease mortality in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, thus indicating an association between daily ozone levels and mortality from heart diseases. The effects spread over five successive days. SO2 was the only air pollutant significantly related with total mortality (lag 0). There is a short-term association between current exposure levels to air pollution and mortality (total as well as that due specifically to heart and respiratory diseases) in both cities. Risk coefficients were higher for respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, showing a delayed effect over several days.

  12. Spatiotemporal structure of a laser beam over 144 km in a Canary Islands experiment. (United States)

    Gurvich, Alexandre S; Gorbunov, Michael E; Fedorova, Olga V; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Proschek, Veronika; González Abad, Gonzalo; Tereszchuk, Keith A


    We analyzed the observations of scintillations in a laser beam (532 nm, ~200 mW power) traveling along a 144 km path at an altitude of 2.2-2.4 km above sea level, just above the atmospheric boundary layer, between the islands of La Palma and Tenerife. The observations were performed during nighttime on 18 July 2011, by means of a telescope with an aperture diameter of 1 m. Strong scintillations were observed. The estimates of spatial spectra and correlation functions indicated that the observed intensity fields possess, statistically, a locally isotropic structure, which agrees with the idea of a locally isotropic turbulence. The estimates of spatial autospectra and autocorrelation functions of the intensity field indicated that the characteristic scale of the internal structure of the observed clusters is 6.5-8 mm, while the characteristic size of the clusters is 4-5 cm. The major contribution to the observed scintillations comes from the inhomogeneities of the intensity field with scales from 1-2 cm up to 10-12 cm. The analysis of the cross-spectra indicated that the hypothesis of frozen turbulence introduced by Taylor can be used for the description of spatiotemporal structure of intensity fluctuations of laser beams traveling through long paths in the atmosphere.

  13. Quantification of Fog Water Collection in Three Locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands

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    Axel Ritter


    Full Text Available We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain: La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l., Taborno (1015 m a.s.l., and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.. Concomitant meteorological variables were also measured. We show that fog precipitation was more frequent than rainfall. However, the volumes and frequency of daily fog water collection varied among the three studied sites, usually not exceeding 10–40 L d−1/m2 of collecting surface. In La Esperanza, fog water harvesting occurred frequently, but was considerably lower than in the other two locations. However, while in Taborno fog water collection episodes were distributed throughout the period, in El Gaitero these were mainly concentrated in two periods, during autumn and winter 2012–2013. The study of the relationships between daily fog water yields and the averages of meteorological variables did not show any clear trend, but it suggested that the greater volumes of collected fog water were logically associated with higher wind speeds and lower solar radiation conditions. Fog water collection in La Esperanza and in Taborno typically occurred within a similar temperature interval (7.5–12.5 °C, while in El Gaitero the phenomenon was associated with a lower temperature range (2.5–10 °C.

  14. First isolation of Mycobacterium canariasense from municipal water supplies in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Lecuona, María; Abreu, Rossana; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Cristobalina; Castro, Beatriz; Campos, Silvia; Hernández-Porto, Miriam; Mendoza, Pablo; Arias, Angeles


    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are common bacteria in water and especially water supply distribution systems. Some species can cause infections, especially in immunocompromised patients and other risk groups. This study examined the frequency of occurrence of NTM in 135 household potable water samples collected from household water taps in Tenerife Island. Mycobacteria species were identified by polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA regions, and by double-reverse hybridization on a dipstick using colloidal gold-bound and membrane-bound probes (Speed-Oligo(®) Mycobacteria). Some species were identified by sequencing the gene that encodes the 16S rRNA region. NTM were present in 47.4% of the samples. Mycobacterium fortuitum was the NTM isolated most frequently (70.3%), followed by Mycobacterium canariasense (6.3%) and Mycobacterium chelonae (6.3%). Other species were isolated at lower percentage frequencies. We isolated and identified the species M. canariasense in water supplies for public consumption. This species has previously been reported only in hospital settings. The elevated presence of NTM in the water supply indicates that it may be a reservoir for infections caused by recently described species of mycobacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) Model in Spain: an example of a collaboration between Canarian universities and the department of education of the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Crespo, Patricia; González, Desirée; Artiles, Ceferino; Alfonso, Miguel


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of second tier intervention at-risk readers within the context of a Response to Intervention approach. The study was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain), directed by research team ¨Dificultades de Aprendizaje, Psicolingüística y Nuevas Tecnologías¨ (DEA&NT) from University of La Laguna, and supported by the Government of the Canary Islands. A sample of 1.123 Spanish children from fourteen schools districts were given the Spanish adaptation of The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist and children who scored at or above the 75th percentile on the test were classified as "at risk" for early reading difficulties. Half of the students were randomly assigned to a project-based intervention condition where they received small group supplementary intervention for 30 minutes daily using the Prevención de las Dificultades Específicas de Aprendizaje (PREDEA) curriculum from mid to late December and continued until mid June. The other half received whatever remedial services were available at their schools. Results indicated that children who received the PREDEA curriculum had higher scores on the Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (EGRA) on initial sound identification, listening comprehension, letter sound knowledge and oral reading fluency compared to the control group.

  16. Characterization of fibers as rockwool for insulation obtained from canary islands basalts

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    Cáceres, J. M.


    Full Text Available Glass fibers in the shape of wool were obtained at laboratory scale from three samples of basaltic rocks from the Tenerife Island. The rockwool is widely used as thermal and acoustical insulation. The ability of these rocks to be fiberized was studied by means of the viscosity curves and can be quite improved by adding calcium and magnesium. The experimental fibers obtained from the rocks directly or mixed with either CaCO3 or CaMg(CO32 ye characterized in terms of chemical composition, microstructure and thermal and mechanical properties. These properties were compared with the ones determined for four commercial samples of rockcwool, founding that they are very close. This gives good prospects to these fibers from Canarian basalts as insulation material.

    Se ha obtenido fibra de vidrio en forma de lana, a escala de laboratorio, a partir de tres muestras de rocas basálticas de la Isla de Tenerife. La lana de roca se emplea extensamente como aislamiento térmico y acústico. La aptitud de estas rocas para su fibrado, estudiada mediante las curvas de viscosidad, mejora considerablemente con la adición de calcio y magnesio. Las fibras experimentales, obtenidas tanto a partir de las rocas directamente, como mezcladas en diferentes proporciones con CaCO3 o CaMg(CO32, se han caracterizado en lo referente a la composición química, la microestructura y propiedades térmicas y mecánicas. Así mismo, se han comparado estas propiedades con las determinadas para cuatro muestras comerciales de lana de roca, permitiendo comprobar que son bastante semejantes, lo que hace prever unas buenas cualidades para estas fibras de basaltos canarios en aplicaciones de aislamiento térmico y acústico.

  17. Air pollution and mortality in the Canary Islands: a time-series analysis

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    Ballester Ferran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The island factor of the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, along with their proximity to Africa and their meteorology, create a particular setting that influences the air quality of these cities and provides researchers an opportunity to analyze the acute effects of air-pollutants on daily mortality. Methods From 2000 to 2004, the relationship between daily changes in PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone levels and daily total mortality and mortality due to respiratory and heart diseases were assessed using Generalized Additive Poisson models controlled for potential confounders. The lag effect (up to five days as well as the concurrent and previous day averages and distributed lag models were all estimated. Single and two pollutant models were also constructed. Results Daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were found to be associated with an increase in respiratory mortality in Santa Cruz de Tenerife and with increased heart disease mortality in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, thus indicating an association between daily ozone levels and mortality from heart diseases. The effects spread over five successive days. SO2 was the only air pollutant significantly related with total mortality (lag 0. Conclusions There is a short-term association between current exposure levels to air pollution and mortality (total as well as that due specifically to heart and respiratory diseases in both cities. Risk coefficients were higher for respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, showing a delayed effect over several days.

  18. Seventeen years of monitoring diffuse CO2 emission from the Tenerife North-West Rift Zone (NWRZ) volcano, Canary Islands (United States)

    Padilla, Germán D.; Evans, Bethany J.; Provis, Aaron R.; Asensio, María; Alonso, Mar; Calvo, David; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Tenerife together and Gran Canaria are the central islands of the Canarian archipelago, which have developed a central volcanic complex characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands (2100 km2) and at present, the North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ) is one of the most active volcanic structures of the three volcanic rift-zone of the island, which has hosted two historical eruptions (Arenas Negras in 1706 and Chinyero in 1909). In order to monitor the volcanic activity of NWRZ, since the year 2000, 49 soil CO2 efflux surveys have been performed at NWRZ (more than 300 observation sites each one) to evaluate the temporal an spatial variations of CO2 efflux and their relationships with the volcanic-seismic activity. Measurements were performed in accordance with the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. We report herein the results of the last diffuse CO2 efflux surveys at the NWRZ undertaken in July and October 2016 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area. During July and October 2016 surveys, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 32.4 and 53.7 g m-2 d-1, respectively. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere were estimated at 255 ± 9 and 338 ± 18 t d-1, respectively, values higher than the background CO2 emission estimated on 144 t d-1. Since 2000, soil CO2 efflux values have ranged from non-detectable up to 141 g m-2 d-1, with the highest values measured in May 2005 whereas total CO2 output ranged between 52 and 867 t d-1. Long-term variations in the total CO2 output have shown a temporal correlation with the onsets of seismic activity at Tenerife, supporting unrest of the volcanic system, as is also suggested by anomalous seismic activity recorded in the studied area

  19. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes (United States)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús


    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  20. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

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    Vargas, J. M.


    Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.

  1. Characterization of six microsatellite loci in Myrica faya (Myricaceae and cross amplification in the endangered endemic M. rivas-martinezii in Canary Islands, Spain

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    Miguel A. González-Pérez


    Full Text Available Six novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from enriched libraries in Myrica faya Ait., recently renamed Morella faya , (fayatree, firetree, or firebush in order to examine the genetic diversity in natural populations. Also, test cross-specific amplification and genetic diversity in Myrica rivas-martinezii, which is endemic on the Canary islands. Microsatellite loci were screened in 225 individuals of both species from different islands of the Canarian archipelago. All markers were successfully amplified from both Myrica species, with an average number of 6.5 and 9.3 alleles per locus in M. rivas-martinezii and M. faya , respectively. There was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium between loci, and the probability of null alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.17.

  2. Evolutive and regressive soil sequences for characterization of soils in laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands

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    José Asterio Guerra-García


    Full Text Available Soil degradation processes have achieved the recognition of a global environmental problem in recent years. It has been suggested by various international forums and organizations that in order to adequately establish methods to combat land degradation, it is necessary to evaluate this degradation locally and at a detailed scale. The evaluation of soil degradation of natural ecosystems at a detailed scale requires the definition of standards to which to compare this degradation. To define these standards and properly handle the processes that give rise to variations in soil quality and degradation, it is necessary to establish in some detail the pedogenic processes that have or have not taken place in a particular area and which lead to the formation of a mature soil. A mature soil should be considered as standard in these situations and, therefore, a non-degraded soil. This paper presents the possible evolutive and regressive sequences of soil, and provides some examples of using this methodology to evaluate the degradation of the same in the Monteverde of the island of Tenerife. It also presents some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of climacic mature soils, degraded soils and low quality soils, and examines their similarities and differences in this bioclimatic environment and on different parent materials. Thus it is observed that the main processes of degradation in these areas are related to plant cover modifications that lead to the decreasing protection of the soil surface, which results in the long term, in the onset of degradation processes such as water erosion, biological degradation, loss of andic properties, compaction and sealing and crusting surface, loss of water retention capacity, illuviation, etc. Climacic soils that can be found in areas of steep lava flows are Leptosols, while gently sloping areas are Cambisols and Andosols. On pyroclastic materials there are vitric Andosols and andic Andosols according to

  3. Melting mode and source lithology inferred from trace element systematic in historical olivine from Lanzarote, Canary Islands (United States)

    Gómez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.


    Trace element concentrations and ratios in olivine phenocrysts, such as fractionation-corrected Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, have been shown useful as probes of pyroxenite derived component in mixtures of primary mantle melts (e.g. Sobolev et al., 2007). For instance, higher Ni and lower Mn and Ca contents are expected in partial melts of pyroxenite compared to those of lherzolite. We have measured trace element concentrations in olivine from 1730-1736 AD (Timanfaya) and 1824 AD eruptions in Lanzarote (Canary Islands), which erupted mafic and mantle nodule bearing magmas, ranging in composition from highly silica-undersaturated basanite through alkali basalt to tholeiite. The early basanite exhibit the largest olivine trace element variation covering the range of those from MORB and OIB worldwide, whereas later erupted tholeiite have values typical from pyroxenite derived melts. The Fo value decreased systematically with time during the 1730-36 eruption and the proportion of silica-saturated primary melt increased in the parental magma mixture with time. At the end of the eruption, tholeiite magmas crystallized olivine with, increasing concentrations of Mn and Ca and higher Ca/Al at relatively uniform Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, all of which is readily explained by increased decompression melting at lower temperature. The basanite from the eruption that took place in 1824 AD has olivine with even higher Fo value and trace element variability similar those of the Timanfaya basanite. The fact that the Lanzarote basanite contain olivine with trace element systematic spanning that of MORB and pyroxenite melt can be explained by CO2-flux melting of a lithologically heterogeneous source, generating the diverse compositions. Initial reactive porous flow through depleted oceanic lithosphere and equilibration with dunitic restite of percolating pyroxenite melt may have amplified the observed Ni depletion in olivine of the earliest basanite. The fact that olivine compositions and

  4. Social and economic costs and health-related quality of life in stroke survivors in the Canary Islands, Spain (United States)


    Background Cost-of-illness analysis is the main method of providing an overall vision of the economic impact of a disease. Such studies have been used to set priorities for healthcare policies and inform resource allocation. The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the first, second and third years after surviving a stroke in the Canary Islands, Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective study of 448 patients with stroke based on ICD 9 discharge codes, who received outpatient care at five hospitals. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria University Hospital. Data on demographic characteristics, health resource utilization, informal care, labor productivity losses and HRQOL were collected from the hospital admissions databases and questionnaires completed by stroke patients or their caregivers. Labor productivity losses were calculated from physical units and converted into monetary units with a human capital-based method. HRQOL was measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Healthcare costs, productivity losses and informal care costs were analyzed with log-normal, probit and ordered probit multivariate models. Results The average cost for each stroke survivor was €17 618 in the first, €14 453 in the second and €12 924 in the third year after the stroke; the reference year for unit prices was 2004. The largest expenditures in the first year were informal care and hospitalizations; in the second and third years the main costs were for informal care, productivity losses and medication. Mean EQ-5D index scores for stroke survivors were 0.50 for the first, 0.47 for the second and 0.46 for the third year, and mean EQ-5D visual analog scale scores were 56, 52 and 55, respectively. Conclusions The main strengths of this study lie in our bottom-up-approach to costing, and in the evaluation of stroke survivors from a broad perspective (societal

  5. Social and economic costs and health-related quality of life in stroke survivors in the Canary Islands, Spain

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    Lopez-Bastida Julio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-of-illness analysis is the main method of providing an overall vision of the economic impact of a disease. Such studies have been used to set priorities for healthcare policies and inform resource allocation. The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL in the first, second and third years after surviving a stroke in the Canary Islands, Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective study of 448 patients with stroke based on ICD 9 discharge codes, who received outpatient care at five hospitals. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria University Hospital. Data on demographic characteristics, health resource utilization, informal care, labor productivity losses and HRQOL were collected from the hospital admissions databases and questionnaires completed by stroke patients or their caregivers. Labor productivity losses were calculated from physical units and converted into monetary units with a human capital-based method. HRQOL was measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Healthcare costs, productivity losses and informal care costs were analyzed with log-normal, probit and ordered probit multivariate models. Results The average cost for each stroke survivor was €17 618 in the first, €14 453 in the second and €12 924 in the third year after the stroke; the reference year for unit prices was 2004. The largest expenditures in the first year were informal care and hospitalizations; in the second and third years the main costs were for informal care, productivity losses and medication. Mean EQ-5D index scores for stroke survivors were 0.50 for the first, 0.47 for the second and 0.46 for the third year, and mean EQ-5D visual analog scale scores were 56, 52 and 55, respectively. Conclusions The main strengths of this study lie in our bottom-up-approach to costing, and in the evaluation of stroke survivors from a

  6. On the predictability of volcano-tectonic events by low frequency seismic noise analysis at Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex, Canary Islands

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    M. Tárraga


    Full Text Available The island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain, is showing possible signs of reawakening after its last basaltic strombolian eruption, dated 1909 at Chinyero. The main concern relates to the central active volcanic complex Teide - Pico Viejo, which poses serious hazards to the properties and population of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain, and which has erupted several times during the last 5000 years, including a subplinian phonolitic eruption (Montaña Blanca about 2000 years ago. In this paper we show the presence of low frequency seismic noise which possibly includes tremor of volcanic origin and we investigate the feasibility of using it to forecast, via the material failure forecast method, the time of occurrence of discrete events that could be called Volcano-Tectonic or simply Tectonic (i.e. non volcanic on the basis of their relationship to volcanic activity. In order to avoid subjectivity in the forecast procedure, an automatic program has been developed to generate forecasts, validated by Bayes theorem. A parameter called 'forecast gain' measures (and for the first time quantitatively what is gained in probabilistic terms by applying the (automatic failure forecast method. The clear correlation between the obtained forecasts and the occurrence of (Volcano-Tectonic seismic events - a clear indication of a relationship between the continuous seismic noise and the discrete seismic events - is the explanation for the high value of this 'forecast gain' in both 2004 and 2005 and an indication that the events are Volcano-Tectonic rather than purely Tectonic.

  7. Teachers' and Students' Thoughts on the Integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Its Use in Adult Centres: The Case of the Canary Islands (United States)

    Almeida, Paula Morales; Bermúdez, María Olga Escandell; Sánchez, José Juan Castro


    This study presents the results of an investigation carried out with teachers and students of adult centres of the Canary Islands, Spain. The main goal of the investigation was to determine the opinions and the formation of both teachers and students about information and communication technologies (ICT) and whether they use these technologies in…

  8. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

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    Martínez-de la Puente Josué


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD, Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST. Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST showed that both

  9. Surface geochemical survey for geothermal exploration in the south-east zone of Tenerife Island, Canary Islands (United States)

    Diaz Requejo, M.; Marrero, R.; Padron, E.; Melian, G.; Guerrero, V.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Hidalgo, R.


    Water and gas sampling of natural discharges are the most common type of geochemical surveys for geothermal exploration. However, these natural discharges are generally scarces at geothermal exploration areas where the extent of the field is not known. Therefore, soil-volatile (Hg, As, Sb, NH3 and B) and soil-gas surveys (222Rn, CO2, He, H2, CH4, O2, Ar) are becoming a useful geochemical tool to identify permeable areas and potential upflow or boiling zones. These surveys can also help to delineate the margins of a geothermal system, and therefore often complement geophysical surveys particularly where the interpretation of geophysical data shows some difficulties. During July and August, 2008, a surface geochemical survey was undertaken in a ~120 km2 area at the south-east slope of Tenerife Island, Spain. In order to obtain a representative distribution of the whole study area, during the field work a total of 577 sampling points were performed. In-situ measurement of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities together with Hg0 and H2S gas concentration and CO2 and H2S soil effluxes were performed at each sampling point. At the same time, gas samples were taken from the soil atmosphere at 40 cm depth for subsequent chemical analysis by means of micro-gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry (He, H2, Ne, N2, CO2, CH4, Ar and CO2). At least two geochemical anomalous zones have been identified in the present work: (A) one close to Siete Fuentes-Fasnia historical vents (1704-1705 AD) and (B) located on the southwestern limit of the study area. Relatively high concentrations of H2 and ΔHe as well as high H2/Ar and He/CO2 ratios were observed at both zones, indicating a clear evidence of the existence of an upflow zone with an important contribution of endogenous gases. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system coupled with a vertical permeability structures in both zones could explain these geochemical anomalies observed in the surface environment

  10. Xenophobic discourse and agenda-setting. A case study in the press of the Canary Islands (Spain

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    Rodrigo F. Rodríguez Borges, Ph. D.


    Full Text Available Since its formulation by McCombs and Shaw in the 70s, the concept of agenda-setting has proved to be of relevant heuristic value to explore the relationship between the media agenda and the public agenda and the processes of transference between them both. Taking this idea as a reference and basing on the tools of the analysis discourse by Van Dijk, this article shows the strategy of informative dosage developed by the newspaper El Día from Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain to turn the irregular immigration into the main issue in the civil agenda. The case study is focused on the support given by the newspaper to the call for a demonstration supporting a law of residence as the solution to the arrival of immigrants to the islands. We identified the writing units addressed to the demonstration call, the deliberate chronological sequence used to inform the readers and the editorial declarations supporting the initiative. The analysis lets us appreciate a paradigmatic example of the power of the media to set the political agenda and take in the political parties and the main institutions.Resumen: Desde su formulación en la década de los 70 por McCombs y Shaw, el concepto de 'fijación de agenda' ha demostrado un relevante valor heurístico para explorar las relaciones entre la agenda de los medios y la agenda pública y los procesos de transferencia entre ambas esferas. Tomando como referencia esta noción y apoyándose en las herramientas del análisis del discurso desarrolladas por Van Dijk, este artículo muestra la estrategia de dosificación informativa seguida por el periódico El Día, de Tenerife, Islas Canarias (España para convertir la inmigración irregular en una cuestión central en la agenda ciudadana. El estudio de caso se centra en el apoyo prestado por el diario a la convocatoria de una manifestación ciudadana en favor de una ley de residencia como solución a la llegada de inmigrantes a Canarias. En el estudio se procedió a

  11. Short-term variations of diffuse CO2 emission from the summit crater of Teide volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)

    Melián, Gladys V.; Ocampo, Stephany; Nisbet, Andrew; McKnight, Samara; Monzón, Tania; Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Rodríguez, Fátima; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Teide volcano in Tenerife, Canary Islands, is characterized by the presence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground, and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around this area. The temperature of the fumaroles (83˚ C) corresponds to the boiling point of water at discharge conditions. Previous diffuse CO2 surveys have shown to be an important tool to detect early warnings of possible impending volcanic unrests at Tenerife Island (Melián et al., 2012; Pérez et al., 2013). During June, July and August 2016, twelve soil gas surveys were performed at the summit crater of Teide volcano in order to evaluate short-term variations of diffuse CO2 degassing pattern. Soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature were always measured at the same 38 observation sites homogeneously distributed within an area of about 6,972 m2 inside the summit crater. Soil CO2 diffuse effluxes were estimated according to the accumulation chamber method and using a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) LICOR-820 CO2analyzer. Soil CO2 efflux values presented a range from non-detectable (˜0.5 gṡm-2ṡd-1) to 10.8 kgṡm-2ṡd-1, with an average value of 2.7 kgṡm-2ṡd-1, while soil temperature ranged from 13.1 to 83.6˚ C with a mean value of 55.6˚ C. Sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs) were used for mapping and estimate the volcanic diffuse CO2 emission at each survey. The highest values of diffuse CO2 efflux were measured along the east (>8 kgṡm-2ṡd-1) and west (>5 kgṡm-2ṡd-1) sectors of the crater. Areas with highest diffuse CO2 effluxes were also characterized by a relatively high soil temperature (>60˚ C) and by an intense hydrothermal alteration. Weekly diffuse CO2 emission variations from the summit crater during the study period showed a range between 13.5 and 24.7 tṡd-1 with an average value of 18.9 tṡd-1. During these 3 months, the seismic activity rate was about 10 seismic events per month registered by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN; We compared

  12. Identification of shallow geothermal anomalies in the Timanfaya National Park (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) through combined geophysical prospecting techniques (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Martín-Crespo, Tomás; Arnoso, José; Solla, Mercedes; Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Vélez, Emilio; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Sánchez, Nieves; Lorenzo, Henrique; Soler, Vicente


    The Timanfaya National Park is a volcanic area in the southwest of Lanzarote Island (Canary Archipelago, Spain) resulting from the 1730-1736 eruption period. Several active geothermal anomalies have been identified from 1970's. Their location is important to prevent hazards in this restricted touristic area of the park. Presently, only some regional geophysical studies based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data have been undertaken to model the crustal structure of Lanzarote Island. This work presents a new study about the geothermal anomalies in the Timanfaya National Park by the analysis and joint interpretation of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), magnetic anomalies and electromagnetic induction data (EMI). All analyzed data have been obtained over areas which had not been surveyed before. The studied geothermal field is located at the Islote de Hilario visitor's centre. One 50m-long GPR profile was carried out in May 2012 along the location of a known geothermal anomaly developed over pyroclastic deposits. The two main characteristics are: a) no continuous subhorizontal reflections are displayed up to 12 m depth and, b) the intensity of the reflections varies laterally in good agreement with the location of the geothermal anomalies (the higher the ground temperature, the greater the intensity of the GPR signal). Thus, an outline of the subsurface area with higher temperatures can be observed, indicating that the heat source is deeper at the beginning of the profile and extends laterally and progressively shallower towards the end. Temporal variation of the shallow temperature distribution was also investigated by repeating the same GPR profile in April 2015. Although both profiles look quite similar, subtle variations of the GPR signal intensity suggest a certain temporal variation of the ground temperature. In November 2012 a land magnetic survey was carried out in Timanfaya. In the Islote de Hilario area, total field magnetic data were acquired with

  13. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.


    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  14. Mapping giant mass transport deposits (MTDs) for delineating the extended Continental Shelf of Spain to the West of Canary Islands according UNCLOS Art. 76 (United States)

    Somoza, Luis; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Vázquez, Juan T.; González, Javier; Palomino, Desiree; González-Aller, Daniel; Fernández-Salas, Luis M.; Espinosa, Salvador


    On 19 December 2014, Spain presented a third partial submission for the delineation of the Extended Continental in the area west of the Canary Islands to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of Sea (UNCLOS). The Canary Islands are located within a NE-SW 1,350 km long ridge of hotspot-inferred volcanic islands and seamounts (composed by more of 100, from Lars to Tropic seamounts). This submission has been documented with an extensive dataset specifically obtained for the project during ten oceanographic cruises between 2010 and 2014 aboard the Spanish research vessels Hespérides, Sarmiento de Gamboa and Miguel Oliver. This new dataset allows to investigate an area of 440,000 km2 with acoustic backscatter images and multibeam echosounder bathymetric (MBES) data (Simrad EM-12, EM-120 and EM-302, and Atlas HYDROSWEEP DS), a dense network of 65,800 km of very-high resolution (VHR) seismic lines (including chirp parametric source TOPAS PS-18 and Atlas PARASOUND P-35) and 4,471 km of multichannel seismic reflection lines (MCS) acquired with an array of air-guns yielding a total volume of 4,600 inch3 (75.38 L) and a 3,500 m long streamer composed of 280 channels. In order to determine the Foot of Slope (FoS), the Base of Slope (BoS) region has been traced following geomorphological arguments based on the morphology of the mass transport deposits (MTDs) extended downslope west of the Canary Islands. Based on backscatter and MBEs mapping, and VHR lines, the BoS has been traced by means of a detailed mapping of the debris flow deposits widespread along the slope. Therefore, the seaward limit of the BoS has been traced following the termination of the debris flow sourced from the Canary Island. Otherwise, the landward limit of the BoS has been defined following the morphological changes in the debris flow forced by the breaking in the slope gradient, which form distributary lobes downslope. Finally

  15. of Canary Islands

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    Eduardo Parra López


    Full Text Available La ultraperiferia añade a los problemas inherentes a la insularidad los derivados de la lejanía respecto a los principales centros de aprovisionamiento, la considerable escasez de recursos, la fragmentación del territorio, y por tanto, de los mercados. En las últimas décadas se ha ido tomando conciencia del impacto de la ultraperiferia sobre el desarrollo de las regiones y estados insulares. La ultraperiferia es un atributo geográfico que condiciona las opciones de desarrollo y el tipo de especialización de las economías, afecta a la competitividad y a las estrategias empresariales. El agroturismo es una de las actividades que está adquiriendo mayor relevancia en el marco de la diversificación de las explotaciones agrarias, agropecuarias y del turismo. Por ello, la necesidad de activar económicamente las zonas rurales de territorios insulares ultraperiféricos, así como la valorización de las producciones agrarias y agropecuarias vinculadas a la actividad turística, se presentan como elementos vitales para estrategias de diversificación, transformación y mejora de la competitividad y calidad de las mismas. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los cambios y el posible impacto que supone la incorporación del agroturismo como una alternativa al turismo de sol y playa, de incremento de rentas de las familias, del desarrollo rural y de nuevas formas de turismo. Se pretende establecer un análisis estratégico del agroturismo, analizar el lado de la oferta y demanda, para sentar la base de las razones de fomentar esta actividad.

  16. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H


    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

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    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail:; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)


    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  18. Protected areas in the Atlantic facing the hazards of micro-plastic pollution: first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Current. (United States)

    Baztan, Juan; Carrasco, Ana; Chouinard, Omer; Cleaud, Muriel; Gabaldon, Jesús E; Huck, Thierry; Jaffrès, Lionel; Jorgensen, Bethany; Miguelez, Aquilino; Paillard, Christine; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul


    Coastal zones and the biosphere as a whole show signs of cumulative degradation due to the use and disposal of plastics. To better understand the manifestation of plastic pollution in the Atlantic Ocean, we partnered with local communities to determine the concentrations of micro-plastics in 125 beaches on three islands in the Canary Current: Lanzarote, La Graciosa, and Fuerteventura. We found that, in spite of being located in highly-protected natural areas, all beaches in our study area are exceedingly vulnerable to micro-plastic pollution, with pollution levels reaching concentrations greater than 100 g of plastic in 1l of sediment. This paper contributes to ongoing efforts to develop solutions to plastic pollution by addressing the questions: (i) Where does this pollution come from?; (ii) How much plastic pollution is in the world's oceans and coastal zones?; (iii) What are the consequences for the biosphere?; and (iv) What are possible solutions? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Iberian-Tartessian scripts/graffiti in Iruna-Veleia (Basque Country, North Spain: findings in both Iberia and Canary Islands-Africa

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    Antonio Arnaiz-Villena


    Full Text Available 760 officially recognized scripts on ceramics from Iruña-Veleia excavated by the archaeology firm Lurmen S.L. (approximately between years 2002-2008 have been analyzed. A number of these ceramics contains scripts which may be assimilated to Iberian/Tartessian writings. This number may be underestimated since more studies need to be done in already available and new found ceramics. This is the second time that Iberian writing is found by us in an unexpected location together with the Iberian-Guanche inscriptions of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands. On the other hand, naviform scripting, usually associated to Iberian rock or stone engraving may have also been found in Veleia. Strict separation, other than in time and space stratification, between Iberian and (South Tartessian culture and script is doubted.

  20. Core and symbiotic genes reveal nine Mesorhizobium genospecies and three symbiotic lineages among the rhizobia nodulating Cicer canariense in its natural habitat (La Palma, Canary Islands). (United States)

    Armas-Capote, Natalia; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Garzón-Machado, Víctor; Del Arco-Aguilar, Marcelino; Velázquez, Encarna; León-Barrios, Milagros


    Cicer canariense is a threatened perennial wild chickpea endemic to the Canary Islands. In this study, rhizobia that nodulate this species in its natural habitats on La Palma (Canary Islands) were characterised. The genetic diversity and phylogeny were estimated by RAPD profiles, 16S-RFLP analysis and sequencing of the rrs, recA, glnII and nodC genes. 16S-RFLP grouped the isolates within the Mesorhizobium genus and distinguished nine different ribotypes. Four branches included minority ribotypes (3-5 isolates), whereas another five contained the predominant ribotypes that clustered with reference strains of M. tianshanense/M. gobiense/M. metallidurans, M. caraganae, M. opportunistum, M. ciceri and M. tamadayense. The sequences confirmed the RFLP groupings but resolved additional internal divergence within the M. caraganae group and outlined several potential novel species. The RAPD profiles showed a high diversity at the infraspecific level, except in the M. ciceri group. The nodC phylogeny resolved three symbiotic lineages. A small group of isolates had sequences identical to those of symbiovar ciceri and were only detected in M. ciceri isolates. Another group of sequences represented a novel symbiotic lineage that was associated with two particular chromosomal backgrounds. However, nodC sequences closely related to symbiovar loti predominated in most isolates, and they were detected in several chromosomal backgrounds corresponding to up to nine Mesorhizobium lineages. The results indicated that C. canariense is a promiscuous legume that can be nodulated by several rhizobial species and symbiotypes, which means it will be important to determine the combination of core and symbiotic genes that produce the most effective symbiosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Precursory geophysical, geodetic and geochemical signatures of a new 2012 submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; González de Vallejo, Luis; Sagiya, Takeshi; León, Ricardo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Gonzalez-Aller, Daniel; Sánchez de La Madrid, José Luis; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Sumino, Hirochika


    Here we report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine eruption off the northwestern coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, which has been detected through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes on June 27, 2012, by the Spanish research vessel "Hespérides". Five distinct acoustic submarine plumes have been recognized in this area at water depths between 64 and 88 m along a submarine platform located in front of the Lomo Negro volcanic cone, northwestern of El Hierro. Submarine plums are characterized by vertical columns of high-amplitude values rising from seafloor. These acoustic imaging data clearly support a new submarine eruption in 2012 associated to the recent magmatic reactivation of El Hierro volcanic system. This new eruption event was preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥ 2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS permanent network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) at El Hierro with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity at HIE02, a geochemical station located in the northwestern of El Hierro, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) the highest observed corrected value of 3He/4He ratio in ground waters (8,5 Ra) from San Simón well at the northwestern of El Hierro on June 16, 2012. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

  2. Crustal contamination and fluid/rock interaction in the carbonatites of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain): a C, O, H isotope study (United States)

    Demény, A.; Ahijado, A.; Casillas, R.; Vennemann, T. W.


    Fuerteventura—the second largest of the Canary Islands consists of Mesozoic sediments, submarine volcanic rocks, dike swarms and plutons of the Basal Complex, and younger subaerial basaltic and trachytic series. Carbonatites are found in two Basal Complex exposures: the Betancuria Massif in the central part of the island and the Esquinzo area in the north. δ 13C values of the carbonatites increase progressively from south to north of the island. This phenomenon is attributed to different degrees of assimilation of sedimentary carbonate. Homogeneous, typically magmatic δ 18O values for carbonatites which have preserved primary igneous textures and minerals suggest a well-mixed reservoir where changes in δ 13C values result from the storage of carbonate magmas at different structural levels. The magma storage allowed assimilation of sediment to varying degrees before final emplacement of carbonatites. Shifts in δ 18O towards more positive and negative values from presumed primary compositions are observed in the carbonatites. On the basis of the oxygen isotope compositions of calcite, mica and K-feldspar, and the hydrogen isotope compositions of micas, the changes in the δ 18O values of the carbonatites can be related to fluid/rock interactions.

  3. Raised marine sequences of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura revisited—a reappraisal of relative sea-level changes and vertical movements in the eastern Canary Islands during the Quaternary (United States)

    Zazo, Cari; Goy, José Luis; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Soler, Vicente; González, José Ángel; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Ghaleb, Bassam


    Systematic mapping and morphosedimentary analysis of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote Islands supported by laboratory techniques (U-series mostly by TIMS, 14C analysis and allo-isoleucine measurements on biogenic carbonates from raised marine deposits, paleomagnetic and a few K/Ar measurements on volcanic formations related to marine deposits) provide a basis for constraining the age of Late Cainozoic marine units. The most complete sequences of raised marine terraces are found at similar elevations in both islands. They include up to 12 marine terraces (Episodes) at elevations between 0 m and 70 m above mean sea level (asl). At least six terraces should be of Quaternary age, and more recent than 1.2 Myr. Throughout the whole marine sequence with the exception of the Holocene terrace, the warm fauna assemblage is characterized by the presence of Ostrea virleti, Nerita emiliana, and Strombus ( S. cf. coronatus-S. cf. bubonius). However, there is a major change, highlighted by the disappearance of the first two species, below the 8-10 m terrace, that could possibly correspond to MIS 11. K-Ar measurements allow an estimate for mean uplift rate of 1.7 cm/ka during the last million years. The present elevation of the Last Interglacial deposits (about 1 and 2 m asl) shows discontinuous vertical movements with possibly a reverse trend since MIS 9 in eastern Canary Islands.

  4. Análisis geográfico de las actuales relaciones comerciales entre Canarias y Marruecos / Geographic analysis of commercial relations between the Canary Islands and Morocco

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    Ramón Díaz Hernández


    Full Text Available En este trabajo formulamos como hipótesis de partida que Canarias, como frontera meridional de Europa, en un contexto de creciente internacionalización, tiene en los mercados africanos una gran baza histórica que desempeñar. Dado el interés general que este asunto suscita entre las ciencias sociales, se requiere abordarlo desde el análisis geográfico. Para cumplimentar este estudio se emplearon las estadísticas que ofrecen organismos oficiales como el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Instituto Canario de Estadística, Agencia Estatal de la Administración Tributaria, Instituto de Comercio Exterior y entidades internacionales como la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Comercio y el Desarrollo (UNCTAD y la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OCM.In this work we formulate the hypothesis that the Canary Islands, as Europe’s southern border, must develop an important role in African markets, in a context of increasing internationalization. Because of the general interest in this issue within the social sciences, to address it from the geographic analysis is required. This study is based, on the one hand, on statistics provided by Spanish government agencies such as the National Statistics Institute, the Canary Institute of Statistics, the State Tax Administration Agency and the Institute of Foreign Trade and, on the other hand, by international entities such as the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development (UNCTAD and the World Trade Organization (WTO.

  5. Long-term analysis of the role of Traganum moquinii plants in the foredune formation of an arid dunefield (Maspalomas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). (United States)

    García-Romero, Leví; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hesp, Patrick A.


    In recent decades, important environmental changes have been detected in dune systems around the world. Vegetation on the foredune provides stability to the coastal dunefields, capturing and accumulating sediments, which is an important function among other ecosystem services. For this reason, vegetation has been used as an indicator when studying anthropogenic and natural processes in the foredunes, especially when an increase of the vulnerability has been detected. Foredunes of arid dunefields have been little studied. They present significant differences with respect to the foredune of other climatic zones. Traganum moquinii is the predominant plant species in the foredune of arid dunefields around the Canary Islands (including South Morocco, Mauritania and other close archipelagos, like Cape Verde). This bush species plays an important geomorphological role: its interaction with the aeolian sedimentary processes generates nebkhas, shadow dunes and arid parabolic shaped dunes. The objective of this work is to show the morphometric evolution of the foredune of an arid dunefield of the Canary Islands, Maspalomas (Gran Canaria), as well as explaining the function of Traganum moquinii on it. One morphometric variable (number of nebkhas) and six morphologic variables of Traganum moquinii species (density, mean distance between Traganum moquinii individuals, number of Traganum moquinii individuals in line one, mean diameter of Traganum moquinii individuals in line one, mean distance between Traganum moquinii individuals in line one, density Traganum moquinii individuals in line one) have been measured in ten observation plots, from the 1960s to the present, through detailed historical aerial photographs and orthophotos, using GIS. The morphometric changes have been identified, and the variables have been related from statistical analysis to detect the function exerted by Traganum moquinii species in the foredune. The change in the number of nebkhas enables the

  6. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province. (United States)

    Rivera, Jesus; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Hermida, Nuria; Amblas, David; Arrese, Beatriz; Martín-Sosa, Pablo; Acosta, Juan


    Concepcion Bank is the largest seamount in the Canary Islands Seamount Province (CISP), an oceanic area off NW Africa including 16 main seamounts, the Canaries archipelago and the Selvagens subarchipelago. The Bank is located 90 km northeast of Lanzarote Island and has been identified as a candidate Marine Protected Area (MPA) to be included in the Natura 2000 network. A compilation of complementary datasets consisting of multibeam bathymetry, TOPAS seismic reflection profiles, side scan sonar sonographs, Remotely Operated Vehicle video records and seafloor samples allowed describing in detail and ground truthing the submarine landforms and bioconstructions exhibited by the bank. The Concepcion Bank presently rises up to 2,433 m above the adjacent seafloor and exhibits two main domains: an extensive summit plateau and steep flanks. The sub-round summit plateau is 50km by 45 km and ranges from 158 to 1,485 m depth. The steep flanks that bound it descend to depths ranging between 1,700 and 2,500 m and define a seamount base that is 66km by 53 km. This morphology is the result of constructive and erosive processes involving different time scales, volumes of material and rates of change. The volcanic emplacement phase probably lasted 25-30 million years and was likely responsible for most of the 2,730 km3 of material that presently form the seamount. Subsequently, marine abrasion and, possibly, subaerial erosion modulated by global sea level oscillations, levelled the formerly emerging seamount summit plateau, in particular its shallower (Bank may result from tectonic tilting normal to a NNE-SSW fracture line. This fracture may still be expressed on the seafloor surface at some scarps detected on the seamount's summit. Sediment waves and cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the bank summit plateau are the youngest features contributing to its final shaping, and may be indicative of internal wave effects. Numerous submarine canyons generally less than 10 km in length are

  7. The early colonial atlantic world: New insights on the African Diaspora from isotopic and ancient DNA analyses of a multiethnic 15th-17th century burial population from the Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Santana, Jonathan; Fregel, Rosa; Lightfoot, Emma; Morales, Jacob; Alamón, Martha; Guillén, José; Moreno, Marco; Rodríguez, Amelia


    The Canary Islands are considered one of the first places where Atlantic slave plantations with labourers of African origin were established, during the 15th century AD. In Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), a unique cemetery dated to the 15th and 17th centuries was discovered adjacent to an ancient sugar plantation with funerary practices that could be related to enslaved people. In this article, we investigate the origin and possible birthplace of each individual buried in this cemetery, as well as the identity and social status of these people. The sample consists of 14 individuals radiocarbon dated to the 15th and 17th centuries AD. We have employed several methods, including the analysis of ancient human DNA, stable isotopes, and skeletal markers of physical activity. 1) the funerary practices indicate a set of rituals not previously recorded in the Canary Islands; 2) genetic data show that some people buried in the cemetery could have North-African and sub-Saharan African lineages; 3) isotopic results suggest that some individuals were born outside Gran Canaria; and 4) markers of physical activity show a pattern of labour involving high levels of effort. This set of evidence, along with information from historical sources, suggests that Finca Clavijo was a cemetery for a multiethnic marginalized population that had being likely enslaved. Results also indicate that this population kept practicing non-Christian rituals well into the 17th century. We propose that this was possible because the location of the Canaries, far from mainland Spain and the control of the Spanish Crown, allowed the emergence of a new society with multicultural origins that was more tolerant to foreign rituals and syncretism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Applying Fractal Dimensions and Energy-Budget Analysis to Characterize Fracturing Processes During Magma Migration and Eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) Submarine Eruption (United States)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta


    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  9. Multifractal investigation of continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 pre- and eruptive phases (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Martì Molist, Joan; López Moreno, Carmen; Abella Meléndez, Rafael


    The Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) is an effective method that allows detecting multifractality in non-stationary signals. We applied the MF-DFA to the continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands), which was affected by a submarine monogenetic eruption in October 2011. We investigated the multifractal properties of the continuous seismic signal before the onset of the eruption and after. We analysed three frames of the signal, one measured before the onset of eruption that occurred on October 10, 2011; and two after, but corresponding to two distinct eruptive episodes, the second one started on November 22, 2011 and lasting until late February 2012. The results obtained show a striking difference in the width of the multifractal spectrum, which is generally used to quantify the multifractal degree of a signal: the multifractal spectra of the signal frames recorded during the eruptive episodes are almost identical and much narrower than that of the signal frame measured before the onset of the eruption. Such difference indicates that the seismic signal recorded during the unrest reflects mostly the fracturing of the host rock under the overpressure exerted by the intruding magma, while that corresponding to the eruptive phases was mostly influenced by the flow of magma through the plumbing system, even some fracturing remains, not being possible to distinguish among the two eruptive episodes in terms of rock fracture mechanics.

  10. Probabilistic approach to decision making under uncertainty during volcanic crises. Retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands (United States)

    Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; Kilburn, Christopher; López, Carmen


    Understanding the potential evolution of a volcanic crisis is crucial to improving the design of effective mitigation strategies. This is especially the case for volcanoes close to densely-populated regions, where inappropriate decisions may trigger widespread loss of life, economic disruption and public distress. An outstanding goal for improving the management of volcanic crises, therefore, is to develop objective, real-time methodologies for evaluating how an emergency will develop and how scientists communicate with decision makers. Here we present a new model BADEMO (Bayesian Decision Model) that applies a general and flexible, probabilistic approach to managing volcanic crises. The model combines the hazard and risk factors that decision makers need for a holistic analysis of a volcanic crisis. These factors include eruption scenarios and their probabilities of occurrence, the vulnerability of populations and their activities, and the costs of false alarms and failed forecasts. The model can be implemented before an emergency, to identify actions for reducing the vulnerability of a district; during an emergency, to identify the optimum mitigating actions and how these may change as new information is obtained; and after an emergency, to assess the effectiveness of a mitigating response and, from the results, to improve strategies before another crisis occurs. As illustrated by a retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands, BADEMO provides the basis for quantifying the uncertainty associated with each recommended action as an emergency evolves, and serves as a mechanism for improving communications between scientists and decision makers.

  11. Mesopelagic prokaryotic bulk and single-cell heterotrophic activity and community composition in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal-transition zone (United States)

    Gasol, Josep M.; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Vaqué, Dolors; Baltar, Federico; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Arístegui, Javier


    Mesopelagic prokaryotic communities have often been assumed to be relatively inactive in comparison to those from epipelagic waters, and therefore unresponsive to the presence of nearby upwelled waters. We have studied the zonal (shelf-ocean), latitudinal, and depth (epipelagic-mesopelagic) variability of microbial assemblages in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal-transition zone (CTZ). Vertical profiles of bacterial bulk and single-cell activity through the epi- and mesopelagic waters were combined with point measurements of bacterial respiration, leucine-to-carbon conversion factors and leucine-to-thymidine incorporation ratios. The overall picture that emerges from our study is that prokaryotes in the mesopelagic zone of this area are less abundant than in the epipelagic but have comparable levels of activity. The relationship between prokaryotes and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, their main predators, remains constant throughout the water column, further contradicting the assumption that deep ocean bacterial communities are mostly inactive. Both bulk and single-cell activity showed clear differences between stations, with higher mesopelagic activities closer to the shelf or affected by upwelling features. We also tested whether differences in microbial function between stations could be related to differences in bacterial community structure, and conclude that bacterial communities are very similar at similar depths in the deep ocean, even if the stations present order-of-magnitude differences in bacterial function.

  12. Evaluation of changes in soil in the short and medium term due to a forest fire in the pine forest of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

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    A. Hernández


    Full Text Available Forest fires lead to important changes in soil properties, which sometimes are non-reversible. In the Canary Islands, fires burn mainly Canarian pine (Pinus canariensis forests. This work evaluates the impact and evolution of some relevant physico-chemical and biological properties in burned soils affected in an area under Canarian pine forest in the NW of Tenerife. Four sites with different understory composition were selected, together with similar, unaffected neighboring areas as controls. In these areas, soil samples were gathered periodically (four times in each plot, along a period ranging between three months and three years after the fire. Samples were analyzed for different physico-chemical and biological parameters. The results showed increases in burned areas for pH, EC1: 5 and NH4+-N three months after the fire, without differences in further samplings. Increases were also found for the oxidizable carbon (Cox, total nitrogen (Ntot available cations, and water repellency. Furthermore, a considerable increase in soil respiration in the area affected by the fire was observed in the first sampling. However, this zone is also characterized by an initial decrease in the microbial biomass-linked organic C, and some enzymatic activities, particularly the phosphomonoesterase. In time, the enzymatic activities studied recovered progressively, without reaching the values measured at unburned areas.

  13. The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic individuals in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, M Gabriela; Rancel, Fernando; Coronado-Alvarez, Nieves M; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio


    Pathogenic strains of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The prevalence of this infection has risen in the past 20 years, mainly due to the increase in number of contact lens wearers. In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, was evaluated. Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes were also determined after rDNA sequencing. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was subsequently established using previously described molecular and biochemical assays, which allowed the selection of three strains with high pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these isolates against two standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine, was analysed. As the three selected strains were sensitive to chlorhexidine, its activity and IC(50) were evaluated. Chlorhexidine was found to be active against these strains and the obtained IC(50) values were compared to the concentrations of this drug present in contact lens maintenance solutions. It was observed that the measured IC(50) was higher than the concentration found in these maintenance solutions. Therefore, the ineffectiveness of chlorhexidine-containing contact lens maintenance solutions against potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba is demonstrated in this study.

  14. Increased water use efficiency does not prevent growth decline of Pinus canariensis in a semi-arid treeline ecotone in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). (United States)

    Brito, Patricia; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matysssek, Rainer; Jimenez, Maria S; Gonzalez-Rodríguez, Agueda M; Oberhuber, Walter; Wieser, Gerhard


    Intrinsic water-use efficiency of Pinus canariensis (Sweet ex Spreng.) growing at a semi-arid treeline has increased during the past 37 years. Tree-ring width by contrast has declined, likely caused by reduced stomatal conductance due to increasing aridity. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca ) has been related to tree growth enhancement accompanied by increasing intrinsic water-use-efficiency (iWUE). Nevertheless, the extent of rising Ca on long-term changes in iWUE and growth has remained poorly understood to date in Mediterranean treeline ecosystems. This study aimed to examine radial growth and physiological responses of P. canariensis in relation to rising Ca and increasing aridity at treeline in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. We evaluated temporal changes in secondary growth (tree-ring width; TRW) and tree ring stable C isotope signature for assessing iWUE from 1975 through 2011. Precipitation was the main factor controlling secondary growth. Over the last 36 years P. canariensis showed a decline in TRW at enhanced iWUE, likely caused by reduced stomatal conductance due to increasing aridity. Our results indicate that increasing aridity has overridden the potential CO2 fertilization on tree growth of P. canariensis at its upper distribution limit.

  15. Changes in Al and Fe associated with amorphous soil minerals over one year after a wildfire at Pico Cho Marcial (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

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    J. Notario


    Full Text Available Amorphous-linked Al, Fe and Si were determined both in burned and unburnt soil samples after a wildfire close to Pico Cho Marcial (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain that affected 7.1 ha of high mountain Teide broom scrub along four successive samplings held in September 2003 (three months after the wildfire, February 2004, June 2004 and October 2004. Soils in the area are Lithic Xerorthents, with a scarcely developed AC-type profile. The chemical elements under study were extracted using selective dissolutions (0.2M acid ammonium oxalate and 0.1N sodium pyrophosphate, and determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The average contents of total amorphous Al (oxalate-extractable and organo-metallic complexes-bound Al (pyrophosphate extractable were significantly higher in burned samples along the study. Also, the oxalate-extractable Al varied significantly along the different samplings, and so consequently did the Alp:Alox ratio. A progressive decrease in the Al:Si ratio in allophanes was also found throughout the study period. No differences were found for oxalate-extractable Fe, either between sample groups or samplings, which was also applicable to the (Alox+0.5Feox percentage.

  16. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain). (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P


    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals. Copyright

  17. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes (United States)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.


    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  18. Organochlorine Pesticides Exposure and Bladder Cancer: Evaluation from a Gene-Environment Perspective in a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in the Canary Islands (Spain). (United States)

    Boada, L D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Almeida-González, M; Álvarez-León, E E; Navarro, P; Luzardo, O P


    The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine

  19. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of endemic plant species of Tenerife (Canary Islands): relationship to vegetation zones and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry


    Knowledge about fungal diversity scaling relationships relative to that of plants is important to understand ecosystem functioning. Tenerife Island, a natural laboratory to study terrestrial biodiversity, is represented by six different vegetation zones characterized by specific abiotic conditions...... and plant communities with a high proportion of endemic plants. Little is known about the biodiversity of associated fungi. To understand the relationship between plant and fungal communities, we analysed soil/rhizosphere fungi from all vegetation zones. From 12 sampling points dispersed on the whole island...

  20. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 1. A new species of Pygocrangonyx, an amphipod genus with African affinities, from Fuerteventura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Rondé-Broekhuizen, Brigitte L.M.


    A group of exclusively subterranean Amphipoda, the Metacrangonyx group, is distributed mainly in northwestern Africa, with peripheral isolates on the Balearic Islands and in the Sinai desert. The discovery of a new species of this group, belonging to Pygocrangonyx, a genus known from N.W. Morocco

  1. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter


    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  2. Subsidence and current strain patterns on Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago, Spain) derived from continuous GNSS time series (2008-2015) (United States)

    Sánchez-Alzola, A.; Martí, J.; García-Yeguas, A.; Gil, A. J.


    In this paper we present the current crustal deformation model of Tenerife Island derived from daily CGPS time series processing (2008-2015). Our results include the position time series, a global velocity estimation and the current crustal deformation on the island in terms of strain tensors. We detect a measurable subsidence of 1.5-2 mm/yr. in the proximities of the Cañadas-Teide-Pico Viejo (CTPV) complex. These values are higher in the central part of the complex and could be explained by a lateral spreading of the elastic lithosphere combined with the effect of the drastic descent of the water table in the island experienced during recent decades. The results show that the Anaga massif is stable in both its horizontal and vertical components. The strain tensor analysis shows a 70 nstrain/yr. E-W compression in the central complex, perpendicular to the 2004 sismo-volcanic area, and 50 nstrain/yr. SW-NE extension towards the Northeast ridge. The residual velocity and strain patterns coincide with a decline in volcanic activity since the 2004 unrest.

  3. The capturing of pollens in the atmosphere of La Laguna City, Tenerife, Canary Islands 1990-1995. (United States)

    García Cobaleda, I; De la Torre Morin, F; García Robaina, J C; Hardisson de la Torre, A


    This paper forms part of a Doctorate Thesis, carried out in the Allergy and Immunology Department of the Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria Hospital, Tenerife, entitled "Epidemiology of Pollens on the Island of Tenerife. Allergy to Pollen". This paper deals with the capturing of pollen in the atmosphere of the city of La Laguna, Tenerife, during the period 1990-1995, and demonstrates that the Occidental Islands of the Canarian Archipelago are similar to a miniature continent with a special microclimate and a large amount of vegetation, where all classes of pollen can be found given the large variety of plants and trees including native species. High concentrations of more than 50 grains of pollen per m3 can be found in the air of the Occidental Islands, above all wild grasses, cultivated grasses, weeds, Artemisa vulgaris, Parietaria officinalis and Plantago lanceolata, and in a lowe proportion, Cupressaceae, Pinaceas, Mercurialis and Rumex. We have pollen concentrations very similar to other parts of the continent.

  4. Cruise report for FS METEOR Cruise 60 Leg 3 from Las Palmas, Canary Islands to Ponta Delgada, Azores, during February 28 - March 14, 1982 (NODC Accession 0078562) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of this cruise leg was physical oceanography of the area between the Canaries and the Azores within the program of the SFB 133 'Warm water sphere of the...

  5. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

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    Jesus Rivera

    Full Text Available Concepcion Bank is the largest seamount in the Canary Islands Seamount Province (CISP, an oceanic area off NW Africa including 16 main seamounts, the Canaries archipelago and the Selvagens subarchipelago. The Bank is located 90 km northeast of Lanzarote Island and has been identified as a candidate Marine Protected Area (MPA to be included in the Natura 2000 network. A compilation of complementary datasets consisting of multibeam bathymetry, TOPAS seismic reflection profiles, side scan sonar sonographs, Remotely Operated Vehicle video records and seafloor samples allowed describing in detail and ground truthing the submarine landforms and bioconstructions exhibited by the bank. The Concepcion Bank presently rises up to 2,433 m above the adjacent seafloor and exhibits two main domains: an extensive summit plateau and steep flanks. The sub-round summit plateau is 50km by 45 km and ranges from 158 to 1,485 m depth. The steep flanks that bound it descend to depths ranging between 1,700 and 2,500 m and define a seamount base that is 66km by 53 km. This morphology is the result of constructive and erosive processes involving different time scales, volumes of material and rates of change. The volcanic emplacement phase probably lasted 25-30 million years and was likely responsible for most of the 2,730 km3 of material that presently form the seamount. Subsequently, marine abrasion and, possibly, subaerial erosion modulated by global sea level oscillations, levelled the formerly emerging seamount summit plateau, in particular its shallower (<400 m, flatter (<0.5° eastern half. Subsidence associated to the crustal cooling that followed the emplacement phase further contributed the current depth range of the seamount. The deeper and steeper (2.3° western half of Concepcion Bank may result from tectonic tilting normal to a NNE-SSW fracture line. This fracture may still be expressed on the seafloor surface at some scarps detected on the seamount's summit

  6. The canary tree


    Mekler, Alan H.; Shelah, Saharon


    A canary tree is a tree of cardinality the continuum which has no uncountable branch, but gains a branch whenever a stationary set is destroyed (without adding reals). Canary trees are important in infinitary model theory. The existence of a canary tree is independent of ZFC + GCH.

  7. Fungicide resistance of Botrytis cinerea in tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands and effectiveness of non-chemical treatments against gray mold. (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Acosta, A; Rodríguez, C


    Tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands, Spain, were surveyed to estimate frequencies of resistance to benzimidazoles, dicarboximides, anilinopyrimidines and N-phenylcarbamates in Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and diethofencarb was found in 74.2, 86.4, 28.8 and 31.8% of isolates, respectively. Benzimidazole- and anilinopyrimide-resistant isolates were highly resistant, showing EC50 values above 500 µg/ml carbendazim and a mean EC50 value of 28.42 µg/ml pyrimethanil, respectively. By contrast, a low level of resistance was observed among dicarboximide-resistant isolates (mean EC50 value of 1.81 µg/ml iprodione). Phenotypes with double resistance to carbendazim and iprodione, and triple resistance to carbendazim, iprodione and pyrimethanil were the most common, occurring in 36.4 and 28.8% of isolates. The surveyed greenhouses had never been treated with fenhexamid and Signum™ (pre-packed mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin), and baseline sensitivities of B. cinerea isolates to these fungicides were determined. The EC50 values were within the range of 0.009-0.795 µg/ml fenhexamid and of 0.014-0.48 µg/ml Signum. In addition, available formulations based on elicitors of plant defense response and biocontrol agents were evaluated against B. cinerea in tomato plants under semi-controlled greenhouse conditions, the yeast Candida sake CPA-1 being able to reduce gray mold significantly when it was applied on petiole wounds and the plants were inoculated 24 h later. Likewise, C. sake was effective against B. cinerea in harvested tomato fruits, yeast-treated tomatoes showed a 70.66 and 30.31% reduction in the diameters of decay lesions compared with controls after 10 days of storage at 20 and 9 °C, respectively.

  8. Assessment of the exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PAHs in six species of predatory birds of the Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D


    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Collagen type 1 (COL1A1) Sp1 binding site polymorphism is associated with osteoporotic fractures but not with bone density in post-menopausal women from the Canary Islands: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Navarro, Mary C; Sosa, Manuel; del Pino-Montes, Javier; Torres, Armando; Salido, Eduardo; Saavedra, Pedro; Corral-Gudino, Luis; Montilla, Carlos A


    An association between the polymorphism for transcription factor Sp1 in the gene COL1A1 and low bone density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures has been described but not confirmed for all races and ages. The aim of this preliminary work was to ascertain whether this association is present in women from the Canary Islands. Polymerase chain reaction RFLP was used to determine COL1A1 polymorphism Sp1 in 199 consecutive outpatient post-menopausal Caucasian women from the Canary Islands, aged 50-70 years. BMD was measured at lumbar spine and hip by DXA and at third lumbar vertebrae by QCT. Prevalent vertebral fractures were recorded on standard lateral X-ray film. Non-vertebral osteoporotic fractures were registered by medical record and self-reported history. Biochemical markers (serum osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase), blood calcium and phosphate were also assessed. Distribution genotypes were 113 (50.8%) GG homozygotes, 73 (36.7%) Ss heterozygotes and 7 (3.5%) TT homozygotes. All patients with osteoporotic fractures carried the GG allele more frequently than TT homozygotic women. The odds ratio was 3.01 (95% CI 1.6-5.7) for prevalent vertebral fractures (n=62) and 2.33 (95% CI 1.2-4.4) for all osteoporotic fractures (n=65) for the T-carrying allele vs TT homozygotic women. There was no difference in BMD measured by DXA or QCT, nor in bone markers, blood calcium or phosphate. This preliminary study confirmed that the presence of at least one copy of the T allele is associated with osteoporotic fractures, but not with low BMD, in women from the Canary Islands.

  10. Groundwater intensive exploitation and mining in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: Hydrogeological, environmental, economic and social aspects. (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Cabrera, María Del Carmen; Poncela, Roberto; Puga, Luis-Olavo; Skupien, Elzbieta; Del Villar, Alberto


    Intensive exploitation and continuous consumption of groundwater reserves (groundwater mining) have been real facts for decades in arid and semiarid areas. A summary of experience in the hydrogeological, economic, social and ethical consequences of groundwater intensive and mining exploitation in Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands, in the Canarian Archipelago, is presented. Groundwater abstraction is less than recharge, but a significant outflow of groundwater to the sea cannot be avoided, especially in Tenerife, due to its younger volcanic coastal formations. Consequently, the intensive aquifer groundwater development by means of wells and water galleries (tunnels) has produced a groundwater reserve depletion of about 2km(3). Should current groundwater abstraction cease, the recovery time to close-to-natural conditions is from decades to one century, except in the mid and high elevations of Tenerife, where this recovery is not possible as aquifer formations will remain permanently drained by the numerous long water galleries. The socio-economic circumstances are complex due to a long standing history of water resources exploitation, successive social changes on each island, and well-established groundwater water trading, with complex relationships that affect water governance and the resulting ethical concerns. Gran Canaria and Tenerife are in an advanced groundwater exploitation stage and have a large water demand. They are good examples that allow drawing guidelines to evaluate groundwater development on other small high islands. After presenting the hydrogeological background, the socio-economic results are discussed to derive general knowledge to guide on water governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Geochemical and geophysical approach to the Tenerife (Canary Islands) anomalous seismic swarm on the 2nd October 2016 (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres-González, Pedro; Domíguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; Moure, David; Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Jiménez-Mejías, María; del Fresno, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura


    On the 2nd October 2016, anomalous seismic activity took place in the volcanic island of Tenerife. During 5 hours, 96 low magnitude earthquakes (manually detected showing a high correlation between their waveforms. Relocation by double differences shows all hypocenters situated in a small cluster with a radius of a few hundred meters. Magnitudes ranged between 0 and 0.9 but the time evolution shows a variation in narrow bands of ±0.2 magnitudes. In order to better understand the origin and main causes of such anomalous behavior in the volcanic island, data obtained from different volcano monitoring techniques were analyzed. GPS deformation data did not show anomalous changes related to the studied phenomena. In the aim of this interdisciplinary interpretation, available geochemical data from the IGN volcano monitoring network were also revised. Values of several geochemical parameters previous to the seismic swarm have been studied. Chemical and isotopic analysis from fumaroles and soil gases, groundwater physicochemical parameters, CO2 diffuse emissions from the soil, Rn and CO2 concentrations inside a gallery and soil temperature in the summit of Teide volcano did not revealed significant geochemical changes clearly related to the seismic activity on the 2thOctober 2016. However, this conclusion could be reconsidered in the future since upcoming events may show new insights into past circumstances.

  12. Continuous monitoring of the C isotope composition of CO_{2}-rich subsurface degassing at Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)

    Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padrón, Eleazar; Barrancos, José; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Tenerife is the largest island of the Canarian archipelago and several volcanic eruptions have occurred in the last 500 years, the last one in 1909. The main volcano-tectonic features of Tenerife Island are three main volcano-tectonic rifts trending N-E, N-W and N-S where, at the interception center is located Las Cañadas caldera and the stratovolcano Teide-Pico Viejo. Due to the approximately 1,500 wells and water galleries (1650 km) drilled during the last 150 years tapping the island's volcanic aquifer at different depths, Tenerife is a unique natural-scale laboratory for hydrological studies in oceanic volcanic islands. Ground waters are mainly Na+-HCO3- water type, mainly due to the continuous volcanic CO2 supply from the volcanic-hydrothermal system. A signi?cant number of these galleries show a CO2-rich inner atmosphere, and gas bubbling has also been detected inside some galleries. Since 2002, an automatic geochemical station installed at the entrance of the horizontal drilling "Fuente del Valle" (TFE02 station), Arona, Tenerife, measures the activities of 222Rn and 220Rn in the gas discharged from a CO2-rich gas bubbling spot located at 2.850 m depth. Interesting variations were recorded in the 222Rn/220Rn ratio after the period of 2004 anomalous seismicity and it has been demonstrated that this is a good control spot for volcanic surveillance (Pérez et al., 2007). Thus, in November 2016, a new type of laser based isotopic analyzer, a DeltaRayTM (Thermo Fisher Scientific) was installed in the TFE02 station to measure δ13C(CO2) directly in the gas discharged from the water. The gas, collected by means of an inverted funnel, is pumped (3 L min-1) towards the gallery entrance, where the instrumentation is located, through a polyamide pipe. During the study period the recorded data show a range of δ13C(CO2) from -6.2 to -4.2‰ vs. VPDB, with an average value of -5.1‰Ṫhese values are comparable to those ones measured in the gas sampled directly at the

  13. Profiling of Greenhouse Gases from Space by Infrared-Laser Occultation and Demonstration by a 144 km Crosslink Experiment at the Canary Islands (United States)

    Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.; Proschek, V.; Bernath, P.; Thomas, B.; Wang, J.; Brooke, J.; Tereszchuk, K.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Hargreaves, R.; Beale, C. A.; Martin, P.; Kasiutsich, V.; Gerbig, C.; Kolle, O.; Loescher, A.


    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) transmitter and receiver satellites provide the basis for LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO), a new active limb sounding method for climate benchmark profiling of greenhouse gases (GHGs), thermodynamic variables and wind in the free atmosphere (Kirchengast and Schweitzer, GRL, 38, L13701, 2011). The LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO) part of LMIO can provide accurate profiles of all main GHGs, including CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O, O3, and isotopes 13CO2 and 18OCO, by exploiting differential absorption between carefully selected absorption ("on-line") and reference ("off-line") laser signals targeting suitable GHG absorption lines within 2 to 2.5 μm. This spectral range resides in the "hole" between the shortwave-solar and longwave-terrestrial Planck spectra so that natural background radiation is minimal to negligible. We present the fundamentals and discuss the estimated performance of LMIO-based GHG profiling, including from quasi-realistic end-to-end performance simulations considering also aerosols and clouds. We found monthly-mean GHG profiles, assuming 30 to 40 native profiles averaged per climatological "grid cell" per month, accurate to LIO sounding along a ~144 km link at ~2.4 km altitude between observatories at the islands of La Palma and Tenerife being part of the Canary Islands (ESA-funded experiment project by Bernath et al.; Univ. York, Univ. Graz, Univ. Manchester, MPI Jena). With transmitter and receiver breadboard equipment built for four infrared-laser signals we aimed in this campaign at CO2, CH4, and H2O measurements under field conditions somewhat akin to a LIO space-based link. Despite of the practical challenges of such long-range observations, especially related to the needed fine adjustments of laser beam pointing under windy high-altitude conditions, we achieved first good data for retrieving these GHGs so that the basic demonstration of the experimental feasibility of LIO was successful. We will

  14. High-quality draft genome sequence of Ensifer meliloti Mlalz-1, a microsymbiont of Medicago laciniata (L.) miller collected in Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Osman, Wan Adnawani Meor; van Berkum, Peter; León-Barrios, Milagros; Velázquez, Encarna; Elia, Patrick; Tian, Rui; Ardley, Julie; Gollagher, Margaret; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T B K; Ivanova, Natalia; Woyke, Tanja; Pati, Amrita; Markowitz, Victor; Baeshen, Mohamed N; Baeshen, Naseebh Nabeeh; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne


    10.1601/nm.1335 Mlalz-1 (INSDC = ATZD00000000) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing nodule of Medicago laciniata (L.) Miller from a soil sample collected near the town of Guatiza on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, Spain. This strain nodulates and forms an effective symbiosis with the highly specific host M. laciniata. This rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) sequencing project. Here the features of 10.1601/nm.1335 Mlalz-1 are described, together with high-quality permanent draft genome sequence information and annotation. The 6,664,116 bp high-quality draft genome is arranged in 99 scaffolds of 100 contigs, containing 6314 protein-coding genes and 74 RNA-only encoding genes. Strain Mlalz-1 is closely related to 10.1601/nm.1335 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DIAM+12611 (T), 10.1601/nm.1334 A 321(T) and 10.1601/nm.17831 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DORS+1407 (T), based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. gANI values of ≥98.1% support the classification of strain Mlalz-1 as 10.1601/nm.1335. Nodulation of M. laciniata requires a specific nodC allele, and the nodC gene of strain Mlalz-1 shares ≥98% sequence identity with nodC of M. laciniata-nodulating 10.1601/nm.1328 strains, but ≤93% with nodC of 10.1601/nm.1328 strains that nodulate other Medicago species. Strain Mlalz-1 is unique among sequenced 10.1601/nm.1335 strains in possessing genes encoding components of a T2SS and in having two versions of the adaptive acid tolerance response lpiA-acvB operon. In 10.1601/nm.1334 strain 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DWSM+419, lpiA is essential for enhancing survival in lethal acid conditions. The second copy of the lpiA-acvB operon of strain Mlalz-1 has highest sequence identity (> 96%) with that of 10.1601/nm.1334 strains, which suggests genetic

  15. A remarkable seismo-volcanic swarm at Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands): insight into a transient in the volcano degassing processes (United States)

    D'Auria, Luca; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán D.; Asensio-Ramos, María; García-Hernández, Rubén; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar


    On 02/10/2016, various seismic stations deployed in Tenerife (Canary Islands) recorded an intense swarm of small-amplitude long-period events. Weak long-period events and tremor were recorded also during an unrest in 2004. The Oct. 2016 swarm, however, is unique because of its remarkable seismological features. The sequence, lasting for about 6 hours, consisted of more than 400 events and toward the end of the sequence, events merged into a continuous tremor whose amplitude progressively vanished after 30 minutes. We analysed waveforms from two broadband stations, located within 15 km from the crater of Mt. Teide (the most promiment volcano of the island) and seismic phase pickings from 3 more stations. Event waveforms show a remarkable similarity, hinting for a common source for all the events. Probabilistic locations show that the source is located few km south of the Mt. Teide crater. Even if the hypocentral depth is affected by a significant uncertainty, events do not seem to be located within the shallow hydrothermal system of the volcano. The complex spectral analysis of the waveforms shows distinct spectral components which are compatible with the resonance of a fracture filled with a mixture of H2O-CO2 in supercritical conditions. The temporal pattern of amplitudes and inter-event times can be intepreted using a chocked-flow model. The progressive opening of the fracture and the subsequent decay of the differential pressure explains the progressive emergence of events and the merging into a continuous, waning tremor, in the final part of the episode. We intepret this sequence as a transient fluid discharge episode occurring in the deep hydrothermal system of the Tenerife volcanic system. This working hypothesis is discussed in a more general framework involving continuous GPS data, which shows no significant deformation and various geochemical parameters which, conversely, have shown important anomalies before and after the swarm. Furthermore this episode

  16. A new species of Rullierinereis and new records of Nereididae from sublittoral sandy bottoms off Lanzarote (Canary Islands

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    Jorge Núñez


    Full Text Available Rullierinereis ancornunezi n. sp., collected from sandy and maërl bottoms from 19-55 m depth around Lanzarote island, is described. The new taxon is characterized by having a reduced or absent upper notopodial ligule in biramous parapodia of chaetigers 3-9 and in the middle region from chaetiger 26 onwards, and also by the shape of the homogomph notopodial falciger blade, which is short and serrated. A comparison with morphologically similar species is made. Other nereidid species collected were: Nereis lamellosa Ehlers, 1864, Nereis rava Ehlers, 1864, Neanthes caudata (Delle Chiaje, 1827 and Neanthes rubicunda (Ehlers, 1864. A map of the distribution of these species is presented.

  17. Geochemical monitoring of the Tenerife North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) volcano (Canary Islands) by means of diffuse CO_{2} degassing surveys (United States)

    Barrancos, José; O'Neill, Ryan; Gould, Catherine E.; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Amonte, Cecilia; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands (2100 km2) and the North East Rift (NERZ) volcano is one of the three active volcanic rift-zones of the island (210 km2). The last eruptive activity at NERZ volcano occurred in 1704 and 1705, with three volcanic eruptions: Siete Fuentes, Fasnia and Arafo. In order to provide a multidisciplinary approach to monitor potential volcanic activity changes at the NERZ volcano, diffuse CO2 emission surveys have been undertaken in a yearly basis since 2001. This study shows the results of the last soil CO2 efflux survey undertaken in summer 2016, with 600 soil gas sampling sites homogenously distributed. Soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed at the surface environment by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 70 g m-2 d-1, with an average value of 8.8 g m-2 d-1. In order to distinguish the existence of different geochemical populations on the soil CO2 efflux data, a Sinclair graphical analysis was done. The average value of background population was 2.9 g m-2 d-1 and that of peak population was 67.8 g m-2 d-1, value that has been increasing since the year 2014. To quantify the total CO2 emission rate from the NERZ volcano a sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) was used as interpolation method to construct soil CO2 emission contour maps. The diffuse CO2 emission rate for the studied area was estimated in 1,675 ± 47 t d-1. If we compare the 2016 results with those ones obtained in previous surveys since 2001, two main pulses on diffuse CO2 emission are identified, the first one in 2007 and the second one between during 2014 and 2016. This long-term variation on the diffuse CO2 emission doesn't seem to be masked by the external-meteorological variations. However, the first peak precedes the anomalous seismicity recorded in and around Tenerife Island between 2009 and

  18. Coarse-Grained Tsunami Deposits in the Canary Islands: Evidence of the Tsunamigenic Potential of Volcanic Flank Failures (United States)

    Austin-Giddings, W. D.; Tappin, D. R.; McGuire, W. J.


    Coarse-grained, polymict deposits draping hillslopes at high elevations on ocean island volcanoes have been variously interpreted as sourced from sea-level high-stands and tsunamis, their origin is thus controversial. Here, we present a detailed facies analysis of coarse-grained, fossiliferous sediments located at Agaete, on the north-west coast of Gran Canaria. Previously interpreted as the result of a sea-level high-stand, these deposits have recently been re-interpreted as sourced from a tsunami resulting from a volcano flank collapse. The tsunami deposit occurs at several locations in the Agaete valley, up to 188 m a.s.l. and two kilometres inland from the coast. The sediments comprise two reverse graded units, separated by a soil horizon with calcrete. The units are up to 2 m in thickness and contain a diverse assemblage of volcanic clasts, large beachrock boulders and a marine fauna that includes planktic, shallow and deep-water benthic foraminifera. The base of the lower unit is erosional and truncates plant roots and contains large soil clasts up to 1.5m in diameter. The upper unit is finer grained and is more extensive. At one location the lower unit comprises prograding beds that are interpreted as alluvial. The alternative 'high-stand' interpretation of the coarse-grained deposit is here discounted because of the absence of supporting geomorphological features such as a marine terrace and/or a wave cut platform, the composition of the sediments and their altitude. A tsunami origin is therefore proposed. Gran Canaria is in its post-shield erosional stage of development and has experienced limited vertical uplift of ~40-50 m over the past 1.75 Ma. Thus uplift cannot account for the occurrence of the sediments at elevations of 188 m a.s.l. The Güimar lateral collapse on the neighbouring island of Tenerife (~800ka) has been cited as a possible source. U/Pb dating of the deposits is currently being undertaken.

  19. Different deformation patterns using GPS in the volcanic process of El Hierro (Canary Island) 2011-2013 (United States)

    García-Cañada, Laura; José García-Arias, María; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Lamolda, Héctor; López, Carmen


    Ground deformation is one of the most important parameter in volcano monitoring. The detected deformations in volcanic areas can be precursors of a volcanic activity and contribute with useful information to study the evolution of an unrest, eruption or any volcanic process. GPS is the most common technique used to measure volcano deformations. It can be used to detect slow displacement rates or much larger and faster deformations associated with any volcanic process. In volcanoes the deformation is expected to be a mixed of nature; during periods of quiescence it will be slow or not present, while increased activity slow displacement rates can be detected or much larger and faster deformations can be measure due to magma intrusion, for example in the hours to days prior a eruption beginning. In response to the anomalous seismicity detected at El Hierro in July 2011, the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) improved its volcano monitoring network in the island with continuous GPS that had been used to measure the ground deformation associated with the precursory unrest since summer 2011, submarine eruption (October 2011-March 2012) and the following unrest periods (2012-2013). The continuous GPS time series, together with other techniques, had been used to evaluate the activity and to detect changes in the process. We investigate changes in the direction and module of the deformation obtained by GPS and they show different patterns in every unrest period, very close to the seismicity locations and migrations.

  20. Dinamic of Diffuse CO2 Degassing at the NW Volcanic Rift-Zone of Tenerfe, Canary Island (United States)

    Martín, M.; Díaz, F.; Galindo, I.; Salazar, P.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.


    Tenerife is one of the most active volcanic island of the Canarian archipelago with six historical eruptions. The most recent volcanic activity took place along the NW rift-zone in 1909, Chinyero volcano. Fumarolic activity is absent along the NW rift-zone; therefore, diffuse CO2 degassing studies constitute a major geochemical program for the volcanic surveillance of the area. The first survey was carried out in 2000, and 446 observation sites were well distributed along the study area of (72 Km2). The most recent survey of diffuse CO2 degassing and surface pressure gradient measurements was carried out from July 17 to August 6, 2003 with 441 observation sites covering the same area. Soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according to the accumulation chamber method, while pressure gradient measurements were performed by means of a Setra 239 Model pressure transducer. Statistical-graphical analysis of the soil CO2 efflux data showed two overlapping populations. The background geometric mean was 1.7 gm-2d-1 and represents 97.5% of the total data. The highest observed CO2 efflux value for this 2003 survey was 13 gm-2d-1, and it is very similar to the observed highest value for the 2000 survey, 15 gm-2d-1. These peak measurements are 7-9 times background values. Most of the study area showed background values of diffuse CO2 emission rate for both surveys. Peak CO2 efflux values are spatially correlated to volcanic alignments with a WNW-ESE trend suggesting a clear structural control on the mechanism of diffuse degassing. Surface pressure gradient distribution did not show a clear relationship with CO2 efflux distribution. For the 2000 and 2003 survey, the estimated total output for de diffusee CO2 emissioon were 79 and 146 td-1, respectively.

  1. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands (United States)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d-1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m-2 d-1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  2. Growth and reproduction of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena equiselis and Coryphaena hippurus in the Canary Islands, Central-East Atlantic (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Castro


    Full Text Available The size, growth and spawning characteristics of pompano dolphin (N=150 and common dolphinfish (N=36 caught off the Canary Islands between May and September 1995 and between July and September 1996 were examined. Fork length (FL of pompano dolphin was in the range 28.3-62.8 cm. In 1995, the mean length increased significantly from June to September. However, in 1996, the mean length was significantly larger in July than in September. The overall length-weight relationship was W=0.0287*FL2.774 (r=0.97, while these relationships by sex were as follows: W=0.031*FL2.758 (r=0.98 and W=0.0282*FL2.776 (r=0.97, for males and females respectively. Spawning takes place at the beginning of the Summer (June-July. All the individuals obtained showed developing gonads, but females showed a higher gonadosomatic index (GSI than males. The highest GSI values were obtained in June (x- =3.10±1.73, and decreased progressively towards the end of the season (September, when the average of this index was x- = 1.86±0.87. Similarly, the condition index decreased significantly from June to September. The proportion of females was always significantly higher than males, except in July 1996 when it was 1:1. There was a high correspondence between growth rates determined by annuli scale interpretation and modal progression analysis. According to scale annuli interpretation, the individuals caught showed more than five age classes. However, there are doubts about age assignation from scales. Fork length of common dolphinfish was in the range of 76.5-103.0 cm. The length-weight relationships obtained for all the specimens caught was W=0.00095FL3.527 (r=0.96, while these relationships by sex were as follows: W=0.00398FL3.222 (r=0.94 and W=0.01656FL2.873 (r=0.91, for males and females respectively. Spawning probably takes place at the beginning of the Summer. All the individuals obtained showed developing gonads, although the GSI of females were higher than males. The highest

  3. The submarine eruption of La Restinga (El Hierro, Canary Islands): October 2011-March 2012; La erupcion submarina de La Restinga en la isla de El Hierro, Canarias: Octubre 2011-Marzo 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Carracedo, J. C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Soler, V.; Troll, V. R.; Wiesmaier, S.


    The first signs of renewed volcanic activity at El Hierro began in July 2011 with the occurrence of abundant, low-magnitude earthquakes. The increasing seismicity culminated on October 10, 2011, with the onset of a submarine eruption about 2 km offshore from La Restinga, the southernmost village on El Hierro. The analysis of seismic and deformation records prior to, and throughout, the eruption allowed the reconstruction of its main phases: 1) ascent of magma and migration of hypo centres from beneath the northern coast (El Golfo) towards the south rift zone, close to La Restinga, probably marking the hydraulic fracturing and the opening of the eruptive conduit; and 2) onset and development of a volcanic eruption indicated by sustained and prolonged harmonic tremor whose intensity varied with time. The features monitored during the eruption include location, depth and morphological evolution of the eruptive source and emission of floating volcanic bombs. These bombs initially showed white, vesiculated cores (originated by partial melting of underlying pre-volcanic sediments upon which the island of El Hierro was constructed) and black basanite rims, and later exclusively hollow basanitic lava balloons. The eruptive products have been matched with a fissural submarine eruption without ever having attained surtseyan explosiveness. The eruption has been active for about five months and ended in March 2012, thus becoming the second longest reported historical eruption in the Canary Islands after the Timanfaya eruption in Lanzarote (1730-1736). This eruption provided the first opportunity in 40 years to manage a volcanic crisis in the Canary Islands and to assess the interpretations and decisions taken, thereby gaining experience for improved management of future volcanic activity. Seismicity and deformation during the eruption were recorded and analysed by the Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN). Unfortunately, a lack of systematic sampling of erupted pyroclasts and

  4. Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV: Natural occurrence and efficacy as a biological insecticide on young banana plants in greenhouse and open-field conditions on the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Gabriel Fuentes

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites, an important pest of banana crops on the Canary Islands, is usually controlled by chemical insecticides. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the most prevalent isolate of the Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV, Baculoviridae as a biological insecticide. Overall the prevalence of ChchNPV infection in C. chalcites populations was 2.3% (103 infected larvae out of 4,438 sampled, but varied from 0-4.8% on Tenerife and was usually low (0-2% on the other islands. On Tenerife, infected larvae were present at 11 out of 17 plantations sampled. The prevalence of infection in larvae on bananas grown under greenhouse structures was significantly higher (3% than in open-field sites (1.4%. The ChchNPV-TF1 isolate was the most abundant and widespread of four genetic variants of the virus. Application of 1.0x109 viral occlusion bodies (OBs/l of ChchNPV-TF1 significantly reduced C. chalcites foliar damage in young banana plants as did commonly used pesticides, both in greenhouse and open-field sites. The insecticidal efficacy of ChchNPV-TF1 was similar to that of indoxacarb and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based insecticide in one year of trials and similar to Bt in the following year of trails in greenhouse and field crops. However, larvae collected at different time intervals following virus treatments and reared in the laboratory experienced 2-7 fold more mortality than insects from conventional insecticide treatments. This suggests that the acquisition of lethal dose occurred over an extended period (up to 7 days compared to a brief peak in larvae on plants treated with conventional insecticides. These results should prove useful for the registration of a ChchNPV-based insecticide for integrated management of this pest in banana crops on the Canary Islands.

  5. The Miner's Canary (United States)

    Guinier, Lani


    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  6. Lifetime of an ocean island volcano feeder zone: constraints from U-Pb dating on coexisting zircon and baddeleyite, and 40/39Ar age determinations, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands (United States)

    Allibon, James; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bussy, Francois; Cosca, Michael; Schaltegger, Urs; Bussien, Denise; Lewin, Eric


    High-precision isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages from the PX1 vertically layered mafic intrusion Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, indicate initiation of magma crystallization at 22.10 ± 0.07 Ma. The magmatic activity lasted a minimum of 0.52 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar amphibole dating yielded ages from 21.9 ± 0.6 to 21.8 ± 0.3, identical within errors to the U-Pb ages, despite the expected 1% theoretical bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dates. This overlap could result from (i) rapid cooling of the intrusion (i.e., less than the 0.3 to 0.6 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age uncertainties) from closure temperatures (Tc) of zircon (699-988 °C) to amphibole (500-600 °C); (ii) lead loss affecting the youngest zircons; or (iii) excess argon shifting the plateau ages towards older values. The combination of the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb datasets implies that the maximum amount of time PX1 intrusion took to cool below amphibole Tc is 0.8 Ma, suggesting PX1 lifetime of 520,000 to 800,000 Ma. Age disparities among coexisting baddeleyite and zircon (22.10 ± 0.07/0.08/0.15 Ma and 21.58 ± 0.15/0.16/0.31 Ma) in a gabbro sample from the pluton margin suggest complex genetic relationships between phases. Baddeleyite is found preserved in plagioclase cores and crystallized early from low silica activity magma. Zircon crystallized later in a higher silica activity environment and is found in secondary scapolite and is found close to calcite veins, in secondary scapolite that recrystallised from plagioclase. close to calcite veins. Oxygen isotope δ18O values of altered plagioclase are high (+7.7), indicating interaction with fluids derived from host-rock carbonatites. The coexistence of baddeleyite and zircon is ascribed to interaction of the PX1 gabbro with CO2-rich carbonatite-derived fluids released during contact metamorphism.

  7. ACE-2 multiple angle micro-pulse lidar observations from Las Galletas, Tenerife, Canary Islands[Special issue with manuscripts related to the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), 16 June-25 July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.M.; Reagan, J.A.; Rubio, M.A.; Erxleben, W.H. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Spinhirne, J.D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center


    Multiple-angle micro-pulse lidar (MPL) observations were made at Las Galletas on Tenerife, Canary Islands during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment-2 (ACE-2) conducted June-July, 1997. A principal objective of the MPL observations was to characterize the temporal/spatial distributions of aerosols in the region, particularly to identify and profile elevated Saharan dust layers which occur intermittently during the June-July time period. Vertical and slant angle measurements taken 16 and 17 July characterize such an occurrence, providing aerosol backscatter, extinction, and optical depth profiles of the dust layer between 1 and 5 km above mean sea level (MSL). Additionally, horizontal measurements taken in Las Galletas throughout the 6-week period provide a time profile of the varying aerosol extinction at the surface. This profile exhibits the alternating periods of clean maritime air and pollution outbreaks that typified the region. Horizontal measurements also provide some evidence suggesting the possible influx of Saharan dust from the free troposphere to the surface. This paper presents estimates of aerosol optical properties retrieved from the multi-angle MPL measurements in addition to an outline of the methodologies employed to obtain these results.

  8. Deformation in volcanic areas: a numerical approach for their prediction in Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands); Deformaciones en areas volcanicas: una aproximacin numerica para su prediccion en el volcan Teide (Tenerife, Islas Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charco, M.; Galan del Sastre, P.


    Active volcanic areas study comprises both, observation of physical changes in the natural media and the interpretation of such changes. Nowadays, the application of spatial geodetic techniques, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) or InSAR (Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar), for deformation understanding in volcanic areas, revolutionizes our view of this geodetic signals. Deformation of the Earth's surface reflects tectonic, magmatic and hydrothermal processes at depth. In this way, the prediction of volcanic deformation through physical modelling provides a link between the observation and depth interior processes that could be crucial for volcanic hazards assessment. In this work, we develop a numerical model for elastic deformation study. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is used for the implementation of the numerical model. FEM allows to take into account different morphology, structural characteristics and the mechanical heterogeneities of the medium. Numerical simulations of deformation in Tenerife (Canary Islands) taking into account different medium hypothesis allow us to conclude that the accuracy of the predictions depends on how well the natural system is described. (Author) 22 refs.

  9. Foundations and anchors for a 250 m span arch bridge in la Palma Island (Canaries); Cimentaciones y anclajes para la construccion del Arco de los tilos, de 250 m. de luz, en la isla de la Palma (Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simic Sureda, D.


    There are no simple procedures to estimate the bearing capacity of direct foundations on rock due to its anisotropy, as the criteria have to take into account different features concerning the rock discontinuities (spacing, orientation, opening, persistence,...) as well as other aspects concerning the rock matrix, particularly its strength when it is low. In this sense, the volcanic formations of the Canary Island pose important difficulties to the designer of foundations given their highly anisotropic fabric, which is the result of a complex origin where the basalt sheets alternate with fragmentary material of pyroclastic nature. This volcanic building is frequently intersected by old vents, in the guise of pipes plugged with broken fragments of low compacity. In a valley of highly dissected steep slopes of such geology an arch bridge has been designed and built with a span between supports of 250 m. This paper describes the analysis that was carried out to take into account the particularities of rock anisotropy and the foundations geometry in very steep slopes. The construction problems are also addressed in the paper, describing the grouting treatment that was needed in one of the supports due to the presence of an old vent. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Fishing methods for sustainable shrimp fisheries in the Canary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past 20 years, experimental cruises have been conducted around the Canary Islands (North-West Africa) to investigate the biodiversity of the deep-sea ecosystem and to explore new fisheries resources. Although pandalid shrimps were shown to be very abundant in this region, information is lacking regarding ...

  11. Insular stock identification of Serranus atricauda (Pisces: Serranidae through the presence of Ceratothoa steindachneri (Isopoda, Cymothoidae and Pentacapsula cutanea (Myxozoa, Pentacapsulidae in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Cuyás


    Full Text Available Ceratothoa steindachneri (Isopoda: Cymothoidae and Pentacapsula cutanea (Myxozoa: Pentacapsulidae parasites infecting the blacktail-comber (Serranus atricauda were considered suitable as biological tags for stock identification around the islands of La Palma and Gran Canaria, in the Western and Eastern areas of the Canarian archipelago, respectively. The ecological parameters of both species differed significantly between the islands. While individuals caught off La Palma showed a high degree of infection by the isopod, a single infected fish was found off Gran Canaria. Also, the myxozoans showed a high level of infection on fish from Gran Canaria but it was reported on only a single specimen from La Palma

  12. Wind speed variability over the Canary Islands, 1948-2014: focusing on trend differences at the land-ocean interface and below-above the trade-wind inversion layer (United States)

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Menendez, Melisa; McVicar, Tim R.; Acevedo, Adrian; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Cuevas, Emilio; Minola, Lorenzo; Chen, Deliang


    This study simultaneously examines wind speed trends at the land-ocean interface, and below-above the trade-wind inversion layer in the Canary Islands and the surrounding Eastern North Atlantic Ocean: a key region for quantifying the variability of trade-winds and its response to large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. Two homogenized data sources are used: (1) observed wind speed from nine land-based stations (1981-2014), including one mountain weather station (Izaña) located above the trade-wind inversion layer; and (2) simulated wind speed from two atmospheric hindcasts over ocean (i.e., SeaWind I at 30 km for 1948-2014; and SeaWind II at 15 km for 1989-2014). The results revealed a widespread significant negative trend of trade-winds over ocean for 1948-2014, whereas no significant trends were detected for 1989-2014. For this recent period wind speed over land and ocean displayed the same multi-decadal variability and a distinct seasonal trend pattern with a strengthening (late spring and summer; significant in May and August) and weakening (winter-spring-autumn; significant in April and September) of trade-winds. Above the inversion layer at Izaña, we found a predominance of significant positive trends, indicating a decoupled variability and opposite wind speed trends when compared to those reported in boundary layer. The analysis of the Trade Wind Index (TWI), the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Eastern Atlantic Index (EAI) demonstrated significant correlations with the wind speed variability, revealing that the correlation patterns of the three indices showed a spatio-temporal complementarity in shaping wind speed trends across the Eastern North Atlantic.

  13. Transversalidad e impacto de género: de las políticas a los programas. Estudio de caso en las Islas Canarias=Gender mainstreaming and impact: from policies to programs. A case study in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ascanio Sánchez


    Full Text Available Resumen La transversalidad de género es un concepto ampliamente difundido y defendido que, sin embargo, también ha sido criticado por su ambigüedad y polisemia. Si bien este enfoque debe atravesar los diferentes niveles -desde las políticas a los programas-, la práctica muestra un modelo dual y desarticulado entre, por una parte, los marcos estratégicos y por otro, la puesta en marcha de acciones específicas. A partir de un estudio de caso en las Islas Canarias y de una evaluación de impacto de género (Acogida temprana, se identifican debilidades, oportunidades y contradicciones en la práctica de la transversalidad, mostrando como a través de este tipo de evaluaciones pueden desarrollarse estrategias y herramientas para implementar la articulación entre los niveles.   Abstract  “Gender mainstreaming” is an oft-used, broadly supported term that, however, has also been criticized for being an ambiguous word with multiple meanings. In theory, mainstreaming should cut across all different levels -from policies to programs-, but practice has shown that the model tends to be both dual and disjointed, focusing on strategic frameworks on the one hand and the implementation of specific actions on the other. Using a case study on the Canary Islands and a gender impact assessment (in early childcare, this paper identifies weaknesses, opportunities and contradictions in mainstreaming as it plays out in practice, showing how this type of assessment can be used to develop strategies and tools for linking up the various levels of implementation.

  14. Diffuse CO2 emission from the NE volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): a 15 years geochemical monitoring (United States)

    Padilla, Germán; Alonso, Mar; Shoemaker, Trevor; Loisel, Ariane; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    The North East Rift (NER) volcanic zone of Tenerife Island is one of the three volcanic rift-zones of the island (210 km2). The most recent eruptive activity along the NER volcanic zone took place in the 1704-1705 period with the volcanic eruptions of Siete Fuentes, Fasnia and Arafo volcanoes. The aim of this study was to report the results of a soil CO2 efflux survey undertaken in June 2015, with approximately 580 measuring sites. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of NER volcanic zone were performed by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission from NER volcanic zone, soil CO2 efflux contour maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CO2 emission rate was estimated in 1209 t d-1, with CO2 efflux values ranging from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 123 g m-2 d-1, with an average value of 5.9 g m-2 d-1. If we compare these results with those obtained in previous surveys developed in a yearly basis, they reveal slightly variations from 2006 to 2015, with to pulses in the CO2 emission observed in 2007 and 2014. The main temporal variation in the total CO2 output does not seem to be masked by external variations. First peak precedes the anomalous seismicity registered in and around Tenerife Island between 2009 and 2011, suggesting stress-strain changes at depth as a possible cause for the observed changes in the total output of diffuse CO2 emission. Second peak could be related with futures changes in the seismicity. This study demonstrates the importance of performing soil CO2 efflux surveys as an effective surveillance volcanic tool.

  15. Sr Nd Pb isotope and trace-element geochemistry evidence for a young HIMU source and assimilation at Tenerife (Canary Island) (United States)

    Simonsen, S. L.; Neumann, E.-R.; Seim, K.


    Late Miocene-Pliocene volcanism on the Tenerife island consists of three different series (Teno, Roque del Conde and Anaga). These three series have distinct differences in isotopic compositions. Teno, the western massif, has the most radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopes and least radiogenic Sr ratios. Anaga, the easternmost massif, has the least radiogenic Nd and Pb, and most radiogenic Sr found in the island. Roque del Conde in the south has isotopic compositions between that of Teno and Anaga, similar to the younger volcanic series. All of the three late Miocene-Pliocene massifs have trace-element characteristics resembling those found in HIMU basalts, and there are only small variations between the different massifs. Variations in isotopic characteristics are attributed to two distinct mantle sources. One source appears to be a young HIMU source. The other source is an ;enriched mantle source; with isotopic ratios broadly similar to an EM I source, but with lower 207Pb/204Pb to given 206Pb/204Pb. Assimilation during fractional crystallisation also seems evident. The younger basalts (Las Cañadas, Dorsal and Historic) exhibit relatively homogeneous Nd and Pb isotopic compositions, but show considerable diversity in incompatible trace-element ratios. Fractional crystallisation in periodically refilled magma chambers and assimilation of syenite may have fractionated incompatible trace-element ratios to some degree, but the variations could also be caused by a different degree of partial melting, with the younger basalt generally derived from smaller degrees of partial melt than the older massifs.

  16. Transferring and implementing the general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography at the scale of island fragments: the role of geological age and topography in plant diversification in the Canaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Rüdiger; Whittaker, Robert J.; von Gaisberg, Markus


    . Phylogenetic divergence times of SIEs of important radiated plant lineages suggested an origin on the older parts of the islands. Metrics of anthropogenic disturbance and habitat availability were unrelated to the observed SIE pattern. Main conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that SIEs have evolved...

  17. La llegada del offset a la prensa de Canarias: implicaciones en el tratamiento de la imagen The arrival of the offset printing system to the press in the Canary Islands: implications in the image treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ardèvol Abreu


    Full Text Available El presente artículo forma parte de un trabajo de investigación más extenso sobre la evolución de la fotografía de prensa en Canarias desde el período 1975-1980 hasta la primera década del siglo XXI. Durante la segunda mitad de la década de 1970 se produjo en el archipiélago, de manera paulatina, la transición del sistema de impresión tipográfica al sistema offset. A través de estas páginas pretendemos analizar la influencia que tuvo en la fotografía de prensa de las islas la llegada de este nuevo sistema de impresión, que mejoró de manera significativa la calidad física de los periódicos del archipiélago. La impresión offset, mucho más limpia que su predecesora tipográfica, se publicitaba en Inglaterra bajo el lema “We don't print on your hand, we print on paper” (no imprimimos en sus manos, imprimimos el papel. Los cambios se llevaron a cabo de forma muy gradual, casi imperceptible en un primer momento, coincidiendo, además, con los años de transición política, y trajeron consigo modificaciones en la serie visual no lingüística (fotografías, dibujos, color..., así como en los restantes elementos del periódico, desde el formato al diseño, pasando incluso por los contenidos. Los resultados obtenidos se basan en el muestreo sistemático de dos de las cabeceras más importantes en aquellos momentos en las islas: El tinerfeño El Día y el vespertino Diario de Las Palmas.This article is part of a more extensive research on the evolution of press photography in the Canary Islands from the period 1975-1980 up to the first decade of the 21st century. In the second half of the 1970s it took place in the archipelago a gradually transition from the typographic printing system to the offset printing system. In these pages we try to analyze the influence that the arrival of this new printing system had in the photography of press of the islands, which improved in a significant way the physical quality of the Canarian

  18. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Canaries-African Coastal Transition Zone: A review (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano, M.; Hernandez-Leon, S.


    In this paper we review information on the ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Canaries-African Coastal Transition Zone (C-ACTZ). This CTZ shows the singularity that the Canary Archipelago interrupts the main flow of the Canary Current and Trade Winds, introducing large mesoscale variability, in the form of island warm wakes and cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies downstream of the islands. Besides, upwelling filaments stretch towards the archipelago from the African coastal upwelling, transporting phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish larvae. They also interact with eddies shed from the islands to exchange water properties and biogenic material. All these mesoscale features influence the composition, structure, abundance and distribution of the larval fish community (LFC) of the region. The Canary Current (CC) and eddies shed from the islands drag larvae of island neritic fish species into the oceanic region and contribute, along warm wakes, to the horizontal distribution of fish larvae. Upwelling and upwelling filaments transport larvae of African neritic species into the oceanic region. These larvae dominate the LFC and account for the relatively high average larval fish abundance found in the C-ACTZ during the summer upwelling season. Filaments originated in the region of Cape Juby-Cape Bojador are entrained around a quasi-permanent cyclonic eddy, trapped between Gran Canaria Island and the African coast, forming a system through which most of the African neritic larvae may return to the African shelf. However, some larvae reach the eastern islands of the Canary archipelago and they may be spread all over the neritic region of the archipelago by eddies shed from the islands. Also in summer, the distribution of the LFC of the C-ACTZ is vertically stratified and fish larvae seem to carry out little or not diel vertical migration. Overall, this study highlights the strong relationship between mesoscale oceanographic processes and the LFC in the C-ACTZ.

  19. Recirculation of the Canary Current in fall 2014 (United States)

    Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Espino-Falcón, Elisabet; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Dolores Pérez-Hernández, M.; Martínez-Marrero, Antonio; Cana, Luis


    Hydrographic measurements together with Ship mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers and Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (LADCP) obtained in October 2014 are used to describe water masses, geostrophic circulation and mass transport of the Canary Current System, as the Eastern Boundary of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. Geostrophic velocities are adjusted to velocities from LADCP data to estimate an initial velocity at the reference layer. The adjustment results in a northward circulation at the thermocline layers over the African slope from an initial convergent flow. Final reference velocities and consequently absolute circulation are estimated from an inverse box model applied to an ocean divided into 13 neutral density layers. This allows us to evaluate mass fluxes consistent with the thermal wind equation and mass conservation. Ekman transport is estimated from the wind data derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Ekman transport is added to the first layer and adjusted with the inverse model. The Canary Current located west of Lanzarote Island transports to the south a mass of - 1.5 ± 0.7 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s- 1 ≈ 109 kg s- 1) of North Atlantic Central Water at the surface and thermocline layers ( 0-700 m). In fall 2014, hydrographic data shows that the Canary Current in the thermocline (below at about 80 m depth to 700 m) recirculates to the north over the African slope and flows through the Lanzarote Passage. At intermediate layers ( 700-1400 m), the Intermediate Poleward Undercurrent transports northward a relatively fresh Antarctic Intermediate Water in the range of 0.8 ± 0.4 Sv through the Lanzarote Passage and west of Lanzarote Island beneath the recirculation of the Canary Current.

  20. Virtual Community, social network and media environment of Canary Isands regional digital newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Francisco Manuel Mateos Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The impact of the new communication and information technologies has favoured the creation of multiple local newspaper websites in the Canary Islands, thus making the regional press emerge as an alternative on the rise. This tendency affects significantly both traditional and new editions of the different regional and local newspapers from the Canaries and motivates a different distribution, positioning and development within the local media environment in which these media share a novel dimension of communication with a specific virtual community and social network within the World Wide Web.

  1. Late Pliocene and Quaternary Eurasian locust infestations in the Canary Archipelago (United States)

    Meco, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Fontugne, M.; Ramos, A.J.; Lomoschitz, A.; Patterson, D.


    The Canary Archipelago has long been a sensitive location to record climate changes of the past. Interbedded with its basalt lavas are marine deposits from the principal Pleistocene interglacials, as well as aeolian sands with intercalated palaeosols. The palaeosols contain African dust and innumerable relict egg pods of a temperate-region locust (cf. Dociostaurus maroccanusThunberg 1815). New ecological and stratigraphical information reveals the geological history of locust plagues (or infestations) and their palaeoclimatic significance. Here, we show that the first arrival of the plagues to the Canary Islands from Africa took place near the end of the Pliocene, ca. 3Ma, and reappeared with immense strength during the middle Late Pleistocene preceding MIS (marine isotope stage) 11 (ca. 420ka), MIS 5.5 (ca. 125ka) and probably during other warm interglacials of the late Middle Pleistocene and the Late Pleistocene. During the Early Holocene, locust plagues may have coincided with a brief cool period in the current interglacial. Climatically, locust plagues on the Canaries are a link in the chain of full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes), early interglacial arid-sub-humid climate (African dust inputs and locust plagues), peak interglacial warm-humid climate (marine deposits with Senegalese fauna), transitional arid-temperate climate (pedogenic calcretes), and again full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes) oscillations. During the principal interglacials of the Pleistocene, the Canary Islands recorded the migrations of warm Senegalese marine faunas to the north, crossing latitudes in the Euro-African Atlantic. However, this northward marine faunal migration was preceded in the terrestrial realm by interglacial infestations of locusts. ??? Locust plagues, Canary Islands, Late Pliocene, Pleistocene, Holocene, palaeoclimatology. ?? 2010 The Authors, Lethaia ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  2. Siliceous alterations of the Montana Senalo lavas, Timanfaya eruption (1730-1736) (Lanzarote, Canary Islands); Las alteraciones siliceas de las lavas de Montana Senalo, eruption de Timanfaya (1730-1736) (Lanzarote, Islas Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, J.; Romero, C.; Doniz, J.; Garcia, A.


    The presence of hydrothermal alterations within the lavas of Timanfaya eruption (1730-1736), with high proportions of quartz and opal, suggests the effective circulation of hot fluids. The source of these fluids would be located under the island, where silica would be dissolved from sandstones and radiolarites, moving this way towards the surface as Si(OH){sub 4} colloids. Study of opal indicates the presence of A-initial CT and C phases in the collected samples, which, considering the time needed for producing this phase transformations in the diagenetic evolution of opal (10,000-50,000 years), suggests an accelerating process, probably related with either the presence of fluid circulation or weathering processes. Such circumstances are necessary for explaining the presence of such components affecting 300 years old lavas. (Author) 36 refs.

  3. Ossifying fibroma in a canary (Serinus canaria). (United States)

    Razmyar, Jamshid; Dezfoulian, Omid; Peighambari, Seyed Mostafa


    A 1-year-old male canary (Serinus canaria, Jibber breed), with a protuberance on the left tibia was referred to the clinic. The bird was not able to use the affected foot to stand on its perch. Results of radiographs revealed a radio-opaque hard tissue mass. The canary was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. On histopathologic examination, the mass was diagnosed as an ossifying fibroma tumor. To our knowledge, ossifying fibroma has not been reported in birds so far, and this is the first known report of this tumor in birds.

  4. Cloacal fibrosarcoma in a canary (Serinus canaria). (United States)

    Palmieri, Chiara; Cusinato, Isacco; Avallone, Giancarlo; Shivaprasad, L; Della Salda, Leonardo


    A 1-year-old, male canary (Serinus canaria) with a history of an enlarged abdomen of several days duration died acutely and was submitted for necropsy. Results revealed a yellow to tan hard mass, 2 cm in diameter, adherent to the cloacal wall. Histologically, the mass was composed of interlacing bundles of pleomorphic spindle cells with numerous and bizarre mitotic figures. Neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and negative for desmin and actin and showed ultrastructural features (dilated stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum, intermediate filaments, rare collagen secretion granules, lack of external lamina) typical of fibroblasts. Based on these results, the diagnosis was cloacal fibrosarcoma, previously not reported in canaries.

  5. On the seasonal variability of the Canary Current and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (United States)

    Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Pérez-Hernández, M. Dolores; Casanova-Masjoan, María.; Cana, Luis; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso


    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is continually monitored along 26°N by the RAPID-MOCHA array. Measurements from this array show a 6.7 Sv seasonal cycle for the AMOC, with a 5.9 Sv contribution from the upper mid-ocean. Recent studies argue that the dynamics of the eastern Atlantic is the main driver for this seasonal cycle; specifically, Rossby waves excited south of the Canary Islands. Using inverse modeling, hydrographic, mooring, and altimetry data, we describe the seasonal cycle of the ocean mass transport around the Canary Islands and at the eastern boundary, under the influence of the African slope, where eastern component of the RAPID-MOCHA array is situated. We find a seasonal cycle of -4.1 ± 0.5 Sv for the oceanic region of the Canary Current, and +3.7 ± 0.4 Sv at the eastern boundary. This seasonal cycle along the eastern boundary is in agreement with the seasonal cycle of the AMOC that requires the lowest contribution to the transport in the upper mid-ocean to occur in fall. However, we demonstrate that the linear Rossby wave model used previously to explain the seasonal cycle of the AMOC is not robust, since it is extremely sensitive to the choice of the zonal range of the wind stress curl and produces the same results with a Rossby wave speed of zero. We demonstrate that the seasonal cycle of the eastern boundary is due to the recirculation of the Canary Current and to the seasonal cycle of the poleward flow that characterizes the eastern boundaries of the oceans.

  6. Influencia de la pérdida foliar sobre la cosecha en el cv. Gruesa, Musa acuminata Colla (AAA, cultivado bajo invernadero en las Islas Canarias Influence of leaf removal in yield of cv. Gruesa, Musa acuminata Colla (AAA, cultivated under greenhouse in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cabrera Cabrera


    Full Text Available El cultivo de la variedad de platanera Gruesa, selección local de Dwarf Cavendish, ha experimentado un importante aumento en los últimos años en las Islas Canarias, tanto al aire libre como bajo invernadero. La eliminación de hojas, tras la floración, es una práctica habitual en los cultivos bajo invernadero. Asimismo es frecuente la pérdida de hojas por el efecto de los vientos en los cultivos al aire libre. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar, mediante simulación de pérdida foliar por daños mecánicos, la influencia que tiene la disminución de superficie foliar sobre el llenado y cosecha de la fruta en dicho cultivar. Para ello, cuatro meses antes de la cosecha se efectuaron cinco niveles de defoliación: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% y 100%. Se valoran dos métodos diferentes de defoliación, eliminación de limbo foliar y tronchado de hojas con posterior corte de éstas. Se analizan y presentan datos morfológicos, fenológicos y productivos, así como valoración de la metodología empleada en este trabajo para la simulación de daños. A partir de un 25% de defoliado, equivalente a 7.5 hojas funcionales por planta, se detectaron diferencias significativas con las plantas testigos.The banana cultivar Gruesa, a local Dwarf Cavendish selection, is increasingly planted in the Canary Islands, both in greenhouse and in the open air. Both methods present some degree of leaf loss throughout the crop cycle: the leaves of greenhouse plants are traditionally cut back after flowering, and open air plantations experience frequent wind damage. A trial was set up four months prior to harvest to evaluate fruit filling rate and yield of Gruesa subjected to five levels of defoliation (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% loss of leaf area. Two defoliation techniques were used to simulate damage: removal of the midrib, and slashing the leaf blade followed later by complete removal. Morphological, phenological and production data are presented.

  7. Bird communities in two oceanic island forests fragmented by roads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although most studies on road effects on birds have been conducted on continental grounds, road fragmentation on oceanic islands is often heavier. We assessed variation in bird communities near (≤ 25 m) and far (>100 m) from forest roads dividing laurel and pine forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Line transects were ...

  8. Oceanic island biogeography: Nomothetic science of the anecdotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Meiri


    Full Text Available Islands get more than their fair share of attention from biogeographers, macroecologists and evolutionary biologists. Adding to this existing bias, I claim that oceanic islands, especially oceanic island archipelagos (and among them, especially the Hawaii, the Canaries, Azores and, of course, the Galapagos attract much more scientific attention than the insights they offer or warrant. This focus on oceanic islands ignores other island types that may be better heuristic tools for studies of general ecological, biogeographic and evolutionary dynamics. The evolutionary and ecological dynamics of landbridge and continental islands are often as fast, dramatic, interesting and insightful, and merit more attention from island biogeographers. 

  9. The influence of mesoscale physical processes on the larval fish community in the Canaries CTZ, in summer (United States)

    Rodríguez, J. M.; Barton, E. D.; Hernández-León, S.; Arístegui, J.


    We have studied the relation between the hydrography, the composition and horizontal structure of the larval fish community, and the horizontal distribution patterns of larval fish abundances in an area characterised by strong mesoscale oceanographic activity, located between the Canary Islands and the African coast (the Canaries Coastal Transition Zone), during August 1999. Upwelling, upwelling filaments, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies and island wakes are typical mesoscale features of the northwest African coast in summer. A single upwelling filament off Cabo Juby was joined in mid-August by a second that originated about 100 km to the north. The two filaments flowed together and merged 100 km offshore. The merged filament was partially entrained around a cyclonic eddy, trapped between the Canary Islands and the African coast, and interacted with cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies shed from Gran Canaria. Mesoscale oceanographic features strongly influenced the horizontal distributions of fish larvae. Eddies acted as a mechanism of concentration, while upwelling filaments were dispersive, transporting larvae from the African neritic zone into oceanic areas and towards the Canary archipelago. This transport was the major cause of the predominance of neritic larvae in the composition of the larval fish community of the area. The results also suggest: (1) that anchovy larvae are good indicators of the offshore displacement of upwelled water; (2) that the alternation between anchovy and sardine as species dominant in the larval fish community of the area during summer depends upon the water temperature in the African upwelling region, anchovy dominating at higher temperature; (3) that a coupling of anchovy and sardine spawning with the mesoscale oceanographic structure formed by the upwelling filaments and trapped eddy overcomes the negative effect that Ekman transport has on their populations.

  10. Aridity, desalination plants and tourism in the eastern Canary Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José-León García-Rodríguez; Francisco J. García-Rodríguez; Carlos Castilla-Gutiérrez


    .... These systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the arrival of tourism in the last third of the twentieth century, which improved living standards for the local...

  11. Origin of Ancient Canary Islanders Guanches: presence of Atlantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  12. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Duarte Alonso


    Full Text Available Mientras el turismo del vino está desarrollándose en varias regiones vinícolas europeas, la evolución del mismo, o su potencial, en las Islas Canarias son poco conocidos. Este estudio exploratorio examina estas áreas entre 23 bodegas insulares. Los resultados revelan el potencial de desarrollo del turismo del vino en las islas, con bodegas que, o bien ya forman parte de este concepto, o planean acrecentar su participación. Los bodegueros entrevistados reconocen impedimentos que están frenando el desarrollo de la industria vinícola y del turismo del vino en las islas, incluyendo la competición de vinos foráneos y leyes del control de alcoholemia que inhiben el consumo del vino en bodegas entre los visitantes. Asimismo, los bodegueros perciben la necesidad de encontrar un balance entre el turismo en masa y el nicho del producto vinícola. Finalmente, el estudio propone áreas de futura investigación sobre el desarrollo del turismo del vino en Canarias.

  13. Origin of Ancient Canary Islanders Guanches: presence of Atlantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Debate whether North Africans or Iberians were the first “Guanches” is artificial since Iberian Peninsula-North African genes flow in ancient times was abundant and Iberians share a great part of genetic profile with North Africans. New genetic (HLA) and linguistic data shown in the present paper, is supported by diverse ...

  14. Diet of common ravens on El Hierro, Canary Islands


    Nogales, Manuel; Hernández, Elizabeth C.


    L dieta del cuervo (Corvus corax) en la isla de El Hierro, Islas Canarias, es omnívora. Aunque cinco zonas estudiadas no mostraron gran variación respecto al tipo de alimento, hubo considerables cambios cuantitativos. En los pastizales de Bascos (seco) y Jinama (húmedo) la dieta consistió básicamente de materia animal. Hubo invertebrados en abundancia en Jinama (frecuencia de aparición en egagrópilas = 84.8%) y restos de vertebrados en el de Bascos (60%). Desde el punto de vista estacional, l...

  15. En la población Canaria, la función de Framingham estima mejor el riesgo de mortalidad cardiovascular que la función SCORE Framingham function estimates the risk of cardio vascular mortality more effectively than SCORE function in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain

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    Antonio Cabrera de León


    /height razón, abdomen/pelvis ratio, and excessive alcohol consumption. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 5,289 individuals aged 30 to 69 years old, recruited by random sampling of the general population of the Canary Islands. We calibrated the Framingham and SCORE functions and estimated their concordance. The cardiovascular mortality rate for the population in this age range was compared with the risk predicted by the two functions. Results: Among males, the mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was 67.4, while the Framingham, SCORE-low and SCORE-high estimations were 80, 140, and 270, respectively. Among females, the mortality rate was 19.3 while the estimations were 30, 50, and 70, respectively. Both functions detected the increased risk contributed by the factors studied, except for sedentariness among females with SCORE, and excessive alcohol consumption with both functions. Among males, taking cut points of > 12%, > 15%, and > 20% for Framingham, the concordance with SCORE-low yielded Kappa values of 0.6, 0.7, and 0.5, respectively. Conclusions: The Framingham function yielded the best estimate of cardiovascular mortality rates. Only Framingham detected the cardiovascular risk contributed by sedentariness in both genders. We recommend the use of the calibrated Framingham function for this population.

  16. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells and reed canary grass from the Columbia River, Washington. (United States)

    Rickard, W H; Price, K R


    Strontium-90 ((90)SR) released to the ground near the N Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site enters the Columbia River through shoreline seeps. The (90)Sr is then potentially available for uptake by plants and animals. The life history and foraging behavior of nesting Canada geese is such that female geese could ingest (90)Sr while foraging on shoreline plants. Radichemical analyses showed that goose eggshells taken from an island, downstream from the N Reactor, contained more (90)Sr than did eggshells collected from other downstream islands. Reed canary grass samples taken from shoreline areas immediately downstream from the N Reactor contained higher concentrations of (90)Sr than samples from other downstream areas. All goose eggshells did not contain enhanced levels of (90)Sr, and all reed canary grass samples did not contain enhanced levels of (90)Sr, but a relationship exists between the releases of (90)Sr to the Columbia River and the enhanced levels of (90)Sr in some of the environmental samples analyzed.

  17. Many missing rings in old Canary pines can be related with age, fires and traditional uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Génova, M.; Santana, C.; Martínez, B.


    Aim and area of study: In the present paper we estimated the age of four monumental Pinus canariensis of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) by means of tree-ring analysis. Many tree-ring series have been accurately studied and many missing rings have been determined. Material and methods: The trees were dead and the samples analysed were big disks. We measured numerous radii and crossdated the individual tree-ring series, paying particular attention to the existence and location of missing rings. We have distinguished between missing outer rings (MORs) and missing inner rings (MIRs) and analysed the possible causes of both. Main results: We determined an average of 8.8% total missing rings (MRs) for these long-lived trees, with a maximum of 96 MRs in a series of over 500. We have tried to establish a tree-ring chronology on Gran Canaria Island, also having the tree-ring series from Inagua site, but the long individual tree-ring series analysed do not crossdate between them. Research highlights: We consider the Canary pine a species hard to conducting dendroecological studies, especially if the samples come from managed old trees, in which a large amount of known and potentially unknown missing rings can hampered dating. Even knowing the difficulties involved in dendrochronological analyses of P. canariensis, we can confirm that it is a long-lived species, which can grow to over 500 years, and some of whose growth changes could be associated with certain historical and ecological events.

  18. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  19. Changes in infiltration rate into Andisols for change of use (Tenerife, Canary I.); Influencia del cambio de uso en la tasa de infiltracion de Andisoles (Tenerife, I. Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neris, J.; Fuentes, J.; Dorta, M. A.; Jimenez, C.; Tejedor, M.


    The volcanic island of Tenerife (Canary Islands) has a wide variety of Andisols which have formed on recent pyroclast materials (Udands, Ustands, Xerands and Vitrands. The Udands are situated on the nor then side of the island, at heights where condensation of the trade winds occurs (900-1600m), while the Ustands are also located mostly on this side, albeit at a lower attitudinal strip. Under natural conditions, these soils present favourable physical properties, with high structural stability and resistance to water erosion. (Author) 11 refs.

  20. Evolución de la mortalidad y de los años de vida perdidos prematuramente relacionados con el consumo de alcohol en las Islas Canarias (1980-1998 Trends in mortality and years of life lost related to alcohol in the Canary Islands, Spain (1980-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Bello


    óvenes.Objective: The aim of this article was to describe death rates and years of life lost prematurely (YLLP in relation to alcohol consumption in the Canary Islands. The study covered the period between 1980 and 1998. Methods: Deaths from 1980 to 1998 were classified by age, sex, and cause using data obtained from the National Institute of Statistics (Natural Changes in the Population. The number of alcohol-related deaths was calculated by year, sex, and age group using the attributable population fraction as proposed by the Centers for Disease Control (USA. The YLLP attributed to alcohol consumption were calculated for each cause of death by multiplying deaths by the attributable population fraction in 5-yearly age groups for both sexes (average span of five years, up to the age of 65 years. Results: Between 1980 and 1998, the number of alcohol-related deaths was 12,614, averaging 6.4% per year and with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 2:1. The main causes of death and YLLP in both men and women were malignant neoplasms, diseases of the digestive system, and alcohol-related accidents, although accidents were by far the main cause producing 50.6% of alcohol-related YLLP in men and 55.5% in women. Over the study period, the incidence of cirrhosis of the liver and that of other chronic liver diseases (CIE 571 decreased in men whilst remaining stable in women. Conclusions: The finding that the percentage of alcohol-related deaths and cirrhosis of the liver remained high in the Islas Canarias between 1980 and 1998 highlights the need for educational strategies on the effects of alcohol, together with policies designed to reduce its consumption, particularly among the young.

  1. Análisis de costes y ahorros potenciales relacionados con la utilización de pruebas preoperatorias en los hospitales de Canarias Cost analysis and potential savings related to the use of preoperative tests in the hospitals of the Canary Islands [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López-Bastida


    mejor selección y utilización de las pruebas preoperatorias.Objective: To estimate the potential cost savings that might take place in the Canary Islands Health Service (CHS through the appropriate scientific use of preoperative tests, using information obtained from five public university hospitals. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 55 anesthesiologists, representing 60% of the total in the CHS. The questionnaire paid special attention to the most frequently used preoperative tests: chest radiograph, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, and spirometry. The mean unit costs for the various preoperative tests were obtained from the two hospitals participating in the study. To calculate the potential cost savings derived from the appropriate use of preoperative tests, several scenarios were considered. These were characterized by different hypotheses or degrees of fulfillment of a protocol based on scientific knowledge and considered as the gold standard. Results: In the ideal scenario in which the recommended scientific protocol was fulfilled in 100% of the 16 179 patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA grade of I-II, the economic impact would be notable, since it would free sensitive resources that could be used for other health programs. These figures could amount to approximately 1.02 million euros, without considering the cost of preoperative hospital stay. This figure could increase by up to approximately 2.13 million euros if one day of preoperative hospital stay were included and by up to 3.24 million euros if two days of preoperative hospital stay were included. Conclusions: The recent literature review and the results of the questionnaire applied in the CHS indicate that preoperative tests are of greatest benefit to patients and to society if their use is guided by scientific knowledge. In addition, resources can be freed by better selection and utilization of preoperative tests.

  2. Aviary: Distributed, Tamper-Proof, Per-User Warrant Canaries


    Bose-Kolanu, Abhishek


    Governments routinely claim the power to subject individuals to secret investigation, forcing technology Service Providers to divulge User data without notification. Warrant canaries invert the notification problem by telling a User each time a Service Provider has not received a secret request for their data. Current canaries suffer from non-standardization, poor granularity, and brittleness in the face of attacks, leading the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Berkman Center to discontinue ...

  3. Una aproximación etnográfica a las medianías de la isla de La Gomera: cultura, economía y movimientos migratorios (An ethnographic approach to mid-altitude settlements on the island of La Gomera, Canary Islands: culture, economy and migratory movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia García Alfonso


    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los modos de vida, adaptación y los cambios sociales en diversos núcleos de población situados en las zonas de medianías de la isla de la Gomera; unos espacios que han mantenido el peso de la agricultura tradicional del campesinado. Desde una perspectiva etnográfica y partiendo de la identificación principalmente de los elementos asociados a los modos de producción y economía doméstica y política, se pretende configurar este universo simbólico. Las principales técnicas de obtención de datos han sido la observación participante y entrevistas semiestructuradas, reconstruyendo las etapas de vida de la población. De esta forma se muestra cómo los elementos de la infraestructura han tenido influencia en las condiciones de vida, aunque han sido los movimientos migratorios y el régimen de tenencia de tierras lo que ha determinado la evolución y la realidad actual de las medianías.Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyse lifestyle, adaptation and social change in various mid-altitude settlements on the island of La Gomera, areas in which traditional subsistence farming still prevails. In our attempt to construct this symbolic universe, we have taken an ethnographic perspective, focussing primarily on aspects related with modes of production and the domestic and political economy. Our main sources of data were participant observation and semi-structured interviews, which were used to reconstruct the different stages in the life of each settlement. This has enabled us to reflect how infrastructural factors have influenced living conditions, though the evolution and present-day reality of these mid-altitude settlements have been shaped by migratory movements and land ownership.

  4. Debt, Labor and Coercion. The Experiences of Canary Colonization in the Estado Oriental del Uruguay (1830-1843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Thul Charbonnier


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the experiences of colonization from the Canary Islands driven by private entrepreneurs and backed by the Uruguayan State during the 1830s. This was a special type of immigration, close to indenture servitude, where individuals moving across the continents signed a contract that forced them to keep working in Uruguay until the debt they had incurred (the cost of their maritime passage was repaid. The Uruguayan State, through the police, was both the guarantor and enforcer of these contracts.

  5. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.


    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  6. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon (United States)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  7. Long-range order in canary song. (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J


    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  8. A study of stomach contents of Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) (Aves: Procellariidae), from the Macaronesian Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Clarke, M.R.


    Data are presented on the diet of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) resulting from stomach investigations based on 18 birds from Hierro (Canary Islands), 5 from Selvagem Grande (Selvagens or Salvage Islands), 2 from São Miguel and 1 from São Jorge (Azores), collected

  9. Transport pathways of decapod larvae under intense mesoscale activity in the Canary-African coastal transition zone: implications for population connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Landeira


    Full Text Available We investigate the transport dynamics of decapod larvae in the Canary-African coastal transition zone (C-ACTZ, where larval assemblages are poorly known. In August 1999, during the FAX99 cruise, the waters downstream of the Canary Island archipelago displayed intense mesoscale activity, with numerous cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies as well as upwelling filaments. Our results illustrate a close relationship between these mesoscale oceanographic structures and the distribution of decapod larvae, using both field observations and Lagrangian transport modelling. Analysis of plankton samples shows that larvae of pelagic species were excluded from filament waters, whereas larvae of neritic species were heterogeneously distributed, suggesting that the C-ACTZ is a mixing area where larvae originating from both the Canary Islands and the African coast may be present at the same time. This finding was supported by the simulations, which suggested that the larvae collected in the offshore waters south of Gran Canaria came mainly from the African population (between Cape Bojador and Cape Juby during early August, whereas during the second half of August the targeted area was dominated by larvae released from Fuerteventura populations. Our observations introduce new insights into our understanding of marine population connectivity, the dispersal pathways of the terrestrial biota, and general biogeography in the region.

  10. Source identification of soil mercury in the Spanish islands. (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Carbonell, Gregoria; Nanos, Nikos; Gutiérrez, Carmen


    This study spatially analysed the relation between mercury (Hg) content in soil and Hg in rock fragment for the purpose of assessing natural soil Hg contribution compared with Hg from human inputs. We present the Hg content of 318 soil and rock fragment samples from 11 islands distributed into two Spanish archipelagos (the volcanic Canary Islands [Canaries] and the Mediterranean Balearic [Balearic] islands). Assumedly both are located far enough away from continental Hg sources to be able to minimise the effects of diffuse pollution. Physical and chemical soil properties were also specified for the samples. Hg contents were significantly greater in the Balearic limestone soils (61 μg kg(-1)) than in the volcanic soils of the Canaries (33 μg kg(-1)). Hg levels were also greater in topsoil than in rocky fragments, especially on the Balearics. The soil-to-rock ratios varied between 1 and 30. Interestingly, the highest topsoil-to-rock Hg ratio (>16 ×) was found in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Majorca, whereas no similar areas in the Canary archipelago were identified.

  11. European Regional activation towards Brussels: From the heart to the Ultra-periphery of Europe. Walloon and Canary Islands’ strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tuñón


    Full Text Available Wallonia and the Canary Islands are both regions with legislative capacities within the European Union (EU. They have traditionally shared serious socio-economic deficits. Therefore, while a new European Regional policy was being designed, they both built regional strategies in order to extract as much as they can from the EU. How far are these Sub-State activations towards Brussels linked to regional gains (outputs from the EU? How different are both mobilisations? How can the higher degree of success of the Canary Islands be explained, taking into account that the Archipelago is far away from the heart of Europe and Wallonia is within it? The research, based on a qualitative analysis method, will be carried out through findings about the regional mechanisms developed to influence the European institutions: the participation (direct and non direct within the Council of Ministers, the Committee of the Regions, the regional interaction with the European Commission, the establishment of representative bodies in Brussels and the participation within interregional associations.

  12. Construct exploit constraint in crash analysis by bypassing canary (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Huang, Shuguang; Huang, Hui; Chang, Chao


    Selective symbolic execution is a common program testing technology. Developed on the basis of it, some crash analysis systems are often used to test the fragility of the program by constructing exploit constraints, such as CRAX. From the study of crash analysis based on symbolic execution, this paper find that this technology cannot bypass the canary stack protection mechanisms. This paper makes the improvement uses the API hook in Linux. Experimental results show that the use of API hook can effectively solve the problem that crash analysis cannot bypass the canary protection.

  13. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.


    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  14. Reproductive biology of the island grouper (Mycteroperca fusca in the Canary Islands, northwest coast of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Bustos


    Full Text Available This is the first time that the reproductive characteristics of Mycteroperca fusca have been analyzed over the whole area of its distribution, using the parameter of the histological analysis of the gonads. This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite with a marked predominance of females (1:4.9. The males and females displayed marked differences in the distribution of the sizes. The females were distributed over all the size ranges analyzed (229-725 mm total length, whereas the males were observed within the larger sizes, as of 428 mm. One transitional specimen (610 mm total length was observed. The size at which the females first reached sexual maturity was 335 mm total length whereas the size at which 95% of females reached sexual maturity was 398 mm total length. The average size at which 50% of the females had inverted to the male condition was found to be 678 mm total length. The range of sizes at which the process of sexual inversion took place was broad, between 428 and 725 mm total length. The reproductive period was long, almost covering the annual cycle, although the maximum activity was observed between April and October, with a peak in spawning in June-July.

  15. Reed canary grass: from production to end use (United States)

    Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea - RCG) is a lignocellulosic perennial crop that is carbon-efficient in terms of sequestration and nutrient recycling, and grows well on land that is marginal for food and feed production. Therefore, it can help deliver sustainable bioenergy without impacting f...

  16. The Canary Current system off the Iberian Peninsula and North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Canary Current system off the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Africa, the Humboldt Current system off western South America, the California Current system off the western United States, and the. Benguela Current system off the west coast of southern. Africa are the four major eastern boundary current regions.

  17. Plant diversity on high elevation islands – drivers of species richness and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin D.H. Irl


    Full Text Available High elevation islands elicit fascination because of their large array of endemic species and strong environmental gradients. First, I define a high elevation island according to geographic and environmental characteristics. Then, within this high elevation island framework, I address local disturbance effects on plant distribution, drivers of diversity and endemism on the island scale, and global patterns of treeline elevation and climate change. Locally, introduced herbivores have strong negative effects on the summit scrub of my model island La Palma (Canary Islands, while roads have unexpected positive effects on endemics. On the island scale, topography and climate drive diversity and endemism. Hotspots of endemicity are found in summit regions – a general pattern on high elevation islands. The global pattern of treeline elevation behaves quite differently on islands than on the mainland. A thorough literature review and climate projections suggest that climate change will profoundly affect oceanic island floras.

  18. Mesoscale advection of Upogebia pusilla larvae through an upwelling filament in the Canaries Coastal Transition Zone (CTZ) (United States)

    Landeira, José María; Lozano-Soldevilla, Fernando; Barton, Eric Desmond


    Larval transport has a strong influence on marine populations and ecosystem function. Traditional hypotheses establish that larvae of coastal species are swept offshore during strong upwelling periods producing low recruitment rates; however, recent studies have demonstrated that this hypothesis is not supported by larval distribution data. The present study examines the influence of upwelling filaments on larval advection and wastage. During August 1993, the transport of Upogebia pusilla was analysed in relation to an offshore filament off Northwest Africa. This mesoscale structure was generated by a trapped, quasi-permanent cyclonic eddy located between the Canary Islands and the African shelf and extended 150 km westward into the oligotrophic open ocean waters. The horizontal distribution depicted by U. pusilla larvae was strongly influenced by the oceanographic features of the Canaries Coastal Transition Zone (CTZ). Specifically, the larvae were closely associated with upwelling front and filament position, showing that these neritic larvae can be advected 10-100s of kilometres offshore through the filament. However, the low larval densities observed in the samples suggest that many larvae might remain close to the coast, thus avoiding seaward transport. This implies that filaments probably do not significantly affect the recruitment success of intertidal invertebrates such us U. pusilla in upwelling systems.

  19. Electrophysiological and morphological development of the inner ear in Belgian Waterslager canaries. (United States)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J; Ryals, Brenda; Gleich, Otto


    Belgian Waterslager (BW) canaries have an inherited hearing loss due to missing and abnormal hair cells, but it is unclear whether the loss is congenital or developmental. We used auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy to describe the development of auditory sensitivity and hair cell abnormalities in BW and non-BW canaries. In both strains, adult ABR thresholds were higher than behavioral thresholds, but BW canaries exhibited higher thresholds than non-BW canaries across all frequencies. Immediately post-hatch, ABR thresholds and hair cell numbers were similar in both strains. Two weeks later, thresholds were significantly higher in BW canaries, and hair cell number progressively decreased as the birds aged. These data show that in BW canaries: the peripheral auditory system is functionally similar to non-BW canary from hatch to 2 weeks, ABR thresholds improve during this developmental period, actually becoming better than those of adults, but then worsen as the bird continues to age. Hair cell number and appearance is similar to non-BW canaries at hatch but progressively declines after 30 days of age. These data show that the hearing loss characteristic of BW canaries is, at least in part, developmental and is established by the time song learning begins.

  20. Circovirus inclusion bodies in intestinal muscle cells of a canary. (United States)

    Rampin, T; Manarolla, G; Pisoni, G; Recordati, C; Sironi, G


    Multiple cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in the intestinal smooth muscle cells of an adult canary from an aviary with a history of high mortality (50%) both in adult and young birds. Grossly, a mild enteritis was the only lesion appreciable. Smears of the proventricular contents contained a few megabacteria (Macrorhabdus ornithogaster). The intestinal inclusions were found in very high numbers in all parts of the tract examined. They appeared round to oval, amphophilic and hyaline in sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and magenta with Feulgen stain. Inclusions of the same type were occasionally detectable in the wall of a few splenic and pancreatic arteries. No inclusions or lesions were seen in the other organs examined. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestinal wall revealed circovirus-like particles either in paracrystalline arrays or loose arrangements, mostly within the cytoplasm of the intestinal muscule cells. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequence analysis confirmed infection with canary circovirus.

  1. Prodigious submarine landslides during the inception and early growth of volcanic islands. (United States)

    Hunt, James E; Jarvis, Ian


    Volcanic island inception applies large stresses as the ocean crust domes in response to magma ascension and is loaded by eruption of lavas. There is currently limited information on when volcanic islands are initiated on the seafloor, and no information regarding the seafloor instabilities island inception may cause. The deep sea Madeira Abyssal Plain contains a 43 million year history of turbidites among which many originate from mass movements in the Canary Islands. Here, we investigate the composition and timing of a distinctive group of turbidites that we suggest represent a new unique record of large-volume submarine landslides triggered during the inception, submarine shield growth, and final subaerial emergence of the Canary Islands. These slides are predominantly multi-stage and yet represent among the largest mass movements on the Earth's surface up to three or more-times larger than subaerial Canary Islands flank collapses. Thus whilst these deposits provide invaluable information on ocean island geodynamics they also represent a significant, and as yet unaccounted, marine geohazard.

  2. Variation in biomass related variables of reed canary grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea L., is a relatively new biomass crop in northern Europe, which produces raw material for bioenergy and paper pulp. Breeding reed canary grass for industrial purposes is under way in the absence of domestic cultivars being available. Knowledge of the extent of variation in biomass related traits is a basic requirement of the breeding programme. The aim of this study was to describe variation in biomass related traits and evaluate the relationships among the variables. Field experiment was carried out between 1994 and 1998 in Finland. Research material included wild and elite populations, which were divided into ten groups according to their origin. Biomass yield, plant fractions, shoot number, node number, leaf area and overwintering ability were measured. Panicle number, plant height and seed ripening were included to the analyses of the relationships. Results indicated the high biomass yield potential of reed canary grass, reaching over 13 t DM ha-1 in the fourth year after establishment. Elite material and a local group from southern Finland had the highest biomass yield, whereas the northernmost local group had the lowest. Three factors established accounted for 45% of the variance and they were defined as “high biomass yield”, “leaf-shoot relationship” and “fast development”. The first factor indicated positive connections among biomass yield, panicle number, plant height, straw fraction and node fraction. This study indicated variation in agronomic traits of reed canary grass, which enables breeding of new cultivars with desired trait combinations.;

  3. Increasing incidence of megabacteriosis in canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus). (United States)

    Marlier, D; Leroy, C; Sturbois, M; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Vindevogel, H


    A total of 312 post-mortem examinations of 178 canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus), 40 parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus, Nymphicus hollandicus) and 94 parrots (Amazona aestiva, Psitaccus erithacus) were conducted at the Birds and Rabbits Service of the University of Liège, Belgium. After a detailed gross examination, tissue samples were collected for virological and/or bacteriological and/or parasitological examination to complete the diagnosis. In all cases, a microscopic examination of the proventricular mucus layer was undertaken for the detection of the anamorphic ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, which causes the non-zoonotic but important disease in cage birds known as megabacteriosis. At the time of death, megabacteriosis was diagnosed respectively in 28% of canaries and 22.5% of budgerigars (P value for Fisher's exact test=0.5576), but was not diagnosed in parrots (P value for Fisher's exact test <0.0001). The incidence of megabacteriosis significantly increases along the years (P value for chi2 test <0.0001, Cramer's coefficient=0.3405). The most common gross lesions seen at necropsy of the 59 megabacteriosis cases was proventricular dilatation (86.1%). All the birds diagnosed as typical megabacteriosis cases were free of Salmonella spp. infections and of any parasitic infections. Four megabacteriosis cases (three canaries, one parakeet) were not included in statistical analysis as salmonellosis, pseudotuberculosis, coccidiosis and chlamydophilosis were diagnosed concomitantly in these birds. With the exception of megabacteriosis, the most frequent causes of death were protozoan (coccidiosis, lankesterellosis) infections (18.4%) and salmonellosis (17.1%) in canaries, and psittacosis (31.5%) and viral hepatitis (26.3%) in parakeets. In parrots, the most common causes of death were psittacosis (28.6%) and aspergillosis (28.5%).

  4. Unusual pathology of canary poxvirus infection associated with high mortality in young and adult breeder canaries (Serinus canaria). (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H L; Kim, T; Tripathy, D; Woolcock, P R; Uzal, F


    Mortality in excess of 65% occurred in a flock of 450 canaries (Serinus canaria). Clinical signs in the canaries included severe respiratory distress, loss of feathers and/or scaly skin on the head, neck and back, anorexia, loss of weight and fluffed-up appearance of several days duration before death. Gross pathology in most of the canaries included thickened eye lids and small scab-like nodules on the skin of the head and neck, enlarged thymus, mild to severe consolidation of lungs and exudate in the sinuses and trachea. A few birds also had thickened air sacs and enlarged and pale spleens. Microscopically unusual lesions included severe epithelial proliferation and hypertrophy and mononuclear inflammatory cells containing eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies of poxvirus in the thymus, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, bone marrow, air sac, peritoneum, external and middle ears, and lachrymal gland. Similar inclusion bodies associated with inflammation were also seen in the epidermis, dermis, feather follicles, conjunctivae, sinuses, turbinates, choana, oral mucosa including tongue, oesophagus, larynx, trachea, syrinx and bronchi and parabronchi of lungs. Some of the birds also had concurrent bacterial, mycotic and polyomavirus infections. Poxvirus was isolated from lungs and skin in chicken embryo liver cells and confirmed as avian poxvirus by polymerase chain reaction.

  5. Heat Islands (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  6. Systematics of Serinus canaries and the status of Cape and Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systematics of Serinus canaries and the status of Cape and Yellow-crowned Canaries inferred from mtDNA and morphology. P G Ryan, D Wright, G Oatley, J Wakeling, C Cohen, T L Nowell, R CK Bowie, V Ward, T M Crowe ...

  7. Safety assessment of consumption of glabrous canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) in rats. (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Patterson, C A; Hucl, P; Newkirk, R W; Ram, J I; Classen, H L


    Canary seed is a nutrient-rich cereal grain; however, it has not been used in human food in part due to concerns regarding safety of consumption. Glabrous or hairless canary seed has potential human food use as trichomes are absent. The objective of the oral feeding studies reported here was to assess the safety of yellow and brown glabrous canary seed cultivars as human cereal foods. The first study was a 90-day rat oral toxicity study, which compared the effects of diets containing 50% of either brown dehulled glabrous, brown hulled glabrous, or brown hulled pubescent (hairy) hulled canary seed to a diet containing 50% wheat. No significant adverse effects were observed. In a 28-day and a 90-day study rats were fed yellow or brown glabrous canary seed groats in the AIN-76 diet at concentrations levels of 2.5%, 5% and 10%. The NOAELs in 90-day study were 5.15 g/kg/d and 5.23 g/kg/d for yellow and brown canary seed groats. Consumption of canary seed was associated with reduced incidence and severity of liver lipidosis as compared to controls. The combined results of these studies clearly demonstrate the safety of consumption of glabrous canary seed, and support its use as a human cereal grain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands. (United States)

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph


    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MOAO LQG control for CANARY: theory and first laboratory results (United States)

    Sivo, G.; Kulcsár, C.; Raynaud, H.-F.; Conan, J.-M.; Gendron, É.; Vidal, F.


    Single Conjugated Adaptive Optics (SCAO) is a proven technique used in order to correct the effect of atmospheric turbulence and vibrations of the WaveFront (WF). The corrected field of view (FoV) is however limited by the anisoplanetism effect. Many concepts of Wide Field AO (WFAO) systems are under development, especially for the design of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) instruments. Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) is one of these WFAO concepts that is particularly suited to high redshifts galaxies observations in very wide FoV. The E-ELT instrument EAGLE will use this approach. CANARY is the on-sky pathfinder for MOAO. It obtained the first compensated images on Natural Guide Stars (NGSs) at the William Herschel Telescope in September 2010. The control and performance optimization of such complex system are a key issue. Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control is an appealing strategy that provides optimal control for an explicit minimum variance performance criterion. It also provides a unified formalism that allows accounting for specific multi WF Sensing (WFS) channels, both for Laser Guide Stars (LGSs) and NGSs, and for various disturbance sources (turbulence, vibrations). Furthermore, preliminary simulation results suggest that performance can be significantly improved with tomographic LQG control compared to MMSE static reconstruction. Our objective is to obtain a first on-sky demonstration of tomographic LQG control during CANARY Phase B, featuring LGS and NGS WFS. We show how the specific MOAO CANARY configuration can be embedded in a state-space framework. The state-space model includes: stochastic auto regressive models of order 2 for the turbulent phase in each layer and for vibrations affecting the telescope; LGS and NGS measurement equations; DM model and delays in the loop. Model identification and off-line calculations necessary for a robust on-sky operation are discussed. First laboratory results and on-sky test plan for the coming observing

  10. Canary: An NLP Platform for Clinicians and Researchers. (United States)

    Malmasi, Shervin; Sandor, Nicolae L; Hosomura, Naoshi; Goldberg, Matt; Skentzos, Stephen; Turchin, Alexander


    Information Extraction methods can help discover critical knowledge buried in the vast repositories of unstructured clinical data. However, these methods are underutilized in clinical research, potentially due to the absence of free software geared towards clinicians with little technical expertise. The skills required for developing/using such software constitute a major barrier for medical researchers wishing to employ these methods. To address this, we have developed Canary, a free and open-source solution designed for users without natural language processing (NLP) or software engineering experience. It was designed to be fast and work out of the box via a user-friendly graphical interface.

  11. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  12. Avian bornaviruses are widely distributed in canary birds (Serinus canaria f. domestica). (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Rinder, Monika; Stein, Malte; Höper, Dirk; Kaspers, Bernd; Brosinski, Katrin; Horie, Masayuki; Schmidt, Volker; Legler, Marko; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter


    Avian bornavirus (ABV) was identified in 2008 as the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacine birds. In addition, ABV variants were detected in wild waterfowl and in a canary bird. PDD-like diseases were also reported in various other avian species, but it remains unknown whether ABV is involved. In this study we detected ABV in 12 of 30 tested canary bird flocks (40%), indicating a wide distribution of ABV in captive canary birds in Germany. Sequence analysis identified several distinct ABV genotypes which differ markedly from the genotypes present in psittacine birds. Some canaries naturally infected with ABV exhibited gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms which resembled PDD in psittacines, while others did not show signs of disease. Canaries experimentally inoculated with ABV developed infections of the brain and various other organs. The experimentally infected canaries transmitted the virus to sentinel birds kept in the same aviary, but did not show any clinical signs during a five month observation period. Embryonated eggs originating from ABV-infected hens contained ABV-specific RNA, but virus could not be re-isolated from embryonic tissue. These results indicate that ABV is widely distributed in canary birds and due to its association to clinical signs should be considered as a potential pathogen of this species. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries. (United States)

    Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi


    To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection.

  14. Identification of shiga toxin and intimin genes in Escherichia coli detected from canary (Serinus canaria domestica). (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha


    The pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains is, in large part, due to shiga toxin (Stx) genes (Stx1 and Stx2) and/or intimin (eae) gene. The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of domestic canaries (Serinus canaria domestica) as a reservoir of Stx and intimin producing strains of E. coli. For this study, a total of 50 cloacal swabs were collected from 50 healthy domestic canaries. Cloacal swabs were cultured and tested using standard methods of microbiology. After primary identification of E. coli, DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers for Stx1, Stx2 and eae genes. In this study, three of 50 samples were found to be Stx2 positive. In the present study, nine (18%) of 50 canaries tested were positive for eae gene. Only 2% of total canaries tested were positive for simultaneous Stx and eae genes. By considering the presence of Stx genes in E. coli isolated from cloacal contents of canary, this hypothesis expressed that the canaries may be the carriers of virulence genes that can risk human health. Canary was considered to be a reservoir of Stx and intimin genes and make these birds important vehicles for the spread of zoonosis infection. © The Author(s) 2012.

  15. Fractionation of hairless canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) into starch, protein, and oil. (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann; Gray, Danielle


    Canary seed is an important specialty crop in Canada. The current market for this true cereal (i.e., belonging to the family Poaceae as wheat) is limited to feed for caged birds. However, canary seed holds a promise for many food and industrial applications based on its composition. Three wet milling procedures based on ethanol (E), water (W), and alkaline (A) extractions used in different order were investigated to determine extraction efficiency and purity of starch, protein, oil, and fiber separated from hairless canary seed, a variety developed for human consumption. Highest extraction efficiencies were obtained when canary seed was defatted with ethanol and then extracted with alkali and water (EAW process). Using this process, approximately 92% pure starch, 75% pure protein, and oil were recovered from canary seed groats. The highest purity of protein, however, was obtained when canary seed was fractionated by the EWA process, that is, defatted and then extracted with water followed by alkali. Fiber component separated prior to alkaline extraction contained high amounts of nonfiber components as indicated by its yield. The EAW extraction process seems to be more promising in canary seed fractionation based on recovery and purity of components.

  16. Maternal effects and beta-carotene assimilation in Canary chicks. (United States)

    Tanvez, Aurélie; Amy, Mathieu; Chastel, Olivier; Leboucher, Gérard


    Carotenoids are pigments responsible for the red, orange and yellow coloration of plants and animals. They may be beneficial in two ways; they have a powerful antioxidant activity, and they can behave as an immunostimulant. Animals however cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo, they must obtain them through their diet. In our experiments on Canaries, we investigated how mothers transfer their dietary carotenoid-related benefits to their offspring; either through the egg, or through the diet (during chicks' feeding). Female Canaries were allowed to access beta-carotene enriched food during egg formation and/or chicks' feeding. We sorted the chicks into four groups using the period when they assimilated the beta-carotene as a variable. The four groups were: (i) before hatching (from yolk), (ii) after hatching (from maternal feeding), (iii) before and after hatching, or (iv) never. Colorimetry and HPLC analysis from sub-samples of yolks confirmed the maternal transfer of dietary carotenoids to the yolk. Our results show that benefits from maternal dietary carotenoids are transferred to the chicks, but according to the period when they are assimilated by the chicks, the physiological effects are different. It was found that the chicks' growth was enhanced when carotenoids were assimilated both before and after hatching. However an increase in cellular immunity efficiency only occurs when the assimilation takes place after hatching.

  17. CO2 - The Canary in the Energy Efficiency Coal Mine (United States)

    Somssich, Peter


    While much of the discussion surrounding CO2 is focused on its role as a GHG (green house gas) and its affect on Climate Change, CO2 can also be viewed as an indicator for reductions in fossil fuel use and increased energy efficiency. Much as the canary in a mine was used to warn miners of unsafe health conditions in a mine, CO2 can be seen as allowing us to effectively track progress towards energy efficiency and sustainability. Such an effort can best be achieved by either a Carbon Tax or a Cap and Trade system which was highly effective as part of the 1992 Clean Air Act, contributing to a significant reduction of SO2 and acid rain. A similar attempt has been made using the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to reduce carbon emissions. The mechanisms of how this treaty was intended to work will be explained, and examples will be given, both in the USA and Europe, of how the protocol was used to reduce energy consumption and energy dependence, while also reducing CO2 emissions. Regardless of how strong an impact CO2 reduction may have for Climate Change issues, a reduction of CO2 is guaranteed to produce energy benefits, monetary benefits and can even enhance national security. For all of these reasons, we need the CO2 canary.

  18. Evidence of a modern deep water magmatic hydrothermal system in the Canary Basin (eastern central Atlantic Ocean) (United States)

    Medialdea, T.; Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Vázquez, J. T.; de Ignacio, C.; Sumino, H.; Sánchez-Guillamón, O.; Orihashi, Y.; León, R.; Palomino, D.


    New seismic profiles, bathymetric data, and sediment-rock sampling document for the first time the discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes and volcanic cones at 4800-5200 m depth related to recent volcanic and intrusive activity in an unexplored area of the Canary Basin (Eastern Atlantic Ocean, 500 km west of the Canary Islands). A complex of sill intrusions is imaged on seismic profiles showing saucer-shaped, parallel, or inclined geometries. Three main types of structures are related to these intrusions. Type I consists of cone-shaped depressions developed above inclined sills interpreted as hydrothermal vents. Type II is the most abundant and is represented by isolated or clustered hydrothermal domes bounded by faults rooted at the tips of saucer-shaped sills. Domes are interpreted as seabed expressions of reservoirs of CH4 and CO2-rich fluids formed by degassing and contact metamorphism of organic-rich sediments around sill intrusions. Type III are hydrothermal-volcanic complexes originated above stratified or branched inclined sills connected by a chimney to the seabed volcanic edifice. Parallel sills sourced from the magmatic chimney formed also domes surrounding the volcanic cones. Core and dredges revealed that these volcanoes, which must be among the deepest in the world, are constituted by OIB-type, basanites with an outer ring of blue-green hydrothermal Al-rich smectite muds. Magmatic activity is dated, based on lava samples, at 0.78 ± 0.05 and 1.61 ± 0.09 Ma (K/Ar methods) and on tephra layers within cores at 25-237 ky. The Subvent hydrothermal-volcanic complex constitutes the first modern system reported in deep water oceanic basins related to intraplate hotspot activity.Plain Language SummarySubmarine volcanism and associated hydrothermal systems are relevant processes for the evolution of the ocean basins, due their impact on the geochemistry of the oceans, their potential to form significant ore deposits, and their implications for global climate

  19. Genetic variability of Lizard canary breed inferred from pedigree analysis. (United States)

    Cecchi, Francesca; Ciampolini, Roberta; Giacalone, Gianluca; Paci, Gisella


    The genealogical data of 471 (whole population: WP) Lizard canaries of an Italian breeder were analyzed to evaluate the genetic variability of the breed. The reference population (RP) comprised 346 living reproductive birds. Average generation interval was 1.61 ± 0.718 for males and 1.72 ± 0.863 for females. The average value of inbreeding (F) and relatedness (AR) in the RP were 15.83% and 22.63%, while the average increase in inbreeding was estimated to be 6.71% per generation (effective population size = 7.49). The results showed the need to reduce the level of inbreeding which would result in significant loss of genetic variation and in significant inbreeding depression. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Fish larvae from the Canary region in autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available In this paper, the taxonomic composition of the fish larvae community in the Canary region in autumn 1991 is presented. In total, 8699 larvae belonging to 58 fish families were studied. 176 taxonomic groups were identified, 149 at species level and the rest were identified at a higher level. The most numerous family and the one that presented the greatest number of species was Myctophidae. The most frequently caught species was Cyclothone braueri. The taxonomic composition (at family level of the fish larvae community, dominated by four mesopelagic families, was typical of oceanic regions of warm waters. The most remarkable feature of the fish larvae community was its high specific diversity.

  1. Vertical distribution of fish larvae in the Canaries-African coastal transition zone, in summer


    J. M. Rodríguez; Hernández León, Santiago; Barton, Eric D


    This study reports the vertical distribution of fish larvae during the 1999 summer upwelling season in the Canaries-African Coastal Transition Zone (the Canaries-ACTZ). The transition between the African coastal upwelling and the typical subtropical offshore conditions is a region of intense mesoscale activity that supports a larval fish population dominated by African neritic species. During the study, the thermal stratification extended almost to the surface everywhere, and the surface mixe...

  2. Labile carbon pools and biological activity in volcanic soils of the Canary Islands Fracciones de carbono orgánico lábil y actividad biológica en suelos de origen volcánico de las Islas Canarias Frações de carbono orgânico lábil e actividade biológica em solos de origem vulcânica das Ilhas Canárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia María Armas Herrera


    Full Text Available It is important to assess the mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC to predict the short-term response of biosphere carbon reservoirs to changing environmental conditions. We investigated the labile (easily-mineralisable SOC in volcanic soils, where the bioavailability of SOC is typically affected by physico-chemical stabilisation mechanisms that are characteristic of these soils. Ten soils were selected that represent the most typical soil types (mainly Andosols and natural habitats (xerophytic scrubland, laurel forest and pine forest in the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago. Over two years we measured several physico-chemical SOC fractions with different degrees of bioavailability: water-soluble carbon in fresh soil samples (WSC and in the saturated extract (WSCse, hot water-extractable carbon (HWC, potassium sulphate-extractable carbon (PSC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, particulate organic carbon (POC, humic substances carbon (HSC, and total organic carbon (TOC, and performed CO2 emission incubation assays. We related these measurements to the potential C inputs of plant litter and roots and to the activity of certain hydrolytic enzymes (CM-cellulase, ?-D-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase that are involved in carbon turnover. In vitro carbon mineralisation measurements from short assays (ten days were fitted with simple first-order kinetics to investigate SOC. This procedure was simple and allowed us to obtain estimates both for potentially mineralisable SOC and for the heterogeneity of the substrates that were consumed during incubation. The investigated volcanic soils had large labile SOC concentrations in which simple carbohydrates predominated and that were mainly derived from roots and aboveground non-woody residues. Among the analysed physico-chemical SOC fractions, HWC (3.1 g kg-1 on average at 0-30 cm depth in Andosols was the most correlated with C0 (1.2 g kg-1 and therefore best represents potentially mineralisable SOC. PSC

  3. Pilot Study of the Canary System Use in the Diagnosis of Approximal Carious Lesions in Primary Molars. (United States)

    Herzog, Karin; D'Elia, Mindi; Kim, Amy; Slayton, Rebecca L


    This study assessed the feasibility and ease of use of the Canary System in approximal carious lesion detection in primary molars. Forty healthy five- to 12-year-olds, who presented to the Center for Pediatric Dentistry in Seattle, Wash., U.S.A., for initial or recall exams, were enrolled. Participants had one to two primary molars, with or without approximal radiographic radiolucencies. Four Canary System scans were performed at the approximal area of each study tooth. The maximum Canary number of the four scans was compared to bitewing radiographs. Seventy-five teeth were included in the final analysis. All study patients easily tolerated being scanned with the Canary System. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Canary System, when compared to bitewing radiographs, was 81 percent and 35 percent, respectively. Among teeth without radiographic radiolucencies, the Canary System identified 65 percent (31 of 48) of study teeth as having carious lesions. The Canary System is a safe approximal caries detection device in five- to 12-year-olds. When compared to bitewing radiographs, the specificity of the Canary System for approximal carious lesion detection in primary molars was low. However, this could indicate that the Canary System is detecting lesions earlier than radiographs.

  4. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to DDT by Breast Milk Analysis in Canary Islands


    Oriol Vall; Mario Gomez-Culebras; Carme Puig; Ernesto Rodriguez-Carrasco; Arelis Gomez Baltazar; Lizzeth Canchucaja; Xavier Joya; Oscar Garcia-Algar


    Introduction The use of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the pr...

  5. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia


    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro experience we consider the objectivity of the Volcanic Activity Level a powerful tool to focus the discussions in a Scientific Committee on the activity forecast and on the expected scenarios, rather than on the multiple explanations of the data fluctuations, which is one of the main sources of conflict in the Scientific Committee discussions. Although the Volcanic Alert System was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the involved methodologies may be applied to other situations of unrest.

  6. Anchialine fauna of the Corona lava tunnel (Lanzarote,Canary Islands): diversity, endemism and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Alexandro; Palmero, A M; Brito, M C


    A checklist of 77 taxa recorded from the anchialine sections of the Corona lava tube is provided, including information on habitats, faunal distribution within the cave, and main references. Of the nine major groups recorded, Crustacea shows the highest diversity with 31 species and the highest d...

  7. Retrospective Study of Etiologic Agents Associated with Nonsuppurative Meningoencephalitis in Stranded Cetaceans in the Canary Islands (United States)

    Sánchez, Susan; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Arbelo, Manuel; Zucca, Daniele; Fernández, Antonio


    Nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. Histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. A PCR assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, West Nile virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on selected tissues to determine the presence of morbilliviral antigens. Six animals (5 striped dolphins and 1 common dolphin) showed IHC and/or molecular evidence of morbilliviral antigens and/or genomes, mainly in brain tissue. Conventional nested PCR detected herpesviral DNA in brain tissue samples from two striped dolphins. There was no evidence of West Nile virus, T. gondii, or Brucella spp. in any of the brain tissue samples examined. The information presented here increases the number of confirmed morbillivirus-positive cases within the Canarian archipelago from two previously reported cases to eight. Furthermore, a new nested-PCR method for the detection of morbillivirus is described here. Regarding herpesvirus, the phylogenetic analysis performed in the current study provides valuable information about a possible pathogenic branch of cetacean alphaherpesviruses that might be responsible for some fatal cases worldwide. PMID:24759718

  8. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Teide volcano (Canary Islands: a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Torta


    Full Text Available To contribute to our understanding of the structure of the Teide volcano, a detailed aeromagnetic survey was carried out covering the area of Las Cañadas caldera and the Teide-Pico Viejo complex. Taking into account the rugged relief of the area (altitude ranges from sea level to almost 4000 m, a terrain correction has been applied. As a first approximation, the topography has been characterized by a uniform magnetization of 5 Am-1 (based on field and laboratory rock magnetic data. Several enhancement techniques have been applied to the residual map (original map minus topographic effect, such as reduction to the pole, pseudogravity integration and upward continuation. In the reduced-to-the-pole map the large positive anomaly that appears centered to the north of Pico Viejo is noteworthy and could be caused by a basaltic intrusion responsible for the last eruptions in this area. Also, a small magnetic low appears over Teide peak, which should be related to slightly-magnetized shallow phonolitic materials. The main tectonic direction of Tenerife, SW-NE, is also clearly reflected on the magnetic anomaly map. The comparison between the pseudogravity and the Bouguer anomaly maps indicates a good correlation between magnetic and gravimetric sources.

  9. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, J.; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, B.; Pecková, Hana


    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2011), 225-231 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neoparamoeba * Diadema aff. antillarum * SSU rDNA phylogeny * Tenerife Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2011

  10. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.


    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.

  11. The challenges of the Canary Islands' wine sector and its implications: A longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Duarte Alonso


    Full Text Available Noticias y reportajes reconocen los retos a los que las regiones vinícolas españolas se enfrentan, incluyendo las Islas Canarias, donde las denominaciones de origen (DO existen desde hace menos de dos décadas. El presente estudio es una extensión de una investigación previa conducida en la industria vinícola de las islas, y profundiza en los hechos que están ocurriendo en el sector vitivinícola isleño. Dueños, enólogos y gerentes de 55 bodegas de seis islas que producen vinos participaron en entrevistas cara a cara y telefónicas. El sentimiento general entre los participantes es de seria preocupación, y los problemas actuales no parecen tener soluciones a corto plazo. El estudio presenta las posibles repercusiones de losresultados del estudio, incluyendo aquellos pertinentes al futuro del sector vitivinícola local, su cultura vinícola y tradición.

  12. Dietary Intake of Metals from Fresh Cage-Reared Hens’ Eggs in Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rubio


    Full Text Available The concentrations of 20 metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, Co, B, Ba, Sr, Ni, Si, Al, Pb, and Cd in cage-reared hens’ eggs have been determined in this study using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. There were significant differences in the metal content depending on the edible part of the egg, with the yolk having the greater concentrations of metals. The daily consumption of eggs (24.3 g/person/day for children and 31.2 g/person/day for adults contributes to the intake of trace metals, notably Fe (3.8% children, 3.2% women, and 6.5% men and Zn (4.5% children, 6.6% women, and 4.9% men. In addition, the consumption of eggs does not imply a high contribution of toxic metals.

  13. Radon and helium in soil gases at Cañadas caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain (United States)

    Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio; Salazar, José; Reimer, Mike; Notsu, Kenji; Wakita, Hiroshi


    The spatial distribution of soil radon was investigated at Cañadas caldera, Tenerife, in two surveys carried out in the summers of 1992 and 1995 by using α-particle-sensitive cellulose nitrate films (Track-Etch) and emanometry, respectively. Soil helium was studied at several transects crossing different structural features of the area. Radon concentration measured by Track-Etch ranged from 1.0 to 1990 pCi/l while that measured by emanometry ranged from 0.1 to 618 pCi/l. Soil helium concentration varied from 5250 to 15 560 ppb with an average value of 6197 ppb. The spatial distribution of soil radon correlates quite closely with structural features (fractures, emission centers, etc.), where the main geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, steam ground and high subsurface temperature and gas contents) also occur. Areas showing high soil Rn concentrations occur at the summit of Teide, Roques de Garcı´a, caldera rim and south and east off side of the caldera. High soil helium anomalies correlate well spatially with those of radon, especially at the summit of Teide where relatively high 3He/ 4He isotopic ratios occur, suggesting a deep contribution for these emanations. Data indicate that radon and helium are supplied mostly from a deep source, with a minor contribution from U- and Th-rich shallow rocks and soils.

  14. First report of southern Tomato virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Espino, A.; Botella, M.; Alfaro-Fernández, A.; Font, M.I.


    In October 2006, tomato plants with torrado disease were sampled in Spain. In a sample of cv. Mariana, originating from Gran Canaria, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV, genus Torradovirus) was detected (isolate GCN06; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010). In 2013, the sample was further analysed using

  15. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species


    Verloove, F.


    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  16. Indications for solar influence on radon signal in the subsurface of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Steinitz, G.; Martin-Luis, M. C.; Piatibratova, O.


    Radon at two locations in Tenerife is investigated. The MM-0 site is located in a bunker near Teide volcano. Daily radon (DR) signals are dominated by a 12-hour (S2) periodicity. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of day-time and night-time series results in a day-night differentiation, which does not occur in the coeval temperature and pressure. This indicates that the radon system is directly affected by rotation of Earth around its axis, and not via the pressure and/or temperature pattern. San Fernando sites are in an underground gallery, located at 2.1 and 3 km from the entrance. Alpha and gamma time series show DR signals having an S1 and a strong S2 periodicity. Sidebands occur around the S1 periodicity. The lower sideband is close to 0.9972696 cycles per day (CPD; = sidereal frequency) and the upper sideband at a symmetric frequency above. They reflect a driver containing two waveforms having periodicities of rotation of Earth around its axis and around the Sun that influences radon in a non-linear fashion, leading to the sidebands around the S1 periodicity. Observation in Tenerife of sidebands and day-night phenomena substantiates the notion that the periodic components in the diurnal and annual frequency band of radon time series are due to the influence of a component in solar radiation.

  17. Spatial Tourist and Functional Diversity on the Volcanic Island of Gran Canaria (United States)

    Gonda-Soroczyńska, Eleonora; Olczyk, Hanna


    The conducted research is focused on spatial, functional and landscape diversity, the existing tourist potential and the possibilities for further development of a small, volcanic island of Gran Canaria. The discussed island was compared against other islands of the Canarian archipelago (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Tenerife, La Palma, El Hierro). Similarly to the remaining Canary Islands, the economy of Gran Canaria is predominantly based on tourism (approx. 4,5-5,0 million tourists visit the Canary Island annually and approx. 2,8 million come to Gran Canaria). Additionally, Puerto de la Luz transhipment centre in Las Palmas plays a very important role because of the goods imported from overseas. It is one of the largest ports in Spain (it reloads almost 2 million containers per year) also being an important Atlantic refuelling station. Apart from tourism, an important role is played here by agriculture, primarily the cultivation of bananas and tomatoes, which represent the most significant export good of the archipelago. The conducted spatial research showed an extensive diversity. This situation is, to a great extent, influenced by the climate. The northern part is cooler and dominated by agriculture, whereas the southern one is much warmer and characterized by a well-developed tourism infrastructure. Site inspections performed out along the outer contour of the island resembling a circle. Numerous architectural and urban sketches, urban analyses and photographic documentation were made. Community surveys were carried out. For a researcher, it was extremely interesting to answer the questions whether Gran Canaria is different from the other Canary Islands, especially in the functional and landscape context, and if so what exactly these differences consist of. What is Gran Canaria in particular characterized by and what kind of role it plays in the economic sector of Spain?

  18. On the Confession of a Canary Bird, Children on a Holiday Camp, and the Apology for Fleas Planned by Janusz Korczak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zgrzywa


    Full Text Available The point of departure for this article is the memory of moving fragments of Janusz Korczak’s journal from Warsaw ghetto. The author confronts the fragments with Korczak’s earlier texts, such as the short storied about holiday camps for Polish and Jewish children, and the novel Król Maciuś na bezludnej wyspie [King Maciuś on a Desert Island]. The image of a canary bird, used in the novel, is confronted with other symbolic stories about this bird, such as the story in Wiesław Myśliwski’s Pałac [Palace]. With reference to the image, the article invokes Korczak’s meditations on identity and tolerance, and human ethical and aesthetic choices. The audacity of Korczak’s thoughts and conclusions goes far beyond his time, and seems perfectly fit for ours.

  19. Determination of age and growth of the striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus (Sparidae, in the Canary archipelago by otolith readings and backcalculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Pajuelo


    Full Text Available The age and growth of the striped seabream Lithognathus mormyrus caught off the Canary Islands (central-east Atlantic from January to December 1999 were studied. A total of 496 individuals, ranging in size between 113 and 350 mm total length, were examined. Otoliths clearly showed the ring pattern common to teleost fishes. One year´s growth was made up of one opaque and one translucent ring. The opaque ring was deposited during the summer months and the translucent one during the winter months. Fish aged 0-8 years old were found. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for all fish were: L?=427 mm, k=0.19 year-1, and t0=1.46 year. The otolith readings for estimating age and growth were confirmed by using the backcalculation method.

  20. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet


    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  1. Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria). (United States)

    Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry


    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness.

  2. Accumulating pollutants in conifer needles on an Atlantic island - A case study with Pinus canariensis on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, Michael [School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick, Victoria 3363 (Australia); Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria)]. E-mail:; Trummer, Walter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Goessler, Walter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Chemie, Analytische Chemie, Universitaetsplatz 1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Wonisch, Astrid [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Grill, Dieter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Naumann, Simone [Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH), Institut fuer Geographie und Geooekologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, Geb. 10.50, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jimenez, Maria Soledad [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Fisiologia Vegetal, E-38207 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Morales, Domingo [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Fisiologia Vegetal, E-38207 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)


    Concentrations of potential pollutant elements Na, Cl, and S were investigated in needles of Pinus canariensis grown at 55 field plots in Tenerife. Microelement concentrations (including heavy metals) were measured at a subset of 18 plots. Na and Cl concentrations were high at low elevations (up to 8 mg g{sup -1} Cl and 5.5 mg g{sup -1} Na). Na/Cl ratio close to standard seawater indicated sea spray influence up to 1200 m a.s.l. Only at few plots, sulphur concentrations indicated possible pollutant impact. Cluster and correlation analyses identified a related group of V, As, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Al, possibly related to traffic exhaust aggregated with soil particles. Mainly north-eastern, lower elevated plots were exposed to those immissions, but metal concentrations were generally low compared to data from other studies. In conclusion, seawater and soil particles explained most of the element distribution pattern in pine needles in Tenerife, but strong indications for some effect of local sources of air pollutants were detected. - Pollutant concentrations in pine needles indicate moderate local impact of sulphur, particulate matter, and sea sprays at lower elevation plots in Tenerife.

  3. Acoustic Tomography in the Canary Basin: Meddies and Tides (United States)

    Dushaw, Brian D.; Gaillard, Fabienne; Terre, Thierry


    An acoustic propagation experiment over 308 km range conducted in the Canary Basin in 1997-1998 was used to assess the ability of ocean acoustic tomography to measure the flux of Mediterranean water and Meddies. Instruments on a mooring adjacent to the acoustic path measured the southwestward passage of a strong Meddy in temperature, salinity, and current. Over 9 months of transmissions, the acoustic arrival pattern was an initial broad stochastic pulse varying in duration by 250-500 ms, followed eight stable, identified-ray arrivals. Small-scale sound speed fluctuations from Mediterranean water parcels littered around the sound channel axis caused acoustic scattering. Internal waves contributed more modest acoustic scattering. Based on simulations, the main effect of a Meddy passing across the acoustic path is the formation of many early-arriving, near-axis rays, but these rays are thoroughly scattered by the small-scale Mediterranean-water fluctuations. A Meddy decreases the deep-turning ray travel times by 10-30 ms. The dominant acoustic signature of a Meddy is therefore the expansion of the width of the initial stochastic pulse. While this signature appears inseparable from the other effects of Mediterranean water in this region, the acoustic time series indicates the steady passage of Mediterranean water across the acoustic path. Tidal variations caused by the mode-1 internal tides were measured by the acoustic travel times. The observed internal tides were partly predicted using a recent global model for such tides derived from satellite altimetry.

  4. Paleogenetic Analyses Reveal Unsuspected Phylogenetic Affinities between Mice and the Extinct Malpaisomys insularis, an Endemic Rodent of the Canaries (United States)

    Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Hughes, Sandrine; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Hutterer, Rainer; Rando, Juan Carlos; Michaux, Jacques; Hänni, Catherine


    Background The lava mouse, Malpaisomys insularis, was endemic to the Eastern Canary islands and became extinct at the beginning of the 14th century when the Europeans reached the archipelago. Studies to determine Malpaisomys' phylogenetic affinities, based on morphological characters, remained inconclusive because morphological changes experienced by this insular rodent make phylogenetic investigations a real challenge. Over 20 years since its first description, Malpaisomys' phylogenetic position remains enigmatic. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we resolved this issue using molecular characters. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were successfully amplified from subfossils of three lava mouse samples. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions revealed, without any ambiguity, unsuspected relationships between Malpaisomys and extant mice (genus Mus, Murinae). Moreover, through molecular dating we estimated the origin of the Malpaisomys/mouse clade at 6.9 Ma, corresponding to the maximal age at which the archipelago was colonised by the Malpaisomys ancestor via natural rafting. Conclusion/Significance This study reconsiders the derived morphological characters of Malpaisomys in light of this unexpected molecular finding. To reconcile molecular and morphological data, we propose to consider Malpaisomys insularis as an insular lineage of mouse. PMID:22363563

  5. Sex-linked inheritance of hearing and song in the Belgian Waterslager canary. (United States)

    Wright, Timothy F; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J; Mundinger, Paul C


    Belgian Waterslager canaries have less sensitive hearing at high frequencies and produce songs with more energy at low frequencies than wild-type canaries. A backcross pedigree between Belgian Waterslager canaries and a domestic strain with wild-type song revealed inheritance patterns consistent with a factor of major effect located on the Z sex chromosome affecting both poor high-frequency hearing at 4 kHz and the relative energy in the spectra of the learned songs of males. Hearing thresholds at 4 kHz were significant predictors of the relative amount of song energy at 4 kHz for individual males. One hypothesis for the mechanistic basis of this correlation between hearing and song abnormalities is that a reduction in the ability to hear higher-frequency songs biases males towards learning lower-frequency songs.

  6. Repertoire sharing and auditory responses in the HVC of the canary. (United States)

    Lehongre, Katia; Del Negro, Catherine


    In songbirds, auditory neurons of the nucleus HVC respond selectively to a particular complex sound, the bird's own song (BOS). In the canary, this song selectivity did not exclude responses to conspecific songs. Here, we recorded single units in nucleus HVC of adult canaries to assess to what extent repertoire sharing among birds contributed to auditory responsiveness to birds' songs other than the BOS. Results indicated that song phrases driving auditory responses could differ from bird's own phrases suggesting that a subset of neurons were not strictly tuned to acoustic features of self-generated song components. In the canary, auditory representation of the BOSs might be more complex than that which has been described for birds with a small repertoire.

  7. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.


    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  8. Novel avian bornavirus in a nonpsittacine species (Canary; Serinus canaria) with enteric ganglioneuritis and encephalitis. (United States)

    Weissenböck, Herbert; Sekulin, Karin; Bakonyi, Tamás; Högler, Sandra; Nowotny, Norbert


    A canary bird (Serinus canaria) died with nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis of the proventriculus and gizzard and encephalitis, lesions comparable to proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) of psittacine birds. Recently, several genotypes of a novel avian bornavirus have been linked to PDD. In the canary, bornaviral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in both neural and extraneural tissues. The widespread viral dissemination was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed a unique genotype of avian bornavirus. This observation suggests that bornaviruses are natural pathogens of several avian species and that the family Bornaviridae comprises more viral genotypes (or viral species) than previously assumed.

  9. Yolk testosterone, postnatal growth and song in male canaries. (United States)

    Müller, Wendt; Vergauwen, Jonas; Eens, Marcel


    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal yolk androgens, which have been shown to modulate offspring phenotype. The first studies on the functional consequences of maternal yolk androgens have focused on early life stages and their role in sibling competition. However, recent longitudinal studies reported long-lasting effects of maternal yolk androgens on offspring phenotype, mostly concerning traits that are sensitive to androgens. This suggests that maternal yolk androgens could play an important role in sexual selection, since the expression of many male sexual characters is testosterone-dependent. Using male canaries as a model, we examined the consequences of an experimental elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations on early development as well as long-lasting effects particularly on song, which is one of the most important sexual characters in male songbirds. Elevated yolk testosterone concentrations inhibited male growth, possibly in interaction with an existent ectoparasite exposure. Males hatched from testosterone-treated eggs (T-males) did not have enhanced competitive skills, in contrast to previous studies. The elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations delayed song development but did not affect adult song phenotype. This is intriguing, as yolk testosterone possibly induced developmental stress, which is known to reduce song quality. We hypothesize that yolk testosterone has either no direct effect on adult song phenotype, or that positive effects are merged by the negative effects of developmental stress. Finally, females mated with T-males invested more in their clutch indicating that females either assess T-males as more attractive (differential allocation hypothesis) or compensated for lower offspring viability (compensation hypothesis).

  10. Parakeets, canaries, finches, parrots and lung cancer: no association. (United States)

    Morabia, A.; Stellman, S.; Lumey, L. H.; Wynder, E. L.


    The relationship between pet bird keeping and lung cancer according to exposure to tobacco smoking was investigated in a case-control study in hospitals of New York City and Washington, DC, USA. Newly diagnosed lung cancer cases (n = 887) aged 40-79 years were compared with 1350 controls with diseases not related to smoking, of the same age, gender and date of admission as the cases. The prevalence of pet bird keeping was 12.5% in men and 19.1% in women. There was no association between ever keeping a pet bird and lung cancer in never smokers (men adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-3.17; women, 1.32, 95% CI 0.65-2.70), or in smokers and non-smokers combined, after adjustment for ever smoking (men: 1.28, 95% CI 0.88-1.86; women: 1.17, 95% CI 0.83-1.64; all: 1.21, 95% CI 0.95-1.56). Risk did not increase in relation to duration of pet bird keeping. Cases and controls kept similar types of birds. There was a tenfold increase of lung cancer risk associated with smoking among non-bird keepers (adjusted OR = 9.15). There was no indication of a synergism, either additive or multiplicative, between smoking and pet bird keeping with respect to lung cancer risk. Either alone or in conjunction with smoking, keeping parakeets, canaries, finches or parrots is not a risk factor for lung cancer among hospital patients in New York and in Washington, DC. PMID:9472651

  11. The conditions for use of reed canary grass briquettes and chopped reed canary grass in small heating plants; Foerutsaettningar foer anvaendning av roerflensbriketter och hackad roerflen i mindre vaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Davidsson, Kent; Holmgren, Magnus A. (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)); Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Rikard; Leffler, Joel (ETC, Piteaa (Sweden))


    The aim of this study was to test fuel blends of briquettes and chopped reed canary grass in three existing heating plants (50 kW - 500 kW) and elucidate the requirements for good performance and low emissions. In addition, the study investigated production of reed canary grass briquettes using a Polish screw press developed for straw. Some tests with a bale shredder were also undertaken. The screw press technique is of interest for reed canary grass because it is a simple technique, easy to handle, developed for small scale production, and for straw. The test with reed canary grass in this study showed that the technique worked well but that further adjustments and a longer test period are needed in order to achieve higher bulk density and mechanical strength. The test with chopped reed canary grass shows that a system with a forage harvester is slightly more effective than baling and cutting in a bale shredder. The study concluded that few existing heating plants of size 50 kW-1 MW that currently use wood fuels will be able to use reed canary grass without adjustment, conversion or replacement of the combustion equipment. Reed canary grass has 15-20 times higher ash content than wood briquettes and 2-3 times higher ash content than forest residue; the combustion equipment must be able to handle these properties. The boiler must be equipped with a continuously operating ashing system and it must be possible to move the ash bed mechanically. There is a risk of high content of unburned matter if the residence time in the boiler is too short, due to the structure and low bulk density of the reed canary grass ash. Using a blend of wood briquettes and reed canary briquettes results in lower ash content, but also affects the ash chemistry and tends to lower the initial ash fusion temperature compared to using 100 % reed canary grass. Blending chopped reed canary grass and wood chips in an existing small scale heating plant also requires measures to achieve an even fuel

  12. The Miner's Canary: A Critical Race Perspective on the Representation of Black Women Full Professors (United States)

    Croom, Natasha; Patton, Lori


    This article examines experiences of a Black woman full professor, and the benefits and privileges associated with reaching this rank. Its purpose is to leave little room for conjecture about the rank and those who have earned it. Using critical race theory and a critical race feminism framework coupled with the concept of the miner's canary, we…

  13. Influence of social conditions in song sharing in the adult canary. (United States)

    Lehongre, Katia; Aubin, Thierry; Del Negro, Catherine


    In songbirds, experience of social and environmental cues during a discrete period after birth may dramatically influence song learning. In the canary, the ability to learn new songs is assumed to persist throughout life. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether social context could guide changes in adult song. Three groups of canaries were kept in different social and temporal conditions. Results showed that the multiple hierarchical levels of the canary song structure were affected by social environment: songs of males housed together for 2 years were more similar than those of males that spent the same time in individual cages in regard to acoustic parameters, syllable repertoire and repertoire of sequences of two-syllable types. However, social housing did not result in the emergence of a group-specific vocal signature within songs. In conclusion, these results suggested that under the influence of social factors, a copying process could allow adult canaries to adjust, at least in part, their songs to those of other individuals.

  14. Age and sex dimorphism in the Canary Blue Tit Cyanistes teneriffae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 100% correctly classified) but for practical sexing in the field it is recommended to use wing length as a reliable sexing criterion (wing length >62.5 = male, 96% correctly classified). This high degree of sexual size dimorphism observed suggests a high sexual selection in the Canary Blue Tit. OSTRICH 2010, 81(1): 51–57 ...

  15. Capture of the Canary mantle plume material by the Gibraltar arc mantle wedge during slab rollback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mériaux, C.A.; Duarte, João C.; Duarte, S.S.; Schellart, W. P.; Chen, Z; Rosas, F.; Mata, J.; Terrinha, P.


    Recent evidence suggests that a portion of the Canary plume travelled northeastwards below the lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa towards the Alboran domain and was captured-10 Ma ago by the Gibraltar subduction system in the Western Mediterranean. The capture would have been

  16. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from canaries (Serinus canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben V. Horn


    Full Text Available Abstract: The Enterobacteriaceae family contains potentially zoonotic bacteria, and their presence in canaries is often reported, though the current status of these in bird flocks is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the most common genera of enterobacteria from canaries (Serinus canaria and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. From February to June of 2013, a total of 387 cloacal swab samples from eight domiciliary breeding locations of Fortaleza city, Brazil, were collected and 58 necropsies were performed in canaries, which belonged to the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies. The samples were submitted to microbiological procedure using buffered peptone water and MacConkey agar. Colonies were selected according to their morphological characteristics on selective agar and submitted for biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 61 isolates were obtained, of which 42 were from cloacal swabs and 19 from necropsies. The most isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli with twenty five strains, followed by fourteen Klebsiellaspp., twelve Enterobacterspp., seven Pantoea agglomerans, two Serratiaspp. and one Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial to which the strains presented most resistance was sulfonamides with 55.7%, followed by ampicillin with 54.1% and tetracycline with 39.3%. The total of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR was 34 (55.7%. In conclusion, canaries harbor members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and common strains present a high antimicrobial resistance rate, with a high frequency of MDR bacteria.

  17. "Canary in a coal mine" : monitoring air quality and detecting environmental incidents by harvesting Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.; Mast, P.; Tromp, M.; Winterboer, A.; Evers, V.


    We present an application that facilitates environmental monitoring by and for the general public. 'Canary in a Coal Mine' (CIACM) gathers and analyses pollution-related tweets in real-time from the micro-blogging platform Twitter and visualizes temporal and spatial characteristics of the data.

  18. Pacific Island Polygons, Pacific Islands, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Islands for the United States. The Islands layer contains all islands within a NAVSTREETS coverage area. An island is represented as a polygonal feature. The...

  19. Reconstructing Holocene vegetation on the island of Gran Canaria before and after human colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nascimento, Lea; Nogué, Sandra; Criado, Constantino


    We provide the first fossil pollen and charcoal analysis from the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). The pollen record obtained from Laguna de Valleseco (870 m a.s.l.) spans the late Holocene (c. 4500–1500 cal. yr BP) and thereby captures the impact of human colonization. During the earliest......, 400 years before the earliest archaeological evidence of human presence in the island (c. 1900 cal. yr BP). Our data show an increased frequency of fires at that time, coinciding with the decline of palms and the increase of grasses, indicating that humans were present and were transforming vegetation......, thus showing that the demise of Gran Canaria’s forest began at an early point in the prehistoric occupation of the island. In the following centuries, there were no signs of forest recovery. Pollen from cultivated cereals became significant, implying the introduction of agriculture in the site, by 1800...

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a canary (Serinus canana L.) and a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona amazona aestiva). (United States)

    Hoop, Richard K


    I report two cases of mycobacteriosis in pet birds due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and discuss the zoonotic implications. The canary with a tuberculous knot in the lung is the first description of M. tuberculosis in a nonpsittacine bird species.

  1. Studi Gaya Vintage Pada Interior Cafe Di Surabaya. (Studi Kasus : Canary Cafe, DailySweet Cafe Dan Stilrod Cafe)


    Mariana Wibowo, Lia Monica Tejo


    Research studies is about the application of vintage style in some cafe in Surabaya aims to determine the application of vintage design styles contained in the interior of the cafe Carpentier Kitchen , Canary Cafe , Daily Sweet Cafe , and Stilroad Cafe . Research studies of vintage style design will be carried out in Surabaya with a case study that some cafe in Surabaya that meets the criteria of vintage design styles , including the Carpentier Kitchen , Canary Cafe , Daily Sweet Cafe , and S...

  2. Identification and characterization of uncoupling protein in heart and muscle mitochondria of canary birds. (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata B; Almsherqi, Zakaria Ali Moh; Sluse, Francis E; Navet, Rachel; Deng, Yuru


    An uncoupling protein (cUCP) was identified in heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria of canary birds. cUCP was immunodetected using polyclonal antibodies raised against murine UCP2. Its molecular mass was similar to those of mammalian UCPs (32 kDa). The activity of cUCP was stimulated by palmitic acid (PA) and inhibited by GTP mainly in state 3 respiration. Additions of PA augmented state 4 respiration and lowered the ADP/O ratio. Thus, the activity of cUCP diverted energy from oxidative phosphorylation in state 3 respiration. cUCP in heart and skeletal muscles of canary birds might have implications in thermogenesis as well as protection against free radical production.

  3. Toward a song code: evidence for a syllabic representation in the canary brain. (United States)

    Ribeiro, S; Cecchi, G A; Magnasco, M O; Mello, C V


    We show that presentation of individual canary song syllables results in distinct expression patterns of the immediate-early gene ZENK in the caudomedial neostriatum (NCM) of adult canaries. Information on the spatial distribution and labeling of stained cells provides for a classification of ZENK patterns that (1) accords to the organization of stimuli into families, (2) preserves the stimuli intrafamily relationships, and (3) confers salience to natural over artificial stimuli, resulting in a nonclassical tonotopic map. Moreover, complex syllable maps cannot be reduced to any linear combinations of simple syllable maps. These properties arise from the collective response of NCM neurons to auditory stimuli, rather than from the behavior of single neurons. The syllabic representation described here may constitute an important step toward deciphering the rules of birdsong auditory representation.

  4. Granulomatous myocarditis caused by Candida albicans in a canary (Serinus canaria). (United States)

    Marruchella, Giuseppe; Todisco, Gianluca; D'Arezzo, Silvia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Paglia, Maria Grazia


    Candida albicans is among the major agents of mucous membrane mycosis in humans and animals, with systemic and deep infections observed in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a case of fatal granulomatous myocarditis caused by C albicans in a 20-day-old canary (Serinus canaria). The etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by identifying characteristic morphologic features of the organism, combined with histochemical staining, and followed by the use of ad hoc biomolecular analysis.

  5. A customizable 3-dimensional digital atlas of the canary brain in multiple modalities. (United States)

    Vellema, Michiel; Verschueren, Jacob; Van Meir, Vincent; Van der Linden, Annemie


    Songbirds are well known for their ability to learn their vocalizations by imitating conspecific adults. This uncommon skill has led to many studies examining the behavioral and neurobiological processes involved in vocal learning. Canaries display a variable, seasonally dependent, vocal behavior throughout their lives. This trait makes this bird species particularly valuable to study the functional relationship between the continued plasticity in the singing behavior and alterations in the anatomy and physiology of the brain. In order to optimally interpret these types of studies, a detailed understanding of the brain anatomy is essential. Because traditional 2-dimensional brain atlases are limited in the information they can provide about the anatomy of the brain, here we present a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the canary brain. Using multiple imaging protocols we were able to maximize the number of detectable brain regions, including most of the areas involved in song perception, learning, and production. The brain atlas can readily be used to determine the stereotactic location of delineated brain areas at any desirable head angle. Alternatively the brain data can be used to determine the ideal orientation of the brain for stereotactic injections, electrophysiological recordings, and brain sectioning. The 3-dimensional canary brain atlas presented here is freely available and is easily adaptable to support many types of neurobiological studies, including anatomical, electrophysiological, histological, explant, and tracer studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Female signalling to male song in the domestic canary, Serinus canaria (United States)

    Amy, Mathieu; Salvin, Pauline; Naguib, Marc; Leboucher, Gerard


    Most studies on sexual selection focus on male characteristics such as male song in songbirds. Yet female vocalizations in songbirds are growing in interest among behavioural and evolutionary biologists because these vocalizations can reveal the female's preferences for male traits and may affect male display. This study was designed to test whether male song performance influences the different female signals in the domestic canary (Serinus canaria). Female canaries were exposed to three types of song performance, differing in the repetition rate of sexy syllables. This experiment demonstrates that female birds are engaged in multimodal communication during sexual interaction. The results support the copulation solicitation hypothesis for female-specific trills: these trills were positively correlated and had a similar pattern to the copulation solicitation displays; responses were higher to the songs with higher performance and responses decreased with the repetition of the stimulation. Also, we observed a sensitization effect with the repetition of the song of the highest performance for the simple calls. Simple trills and other calls were more frequent during the broadcast of canary songs compared with the heterospecific control songs. The differential use of female signals in response to different song performance reveals a highly differentiated female signalling system which is discussed in light of the role of female traits to understand sexual selection in a broader perspective. PMID:26064577

  7. Quantitative integration of genetic factors in the learning and production of canary song. (United States)

    Mundinger, Paul C; Lahti, David C


    Learned bird song is influenced by inherited predispositions. The canary is a model system for the interaction of genes and learning on behaviour, especially because some strains have undergone artificial selection for song. In this study, roller canaries (bred for low-pitched songs) and border canaries (whose song is higher pitched, similar to the wild-type) were interbred and backcrossed to produce 58 males that sorted into seven genetically distinct groups. All males were tutored with the same set of songs, which included both low- and high-pitched syllables. Individuals were consistent within genetic groups but differed between groups in the proportion of low- versus high-pitched syllables they learned and sang. Both sex-linked and autosomal factors affected song learning and song production, in an additive manner. Dominant Z-chromosome factors facilitated high-pitched syllable learning and production, whereas the sex-linked alleles associated with the switch to low-pitched syllables under artificial selection were largely recessive. With respect to autosomal effects, the most surprising result is that males in the same genetic group had almost identical repertoires. This result challenges two common preconceptions: that genetic changes at different loci lead to distinct phenotypic changes, and that genetic predispositions affect learning in simple and general ways. Rather, different combinations of genetic changes can be associated with the same phenotypic effect; and predispositions can be remarkably specific, such as a tendency to learn and sing one song element rather than another.

  8. Les formations marines et continentales intervolcaniques des îles Canaries orientales (Grande Canarie. Fuerteventura et Lanzarote: Stratigraphie et signiflcation paleoclimatique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meco, J.


    Full Text Available More than 20 m. y. of continuous activity in the Canary Islands have brought about the fossilization of marine fauna and soils which prove the existence of alternating warm and numid conditions of guinean origen, and also of drier influences from the Sahara, connected with the arrival of cold waters from the Lusitanian Sea. The sea deposits of the lower Pleistocene with Strombus coronatus and those of the upper Pleistocene with Strombus bubonius, which are caracteristically warm and the deposits of middle and upper Pleistoeene and of the Holocene, with various species of Patella and caracteristically cold (Meco, 1977, have already been related to volcanic activities dated by K/Ar (Meco y Steams, 1981 and are new being related to rapid effects of soil formation, the result of evaporation an clayey neoformation of volcanic materials which are constantly being renoved. The fairly rapid fossilization caused by volcanic activity, eliminates some of the effects accumulated over a period of time on the paleosoils, The existence of Saharian quartz, a mineral not found in volcanic products, and the simultaneous existence of more distant matters on the evolution of soilformation, like crusts which contain gypsum or attapulgyte of desert origin and bauxites containing nickel and tale of tropical, humid origin (Pomel, 1985, all this permit to find coherents conclusions.

    Más de 20 m. a. de actividad volcánica continuada ha permitido en las Canarias la fosilización de faunas marinas y suelos que testimonian una alternancia de condiciones cálidas y húmedas, de origen guineano, y de influencias secas, saharianas, relacionadas con aportes de aguas frescas de procedencia lusitana. Los depósitos marinos del Plioceno inferior con Strombus coronatus y los del Pleistoceno superior con Strombus bubonius, que revelan un carácter cálido, y los depósitos del Pleistoceno medio y superior y del Holoceno, con varias

  9. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.


    older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages. Further developments in Earth system science, molecular biology, and trait data for islands hold continued promise for unlocking many of the unresolved questions...

  10. A 3D joint interpretation of magnetotelluric and seismic tomographic models: The case of the volcanic island of Tenerife (United States)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ledo, Juanjo; Piña-Varas, Perla; Prudencio, Janire; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Ibañez, Jesús M.; Benjumea, Beatriz; Sánchez-Alzola, Alberto; Pérez, Nemesio


    In this work we have done a 3D joint interpretation of magnetotelluric and seismic tomography models. Previously we have described different techniques to infer the inner structure of the Earth. We have focused on volcanic regions, specifically on Tenerife Island volcano (Canary Islands, Spain). In this area, magnetotelluric and seismic tomography studies have been done separately. The novelty of the present work is the combination of both techniques in Tenerife Island. For this aim we have applied Fuzzy Clusters Method at different depths obtaining several clusters or classes. From the results, a geothermal system has been inferred below Teide volcano, in the center of Tenerife Island. An edifice hydrothermally altered and full of fluids is situated below Teide, ending at 600 m below sea level. From this depth the resistivity and VP values increase downwards. We also observe a clay cap structure, a typical feature in geothermal systems related with low resistivity and low VP values.

  11. The community of deep-sea decapod crustaceans between 175 and 2600 m in submarine canyons of a volcanic oceanic island (central-eastern Atlantic) (United States)

    Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; González, José A.


    The community structure and faunal composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans in submarine canyons on the slope off Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, central-eastern Atlantic) were investigated. Samples were collected during five research cruises (115 stations) at depths between 175 and 2554 m. A total of 26387 decapod specimens, belonging to 24 families and 38 species, were collected with traps. A cluster analysis of the stations showed four distinct assemblages: (i) in the transition area between shelf and slope (175-302 m); (ii) on the upper slope (361-789 m); (iii) on the middle slope (803-1973 m); and iv) on the lower slope (2011-2554 m). The deep-sea decapod fauna of the Canary Islands is dominated by shrimp of the family Pandalidae, which make up more than 23% of the species. Within the Pandalidae, species of the genus Plesionika stand out as those of greatest abundance on the island slope. The greatest diversity of species was located on the upper slope. The standardized mean abundance and mean biomass for the transition zone between the shelf and slope and for the upper slope were nearly 5 times greater in abundance and 4 times greater in biomass than those estimated for the middle slope, and nearly 53 and 29 times greater for the lower slope, indicating a lower abundance and biomass at the shallower part of the insular slope. The mean weight per individual showed an increasing pattern with depth and an inverse pattern with the bottom temperature and salinity. The existence of depth boundaries around the Canary Islands is known to be closely linked to oceanographic conditions, determined by the water masses present in this archipelago explaining the discontinuities observed at depths of 800 and 2000 m. The boundary observed inside the bathymetric region of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water can be related with the transition zone between the shelf and the slope of the island.

  12. Island Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heinz


    Full Text Available In 2010-2011, the Vancouver Island Transgender Needs Assessment, a community-based, applied research project, sought to identify the health and social needs of trans people on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. An advisory board consisting of trans-identified community members and trans-service providers guided this descriptive analysis. A total of 54 individuals identifying as transgender participated in a survey modeled after the TransPULSE Ontario instrument. Of the participants, 43% identified on the transmasculine spectrum, 39% on the transfeminine spectrum, and 18% as transgender/genderqueer only. Participants were surveyed in regard to education, employment, and income; housing; health care needs and services; suicidality; violence; life satisfaction and attitudes toward self; posttransition experiences; and community belonging. They reported health care, social support, and public education/acceptance as top needs. The article concludes with a specific needs profile and a community-generated set of recommendations stressing the need for an island-based information and resourcing center.

  13. Using the canary genome to decipher the evolution of hormone-sensitive gene regulation in seasonal singing birds. (United States)

    Frankl-Vilches, Carolina; Kuhl, Heiner; Werber, Martin; Klages, Sven; Kerick, Martin; Bakker, Antje; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Hc; Reusch, Christina; Capuano, Floriana; Vowinckel, Jakob; Leitner, Stefan; Ralser, Markus; Timmermann, Bernd; Gahr, Manfred


    While the song of all songbirds is controlled by the same neural circuit, the hormone dependence of singing behavior varies greatly between species. For this reason, songbirds are ideal organisms to study ultimate and proximate mechanisms of hormone-dependent behavior and neuronal plasticity. We present the high quality assembly and annotation of a female 1.2-Gbp canary genome. Whole genome alignments between the canary and 13 genomes throughout the bird taxa show a much-conserved synteny, whereas at the single-base resolution there are considerable species differences. These differences impact small sequence motifs like transcription factor binding sites such as estrogen response elements and androgen response elements. To relate these species-specific response elements to the hormone-sensitivity of the canary singing behavior, we identify seasonal testosterone-sensitive transcriptomes of major song-related brain regions, HVC and RA, and find the seasonal gene networks related to neuronal differentiation only in the HVC. Testosterone-sensitive up-regulated gene networks of HVC of singing males concerned neuronal differentiation. Among the testosterone-regulated genes of canary HVC, 20% lack estrogen response elements and 4 to 8% lack androgen response elements in orthologous promoters in the zebra finch. The canary genome sequence and complementary expression analysis reveal intra-regional evolutionary changes in a multi-regional neural circuit controlling seasonal singing behavior and identify gene evolution related to the hormone-sensitivity of this seasonal singing behavior. Such genes that are testosterone- and estrogen-sensitive specifically in the canary and that are involved in rewiring of neurons might be crucial for seasonal re-differentiation of HVC underlying seasonal song patterning.

  14. Doublecortin as a marker of adult neuroplasticity in the canary song control nucleus HVC. (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques; Boseret, Géraldine; Konkle, Anne T M; Hurley, Laura L; Ball, Gregory F


    It is established that in songbirds the size of several brain song control nuclei varies seasonally, based on changes in cell size, dendritic branching and, in nucleus HVC, the incorporation of newborn neurons. In the developing and adult mammalian brain, the protein doublecortin (DCX) is expressed in postmitotic neurons and, as a part of the microtubule machinery, required for neuronal migration. We recently showed that in adult canaries, DCX-immunoreactive (ir) cells are present throughout the telencephalon, but the link between DCX and the active neurogenesis observed in songbirds remained uncertain. We demonstrate here that DCX labels recently born cells in the canary telencephalon and that, in parallel with changes in HVC volume, the number of DCX-ir cells is increased specifically in the HVC of testosterone-treated males compared with castrates, and in castrated testosterone-treated males paired with a female as compared with males paired with another male. The numbers of elongated DCX-ir cells (presumptive migrating neurons) and round multipolar DCX-ir cells (differentiating neurons) were also affected by the sex of the subjects and their photoperiodic condition (photosensitive vs photostimulated vs photorefractory). Thus, in canaries the endocrine state, as well as the social or photoperiodic condition independently of variation in steroid hormone action, affects the number of cells expressing a protein involved in neuronal migration specifically in brain areas that incorporate new neurons in the telencephalon. The DCX gene may be one of the targets by which testosterone and social stimuli induce seasonal changes in the volume of song nuclei.

  15. Representation of the bird's own song in the canary HVC: contribution of broadly tuned neurons. (United States)

    Lehongre, K; Del Negro, C


    In songbirds, neurons in the song nucleus HVC exhibit a striking example of selective auditory response, firing more to playback of the bird's own song (BOS) than to conspecific songs. This song selectivity has been found in various songbird species, both those that sing a single individual-specific song as well as those, such as the canary, in which both song structure and individual-identity encoding in song is more complex. In the present study, we investigated how the BOS is represented in the HVC of anesthetized long-day canaries by using temporal and spectral variants of the BOS stimulus. We addressed the question of how selective HVC neurons were by quantifying the number of song elements, called phrases, that evoked auditory responses. Phrases that were individual-specific or that were frequently delivered in an individual's songs did not drive HVC neurons to a greater degree than others. Reordering phrases or altering their acoustic structure caused a decrease in the auditory responsiveness of HVC neurons. This sensitivity to the spectral and temporal features of the BOS involved neurons that failed to respond to BOS variants or were driven by a reduced number of phrases, as well as neurons whose auditory responsiveness extended beyond the features of the individual's song, responding to phrases that were not sung by the bird itself. Therefore, the neural strategy by which BOS structure is represented in the canary HVC may require something other than a strict representation of the repertoire of song components. We suggest that the individual's song could be coded, at least in part, by an ensemble of broadly tuned neurons. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuronal production, migration, and differentiation in a vocal control nucleus of the adult female canary brain. (United States)

    Goldman, S A; Nottebohm, F


    The vocal control nucleus designated HVc (hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudalis) of adult female canaries expands in response to systemic testosterone administration, which also induces the females to sing in a male-like manner. We became interested in the possibility of neurogenesis as a potential basis for this phenomenon. Intact adult female canaries were injected with [3H]thymidine over a 2-day period. Some birds were given testosterone implants at various times before thymidine. The birds were sacrificed 5 wk after hormone implantation, and their brains were processed for autoradiography. In parallel control experiments, some birds were given implants of cholesterol instead of testosterone. All birds showed considerable numbers of labeled neurons, glia, endothelia, and ventricular zone cells in and around HVc. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the identity of these labeled neurons. Cholesterol- and testosterone-treated birds had similar neuronal labeling indices, which ranged from 1.8% to 4.0% in HVc. Thus, neurogenesis occurred in these adults independently of exogenous hormone treatment. Conversely, both glial and endothelial proliferation rates were markedly stimulated by exogenous testosterone treatment. We determined the origin of the thymidine-incorporating neurons by sacrificing two thymidine-treated females soon after their thymidine injections, precluding any significant migration of newly labeled cells. Analysis of these brains revealed no cells of neuronal morphology present in HVc but a very heavily labeled ventricular zone overlying HVc. We conclude that neuronal precursors exist in the HVc ventricular zone that incorporate tritiated thymidine during the S phase preceding their mitosis; after division these cells migrate into, and to some extent beyond, HVc. This ventricular zone neurogenesis seems to be a normally occurring phenomenon in intact adult female canaries. Images PMID:6572982

  17. A customizable 3-dimensional digital atlas of the canary brain in multiple modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellema, Michiel; Verschueren, Jacob; Van Meir, Vincent


    throughout their lives. This trait makes this bird species particularly valuable to study the functional relationship between the continued plasticity in the singing behavior and alterations in the anatomy and physiology of the brain. In order to optimally interpret these types of studies, a detailed...... understanding of the brain anatomy is essential. Because traditional 2-dimensional brain atlases are limited in the information they can provide about the anatomy of the brain, here we present a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the canary brain. Using multiple imaging protocols we were able to maximize......, histological, explant, and tracer studies....

  18. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of Meladema diving beetles on the Atlantic Islands and in the Mediterranean basin (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). (United States)

    Ribera, I; Bilton, D T; Vogler, A P


    The phylogeny and population history of Meladema diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) were examined using mitochondrial DNA sequence from 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase I genes in 51 individuals from 22 populations of the three extant species (M. imbricata endemic to the western Canary Islands, M. lanio endemic to Madeira and M. coriacea widespread in the Western Mediterranean and on the western Canaries), using a combination of phylogenetic and nested clade analyses. Four main lineages are observed within Meladema, representing the three recognized species plus Corsican populations of M. coriacea. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate the sister relationship of the two Atlantic Island taxa, and suggest the possible paraphyly of M. coriacea. A molecular clock approach reveals that speciation within the genus occurred in the Early Pleistocene, indicating that the Atlantic Island endemics are not Tertiary relict taxa as had been proposed previously. Our results point to past population bottlenecks in all four lineages, with recent (Late-Middle Pleistocene) range expansion in non-Corsican M. coriacea and M. imbricata. Within the Canary Islands, M. imbricata seems to have independently colonized La Gomera and La Palma from Tenerife (although a colonization of La Palma from La Gomera cannot be discarded), and M. coriacea has independently colonized Tenerife and Gran Canaria from separate mainland lineages. In the Mediterranean basin this species apparently colonized Corsica on a single occasion, relatively early in its evolutionary history (Early Pleistocene), and has colonized Mallorca recently on multiple occasions. On the only island where M. coriacea and M. imbricata are broadly sympatric (Tenerife), we report evidence of bidirectional hybridization between the two species.

  19. Male song quality modulates c-Fos expression in the auditory forebrain of the female canary. (United States)

    Monbureau, Marie; Barker, Jennifer M; Leboucher, Gérard; Balthazart, Jacques


    In canaries, specific phrases of male song (sexy songs, SS) that are difficult to produce are especially attractive for females. Females exposed to SS produce more copulation displays and deposit more testosterone into their eggs than females exposed to non-sexy songs (NS). Increased expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos or zenk (a.k.a. egr-1) has been observed in the auditory forebrain of female songbirds hearing attractive songs. C-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cell numbers were quantified here in the brain of female canaries that had been collected 30min after they had been exposed for 60min to the playback of SS or NS or control white noise. Fos-ir cell numbers increased in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of SS birds as compared to controls. Song playback (pooled SS and NS) also tended to increase average Fos-ir cell numbers in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) but this effect did not reach full statistical significance. At the individual level, Fos expression in CMM was correlated with its expression in NCM and in MBH but also with the frequency of calls that females produced in response to the playbacks. These data thus indicate that male songs of different qualities induce a differential metabolic activation of NCM and CMM. The correlation between activation of auditory regions and of the MBH might reflect the link between auditory stimulation and changes in behavior and reproductive physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative effects of yolk testosterone and ticks on growth in canaries. (United States)

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Heylen, Dieter; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt


    Maternal yolk hormones in bird eggs are thought to adjust the offspring to the post-hatching environment. This implies that the effects of maternal yolk hormones should vary with the post-hatching environment, but to date such context-dependency has largely been ignored. We experimentally increased yolk testosterone concentrations in canary eggs and simultaneously manipulated the post-hatching context via an experimental tick-infestation of the chicks. This allows us to evaluate the context-dependency of hormone-mediated maternal effects, as it has previously been shown that ectoparasites alter the maternal yolk androgen deposition. The experimental tick infestation reduced growth in chicks from sham-treated eggs, indicating harmful effects of this ectoparasite in canaries. Chicks from testosterone-treated eggs were not affected in their development by ticks, suggesting lower ectoparasite vulnerability. But this may also be due to the fact that experimentally elevated yolk testosterone levels impaired growth even under parasite-free conditions. This contrasts previous studies, but these studies often manipulated first laid eggs, while we used eggs of subsequent laying positions. Later laid eggs are presumably of lower quality and contain higher yolk testosterone concentrations. Thus, the effects of elevated yolk testosterone on growth may be dose-dependent or vary with the egg quality, suggesting prenatal context-dependency. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hormonal acceleration of song development illuminates motor control mechanism in canaries. (United States)

    Alliende, Jorge A; Méndez, Jorge M; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B


    In songbirds, the ontogeny of singing behavior shows strong parallels with human speech learning. As in humans, development of learned vocal behavior requires exposure to an acoustic model of species-typical vocalizations, and, subsequently, a sensorimotor practice period after which the vocalization is produced in a stereotyped manner. This requires mastering motor instructions driving the vocal organ and the respiratory system. Recently, it was shown that, in the case of canaries (Serinus canaria), the diverse syllables, constituting the song, are generated with air sac pressure patterns with characteristic shapes, remarkably, those belonging to a very specific mathematical family. Here, we treated juvenile canaries with testosterone at the onset of the sensorimotor practice period. This hormone exposure accelerated the development of song into stereotyped adultlike song. After 20 days of testosterone treatment, subsyringeal air sac pressure patterns of song resembled those produced by adults, while those of untreated control birds of the same age did not. Detailed temporal structure and modulation patterns emerged rapidly with testosterone treatment, and all previously identified categories of adult song were observed. This research shows that the known effect of testosterone on the neural circuits gives rise to the stereotyped categories of respiratory motor gestures. Extensive practice of these motor patterns during the sensorimotor phase is not required for their expression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparative Cytogenetics between Two Important Songbird, Models: The Zebra Finch and the Canary. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Michelly da Silva; Kretschmer, Rafael; Frankl-Vilches, Carolina; Bakker, Antje; Gahr, Manfred; O Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C


    Songbird species (order Passeriformes, suborder Oscines) are important models in various experimental fields spanning behavioural genomics to neurobiology. Although the genomes of some songbird species were sequenced recently, the chromosomal organization of these species is mostly unknown. Here we focused on the two most studied songbird species in neuroscience, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and the canary (Serinus canaria). In order to clarify these issues and also to integrate chromosome data with their assembled genomes, we used classical and molecular cytogenetics in both zebra finch and canary to define their chromosomal homology, localization of heterochromatic blocks and distribution of rDNA clusters. We confirmed the same diploid number (2n = 80) in both species, as previously reported. FISH experiments confirmed the occurrence of multiple paracentric and pericentric inversions previously found in other species of Passeriformes, providing a cytogenetic signature for this order, and corroborating data from in silico analyses. Additionally, compared to other Passeriformes, we detected differences in the zebra finch karyotype concerning the morphology of some chromosomes, in the distribution of 5S rDNA clusters, and an inversion in chromosome 1.

  3. Whole-genome characterization of a novel polyomavirus detected in fatally diseased canary birds. (United States)

    Halami, Mohammad Yahya; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Couteel, Peter; Heckel, Gerald; Müller, Hermann; Johne, Reimar


    Polyomaviruses of birds are aetiological agents of acute inflammatory diseases in non-immunocompromised hosts, which is in contrast to mammalian polyomaviruses. VP4, an additional structural protein encoded by the viral genomes of the known avian polyomaviruses, has been suggested to contribute to pathogenicity through loss of cells following induction of apoptosis. Four distinct bird polyomaviruses have been identified so far, which infect crows, finches, geese and parrots. Using broad-spectrum PCR, a novel polyomavirus, tentatively designated canary polyomavirus (CaPyV), was detected in diseased canary birds (Serinus canaria) that died at an age of about 40 days. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the liver, spleen and kidneys. The entire viral genome was amplified from a tissue sample using rolling-circle amplification. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome sequence indicated a close relationship between CaPyV and other avian polyomaviruses. Remarkably, an ORF encoding VP4 could not be identified in the CaPyV genome. Therefore, the mechanism of pathogenicity of CaPyV may be different from that of the other avian polyomaviruses.

  4. Comparative Cytogenetics between Two Important Songbird, Models: The Zebra Finch and the Canary (United States)

    dos Santos, Michelly da Silva; Kretschmer, Rafael; Frankl-Vilches, Carolina; Bakker, Antje; Gahr, Manfred; O´Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.


    Songbird species (order Passeriformes, suborder Oscines) are important models in various experimental fields spanning behavioural genomics to neurobiology. Although the genomes of some songbird species were sequenced recently, the chromosomal organization of these species is mostly unknown. Here we focused on the two most studied songbird species in neuroscience, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and the canary (Serinus canaria). In order to clarify these issues and also to integrate chromosome data with their assembled genomes, we used classical and molecular cytogenetics in both zebra finch and canary to define their chromosomal homology, localization of heterochromatic blocks and distribution of rDNA clusters. We confirmed the same diploid number (2n = 80) in both species, as previously reported. FISH experiments confirmed the occurrence of multiple paracentric and pericentric inversions previously found in other species of Passeriformes, providing a cytogenetic signature for this order, and corroborating data from in silico analyses. Additionally, compared to other Passeriformes, we detected differences in the zebra finch karyotype concerning the morphology of some chromosomes, in the distribution of 5S rDNA clusters, and an inversion in chromosome 1. PMID:28129381

  5. Testing the AGN unification model in the infrared. First results with GTC/CanariCam (United States)

    Ramos Almeida, C.


    The unified model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) accounts for a variety of observational differences in terms of viewing geometry alone. However, from the fitting of high spatial resolution infrared (IR) data with clumpy torus models, it has been hinted that the immediate dusty surroundings of Type-1 and 2 Seyfert nuclei might be intrinsically different in terms of covering factor (torus width and number of clouds). Moreover, these torus covering factors also showed variations among objects belonging to the same type, in contradiction with simple unification. Interestingly, these intrinsic differences in Seyfert tori could explain, for example, the lack of broad optical lines in the polarized spectra of about half of the brightest Seyfert 2 galaxies. On the other hand, recent IR interferometry studies have revealed that, in at least four Seyfert galaxies, the mid-IR emission is elongated in the polar direction. These results are difficult to reconcile with unified models, which claim that the bulk of the mid-IR emission comes from the torus. In this invited contribution I summarize the latest results on high angular resolution IR studies of AGN, which constitute a crucial test for AGN unification. These results include those from the mid-infrared instrument CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), which are starting to be published by the CanariCam AGN team, Los Piratas (

  6. On the relation between crustal deformation and seismicity during the 2012-2014 magmatic intrusions in El Hierro island. (United States)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; García-Cañada, Laura; Ángeles Benito Saz, María; Del Fresno, Carmen


    The last volcanic eruption in the Canary Islands took place in 2011 less than 2 km offshore El Hierro island, after 3 months of measuring surface deformation (up to 5 cm) and locating more than 10 000 earthquakes. In the two years following the end of the submarine eruption on 5 March 2012, six deep magmatic intrusions were recorded beneath the island. Despite the short time duration of these intrusions, these events have been more energetic that the 2011 pre-eruptive intrusive event but none of them ended in a new eruption. These post-eruptive reactivations are some of the few examples in the world of well monitored magmatic intrusions related with monogenetic volcanism. In order to understand these processes we have analyzed the geodetic and seismic data with different techniques. First, we did a joint hypocentral relocation of the six seismic swarms, including more than 6 300 events, to analyze the relative distribution of the earthquakes from different intrusions. The uncertainties of the earthquakes relocations was reduced to an average value of 300 m. New earthquakes' distribution shows the alignments of the different intrusions and a temporal migration of the events to larger depths. Moreover, we show the results of the ground deformation using GPS data from the network installed on the island (for each of the six intrusive events) and their inversion considering spherical models. In most of the intrusions the optimal source model was shallower and southern than the corresponding seismicity hypocenters. The intruded magma volume ranges from 0.02 to 0.13 km3. Finally, we also computed the b value from the Gutenberg Richter equation by means of a bootstrap method. The spatial and temporal evolution of the b value for the seismicity show a clear correlation with the temporal evolution of the crustal deformation. The six magma intrusions can be grouped, depending on their location, in three pairs each one associated with each of the three active rifts of El

  7. In vitro foliage susceptibility of canary islands laurel forests: a model for better understanding the ecology of Phytophthora ramorum (United States)

    Eduardo Moralejo; Enrique Descals


    The tree species that dominate the cloud-zone forests of Macaronesia, the coastal redwoods of California, the Valdivian forests of Chile, the Atlantic forests of Brazil and the podocarp forests of New Zealand are all examples of paleoendemic species that once had a much wider distribution. They appear to owe their survival to the particular environmental conditions...

  8. Acoustical detection of early instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae) (United States)

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), is of international concern due to destructive larval feeding within palm trees. Originating from tropical Asia, RPW has spread throughout the eastern hemisphere where it has become a significant economic pest to the ornamental and date...

  9. Groundwater salinity and hydrochemical processes in the volcano-sedimentary aquifer of La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Cruz-Fuentes, Tatiana; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Heredia, Javier; Custodio, Emilio


    The origin of the groundwater salinity and hydrochemical conditions of a 44km(2) volcano-sedimentary aquifer in the semi-arid to arid La Aldea Valley (western Gran Canaria, Spain) has been studied, using major physical and chemical components. Current aquifer recharge is mainly the result of irrigation return flows and secondarily that of rainfall infiltration. Graphical, multivariate statistical and modeling tools have been applied in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model and identify the natural and anthropogenic factors controlling groundwater salinity. Groundwater ranges from Na-Cl-HCO3 type for moderate salinity water to Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 type for high salinity water. This is mainly the result of atmospheric airborne salt deposition; silicate weathering, and recharge incorporating irrigation return flows. High evapotranspiration produces significant evapo-concentration leading to relative high groundwater salinity in the area. Under average conditions, about 70% of the water used for intensive agricultural exploitation in the valley comes from three low salinity water runoff storage reservoirs upstream, out of the area, while the remaining 30% derives from groundwater. The main alluvial aquifer behaves as a short turnover time reservoir that adds to the surface waters to complement irrigation water supply in dry periods, when it reaches 70% of irrigation water requirements. The high seasonality and intra-annual variability of water demand for irrigation press on decision making on aquifer use by a large number of aquifer users acting on their own. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Medical prescription and informed consent for the use of physical restraints in nursing homes in the Canary Islands (Spain)]. (United States)

    Estévez-Guerra, Gabriel J; Fariña-López, Emilio; Penelo, Eva

    To identify the frequency of completion of informed consent and medical prescription in the clinical records of older patients subject to physical restraint, and to analyse the association between patient characteristics and the absence of such documentation. A cross-sectional and descriptive multicentre study with direct observation and review of clinical records was conducted in nine public nursing homes, comprising 1,058 beds. 274 residents were physically restrained. Informed consent was not included in 82.5% of cases and was incomplete in a further 13.9%. There was no medical prescription in 68.3% of cases and it was incomplete in a further 12.0%. The only statistical association found was between the lack of prescription and the patients' advanced age (PR=1.03; p <0.005). Failure to produce this documentation contravenes the law. Organisational characteristics, ignorance of the legal requirements or the fact that some professionals may consider physical restraint to be a risk-free procedure may explain these results. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Studying the role of intercultural competence in language teaching in upper secondary education in the Canary Islands, Spain


    Richard Clouet


    Since the early 1990s, there has been a growing interest in the cultural dimension of foreign language education, and teachers today are expected to promote the acquisition of intercultural competence in their learners. The present study aims to investigate the role of culture in the teaching of foreign languages and particularly the interrelationship of language and culture in the process of learning/teaching English as a foreign language in an increasingly multicultural society like that of...

  12. Classification model for products and tourism. Diving tourism at la Restinga (Canary Islands and L´Estartit (Catalunya Province, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de la Cruz Modino


    Full Text Available During the last ten years interest in reordering and enhancing tourism consumerism has drawn to new strategies in the use of natural resources at tourist destinations, different from the traditional logics of local stakeholders. Those actions are generally super estimated and little attention has been paid to its social and cultural effects on heritage as well as in local population. At the beginning of the 21st century heritage tourism consume has brought about a plethora of products and sub products that cannot be easily classified by classical typologies. It has also lead to the rise of new visitation areas and tourism developments. This article analyzes two cases in protected maritime areas where diving tourism is practiced giving an example of how difficult it is to encapsulate products and destinations in general classifications in order to set some criteria for development and prevention of unwished effects.

  13. The quarry and workshop of Barranco Cardones (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: Basalt quern production using stone tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurena Naranjo-Mayor


    This paper analyses the operational sequence, that is, the different phases of the extraction and fashioning techniques of basalt rotary querns based on the recent finds of two quarries located near the coast (Cardones and Cebolla and a quern manufacturing workshop (Cave 36, Arucas Municipality in a ravine about 600 m inland. Traditionally it was thought that the Pre-European population of Gran Canaria fashioned their querns from naturally detached volcanic surface blocks collected in ravines or along the coast. This supposition was based on the idea that the early Canarians were not capable of extracting blocks from bedrock with stone tools. This notion, however, has been proven wrong by the circular extraction negatives on the quarry faces and by finds of stone fashioning tools in the workshop.

  14. Lateralization in escape behaviour at different hierarchical levels in a gecko: Tarentola angustimentalis from Eastern Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Muñoz

    Full Text Available At the individual level, to be behaviourally lateralized avoids costly duplication of neural circuitry and decreases possible contradictory order from the two brain hemispheres. However, being prey behaviour lateralized at higher hierarchical levels could generate different negative implications, especially if predators are able to make predictions after multiple encounters. These conflicting pressures, namely between the advantages for individuals and the disadvantages for populations could be concealed if higher-level lateralization would arise from the combination of lateralized behaviours of individuals which are mutually dependent. Here, we investigated the lateralization patterns in the escape behaviour of the gecko Tarentola angustimentalis undergoing a predatory attack simulation in a "T" maze experiment. Results showed that gecko populations displayed different degrees of lateralization, with an overall dominance of right-biased individuals. This trend is similar to that observed in the Podarcis wall lizards, which share predators with Tarentola. In addition, different morphological parameters plausible to affect refuge selection were explored in order to link directional asymmetries at morphological level with lateralization during refuge selection.

  15. Lateralization in escape behaviour at different hierarchical levels in a gecko: Tarentola angustimentalis from Eastern Canary Islands. (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Enrique; Rato, Catarina; Jorge, Fátima; Carretero, Miguel A


    At the individual level, to be behaviourally lateralized avoids costly duplication of neural circuitry and decreases possible contradictory order from the two brain hemispheres. However, being prey behaviour lateralized at higher hierarchical levels could generate different negative implications, especially if predators are able to make predictions after multiple encounters. These conflicting pressures, namely between the advantages for individuals and the disadvantages for populations could be concealed if higher-level lateralization would arise from the combination of lateralized behaviours of individuals which are mutually dependent. Here, we investigated the lateralization patterns in the escape behaviour of the gecko Tarentola angustimentalis undergoing a predatory attack simulation in a "T" maze experiment. Results showed that gecko populations displayed different degrees of lateralization, with an overall dominance of right-biased individuals. This trend is similar to that observed in the Podarcis wall lizards, which share predators with Tarentola. In addition, different morphological parameters plausible to affect refuge selection were explored in order to link directional asymmetries at morphological level with lateralization during refuge selection.

  16. Molecular phylogeny and ultrastructure of the lichen microalga Asterochloris mediterranea sp. nov. from Mediterranean and Canary Islands ecosystems. (United States)

    Moya, Patricia; Škaloud, Pavel; Chiva, Salvador; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Vančurová, Lucie; Barreno, Eva


    The microalgae of the genus Asterochloris are the preferential phycobionts in Cladonia, Lepraria and Stereocaulon lichens. Recent studies have highlighted the hidden diversity of the genus, even though phycobionts hosting species of the genus Cladonia in Mediterranean and Canarian ecosystems have been poorly explored. Phylogenetic analyses were made by concatenation of the sequences obtained with a plastid - LSU rDNA - and two nuclear - internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and actin - molecular markers of the phycobionts living in several populations of the Cladonia convoluta-Cladonia foliacea complex, Cladonia rangiformis and Cladonia cervicornis s. str. widely distributed in these areas in a great variety of substrata and habitats. A new strongly supported clade was obtained in relation to the previously published Asterochloris phylogenies. Minimum genetic variation was detected between our haplotypes and other sequences available in the GenBank database. The correct identification of the fungal partners was corroborated by the ITS rDNA barcode. In this study we provide a detailed characterization comprising chloroplast morphology, and ultrastructural and phylogenetic analyses of a novel phycobiont species, here described as Asterochloris mediterranea sp. nov. Barreno, Chiva, Moya et Škaloud. A cryopreserved holotype specimen has been deposited in the Culture Collection of Algae of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (CAUP) as CAUP H 1015. We suggest the use of a combination of several nuclear and plastid molecular markers, as well as ultrastructural (transmission electron and confocal microscopy) techniques, both in culture and in the symbiotic state, to improve novel species delimitation of phycobionts in lichens.

  17. Comparison of The Canary System and DIAGNOdent for the in vitro detection of caries under opaque dental sealants. (United States)

    Silvertown, Josh D; Wong, Bonny P Y; Abrams, Stephen H; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran S; Mathews, Sapna M; Amaechi, Bennett T


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of operators using The Canary System and DIAGNOdent to detect natural pit and fissure caries under four commonly-used opaque dental sealants. Mixed sound and carious pits/fissures (N = 105) selected from 40 human teeth were randomly assigned (10 teeth/group) to one of four opaque sealant groups (Delton, Embrace WetBond, Helioseal F, UltraSeal XT Plus). Selected pits/fissures sites on occlusal surfaces were scanned with The Canary System and DIAGNOdent, sealed, re-scanned, and subjected to polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the scanned regions were sound or carious. Sensitivities and specificities for each detection method before and after sealant placement were calculated. The Canary System and DIAGNOdent were able to distinguish between sound and carious tissue beneath opaque sealants with an accuracy of 76% and 59%, respectively. The Canary System can serve as a clinical tool to aid dental professionals to detect and monitor the status of caries lesions and tooth structure underneath sealant. The increased likelihood of false-positive diagnoses with DIAGNOdent due to intrinsic auto-fluorescence of sealant filler and opacifying agents might limit its usefulness as an aid to detect caries underneath opaque sealants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Potential of Protein Fractions from Flour and Milk Substitutes from Canary Seeds (Phalaris canariensis L.). (United States)

    Valverde, María Elena; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Nieto-Rendón, Blanca; Paredes-López, Octavio


    Canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) is used to feed birds but it has been recently considered a promising cereal with nutraceutical potential for humans. The aim of this work was to analyze the protein fractions from canary seed flour and from milk substitutes (prepared by soaking the seeds in water 12 and 24 h), and to evaluate antioxidant and antihypertensive capacity of peptides obtained after in vitro digestion. Prolamins were the major protein fraction, followed by glutelins. After digestion, albumins and prolamins fractions from milks presented higher levels of peptides than flour, globulins showed more peptides in flour and glutelins were found in similar concentrations in all samples; 24 h milk prolamins had the highest concentration of peptides. Purification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sequencing of peptides, in vitro antioxidant ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays, and antihypertensive capacity (angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay), indicated that peptides from canary seed prolamins were the most efficient compounds with antioxidant and antihypertensive activity. Canary seeds may be considered an accessible and cheap source to prepare milk substitutes with high contents of bioactive peptides with remarkable functional properties to promote better human health and healthy ageing.

  19. Chemical composition and methane yield of reed canary grass as influenced by harvesting time and harvest frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Møller, Henrik Bjarne


    This study examined the influence of harvest time on biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, biochemical composition and biological methane potential of reed canary grass harvested twice a month in one-cut (OC) management. The regrowth of biomass harvested in summer was also harvested in autumn a...

  20. Horizontal distribution of invertebrate larvae around the oceanic island of Gran Canaria: the effect of mesoscale variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Landeira


    Full Text Available In October 1991, the horizontal distribution of invertebrate larvae was studied in the waters surrounding the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands. The cruise was typified by the presence of three recurrent mesoscale hydrographic structures: a cyclonic eddy southwest of the island, a warm lee region downstream of the island and the offshore boundary of an upwelling filament from the African coast reaching the southeast of the island. Decapod larvae were the most abundant group. In general, a rather high spatial variability was found. The horizontal distribution of the invertebrate larvae groups showed that the highest values of abundance occurred in an elongated zone around the island oriented in the overall direction of flow, leeward and windward of the island, while the lowest values occurred off the eastern and western flanks of the islands. On the other hand, Stomatopoda and Mollusca larvae showed a distribution associated with the boundary of the upwelling filament and decapod larvae of pelagic species were distributed around the eddy structure. Our results suggest specific retention mechanisms for the larvae of neritic invertebrate populations that are related to the particular physical oceanography around Gran Canaria.

  1. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia


    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  2. An outbreak of yolk sac infection and dead-in-shell mortality in common canary (Serinus canaria) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. (United States)

    Razmyar, J; Zamani, A H


    Yolk sac infection (YSI) and dead-in-shell mortality caused by Enterobacteriaceae in birds are not a rare phenomenon, however there are only a few reports indicating the association between these conditions and Klebsiella spp. among canary chicks (Serinus canaria). There have been reports of high mortality among 1-3 day old canary chicks in an indoor flock of canaries. In order to study the causative agent, yolk sac samples from dead-in-shell and day-old canary chicks were cultured. Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated and identified based on biochemical tests and using genus and species-specific multiplex PCR and later tested for their susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents. The isolates showed susceptibility to Gentamycin, Chloramphenicol, Florfenicol and Streptomycin.

  3. Analysis of glabrous canary seeds by ELISA, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting for the absence of cross-reactivity with major plant food allergens. (United States)

    Boye, Joyce Irene; Achouri, Allaoua; Raymond, Nancy; Cleroux, Chantal; Weber, Dorcas; Koerner, Terence B; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann


    Glabrous (hairless) canary seed belongs to the Poaceae (Gramineae) family and could serve as an alternative source of gluten-free cereal grain. In this study, allergenic cross-reactivities between hairless, dehulled canary seeds (Phalaris canariensis) and major allergenic proteins from gluten, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, sesame, and mustard were studied using commercial enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kits specific for these target allergens. Mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting were further used to assess for the presence of gluten-specific protein fragments. MS results revealed the likely presence of proteins homologous with rice, oat, corn, carrot, tomato, radish, beet, and chickpea. However, no presence of celiac-related gluten fragments from wheat, rye, barley, or their derivatives was found. Immunoblotting studies yielded negative results, further confirming the absence of gluten in the canary seed samples tested. No cross-reactivities were detected between canary seeds and almond, hazelnut, mustard, peanut, sesame, soy, walnut, and gluten using ELISA.

  4. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem. (United States)

    Grecian, W James; Witt, Matthew J; Attrill, Martin J; Bearhop, Stuart; Becker, Peter H; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W; Godley, Brendan J; González-Solís, Jacob; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Patrick, Samantha C; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A; Stenhouse, Iain J; Votier, Stephen C


    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Canary literature and culture in the reign of Carlos IV (1788-1808

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work wants to offer a short view of the literature and culture developed in the Canary Isles during the reign period of Charles IV, from a general point of view. Therefore, I cannot offer a detailed perspective of each of the aspects dealt with. This way, what is tackled in this work is a revision of the socio-cultural activities connected to the gatherings or to the economic societies, the educative circumstances, the activity developed by the bishops with the carrying out of facilities or with a reforming teaching at the reading level, such as Tavira, the production of books with an allusion to the printing activity, the most developed literary genres and their authors, the topic preference in poetry —majority genre—, in prose and in theatre, and an allusion to some of the private libraries.

  6. Dissociable effects of social context on song and doublecortin immunoreactivity in male canaries. (United States)

    Alward, Beau A; Mayes, Wade D; Peng, Katherine; Stevenson, Tyler J; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F


    Variation in environmental factors such as day length and social context greatly affects reproductive behavior and the brain areas that regulate these behaviors. One such behavior is song in songbirds, which males use to attract a mate during the breeding season. In these species the absence of a potential mate leads to an increase in the number of songs produced, while the presence of a mate greatly diminishes singing. Interestingly, although long days promote song behavior, producing song itself can promote the incorporation of new neurons in brain regions controlling song output. Social context can also affect such neuroplasticity in these song control nuclei. The goal of the present study was to investigate in canaries (Serinus canaria), a songbird species, how photoperiod and social context affect song and the incorporation of new neurons, as measured by the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX) in HVC, a key vocal production brain region of the song control system. We show that long days increased HVC size and singing activity. In addition, male canaries paired with a female for 2 weeks showed enhanced DCX-immunoreactivity in HVC relative to birds housed alone. Strikingly, however, paired males sang fewer songs that exhibited a reduction in acoustic features such as song complexity and energy, compared with birds housed alone, which sang prolifically. These results show that social presence plays a significant role in the regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity in songbirds and can exert these effects in opposition to what might be expected based on activity-induced neurogenesis. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Lagrangian study tracing water parcel origins in the Canary Upwelling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Mason


    Full Text Available The regional ocean circulation within the Canary Upwelling System between 31°N and 35°N is studied using numerical tools. Seasonal mean and near-instantaneous velocity fields from a previously-generated climatological Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS solution of the Canary Basin are used to force a series of offline Lagrangian particle-tracking experiments. The primary objective is to identify the pathways through which water parcels arrive at the upwelling region north of Cape Ghir. Examining year-long pathways, the Azores Current contributes over 80% of particles annually, of which a large proportion arrive directly from offshore (from the northwest, while others travel along the shelf and slope from the Gulf of Cadiz. The remaining ~20% originate within the Gulf of Cadiz or come from the south, although the southern contribution is only significant in autumn and winter. When season-long pathways are considered, the alongshore contributions become increasingly important: northern contributions reach 40% in spring and summer, while southern values exceed 35% in winter. This study also shows that coastal upwelling changes both spatially and temporally. Upwelling becomes intensified near Cape Beddouza, with most upwelling occurring within ~40 km from shore although significant values may reach as far as 120 km offshore north of Cape Beddouza; at these locations the offshore integrated upwelling reaches as much as 4 times the offshore Ekman transport. In the Cape Beddouza area (32°N to 33°N, upwelling is negligible in February but intensifies in autumn, reaching as much as 3 times the offshore Ekman transport.

  8. Radioactive content in groundwater in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands); Contenido radioactivo en aguas en aguas subterraneas de la Isla de Tenerifie (Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Perez, M.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Rodriguez-Perestelo, N.; Catalan-Acosta, A.; Fernandez- De Aldecoa, J. C.; Hernandez Armas, J.


    At present the groundwater in Tenerife is still the main resource to meet the demands of all kinds. Currently, due to the salt content, groundwater is treated using reversible electrodialysis desalination systems before drinking it. (Author)

  9. Multi-levelling and externalizing migration and asylum: lessons from the southern European islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Triandafyllidou


    Full Text Available Southern European countries have come to constitute the most vulnerable external border of the European Union (EU over the last decade. Irregular migration pressures have been acutely felt on the EU’s southern sea borders, and particularly on four sets of islands: Canary Islands (Spain, Lampedusa and Linosa (Italy, Malta, and Aegean Islands (Greece. This quartet is, to a large extent, used as stepping stones by irregular migrants and asylum seekers to reach the European continent. This paper studies the role of these islands as ‘outposts’ of a framework of externalization. It starts by discussing the notion of externalization and its different facets. It considers how externalization is linked to both fencing and gate-keeping strategies of migration and asylum control. The second part of the paper focuses on the special role of the island quartet with respect to the externalization web cast by national and EU-wide migration policies. It concludes with a critical reflection on the multi-level character of externalization policies and practices that occur both within the EU and between the EU and third countries.

  10. Modelling the extreme precipitation event over Madeira Island on 20 February 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Luna


    Full Text Available In the morning of the 20 February of 2010 an extreme precipitation event occurred over Madeira Island. This event triggered several flash floods and mudslides in the southern parts of the island, resulting in 42 confirmed deaths, 100 injured, and at least 8 people still missing. These extreme weather conditions were associated to a weather frontal system moving northeastwards embedded in a low pressure area centered in the Azores archipelago. This storm was one in a series of such storms that affected Portugal, Spain, Morocco and the Canary islands causing flooding and strong winds. These storms were bolstered by an unusually strong sea surface temperature gradient across the Atlantic Ocean.

    In this study, the WRF model is used to evaluate the intensity and predictability of this precipitation extreme event over the island. The synoptic/orographic nature of the precipitation is also evaluated, as well as the sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution and cumulus parameterization. Orography was found to be the main factor explaining the occurrence, amplitude and phase of precipitation over the Island.

  11. Classifying Pacific islands (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.


    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  12. Effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in facilitating lead and nutrient uptake by little seed canary grass


    Zaefarian,Faezeh; Vahidzadeh, Samaneh; Rahdari, Parvaneh; Rezvani, Mohammad; Zadeh, Hossein Ghani


    We investigated the effectiveness of Nitroxin inoculation on lead (Pb) and nutrient uptakes by little seed canary grass. The factors tested included inoculation (or not) with Nitroxin and different soil concentrations of Pb (0, 200, 400 and 800mgPbkg-1 soil). Increasing soil concentrations of Pb decreased stem, leaf and root dry weights. Shoot phosphorus concentrations increased in parallel with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Nitroxin inoculation did not alter the phosphorus concentration...

  13. An Evaluation of the Elbit Canary and DynaSense PocketNIRS In-Flight Physiological Monitoring Systems (United States)


    physiological readings as these were expected to return to baseline within minutes of return to sea level. Results Analysis overview All data...Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton AN EVALUATION OF THE ELBIT CANARY AND DYNASENSE POCKETNIRS IN-FLIGHT PHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS...Defense, nor the U.S. Government. This work was funded by work unit number H1506 and 711th Human Performance Wing. The study protocol was

  14. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands (United States)

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.


    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  15. Exemple d'etude geochimique et isotopique de circulations aquiferes en terrain volcanique sous climat semi-aride (Amurga, Gran Canaria, Iles Canaries) (United States)

    Gasparini, Anne; Custodio, Emilio; Fontes, Jean-Charles; Jimenez, José; Nuñez, JoséAntonio


    A hydrochemical and isotopic study of a groundwater flow system in volcanic media has been carried out in the southern part of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Monthly samples of precipitation were collected over a two year period at stations distributed all over the island. Sampling of groundwaters took place mainly from drillholes in the Amurga phonolitic massif but also from wells and springs discharging from the volcanic and related detrital formations. The δ 2H vs. δ 18O relationship of the precipitation is close to the "global meteoric water line". Two distinct altitudinal isotopic gradients are observed. On the warm and dry southern slope, the combination of a contribution of saharan dusts and seasprays and of partial evaporation explains the high content of dissolved salts (Cl -, SO 2-4) in precipitation. Additional processes may be invoked as sources of groundwater mineralization: leaching of silicate minerals during infiltration and/or from hydrolysis during the long residence time of the waters in the volcanic rocks. Salt content is increased through a concentration of the percolating solutions by evaporation, as shown by their stable isotope contents ( 18O, 2H). The groundwaters in the phonolitic aquifer are well differentiated from the deeper groundwaters, which are recharged at an altitude of about 1000m above sea level, or even less, if exceptional episodes of rain have a lower heavy isotope content. The interpretation of the 13C contents of soil CO 2, sampled throughout the area, and of the 13C and 14C contents of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) leads to the concept of an incorporation of pure biogenic carbon under open-system conditions in the Amurga waters. For these groundwaters, high estimates of residence time (ca. 11000 years) can be calculated from the low 14C activities. In the neighbouring valleys, the input of deep "dead" volcanic carbon and the occurrence of mixing do not allow an exact quantification of residence time values

  16. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D


    Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.