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Sample records for canary islands

  1. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  2. Finnish travelers' travel motivation : case: Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Jokilehto, Katri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study the travel motives which lead Finnish people to travel to the Canary Islands and other factors which impact on the holiday decision process and destination choice. The target group for the research was Finnish people and the aim was to study the travel motives of Finns to the Canary Islands and which factors are important for Finnish people to gain a successful holiday. The research was conducted by using internet survey and the collected data was analyzed b...

  3. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to...

  4. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more distinc

  5. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  6. Biometric variation in Spadella cephaloptera on the Canary Islands (Chaetognatha)

    OpenAIRE

    Broerse, Alexandra T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of Spadella cephaloptera from Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Gomera (Canary Islands) were compared biometrically in regards to morphometric and meristic characters. Variation exists among the populations on the islands as well as between the islands. The populations on Gomera seem more distinct from the populations on Tenerife and Gran Canaria than the two latter are mutually. An apparent decline in the number of adults occurs in July, which is related to a decrease in the number of egg...

  7. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Alonso, Abel; Sheridan, Lynnaire; Scherrer, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-dep...

  8. An offshore wind atlas for the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Mederos, A.C. [Zona Eolica Canaria S.A., Veintinueve de Abril, 30, Las Palmas 35007 (Spain); Medina Padron, J.F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas (Spain); Feijoo Lorenzo, A.E. [Departamento de Enxeneria Electrica, Universidade de Vigo, ETSEI, Campus de Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper an analysis of the offshore wind potential in the Canary Islands is presented in the shape of a set of wind maps which constitute an offshore wind atlas. It has been drawn up using data processed from 40 weather stations and satellite. Results from satellite mapping, limited area modelling and mesoscalar modelling have been used by applying the technique known as 'one way nesting'. (author)

  9. Migratory waterbirds at artificial ponds in NW Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Rodríguez, Airam

    2011-01-01

    Human settlements have mainly destroyed natural habitat but also led to the creation of new ones, some of them suitable for wildlife. In this line, the construction of artificial ponds for irrigation of agricultural land or on golf courses may also provide new habitats for waterbirds. Large freshwater wetlands are absent or very scarce on the Canary Islands, so both migratory and resident waterbirds usually use artificial water bodies as feeding or nesting sites. We compared monthly censuses ...

  10. Determinants of turism demand in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Rodríguez Feijoó

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a function of the demand for holiday making tourism inthe Canary Islands is estimated. The object is to identify the determinants of thisfunction and quantify their impact, not only on the volume of demand (length ofstay, but also on the gross income generated by tourism, given that businesses in thetourist sector as well as public institutions responsible for planning and control oftourism both measure economic results by income rather by demand.

  11. Determinants of turism demand in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Rodríguez Feijoó; Delia Dávila Quintana; Alejandro Rodríguez Caro; Margarita Tejera Gil

    2003-01-01

    In this study a function of the demand for holiday making tourism in the Canary Islands is estimated. The object is to identify the determinants of this function and quantify their impact, not only on the volume of demand (length of stay), but also on the gross income generated by tourism, given that businesses in the tourist sector as well as public institutions responsible for planning and control of tourism both measure economic results by income rather by demand.

  12. Health related quality of life of Canary Island citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Bastida Julio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to describe the health-related quality of life of Canarian population using information from the Canary Island Health Survey and three observational studies developed in the Canary Islands. Methods A descriptive analysis was carried out on a sample of 5.549 Canarian citizens using information from 2004 Canary Island Health Survey and three observational studies on Alzheimer's disease, Stroke and HIV. EQ-5 D was the generic tool used for revealing quality of life of people surveyed. Besides the rate of people reporting moderate or severe decrease in quality of life, TTO-index scores and visual analogue scale were used for assessing health related quality of life of people that suffer a specific diseases and general population. Results Self-perceived health status of citizens that suffer chronic diseases of high prevalence, identifies by the Canary Island Health Survey and other diseases such Alzheimer's disease, Stroke and HIV, independently examined in observational studies, are worse than self-perceived health of general population. Depression/anxiety and pain/discomfort were identified as the dimensions of the EQ-5 D with highest prevalence of problems. Alzheimer's disease and stroke were the illnesses with greater loss of quality of life. Conclusions Health related quality of life should be integrated into a set of information along with expectancy of life, incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases for developing health policy and planning health care activities The combination of information on health related quality of life from population health surveys with data from observational studies enlarges the sources of relevant information for setting health priorities and assessing the impact of health policies.

  13. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands: 10. Rotundiclipeidae Fam. Nov. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from an anchihaline cave on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Huys, R.

    1988-01-01

    A new family Rotundiclipeidae is proposed for an anchihaline cave-dwelling harpacticoid Rotundiclipeus canaricnsis gen. nov:, sp. nov. from Tenerife, Canary Islands. It is suggested that the family should be placed in the Cervinioidea grouping also the chiefly deep-sea Cerviniidae and the mesopelagic Aegisthidae. Because of numerous unique and unusual derived traits, the smallsized Rotundiclipeidae are regarded as the advanced sistergroup of the Cerviniidae-Aegisthidae complex whilst the Cerv...

  14. An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

    2015-11-01

    The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

  15. Hatching behavior of potato cyst nematodes from the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez, José Antonio; Phillips, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    The present work investigated early hatching differences in naturally occuring field populations and newly reared populations of potato cyst nematodes from the Canary Islands. Hatching behavior of the two species appears to be distinct, with more juveniles hatched from G. pallida that hatch earlier and over a shorter time than G. rostochiensis. The hatching rate of 3-year-old PCN populations was more than double (mean 44.5% ñ 1) that shown by newly reared populations (mean 19.1% ñ 12.5), and ...

  16. MIO-PLIOCENE CRUSTACEANS FROM THE CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN FRANCISCO BETANCORT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are few previous references to fossil crustaceans for the Neogene marine layers of the Canary Islands (Spain. The Mio-Pliocene marine sedimentary layers in the eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were previously characterised by the presence of numerous fossil fauna, mainly anthozoans and molluscs, which correspond to an equatorial-typepalaeoclimate, warmer than the present climate. This Mio-Pliocene transition dated between 9.3 and 4.1 Ma. In this paper, 12 fossil crustacean taxa are identified and classified, including decapods and barnacles: Balanus concavus Bronn, 1831, Balanus spongicola Brown, 1827, Balanus perforatus Bruguière, 1789, Chenolobia testudinaria Linnè, 1767, Tetraclita cf. rubescens Darwin, 1854, Callianassa matsoni Rathbun, 1935, Callianassa sp., Upogebia sp, Eriphia aff. verrucosa (Forskal, 1775 , Maja sp., Scylla michelini Milne-Edwards, 1861 and Ocypode sp. Some of these taxa mean new references for the Atlantic islands and the North African Atlantic and definitely enlarge the palaeographic distribution of Neogene crustaceans beyond the Mediterranean region, extending it to the North Atlantic. Particularly significant are the presence of Tetraclita cf. rubescens ,this being the first reported fossil occurrence of this barnacle outside the North America Pacific coasts, and Chenolobia testudinaria , indicating for the first time the existence of marine turtles in these islands during the Neogene. These results are coherent with previous research hypothesising the existence of a flow of surface water between the Pacific and Atlantic in the Mio-Pliocene transition (Central American Seaway, CAS which explains the arrival of organisms, in larval stage, from Central America to the Canary Islands.

  17. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the Canary Islands precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    García Herrera, Ricardo; Gallego Puyol, David; Hernández Martín, Emiliano; Gimeno, Luis; Ribera Rodríguez, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the Canary Island rainfall and the Atlantic large-scale circulation, characterized by the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) index. The Canary Islands are located in the Atlantic subtropical belt under the direct influence of the Azores high and the trade winds. Their steep orography makes the islands very sensitive to small variations in a synoptic situation, thus providing an excellent natural observatory for the North Atlantic ...

  18. Contradiction in conservation of island ecosystems: Plants, introduced herbivores and avian scavengers in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoso, Laura; Donázar, José A.; Scholz, Sonja; Palacios, César J.; Hiraldo, F.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of alien herbivores in sensitive island systems has resulted in massive effects on vegetation cover, floristic richness and composition of communities; some species can be even totally extirpated by grazing pressure. Goats Capra hircus and wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus were introduced in the Canary Islands around 500 B.C. Barbary ground squirrels Atlantoxerus getulus were introduced in 1967. Traditional extensive livestock exploitations have been maintained to the present bu...

  19. High resolution magnetic anomaly map of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents magnetic anomaly data from a new high-resolution, low-altitude helicopter-borne magnetic survey recently collected on and offshore Tenerife in the Canary Archipelago. The Italian Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV in collaboration with the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of the CSIC of Spain conducted the survey in 2006. The data for Tenerife and surrounding marine areas were processed into digital total intensity magnetic anomalies for geomagnetic epoch 2006.4. Relative to previously available higher altitude magnetic survey data, the new survey mapped higher resolution anomalies with significantly improved spatial details, especially over the Las Cañadas caldera and Teide-Pico Viejo complex in the central part of the island. A good correlation is evident between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, where the new shorter wavelength anomalies facilitate more detailed and comprehensive geologic interpretations.

  20. Aridity, desalination plants and tourism in the eastern Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-León García-Rodríguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the easternmost of the Canary Islands, and are located on the southern edge of the temperate zone, in the subtropical anticyclone belt. With less than 150 mm of rainfall a year, they are classified as an arid zone. Their inhabitants have devised original agricultural systems to combat the aridity, although low yields have historically limited socio-economic development and population growth. These systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the arrival of tourism in the last third of the twentieth century, which improved living standards for the local population but also led to a cultural transition. Nevertheless, these farming systems have left behind an important regional heritage, with an environmental and scenic value that has played an integral role in the latest phase of development. The systems have become a tourist attraction and have been central to the two islands being designated biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This article aims to analyse the main socioeconomic and land-use changes that have come about as a result of desalination technology.

  1. Non-native vascular plants from Canary Islands (Spain): nomenclatural and taxonomical adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    VERLOOVE, F

    2013-01-01

    Se propone correcciones taxonómicas y nomenclaturales respecto a 88 taxones no nativos de la lista de plantas vasculares de las Islas Canarias (España). Non-native vascular plants from Canary Islands (Spain): nomenclatural and taxonomical adjustments. Corrections and other adjustments are proposed for 88 non-native taxa from the checklist of vascular plants from the Canary Islands (Spain).

  2. The Climate of the Canary Islands by Annual Cycle Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, B.

    2016-06-01

    Annual cycle parameters (ACP) provide a global climatology of annual land surface temperature (LST) based on daily 1 km MODIS observations. These are based on a simple model of the annual temperature cycle and allow estimating LST patterns under largely cloud-free conditions for every day of year. Further, they deliver measures for the LST variability and the frequency of cloud occurrence. It has been demonstrated, that they reproduce important surface climate characteristics at global and urban scale but their ability to reproduce topo-climates has yet to be studied in detail. In this paper their suitability to investigate climatic variability at km scale were studied at the case of the Canary Islands (Spain). This Archipelago, has a very stable climate dominated by the Azores high and the trade wind belt, but shows a large number of micro-climates ranging from arid hot climates to cold climates. It was found that ACPs are a relevant source of climatic information at km scale in complex orography. Specifically, known features such as subsidence inversion, the resulting sea of clouds, the strong differentiation in precipitation between the flat and high islands, as well as the northern and southern slopes at the latter were clearly visible in the parameters.

  3. Radon Exposures in the Caves of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are more than a hundred volcanic caves and pits of various lengths on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The results are presented of atmospheric radon measurements performed in three of these caves and in three pits. One of the caves selected, El Viento Cave, is nearly 20 km in length and is the longest volcanic tube in the Canarian archipelago and the second longest in the world. The measurements were performed over two distinct periods during the year using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations range between 0.3 and 8 kBq.m-3, the maximum value corresponds to a site located at 1850 m from the mouth of El Viento Cave. Possible touristic development of these caves has been taken into account in estimating the effective doses for visitors and guides (considered separately). The values obtained range from 0.3 to 100 μSv per visit for visitors. The largest effective dose would correspond to that for guides at 41 mSv.y-1 in the Viento Cave. This result would make protection against radiological hazards obligatory if the cave were to be developed as a site for tourism. (author)

  4. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  5. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  6. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  7. High density and distribution patterns of a Raven Corvus corax population on an oceanic Island (El Hierro, Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, Manuel

    1994-01-01

    Data are provided on the density and distribution of an oceanic island population of Ravens (El Hierro, Canary Islands). The density of both the breeding population (ca. 35 pairs/100 km2) and that censused from a vehicle (35 birds/100 km) is the highest recorded in island environments and the second highest in the species' entire distribution area. The high density is probably due to an abundant food supply and numerous suitable nesting sites. Relief and altitude influenced the distribution o...

  8. Hygrocybe monteverdae, a new species of subgenus Cuphophyllus (Agaricales) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bañares, Á.; Arnolds, E.

    2002-01-01

    Hygrocybe monteverdae, collected in monte-verde forest in the Canary Islands, is proposed as a new species belonging to subgenus Cuphophyllus. Its most remarkable character is the blackening lamellae after drying, being the sole species with this feature in the subgenus.

  9. Metasomatism in the oceanic lithosphere beneath La Palma, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, Astrid; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2016-04-01

    La Palma is the most active island within the Canary archipelago with historical eruption along the Cumbre Vieja Rift. Mantle peridotite xenoliths brought to the surface during the eruption 1677/78 at the site of San Antonio Volcano, close to Fuencaliente in the south of the island, gives us an excellent opportunity to study an old oceanic lithosphere. The collection of xenoliths comprises sp-harzburgites, sp-lherzolites, sp-dunites and pyroxenites but only the first three were used for this work. Metasomatic processes are evident in all samples. A common feature is a variable channelling of melt flow through the mantle xenoliths displayed in variations from pervasively metasomatized, through veined to dyke intruded peridotites. Orthopyroxene breakdown into olivine, clinopyroxene and glass is evidence for anhydrous melt percolation. Furthermore, fine-grained veins in various thicknesses consisting of olivine, pyroxene as well as amphibole with apatite and phlogopite reveal additional anhydrous and hydrous metasomatic processes, respectively. Peridotites mainly influenced by anhydrous metasomatism exhibit locally phlogopite and/or amphibole around spinel or in glass-veinlets. Pentlandite has been found in all veined samples. Amphiboles are mostly pargasites but kaersutites are also present in the amphibole-bearing veins. Two different types of amphibole veins have been recognized. The first type is an amphibole-apatite-glass-bearing amphibolite, forming a cross-cutting vein that propagates through the xenolith. The amphiboles in this vein are coarse-grained while the disseminated amphiboles are fine-grained. Clinopyroxene always occurs in association with amphibole and in textural equilibrium suggesting that both minerals have grown together. The glass is of tephritic/basanitic to trachy-basaltic composition. The second amphibole-vein contains phlogopite and traces of apatite. Textural evidence (cross-cutting olivine grains and the absence of hydrous minerals in the

  10. Isolation of thermotolerant Vermamoeba vermiformis strains from water sources in Lanzarote Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    In this study, twenty water samples were collected in the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Water samples were cultured on 2% Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 2 of the 20 processed samples (10%) incubated at room temperature and 37°C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing in order to confirm the identity of the isolated amoebic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of FLA in environmental sources in Lanzarote Island and the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis in water sources in this island. Furthermore, the two strains isolated in this study were collected in recreational areas with close contact with humans and thus awareness should be raised. PMID:27447234

  11. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the 'Canary Islands Nutrition Survey' (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant

  12. Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim António

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times. Results Autochthonous (E-M81 and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267 Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today. Conclusion The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.

  13. Genetically depauperate in the continent but rich in oceanic islands: Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae in the Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fernández-Mazuecos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population genetic theory holds that oceanic island populations are expected to have lower levels of genetic variation than their mainland counterparts, due to founder effect after island colonization from the continent. Cistus monspeliensis (Cistaceae is distributed in both the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean region. Numerous phylogenetic results obtained in the last years allow performing further phylogeographic analyses in Cistus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sequences from multiple plastid DNA regions in 47 populations of Cistus monspeliensis from the Canary Islands (21 populations and the Mediterranean basin (26 populations. The time-calibrated phylogeny and phylogeographic analyses yielded the following results: (1 a single, ancestral haplotype is distributed across the Mediterranean, whereas 10 haplotypes in the Canary Islands; (2 four haplotype lineages are present in the Canarian Islands; (3 multiple colonization events across the archipelago are inferred; (4 the earliest split of intraspecific lineages occurred in the Early to Middle Pleistocene (<930,000 years BP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The contrasting pattern of cpDNA variation is best explained by genetic bottlenecks in the Mediterranean during Quaternary glaciations, while the Canarian archipelago acted as a refugium of high levels of genetic diversity. Active colonization across the Canarian islands is supported not only by the distribution of C. monspeliensis in five of the seven islands, but also by our phylogeographic reconstruction in which unrelated haplotypes are present on the same island. Widespread distribution of thermophilous habitats on every island, as those found throughout the Mediterranean, has likely been responsible for the successful colonization of C. monspeliensis, despite the absence of a long-distance dispersal mechanism. This is the first example of a plant species with higher genetic variation among oceanic island

  14. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Eff-Darwich, A.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Rodriguez-Losada, J. A.; de la Nuez, J.; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L. E.; Romero-Ruiz, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and vo...

  15. Diet of the extinct Lava mouse Malpaisomys insularis from the Canary Islands: insights from dental microwear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmat, Cyril; Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Hutterer, Rainer; Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Michaux, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Malpaisomys insularis is a mouse-like rodent endemic to the eastern Canary Islands. It became extinct during the fourteenth century. It was a remarkable species living under hyperarid conditions. A dental microwear analysis was performed in order to determine its former diet. The elevated number of fine scratches found in Malpaisomys molars suggests that it consumed a significant part of Poaceae, grass consumption leaving the most distinctive features on dental wear facets. A graminivorous diet with a high amount of abrasive items is in agreement with the broad teeth of Malpaisomys, considered as adapted to grass consumption. However, in the absence of potential competitors over its native range, it is likely that Malpaisomys also foraged on dicots to meet higher nutrient and energetic requirements. The ecology of Malpaisomys is discussed from these results in the context of the desertic climatic conditions of the eastern Canary Islands and with a special concern on its small body size in contrast to other large-sized island murine species such as the giant rats of the central Canary Islands.

  16. The effects of introducing natural gas in the Canary Islands for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier [Department of Economic Analysis, Institute for Regional Development, University of La Laguna (Spain); Moreno-Piquero, Juan Carlos [Department of Applied Economics, University of La Laguna (Spain); Ramos-Henriquez, Jose Manuel [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of La Laguna (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This study analyses the economic effects of introducing natural gas in the Canary Islands to generate electricity in combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants. To this end we will evaluate how this measure contributes to achieving the objectives of the islands' energy policy and we calculate the cost of generating a kWh from this technology. For this calculation we obtain the net present value (NPV) of the total production costs during the economic lifetime of the plant so as to subsequently find the unitary cost per kWh generated. The result obtained indicates that the kWh cost is some 25% lower than the cost of using petroleum derivatives. Additionally, if we consider the positive effect of CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, the cost is 41% lower. The introduction of natural gas will also be a decisive factor in complying with Kyoto requirements and in diversifying supply sources in the Canaries. (author)

  17. The helminth fauna of the barbary partridge Alectoris barbara in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Feliu, C

    2005-06-01

    The helminth fauna of the barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) in Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago) was studied from 2001 to 2002, as there were no records of helminths from this host in the Canary Islands. Seven helminth species were identified: two cestodes Choanotaenia infundibulum and Lyruterina nigropunctata, and five nematodes Aonchotheca caudinflata, Baruscapillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Lyruterina nigropunctata, A. galli and E. annulatus are recorded for first time in A. barbara. An analysis of available data on Alectoris spp. reveals the importance of intermediate hosts such as arthropods and earthworms in the diet of partridges. Terrestrial helminths are dominant species, with monoxenous and heteroxenous species being present in similar numbers in different Alectoris species along their geographical distribution. Helminth species found in Tenerife from A. barbara are poor indicators of the host colonization from North Africa because these helminths are species that are commonly found in fowl with a cosmopolitan distribution. PMID:15946395

  18. EVALUATING THE IMAGE OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS. THE CASE OF THE AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY OF THE CANARY ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana - Andreea SARAGEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increased competition on the international tourism market, the assessment of destination image has become a research subject for both managers aiming to improve destination positioning and academic researchers. In order to obtain a competitive advantage, every tourist destination must identify, maintain and reinforce, through appropriate marketing policies, unique items that form and build over time "the destination' s image". Accordingly, the ultimate target of the tourist destinations' promoters should be to achieve a high level of coincidence between the promoted or projected image and the perceived image of the destination, held by potential and actual tourists. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to illustrate promotional techniques and methods used by the authorities of the Canary Islands over the years (projected image, and to identify, through a survey among the citizens of Braşov, the image that they have of the Canary Islands (perceived image.

  19. Herpesvirus infection with severe lymphoid necrosis affecting a beaked whale stranded in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Esperón, Fernando; Watanabe, Tatiane T N; Bellière, Edwige N; Espinosa de los Monteros, Antonio; Fernández, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the pathologic findings in a single, adult female Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris stranded in the Canary Islands. The study indicated that this whale died with a severe, systemic, herpesviral infection and clearly exhibited lesions different from those of the fat and gas embolic syndrome described in beaked whale mass strandings associated with sonar exposure. This is the first report of a cetacean alphaherpesvirus infection of the lymphoid system in a beaked whale. PMID:20481092

  20. Annotated checklist of Capitellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Iberian Peninsula, Chafarinas, Balearic and Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    M. El Haddad; Capaccioni Azzati, R.; García-Carrascosa, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present annotated checklist has been elaborated after revision of preserved materials (from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid and the reference collection of the Marine Biology Laboratory of the University of Valencia) and published literature related to capitellids from the Iberian Peninsula, Chafarinas, Balearic and Canary Islands. Twenty-four species and subspecies belonging to thirteen genera are recognized as valid taxa. With this checklist we include some taxonomic de...

  1. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Srncik, M.; P. Steier; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange ...

  2. Water dynamics in a laurel montane cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (Canary Islands, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Santos, G; Marzol, M. V.; Aschan, G.

    2004-01-01

    Field measurements from February 2003 to January 2004 in a humid (but dry in summer) crest heath wood-land (degraded laurel forest) in the National Park of Garajonay, Canary Islands (Spain), were combined to calculate water balance components. The water balance domain is at the surface of the catchment and is controlled by atmospheric processes and vegetation. This study found that annual water income (rainfall plus fog water) was 1440 mm year-1, half of which was occult (or fog) precipita...

  3. Engineering Geological Properties of the Volcanic Rocks and Soils of the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    González de Vallejo, Luis I.; Hijazo Ramiro, Teresa; Ferrer Gijón, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the engineering geological properties of the rocks and soils of the Canary Islands based on data from field studies, laboratory tests and extensive databases for volcanic materials. Geological properties and processes most relevant to geo-engineering are described. Geomechanical characterization of rock masses and soil deposits including rock mass classification, index and strength properties are presented. Some of the most relevant results show materials of low t...

  4. No association between genetic ancestry and susceptibility to asthma or atopy in Canary Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Yanes, María; Corrales, Almudena; Cumplido, José; González, Ruperto; Torres-Galván, María José; Fernández, Orlando Acosta; Sánchez-Machín, Inmaculada; Figueroa, Javier; Sánchez-Palacios, Anselmo; Villar, Jesús; Hernández, Mariano; Carrillo, Teresa; Flores, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Asthma is a complex respiratory disease characterized by chronic inflammation of airways and frequently associated with atopic symptoms. The population from the Canary Islands, which has resulted from a recent admixture of North African and Iberian populations, shows the highest prevalence of asthma and atopic symptoms among the Spanish populations. Although environmental particularities would account for the majority of such disparity, genetic ancestry might play a role in increasing the susceptibility of asthma or atopy, as have been demonstrated in other recently African-admixed populations. Here, we aimed to explore whether genetic ancestry was associated with asthma or related traits in the Canary Islanders. For that, a total of 734 DNA samples from unrelated individuals of the GOA study, self-reporting at least two generations of ancestors from the Canary Islands (391 asthmatics and 343 controls), were successfully genotyped for 83 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), which allowed to precisely distinguishing between North African and Iberian ancestries. No association was found between genetic ancestry and asthma or related traits after adjusting by demographic variables differing among compared groups. Similarly, none of the individual AIMs was associated with asthma when results were considered in the context of the multiple comparisons performed (0.005 ≤ p value ≤ 0.042; 0.221 ≤ q value ≤ 0.443). Our results suggest that if genetic ancestry were involved in the susceptibility to asthma or related traits among Canary Islanders, its effects would be modest. Larger studies, examining more genetic variants, would be needed to explore such possibility. PMID:22710824

  5. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  6. Origin and SEM analysis of aerosols in the high mountain of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Juan P.; Francisco J. Expósito; Emilio Cuevas; Delgado, Juan D.; Omaira E. García; Ana M. Díaz; Xavier Querol; Andrés Alastuey; Sonia Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on aerosolized matter of relevance to respiratory health, a major public health issue worldwide, we studied mineral and biological aerosol (bioaerosol) composition (TSP and PM2.5) and geographical origins during dust intrusions in the Canary Islands. Seven days’ back- ward trajectories were assessed daily during March 2004 with the ends of back trajectories being the sampling station of Izaña (high moun- tain, 2360 m a.s.l. at the Cañadas del Teide National Park, Tenerife island), a ...

  7. Geological and petrological aspects of the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletlidis, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Iribarren, I.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Torres, P. A.; Felpeto, A.; Lopez, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Canarian Archipelago comprises seven major and three minor islands, all of them of volcanic origin. The distribution of the islands forms an east-west volcanic chain, starting about 90 km west of the northwest African continental margin. The canary volcanism is unique among ocean islands (long lifetime, multiple periods of volcanic activity, extensive range of magma compositions) and various theories were developed in order to explain that specific volcanism, with such a variety of volcanic phases and chemical diversity. El Hierro, located at the SW end of this island group, is the youngest island with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma and is still in juvenile stage of shield growth. The island is the emergent summit of a 280 km2 volcanic shield which rises from a 3800-4000m depth and grows up to 1500 m above sea level. Although the whole island has been constructed by the volcanic material of two major volcanic edifices, Tiñor in the NE (0.8 -1.2 Ma) and El Golfo edifice in the NW (550 ka-130 ka), rift volcanism (134 ka - AD1793) has been very active after the second major tectonic event (gravitational collapse of El Golfo edifice), specially along the South ridge. Till July 2011 the most recent eruption was the Volcán de Lomo Negro (AD1793) located at the western part of the island. The products of the Tiñor and El Golfo edifice, massive lava flows, are typical mafic basalts with phenocrystals of olivine and only in El Golfo sequence evolved lava flows (trachytes with phenocrystals of plagioclase feldspars) could be observed. However, the recent rift lavas present varied compositional and textural features. During the eruption of 2011-2012 a variety of volcanic material has been observed and sampled. On 15 October, bicoloured lava fragments were observed floating on the sea with a bomb-like shape and sizes between 10 and 40 cm. The outer part, black, vesiculated and no more than 1 cm thick, had a basaltic composition, while the inner part was

  8. Characterization of the distribution of water vapour for DInSAR studies on the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Eff-Darwich, Antonio; García-Lorenzo, Begoña; Pérez-Darias, Juan C.; González, Albano; Fernández Torres, José; González Méndez, Pablo José

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of ground displacement have been carried out on the entire active volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, by means of classical and advanced DInSAR techniques. The main limiting factor on the accuracy of DInSAR measurements is the distribution of the water vapour in the lower troposphere. Hence, it is yet necessary to perform a detailed spatial and temporal characterization of water vapour to understand, and to be able to carry out a direct computation of, the effect of the ...

  9. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Eff-Darwich, A; Rodriguez-Losada, J A; de la Nuez, J; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L E; Romero-Ruiz, M C

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity was found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, in the island of La Palma.

  10. The impact of the climate on the epidemiology of Dirofilaria immitis in the pet population of the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, J A; Carretón, E; Morchón, R; Silveira-Viera, L; Falcón, Y; Simón, F

    2016-01-30

    Cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis (heartworm) is a zoonotic vector borne disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis which affects domestic dogs and cats. Two of the seven Canary Islands are historically hyperendemic areas of dirofilariosis, although no epidemiological study has ever been carried out which includes the other islands. The aim of the study was to complete the epidemiological status of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in the canine and feline population throughout all the Canary Islands. 1643 client-owned dogs and 707 client-owned cats were tested for D. immitis antigens (dogs), and anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies (cats). The prevalence of canine dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands was 15.7%, and the seroprevalence of feline dirofilariosis was 18.1%. A remarkable disparity was found when evaluating the results by island separately, which ranged from from 0% in Lanzarote and El Hierro, low prevalences and seroprevalences in Fuerteventura (1.8% and 2.5% in dogs and cats, respectively), to higher prevalences on the other 4 islands; ranging between 15.7% (dogs) and 14.3% (cats) in La Palma 22.5% (dogs) and 24.1% (cats) in Tenerife. In addition, prevalences and seroprevalences were very variable within each island, these differences being associated to local climate conditions. The distribution and prevalence of dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands is heterogeneous and related to climate, demographic factors and management of pets in the studied areas. Dirofilariosis remains hyperendemic in 4 of the 7 Islands. Since D. immitis is a zoonosis, veterinary and health authorities should be aware of the current prevalence and seroprevalence of animal dirofilariosis. The results show the need for awareness raising campaigns to promote the implementation of prophylactic measures in pets, in order to achieve a decrease in the prevalence of animal dirofilariosis in the Canary Islands. PMID:26801597

  11. Forest Hydrology, Soil Conservation and Green Barriers in Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos SANTAMARTA-CEREZAL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic islands, the rainfall regime and its torrential nature, together with the steep slopes and the soil types present are considered to be some of the main factors affecting forest hydrology and soil conservation. In such environments, rain regime is generally irregular and characterized by short and intense rainfalls, which could cause destructive flows at times, followed by long periods of rain absence. The volcanic nature of these islands have as a direct resultant steep slopes which influences the runoff volume and speed, as well as the amount of topsoil susceptible to be detached and transported downstream. The soil type also affects the susceptibility to erosion processes. Andisols are the most typical soil on volcanic islands. Their particularities derive their mineral constituents, called short-range-order products, which provide these soils with an increased structural stability, which in turn reduces their susceptibility to erosion. However, the land use changes and the environmental factors such as rain regime and steep slopes may be determinant factor in destabilizing these soils and ultimately a cause for soil erosion and runoffs, which become a threat to the population downstream. Green barriers have been traditionally used to prevent or reduce these processes, also to enhance the dew effect and the fog water collection, and as a firebreak which acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a wildfire. Wooded species present and subsequently their performance have a major influence on their effectiveness. The use of this natural erosion and fire control methods on volcanic islands is discussed in this paper.

  12. An Institutional Approach to Bordering in Islands: The Canary Islands on the African-European Migration Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Godenau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands play a significant role in international irregular maritime migration. Frequently they are part of maritime interstitial spaces between states, and their location, combined with institutional membership, makes them part of international migration routes and subject to border management strategies. In this paper borders are analysed as social institutions used for regulating relative permeability through rules of entry and exit for persons, goods and capital. Borders institutionalize territoriality and are politically implemented by states. They are selective, also in migration, and irregular border transit is not always indicative of an inability to control. The Canary Islands are used as an illustrative example of how border management at the southern edge of the European Union has evolved towards more coercive deterrence and tighter surveillance. The Canary Islands experienced irregular maritime immigration from the west African coasts during the first decade of the 21st century and most of these migrants intended to use the islands as transit space towards the European continent. Increasing surveillance in countries of origin, enforcement of border controls and stricter return policies were used to stop flows. The so-called “cayuco crisis” in 2006 induced institutional change in border management and forced the active involvement of the EU through FRONTEX.

  13. After Timanfaya: overpopulation and soil erosion in the north of Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eruption of Timanfaya (1730-1736) has been the most important volcanic activity on Canary Islands during historical times (after XV Century). The lave flows and piroclastic layers buried at least 1/4 of Lanzarote surface. Overall the island we can see artificial cross-sections showing ash layers, overlapping paleargids soils or interbedded between alluvial sediment on the bottom of in filled valleys. Sedimentological analysis has been applied on four cross-section located along the island. These data, together with historical information and pottery remains, allow conclude a very recent age for many of this layers, produced by a strong erosion input started by the overgrazing produced by the concentration of livestock during the volcanic crisis. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Arrival of radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two weeks after the accident at the Fukushima-Daichi nuclear power plant, 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activities were measured in two different stations located in Tenerife (Canary Islands), situated at 300 (FIMERALL) and 2400 (IZAÑA) m.a.s.l, respectively. Peak measured activity concentrations were: 1.851 mBq/m3 (131I); 0.408 mBq/m3 (137Cs) and 0.382 mBq/m3 (134Cs). The activities measured at the FIMERALL station were always higher than at IZAÑA station, suggesting that the radioactive plume arrived to the island associated with low altitude air masses. Simulations of potential dispersion of the radioactive cloud (137Cs) after the nuclear accident in reactor Fukushima I show that radioactive pollution reached remote regions such as the Canary Islands in the Eastern subtropical North Atlantic. The corresponding effective dose to the local population was 1.17 nSv, a value less than one millionth of the annual limit for the general public. Therefore, there was no risk to public health. - Highlights: ► Arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife following the accident of Fukushima. ► The atmospheric concentration of radionuclides was always higher at low altitude. ► After reaching the peak concentration a sharp decrease of radionuclides was observed. ► Air mass forward trajectory analysis confirms the potential arrival of radionuclides to Tenerife.

  15. In search of greener pastures? Boat-migrants from Senegal to the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Poeze, M

    2010-01-01

    This Masters thesis is the winner of the ASC's Africa Thesis Award 2009. It examines the decision-making process of Senegalese men to make use of the dangerous boat journey to the Canary Islands in an effort to reach Europe. Moving beyond conventional micro- and macro-theories on migration decision-making, this study focuses at the meso-level by which the embeddedness of migrants' decision-making in ongoing social contacts is considered. The study draws on ethnographic research among unsucces...

  16. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer. PMID:20692274

  17. The Lanzarote Geodynamic Laboratory: new capabilities for monitoring of volcanic activity at Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoso, J.; Vélez, E. J.; Soler, V.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.

    2012-04-01

    The volcanic island of Lanzarote is located at the northeastern end of the Canary Islands. Together with Fuerteventura Island, Lanzarote constitutes the emergent part of the East Canary Ridge, which presents a NNE-SSW volcanic alignment. Last eruptive events took place in 1824 and during the period 1730-1736, which is the largest to occur in the archipelago and throw out about 1.3 km3 of volcanic materials. The Lanzarote Geodynamic Laboratory (LGL) was created in 1986 with the idea of making Lanzarote as a natural laboratory to carry out studies in order to acquire more knowledge about its origin, present status and evolution (Vieira et al., 1991; 2006). The LGL has a multidisciplinary scientific purpose and, among others, various objectives are devoted to investigate mass distribution in the Earth system and surface displacements associated to volcanic and/or seismic activity in the island. The influence of LGL is extended throughout the whole geographical area of Lanzarote, including small islands located at the north. The laboratory has 3 observing modules distributed along the island according to its infrastructure and scientific objectives, where more than 70 sensors are recording continuously gravity variations, ground deformations, sea level, seismic activity, meteorological parameters, etc. All these observations are supplemented by periodic measurement of geodetic and geophysical networks that allow us to make studies at local, insular and regional scales. The application of geodetic and geophysical techniques to identify geodynamic signals related to volcanic processes is then a permanent research activity of the laboratory. Nowadays, this fact becomes more interesting due to the ongoing volcanic eruption that is taking place in other island of the Canary Archipelago, El Hierro, since past July 2011. That is, the multidisciplinary research carry on up to now at the LGL allow us to apply multiparameter observations of different kinds of volcanic

  18. New evidences on the structure of Tenerife (Canary Islands) from aeromagnetic data. Implications for the growth of ocean island volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago located in the eastern central Atlantic. The central part of the island is occupied by a huge caldera, known as Las Canadas, inside of which the Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanic system developed. The highest point of the island, the Teide peak, reaches 3718 m above sea level and about 7000 m from the seafloor, which makes Tenerife the third highest ocean volcano on Earth. The interest on this island was especially renewed in 2004, when the increase of seismic activity led some volcanologists think of a possible eruption after almost a century of quiescence. In 2006 a new aeromagnetic survey of Tenerife was carried out with the aim of sampling the magnetic signature of the island with unprecedented detail. In this work we present some 3D magnetic models of Tenerife obtained from this new data set through an inverse approach especially adapted to the characteristics of volcanic environments. The shallow structure shows strong correlations with available magnetic polarity data. In addition, areas affected by giant landslides seem to be related to a characteristic magnetization pattern. The deep inner structure reveals an E-W elongated intrusive body emplaced beneath the northern half of the island as the source responsible for most of the magnetic signal of the island. These results cast new light on the inner structure of Tenerife, in particular, and on the early phases of growth of volcanic islands, in general.

  19. Acanthamoeba genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Valerón-Tejera, Marco Antonio; Wagner, Carolina; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    The genus Acanthamoeba includes pathogenic strains which are causative agents of keratitis and encephalitis that often may end fatal in humans and other animals. In the present study, forty soil samples were collected in the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Samples were cultivated onto 2 % non-nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA of Acanthamoeba was carried out in order to confirm morphological identification of the amoebae. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 47.5 % of soil samples. Moreover, genotypes T2, T4, and T11 were identified in these samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish genotypes T2, T4, and T11 in soil sources from El Hierro island. PMID:27075307

  20. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the Te

  1. Middle Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changes of the eastern Canary Islands - revealed by the Mála dune-palaeosol-sequence at Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, H.; Zöller, L.; Hilgers, A.; Radtke, U.; Faust, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Canary Islands are located at the transition between the Mediterranean and the Saharan climate off NW-Africa. Thus, they are a key area for the investigation of palaeoenvironmental changes. Several terrestrial studies investigated the palaeoenvironmental development of that region during the later part of the last glacial cycle. However, apart from recent investigations of "vega" sediments on Lanzarote Island (Suchodoletz et al. 2010) the palaeoenvironmental evolution during the Middle Pleistocene is hardly studied yet, basically due to the lack of reliable geochronological data. The Mála dune-palaeosol-sequence is located in the north of Lanzarote. It consists of marine shell detritus originally blown out from the insular shelf during periods of low global sea level, and to a small part of Saharan dust and fine quartz sand. The aeolian layers are intercalated with up to eight silty-clayey palaeosol horizons. Unlike the dune sands, the soils indicate stable landscape conditions with trapping of Saharan dust. Using a combination of ESR and luminescence dating techniques, we are able to place this sequence into the Middle Pleistocene, in contrast to former investigations based on 14C datings postulating a Late Pleistocene age (Ortiz et al. 2006). As a consequence, clayey-silty palaeosols represent periods of stable landscape conditions in the Canarian region during the Middle Pleistocene, which we compare with marine palaeoclimatic studies from the area.

  2. Pathology and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (1999-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelo, Manuel; Los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa de; Herráez, Pedro; Andrada, Marisa; Sierra, Eva; Rodríguez, Francisco; Jepson, Paul D; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-03-26

    Between 1999 and 2005, 233 stranded cetaceans (comprising 19 species) were reported in the waters of the Canary Islands. Of these, 138/233 (59.2%) were subjected to a complete or partial standardized necropsy, including 4 Balaenopteridae, 9 Physeteridae, 8 Kogiidae, 27 Ziphiidae and 90 Delphinidae. Of these, 46/138 (33.3%) cetaceans were diagnosed with anthropogenic pathological categories (i.e. the cause of death was anthropogenic). These included fishing interaction (bycatch) (19 individuals), 'atypical' mass stranding events linked to naval exercises (13), ship collisions (8) and other anthropogenic-related pathology (6). 'Natural' (i.e. non-anthropogenic) causes of death accounted for another 82/138 (59.4%) cases, including infectious and non-infectious diseases (63), neonatal pathology (8), intra- and interspecific interactions (6) and mass strandings (5). The cause(s) of death could not be determined in 10/138 (7.3%) necropsied animals. The most common causes of death were ship collisions in 6/9 (66.6%) Physeteridae, 'atypical' mass stranding linked to naval exercises in 13/27 (48.1%) Ziphiidae, and 'natural' infectious and non-infectious diseases in 55/90 (61.1%) Delphinidae. Interaction with fishing activities was established as cause of death in 15/90 (16.7%) Delphinidae. These data show that a range of anthropogenic and natural single and mass mortality events occur in multiple cetacean species stranded in the Canary Islands. PMID:23548359

  3. Unusual Vermamoeba Vermiformis Strain Isolated from Snow in Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Reyes-Batlle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. Thermophilic amoebae are among the most common FLA in water bodies, being Vermamoeba vermiformis one of the most common species reported worldwide from these sources. Interestingly, V. vermiformis has often been reported to survive at high temperatures and osmotic pressure worldwide.Materials and Methods: In this study, snow samples were collected from Mount Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands during the winter season of 2014. The samples were culture on non nutrient agar plates and checked daily for the presence of FLA. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in the plates incubated at room temperature and 37ºC.Results: Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing, confirmed that the isolated strain belonged to Vermamoeba vermiformis species.Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis isolation from such an inusual habitat (low temperatures and high altitude and the first report of these species in the Canary islands.

  4. Cocaine use during pregnancy assessed by hair analysis in a Canary Islands cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug use during pregnancy is difficult to ascertain, and maternal reports are likely to be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use among pregnant women by using maternal hair analysis. Methods A toxicological analysis of hair was used to detect chronic recreational drug use during pregnancy. In 2007, 347 mother-infant dyads were included from the Hospital La Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain. Data on socioeconomic characteristics and on substance misuse during pregnancy were collected using a structured questionnaire. Drugs of abuse: opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids and amphetamines were detected in maternal hair by immunoassay followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirmation and quantitation. Results Hair analysis revealed 2.6% positivity for cocaine and its metabolites. Use of cocaine during pregnancy was associated with unusual behaviour with potentially harmful effects on the baby. Conclusions The results of the study demonstrate significant cocaine use by pregnant women in Canary Islands. The data should be used for the purpose of preventive health and policy strategies aimed to detect and possibly to avoid in the future prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse.

  5. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

  6. Mineralization rate of eroded organic C in Andosols of the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan Luis; Guerra, José Asterio; Armas, Cecilia María; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Arbelo, Carmen Dolores; Notario, Jesús Santiago

    2007-05-25

    The aim of this paper is to determine the biological dynamism of the organic C forms bonded to soil particles mobilized by water erosion in Andosols of the Canary Islands, to evaluate their susceptibility towards mineralization processes and the role of sediments as sources or sinks of atmospheric CO(2) in these soils. The study was carried out in Tenerife (Canary Islands) on three 200 m(2) experimental plots of the RESEL Programme on silic Andosols under forest, 3 years after being subjected to clear-cutting. Eroded sediments were collected for analysis from five significant winter rainfall episodes. For each event, samples of surface (0-5 cm) soil in situ were also collected. CO(2)-C was measured by incubation in all the samples, as well as microbial biomass-linked C. The results obtained show an enrichment in the eroded sediments of microbial biomass (7.5+/-1.6 g kg(-1) vs. 3.8+/-1.5 g kg(-1)) and of potentially mineralizable C (1419 mg CO(2)-C kg(-1) vs. 386 mg CO(2)-C kg(-1)). In addition, there was twice as much mineralization of C compounds in eroded sediments as in the soil surface horizon. PMID:17292946

  7. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: cherrera@ucn.cl [Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m{sup −2} year{sup −1} of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may

  8. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m−2 year−1 of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may exist

  9. Effect of wildfires on the genetic microbial diversity in forest soils from Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires produce several ecological and environmental impacts on the physical and chemical soil characteristics, as well as on the properties and dynamics of soil microbial populations. Microorganisms are good indicators of ecosystem function and sustainability and therefore the studies about the impact of fire on microbial communities is relevant to understand the role of fire in ecosystem functioning. Although several authors have provided data about total microbial biomass and activity in soils affected by fires, there is little information about the composition and evolution of soil microbial populations after the passage of fire. In this work the effect of wildfires on the genetic diversity of microbial populations in soils from the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain is studied. The final objective was to get information about the recovery of soil functionality after wildfires.

  10. Shallow seismic imaging of flank collapse structures in oceanic island volcanoes: Application to the Western Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L.; González, P.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic flank collapse counts among the many hazards associated with volcanic activity. This type of event involves the mobilization of large volumes, producing debris avalanches. It affects mostly oceanic island volcanoes, involving the potential for tsunami occurrence. Geophysical imaging can illuminate subvolcanic features such as volcano-tectonic structures, magmatic plumbing systems or differences in rock type. The most commonly used geophysical methods are gravity, electromagnetics and seismics. In particular, seismic measurements quantify anomalies in seismic waves propagation velocities and can be used to obtain information on the subsurface arrangement of different materials. In the Western Canary Islands, the Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma (Canary Islands) has been proposed to be near the collapse stage. Previous geophysical studies that have been carried out on the flank of the volcano comprise gravity and electromagnetic methods. These types of surveys gather information on the deep structures of the volcano (1-2 km). In this project, we complement previous studies by using seismic methods to investigate the near-surface seismic structure of the Cumbre Vieja fault system (La Palma Island) and the structure of the well-developed San Andres fault system (El Hierro Island). We aim to compare the Cumbre Vieja and San Andres fault systems to infer the degree of maturity of collapse structures. We carried out reflection and refraction seismic surveys in order to image approximately the first 10 meters of the subsurface. We used 24 low frequency (4,5 Hz) geophones as receivers and a sledge hammer as the seismic source. The survey lines were located across visible parts of the fault systems at the Cumbre Vieja volcano and the San Andres fault in El Hierro. Here, we present the survey setup and results from the preliminary analysis of the data.

  11. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain: the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Troll

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite, (ii remelted magmatic material (trachyte, (iii altered volcanic rock, or (iv reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores. The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  12. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  13. Middle Pleistocene volcanic activity dated by red thermoluminescence (RTL) - a case study from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, H.; Blanchard, H.; Rittner, S.; Radtke, U.; Fuchs, M.; Dietze, M.; Zöller, L.

    2009-04-01

    On Lanzarote (Canary Islands) soils were baked by Quaternary lava flows. This offers the possibility to date phases of eruptive activity by red thermoluminescence (RTL). We dated soil material baked by two different lava flows originating from the "Las Calderetas de Guatiza" volcanic chain in the northeast of the island by RTL. Furthermore, three samples of Helicidae-mollusk shells overlying one of the lava flows (site Mála) were dated using electron spin resonance (ESR). RTL datings were carried out using quartz grains 63-200 µm from baked material that were originally brought by eolian transport from the nearby Saharan desert. It appears that in spite of a baking temperature dating by RTL was possible. RTL ages of ca. 170 ka show good agreement with each other, however, ESR ages are up to 40 % higher than the corresponding RTL age of the lava flow in Mála. Despite this disagreement these results demonstrate that eruptive activity of the volcanic chain occurred during the Middle Pleistocene rather than during the Early Holocene/Late Pleistocene as supposed based on geomorphologic features. Furthermore, they show that 14C-ages of mollusk shells originating from Mála are underestimating volcanic activity up to a factor of 10, a problem often recorded in arid areas. These results demonstrate the value of luminescence and ESR datings on the semi arid Eastern Canary Islands. The successful dating of lava-baked soils on Lanzarote by RTL thus offers the possibility to further investigate the yet fragmentary Middle and Late Quaternary eruptive history of these islands.

  14. The 1677 eruption of La Palma, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Badiola, E.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1677 volcanic eruption, located close to the town of Fuencaliente at the south end of La Palma, has been associated with the large volcanic cone of San Antonio, an emission centre showing relatively high energy phreatomagmatic phases. However, detailed geological mapping and a reinterpretation of available eye-witness accounts elearly prove the San Antonio emission centre to be a preexisting volcano related to an eruption that occurred several thousands years earlier. The 1677 eruption, or Volcán de Fuencaliente is a low magnitude eruption composed of a small strombolian vent and a cluster of aligned spatter vents. About 75-125 x 106 m3 of lavas from these spatter vents covered an area of 4.5 x 106 m2 and formed a wide coastal platform with 1.6 x 106 m2 of new land gained from the sea. This modest magnitude eruption is in better accord with the negligible damage caused to the area reported in the contemporary accounts. This revision of the 1677 eruption and its magnitude is relevant for the precise reconstruction of the recent volcanism of La Palma and the correct definition of volcanic hazards in the island.La erupción de 1677, localizada cerca de la población de Fuencaliente en el S de la isla de La Palma, ha sido asociada hasta ahora con el cono volcánico denominado San Antonio. Este centro de emisión presenta fases eruptivas de energía relativamente elevada. El estudio geológico de detalle de esta erupción y la reinterpretación de los relatos de la época indican que el volcán San Antonio es, en realidad, un aparato volcánico preexistente, relacionado con algún episodio eruptivo de varios miles de años de antigüedad. La verdadera erupción de 1677 o Volcán de Fuencaliente, es de baja magnitud y está formada por pequeños centros eruptivos estrombolianos y conos alineados de escorias. El volumen de lavas emitidas es de unos 75-125 x 106 m3 y cubre una extensión de aproximadamente 4.5 x 106 m2, de los cuales 1.6 x 106 m2

  15. Archaeology in the Canary Islands during the Franco regime: the original settlement of the Islands as paradigm (1939-1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrujia de la Rosa, A. José

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we analyze the contributions of the authors linked to the Provincial Commissary for Archaeological Excavations in the Canaries. Their studies led to the development of a nationalist prehistory of these islands. Developed during Franco’s regime, this prehistory was directly influenced by the theoretical, practical and ideological guidelines that gave meaning to the studies of peninsular prehistory at this time. An approach to the topic of the original colonization of the Canary Islands, allows us to highlight the relationship that existed between politics and archaeology, and therefore, between the power and the generation of the scientific knowledge.

    Durante el franquismo, la aportación de los distintos autores vinculados con las Comisarías Provinciales de Excavaciones Arqueológicas de Canarias daría pie al desarrollo de una lectura nacionalista de la prehistoria canaria, directamente influenciada por las directrices teóricas, prácticas e ideológicas que por entonces daban sentido a la prehistoria peninsular. Una aproximación al estudio del primitivo poblamiento de las Islas Canarias durante este período nos ha permitido sacar a relucir la estrecha relación que existió entre la política y la arqueología y, por ende, entre el poder y la generación del conocimiento científico.

  16. Data analysis and adjustment of the first geodetic surveys in the Caldera of Teide, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, M. J.; Martin, M. D.; Camacho, A. G.

    1986-11-01

    To detect possible superficial deformations in the volcanic Caldera of Teide area (Canary Islands), we have set up a network composed by 17 points which we shall observe successively. In this paper, we present the analysis and reduction of data and the free tridimensional adjustment of the network for the first observation campaign.

  17. Groundwater and marine intertidal Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) from the Canary and Cabo Verde Islands, with descriptions of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erséus, Christer

    1992-01-01

    Seven species of Tubificidae are recorded from the Canary Islands, viz. Heterodrilus amplus n. sp., Coralliodrilus leviatriatus Erséus, 1979, Limnodriloides agnes Hrabĕ, 1967, L. janstocki n. sp., Aktedrilus cuneus Erséus, 1984, A. parvithecatus (Erséus, 1978), and Tubifex tubifex (Müller, 1774); th

  18. Planck intermediate results XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Ferragamo, A.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Hempel, A.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Levrier, F.; Lietzen, H.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, Fernand; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Streblyanska, A.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-i...

  19. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin; Possnert, Göran

    2016-01-01

    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129I and 127I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129I and its...

  20. Classification of commercial wines from the Canary Islands (Spain) by chemometric techniques using metallic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Sergio; Conde, José E; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan J; García-Montelongo, Francisco; Pérez-Trujillo, Juan P

    2003-02-01

    Eleven elements, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sr, Li and Rb, were determined in dry and sweet wines bearing the denominations of origin of El Hierro, La Palma and Lanzarote islands (Canary Islands, Spain). Analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, with the exceptions of lithium and rubidium for which flame atomic emission spectrophotometry was used. Sweet wines from La Palma were elaborated as naturally sweet with over-ripe grapes and significant differences were found in all the analysed elements with the exceptions of sodium, iron and rubidium with regard to dry wines from the same island. Contrarily, sweet wines from Lanzarote elaborated with grapes in a similar ripening state to dry wines did not present significant differences between them with the exception of strontium, the content of which was greater in dry wines. Among the three islands, significant differences in mean content were found with the exceptions of iron and copper. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis show differences in wines according to the island of origin and the ripening state of the grapes. Linear discriminant analysis using rubidium, sodium, manganese and strontium, the four most discriminant elements, gave 100% recognition ability and 95.6% prediction ability. The sensitivity and specificity obtained using soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as a modelling multivariate technique were both 100% for El Hierro and Lanzarote, and 100 and 95%, respectively, for La Palma. The modelling and discriminant capacities of the different metals were also studied. PMID:18968916

  1. Multivariate Modelling of the Canary Islands Banana Output. The Role of Farmer Income Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción González-Concepción

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest importer of bananas and the only major managed market in the international banana trade. Spain is the main banana producer within the European Union (EU, followed by France and Portugal. In all these countries the fruit is grown in overseas islands situated in tropical or sub-tropical areas and bananas are a pillar of the economic, social and environmental balance of these regions. Spanish production comes from the Canary Islands, an insular environment located in the Atlantic Ocean more than 1000 km south of the Iberian Peninsula and near the northwest coast of Africa. In the context of high production costs and strong competition from Latin American imports, the compensatory aid that local farmers have been receiving from the EU since 1993 has helped the archipelago to maintain its agricultural position while constituting a main support from an economic, social and landscaping standpoint. This research analyses the Canary Islands banana output evolution through the use of certain multivariate dynamic models that consider the influence of past production costs, past farmer income and future expectations, including a sensitivity analysis. We consider annual data time series on production, perceived prices and production costs for the period 1938-2002. Model predictions are contrasted using data for the period 2003-2006, thus spanning a wide period of time that includes key points such as the 1993 reform and the introduction of the 2006 reform. The empirical work highlights, as do all EU norms, the importance of maintaining adequate farmer income expectations to assure subsistence banana production.

  2. Estimating Natural Recharge by Means of Chloride Mass Balance in a Volcanic Aquifer: Northeastern Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Gema Naranjo; Tatiana Cruz-Fuentes; María del Carmen Cabrera; Emilio Custodio

    2015-01-01

    The chloride mass balance method was used to estimate the average diffuse groundwater recharge on northeastern Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), where the largest recharge to the volcanic island aquifer occurs. Rainwater was sampled monthly in ten rainwater collectors to determine the bulk deposition rate of chloride for the 2008-2014 period. Average chloride deposition decreases inwardly from more than 10 g center dot m(-2)center dot year(-1) to about 4 g center dot m(-2)center dot year(-1). Th...

  3. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Nemesio M. Pérez; Dina L. López; Gladys V. Melián; Eleazar Padrón; Germán D. Padilla

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical...

  4. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain using extreme value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sobradelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 yr, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. This is done in three steps: First, we analyze the historical eruptive series to assess independence and homogeneity of the process. Second, we perform a Weibull analysis of the

  5. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain) using extreme value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Mendoza-Rosas, A. T.; Gómez, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 yr, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. This is done in three steps: First, we analyze the historical eruptive series to assess independence and homogeneity of the process. Second, we perform a Weibull analysis of the distribution of repose

  6. Reproductive pattern of Pterocladiella capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) at Canary Islands (Spain, Atlantic Ocean)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mascha Stroobant; Milena Polifrone

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To record the reproductive pattern of a natural population of Pterocladiella capillacea from Gáldar (Canary Islands, Spain) from February to August in relation to temperature, irradiance and photoperiod environmental conditions.Methods:Field observation of reproductive thalli was used at different seasons in the year. Results: Tetrasporophytes and vegetative thalli were observed during all the period of study, while female gametophytes bearing cystocarps have been found from May to August in correspondence with the highest water temperature and irradiance values.Conclusions:Our data suggest that the temperature may be the determining factor which regulates the presence of tetrasporophytes in the field. The constant presence of tetrasporophytes could depend on the low excursion range of water temperature (4-5 °C) throughout the period of study, with the highest abundance in February at 20 °C.

  7. The necessity of reconceptualizing the migration of unaccompanied minors to the Canary Islands of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Torrado Martín-Palomino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of unaccompanied foreign minors (menores extranjeros no acompañados, MENA represents a new model for international mobility in Spain, one with its own particularities compared with other migratory flows. The dual nature of being unaccompanied and unauthorized leads to conflicts in the care and integration of these new migrants. However, this dual nature is one of the main prerequisites for the development of this mobility model (but not the only one and for developing strategies specific to this group. The Canary Islands, because of their position on the southern intercontinental border and their insularity, offer particular models of individual migration flows of primarily highly vulnerable African children and a close relationship with human smuggling and trafficking networks.

  8. Modern pollen rain in Canary Island ecosystems and its implications for the interpretation of fossil records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nascimento, Lea; Nogué, Sandra; Fernández-Lugo, Silvia;

    2015-01-01

    -represented (.Pinus, Morella and Ericaceae trees, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae, Rumex and Urticaceae herbs and shrubs) or under-represented (Lauraceae trees, Fabaceae and Euphorbia shrubs). Results indicate that pollen composition is a good reflection of vegetation in Canarian ecosystems and can be used effectively to...... discriminated by means of their pollen rain composition, to identify under- and over-represented taxa, and to test the match between modern pollen rain and fossil pollen assemblages. We found clear differences in pollen composition and abundance among major Canarian vegetation types. We also identified good...... indicator taxa of the local occurrence of their source plants by their high fidelity and low dispersibility index scores. Extra-regional types (taxa without potential source plants in the Canary Islands) were not detected in our traps. However, several important floristic elements are either over...

  9. Water dynamics in a laurel montane cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. García-Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements from February 2003 to January 2004 in a humid (but dry in summer crest heath wood-land (degraded laurel forest in the National Park of Garajonay, Canary Islands (Spain, were combined to calculate water balance components. The water balance domain is at the surface of the catchment and is controlled by atmospheric processes and vegetation. This study found that annual water income (rainfall plus fog water was 1440 mm year-1, half of which was occult (or fog precipitation, while stand transpiration estimated from measurements of sap flow amounted, annually, to 40% of potential evapotranspiration calculated from measurements of meteorological variables. The positive role of crest laurel forests, which transpire less water than is incoming from rain and fog is emphasised. Keywords: laurel forest, fog interception, stand transpiration, sap flow, hydrological cycle

  10. Quantum teleportation using active feed-forward between two Canary Islands

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiao-song; Scheidl, Thomas; Wang, Daqing; Kropatschek, Sebastian; Naylor, William; Mech, Alexandra; Wittmann, Bernhard; Kofler, Johannes; Anisimova, Elena; Makarov, Vadim; Jennewein, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Quantum teleportation [1] is a quintessential prerequisite of many quantum information processing protocols [2-4]. By using quantum teleportation, one can circumvent the no-cloning theorem [5] and faithfully transfer unknown quantum states to a party whose location is even unknown over arbitrary distances. Ever since the first experimental demonstrations of quantum teleportation of independent qubits [6] and of squeezed states [7], researchers have progressively extended the communication distance in teleportation, usually without active feed-forward of the classical Bell-state measurement result which is an essential ingredient in future applications such as communication between quantum computers. Here we report the first long-distance quantum teleportation experiment with active feed-forward in real time. The experiment employed two optical links, quantum and classical, over 143 km free space between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. To achieve this, the experiment had to employ novel techni...

  11. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, A.; Landeira, J. M.; Escánez, A.; Wienerroither, R.; Aguilar de Soto, N.; Røstad, A.; Kaartvedt, S.; Hernández-León, S.

    2016-05-01

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400-500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500-600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s - 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s - 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.

  12. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, A.

    2016-01-21

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400–500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500–600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s − 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s − 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.

  13. Agrotourism, sustainable tourism and Ultraperipheral areas: The Case of Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra López, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraperipheral regions share certain common characteristics, such as their remoteness from the major supplying centres, their scanty resources, their island status or isolated location and consequent fragmentation of markets. Over the past decades, there has been an increasing awareness of the impact of ultraperiphericity on the development of a number of regions and islands. The concept of “ultraperiphericity” includes specific geographic circumstances that influence the development and specialisation of economies, competitiveness and business strategies. Agrotourism is playing an ever increasingly important role in the diversification of the agriculture, farming and tourism sectors into the Ultraperipheral Regions. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the economic development of rural areas in Ultraperipheral Areas and to the reappraisal of agriculture, which is closely connected with tourism. Agrotourism is essential to diversify, transform and improve the competitiveness and quality of farms. This paper examines the impact of Agrotourism as an alternative to sun and sand tourism, resulting in the growth of family income, in rural development and, in short, in new approaches to the tourism industry. A further goal of the paper is to develop a strategic analysis of Agrotourism, studying both supply and demand in the Canary Islands

  14. The effects of agriculture on the volcanic aquifers of the canary islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, E.; Guerra, J. A.; Jiménez, J.; Medina, J. A.; Soler, C.

    1983-12-01

    Agriculture is a basic economic activity in the Canary Islands, a Spanish region in the Atlantic Ocean, facing the Sahara. The main crops are bananas, tomatoes, and other special ones suitable for exportation. Fertilizers are applied in high quantities on the scarce land available. The relatively good vertical permeability of the soils favors the deep infiltration of irrigation return flows. Water is obtained by an extraordinary net of shaft wells and water galleries, supplemented when possible by surface reservoirs in the deep gullies. Water is distributed by an extensive network of pipes and canals, allowing the transportation of water to virtually any point from any water source. Water quality is widely variable, from almost rain water to brackish, with a high frequency of sodium bicarbonate types. Return flows, especially when water is applied with good irrigation techniques and the original quality is poor, are saline and contain chemicals leached from the fertilizers. On Tenerife Island, most of the return flows go to coastal aquifers, while most of the water comes from high-altitude water galleries. Agricultural pollution is not generally appraised, but it exists. It can be masked by the frequent, high natural nitrate content in groundwater. On Gran Canaria Island, since water comes mainly from deep shaft wells near the irrigated areas, the nitrate pollution is much more clear. On La Palma Island, besides the nitrate pollution, a potassium pollution of agricultural origin has been mentioned. Other situations on the remaining islands are also discussed. It can be concluded that agriculture is a big concern for the water quality in many areas and impairs its suitability for other uses. Because of the great depth of the water table, the nitrate pollution may not become obvious for many years, especially for the deep-water galleries.

  15. Groundwater and marine intertidal Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) from the Canary and Cabo Verde Islands, with descriptions of two new species

    OpenAIRE

    Erséus, Christer

    1992-01-01

    Seven species of Tubificidae are recorded from the Canary Islands, viz. Heterodrilus amplus n. sp., Coralliodrilus leviatriatus Erséus, 1979, Limnodriloides agnes Hrabĕ, 1967, L. janstocki n. sp., Aktedrilus cuneus Erséus, 1984, A. parvithecatus (Erséus, 1978), and Tubifex tubifex (Müller, 1774); the two latter taxa are reported also from the Cabo Verde Islands. All taxa except T. tubifex are marine and there is no evidence of endemism in the freshwater oligochaete fauna of these islands. Het...

  16. Some water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia from Caldera de Taburiente National Park (La Palma, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecasas, A. G.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Protzia cf. lata, Lebertia fimbriata Thor, 1899; Limnesia martianezi Lundblad, 1962; Atractides gomerae Lundblad, 1962 are mentioned for the first time for the island of La Palma: Feltria menzeli Walter, 1922 and Aturus atlantica Lundblad, 1942 for the first time in the Canary islands. It is the first record of the genus Feltria Koenike, 1892 in Macaronesia.

    Protzia cf. lata, Lebertia fimbriata Thor, 1899; Limnesia martianezi Lundblad, 1962; Atractides gomerae Lundblad, 1962 han sido encontradas por primera vez en la isla de La Palma: Feltria menzeli Walter, 1922 y Aturus atlantica Lundblad, 1942 son nueva cita para las islas Canarias y es la primera vez que se registra el género Feltria Koenike, 1892 en Macaronesia.

  17. THE CASE OF THE SINDHI TRADERS IN THE CANARY ISLANDS: TRANSNATIONAL RELATIONS AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María López Sala

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyses the presence and trading activities of the Sindhi community in the Canary Islands. This group is one of the oldest Asian diasporas in Spain, and is characterised by its hectic trading activity and, particularly, by the fact that it maintains a network of transnational contacts that shows that the community is established in over 100 countries. The starting point of the analysis is the historical, geographic and cultural context that favoured the exodus and arrival of this community to these islands. As other authors have mentioned in studies on transnationalism, and as these authors highlight very clearly with the group examined in this article, relations with members of the same community residing in other countries become forms of capital that provide information and communication on business opportunities and strategies in local enclaves, such as the loaning of capital and training opportunities in commercial activities and specific newly-created businesses that are adapted to certain geographic areas. The Sindhis are a community that, while it has remained faithful to its traditions and is relatively secretive, since the 1950s and with the rise of tourism, it has diversified in its areas of business and its establishment in the territory.

  18. Comments on Uncertainty in Groundwater Governance in the Volcanic Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Custodio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty associated with natural magnitudes and processes is conspicuous in water resources and groundwater evaluation. This uncertainty has an essential component and a part that can be reduced to some extent by increasing knowledge, improving monitoring coverage, continuous elaboration of data and accuracy and addressing the related economic and social aspects involved. Reducing uncertainty has a cost that may not be justified by the improvement that is obtainable, but that has to be known to make the right decisions. With this idea, this paper contributes general comments on the evaluation of groundwater resources in the semiarid Canary Islands and on some of the main sources of uncertainty, but a full treatment is not attempted, nor how to reduce it. Although the point of view is local, these comments may help to address similar situations on other islands where similar problems appear. A consequence of physical and hydrological uncertainty is that different hydrogeological and water resource studies and evaluations may yield different results. Understanding and coarsely evaluating uncertainty helps in reducing administrative instability, poor decisions that may harm groundwater property rights, the rise of complaints and the sub-optimal use of the scarce water resources available in semiarid areas. Transparency and honesty are needed, but especially a clear understanding of what numbers mean and the uncertainty around them, to act soundly and avoid conflicting and damaging rigid attitudes. However, the different situations could condition that what may be good in a place, may not always be the case in other places.

  19. Helminth infracommunities of gallotia caesaris caesaris and gallotia caesaris gomerae (sauria: lacertidae) from the Canary islands (eastern Atlantic)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Juan E.; Roca Velasco, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal helminth communities of Gallotia caesaris caesaris (Lehrs, 1914) and G. c. gomerae (Boettger and Müller, 1914), from the islands of El Hierro and La Gomera, respectively, in the Canary Archipelago, Spain, was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity, and diversity of intestinal parasites of these lacertid lizards. Larval forms of cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans were found in the body cavity of G. c. caesaris; this lizard is the intermediate or pa...

  20. Retrieval and validation of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor for the Canary Islands IR-laser occultation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Proschek, V.; G. Kirchengast; Schweitzer, S.; Brooke, J. S. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Thomas, C. B.; J.-G. Wang; Tereszchuk, K. A.; G. González Abad; Hargreaves, R. J.; C. A. Beale; Harrison, J J; Martin, P. A.; V. L. Kasyutich; C. Gerbig

    2015-01-01

    The first ground-based experiment to prove the concept of a novel space-based observation technique for microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites was performed in the Canary Islands between La Palma and Tenerife. For two nights from 21 to 22 July 2011 the experiment delivered the infrared-laser differential transmission principle for the measurement of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the free atmosphere. Such global and long-term stable measureme...

  1. Current knowledge and pespectives of study on benthic toxic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, F. (Francisco); Fraga, S; Riobó, P. (Pilar); Franco, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Species of the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus are the cause of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning which is very common in tropical areas, mainly in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Until 2008 this disease was not reported in the NE Atlantic Ocean, when human intoxications after consumption of local fish have been reported almost yearly in the Canary Islands. Sampling of tidal ponds on rocky shores of this archipelago has revealed an unexpected diversity of the genus Gambierdiscus in the area. M...

  2. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands.......The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...

  3. Tools for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems: an application to the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Banos-González

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model, in combination with other methods (indicators, policy and scenario analysis, is presented as a tool for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems (SES. The Fuerteventura sustainability model (FSM, tested for the 1996-2011, allows a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between sustainability indicators and other factors of this island. The FSM was first applied to analyse the vulnerability of this island to climate change for the 2012-2025 period; results point to the need for urgent measures to mitigate its effects on some of the analysed indicators. A set of policy measures was then assessed from the behaviour of nine indicators and their sustainability thresholds. Finally, the FSM facilitated the development of a dynamic model of the island of El Hierro, extrapolating the features common to both SES. We propose this to be a useful tool for the quantitative sustainability assessment and the management of real island socio-ecological systems

  4. Processing of radon time series in underground environments: Implications for volcanic surveillance in the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of temporal and spatial variations in the flux of soil gases across the soil-air interface is a useful tool to study geo-dynamical processes associated with volcanic and/or seismic activity. However, many of these variations are induced by external variables, such as temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall and other meteorological variables. In an attempt to filter out non-endogenous variations in the emissions of gases, the optimal choice of the monitoring sites with numerical filtering techniques based on multi-variate and frequency domain analysis of the time series for gaseous emissions were combined, in the case of radon (222Rn). Monitoring sites are located in underground galleries in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Since the effect of wind, rainfall and temperature variations are very small inside galleries, a first natural filtering process of external parameters in the emissions of gases was achieved. This new approach has been successfully tested and as a result, the background level for radon emissions at various locations has been defined, by which correlations between gaseous emissions and the volcanic and/or seismic activity could be carried out

  5. Processing of radon time series in underground environments: Implications for volcanic surveillance in the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, Ronaldo [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Eff-Darwich, Antonio [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: adarwich@ull.es; Soler, Vicente [Volcanological Station of the Canary Islands, IPNA-CSIC, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Luis, Maria C. [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Quesada, Maria L. [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Nuez, Julio de la [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    The analysis of temporal and spatial variations in the flux of soil gases across the soil-air interface is a useful tool to study geo-dynamical processes associated with volcanic and/or seismic activity. However, many of these variations are induced by external variables, such as temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall and other meteorological variables. In an attempt to filter out non-endogenous variations in the emissions of gases, the optimal choice of the monitoring sites with numerical filtering techniques based on multi-variate and frequency domain analysis of the time series for gaseous emissions were combined, in the case of radon ({sup 222}Rn). Monitoring sites are located in underground galleries in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Since the effect of wind, rainfall and temperature variations are very small inside galleries, a first natural filtering process of external parameters in the emissions of gases was achieved. This new approach has been successfully tested and as a result, the background level for radon emissions at various locations has been defined, by which correlations between gaseous emissions and the volcanic and/or seismic activity could be carried out.

  6. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  7. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  8. Greenhouse gas measurements over a 144 km open path in the Canary Islands

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    J. S. A. Brooke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for the satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere via the absorption of short-wave infrared laser signals transmitted between counter-rotating satellites in low earth orbit has recently been proposed; this would enable the acquisition of a stable, global set of altitude-resolved concentration measurements. We present the first ground-based experimental demonstration of this new technique, in which the atmospheric absorption of CO2 near 2.1 μm was measured over a ~144 km path length between two peaks in the Canary Islands (at an altitude of ~2.4 km. The retrieved CO2 volume mixing ratio of 400.1 ppm (±14.7 ppm is consistent within experimental uncertainty with simultaneously recorded in situ validation measurements. We conclude that the new method has a sound basis for monitoring CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the free atmosphere.

  9. Cloud climatology in the Canary Islands region using NOAA-AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Albano; Cerdeña, Abidán; Pérez, Juan C.; Díaz, Ana M.

    2007-10-01

    In this work a threshold technique for cloud detection and classification is applied to 9 years NOAA-AVHRR imagery in order to obtain a cloud climatology of the Canary Islands region (Northeast Atlantic Ocean). Once the clouds are classified, a retrieval method is used to estimate cloud macro- and micro-physical parameters, such as, effective particle size, optical thickness and top temperature. This retrieval method is based on the inversion of the simulated radiances obtained by a numerical radiative transfer model, libRadtran, using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANNs, whose architecture was based on Multilayer Perceptron model, were trained with simulated theoretical radiances using backpropagation with momentum method, and their architectures were optimized through genetic algorithms. The global procedure was performed for both day and night overpasses and, from a set of more than 9000 images, maps of relative frequency were calculated. These results were compared with ISCCP data for the 21-year period 1984-2004. The relationships between the retrieved cloud properties and some climate and atmospheric variables were also considered.

  10. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  11. Agricultural land-use mapping using very high resolution satellite images in Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Garcia, Mauricio; Arbelo, Manuel; Evora Brondo, Juan Antonio; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Alonso-Benito, Alfonso

    Crop maps are a basic tool for rural planning and a way to asses the impact of politics and infrastructures in the rural environment. Thus, they must be accurate and updated. Because of the small size of the land fields in Canary Islands, until now the crop maps have been made by means of an intense and expensive field work. The tiny crop terraces do not allow the use of traditional medium-size resolution satellite images. The launch of several satellites with sub-meter spatial resolutions in the last years provides an opportunity to update land use maps in these fragmented areas. SATELMAC is a project financed by the PCT-MAC 2007-2013 (FEDER funds). One of the main objectives of this project is to develop a methodology that allows the use of very high resolution satellite images to automate as much as possible the updating of agricultural land use maps. The study was carried out in 3 different areas of the two main islands of the Canarian Archipelago, Tenerife and Gran Canaria. The total area is about 550 km2 , which includes both urban and rural areas. Multitemporal images from Geo-Eye 1 were acquired during a whole agricultural season to extract information about annual and perennial crops. The work includes a detailed geographic correction of the images and dealing with many adverse factors like cloud shadows, variability of atmospheric conditions and the heterogeneity of the land uses within the study area. Different classification methods, including traditional pixel-based methods and object-oriented approach, were compared in order to obtain the best accuracy. An intensive field work was carried out to obtain the ground truth, which is the base for the classification procedures and the validation of the results. The final results will be integrated into a cadastral vector layer.

  12. 3D coupled geophysical‐petrological modelling of the Canary Islands and north-western African margin lithosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Fullea, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the present-day thermal and compositional 3D structure of the  lithosphere beneath the Canary Islands and north¿western African margin. We aim to  understand the origin and evolution of Canary and north-African intraplate volcanism  and its possible link to the thinned lithosphere imaged beneath the Atlas Mountains.     We  apply  an  integrated  and  self-consistent  geophysical¿petrological  methodology  (LitMod) that combines elevation, gravity, gradiometric, geoid, s...

  13. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands. A potential commercial species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escanez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera. These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem.

  14. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Troll, V. R.; Klugel, A.; Longpre, M.-A.; S. Burchardt; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J.C.; S. Wiesmaier; Kueppers, U; B. Dahren; L. S. Blythe; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; D. A. Budd; E. M. Jolis; Jonsson, E.

    2012-01-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implicatio...

  15. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Troll, V.R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; F. M. Deegan; Carracedo, J.C.; S. Wiesmaier; U. Kueppers; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; E. M. Jolis; E Jonsson

    2012-01-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores ...

  16. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    OpenAIRE

    V. R. Troll; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F.M.; Carracedo, J.C; Wiesmaier, S; U. Kueppers; B. Dahren; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E.M.; Jonsson, E.

    2012-01-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porou...

  17. 3D modelling of the Tejeda Caldera cone-sheet swarm, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrock, Lisa K.; Jensen, Max J.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mattsson, Tobias; Geiger, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Cone-sheet swarms provide vital information on the interior of volcanic systems and their plumbing systems (e.g. Burchardt et al. 2013). This information is important for the interpretation of processes and dynamics of modern and ancient volcanic systems, and is therefore vital for assessing volcanic hazards and to reduce risks to modern society. To more realistically model cone-sheet emplacement an approximation of their 3D shape needs to be known. Most cone-sheet swarms are not sufficiently exposed laterally and/or vertically, however, which makes it difficult to determine the geometry of a cone-sheet swarm at depth, especially since different shapes (e.g. convex, straight or concave continuations) would produce a similar trace at the surface (cf. Burchardt et al. 2011, and references therein). The Miocene Tejeda Caldera on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, hosts a cone-sheet swarm that was emplaced into volcaniclastic caldera infill at about 12.3-7.3 Ma (Schirnick et al. 1999). The dyke swarm displays over 1000 m of vertical exposure and more than 15 km of horizontal exposure, making it a superb locality to study the evolution of cone-sheet swarms in detail and to determine its actual geometry in 3D space. We have used structural data of Schirnick (1996) to model the geometry of the Tejeda cone-sheet in 3D, using the software Move® by Midland Valley Ltd. Based on previous 2D projections, Schirnick et al. (1999) suggested that the cone-sheet swarm is formed by a stack of parallel intrusive sheets which have a truncated dome geometry and form a concentric structure around a central axis, assuming straight sheet-intrusions. Our 3D model gives insight into the symmetries of the sheets and the overall geometry of the cone-sheet swarm below the surface. This visualization now allows to grasp the complexity of the Tejeda cone-sheet swarm at depth, particularly in relation to different possible cone-sheet geometries suggested in the literature (cf. Burchardt et al

  18. Changes in the Diffuse CO2 Emission and Relation to Seismic Activity in and around El Hierro, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Marrero, Rayco; Nolasco, Dácil; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2008-01-01

    Significant changes in the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide were recorded in a geochemical station located at El Hierro, Canary Islands, before the occurrence of several seismic events during 2004. Two precursory CO2 efflux increases started thirteen and nine days before two seismic events of magnitude 2.3 and 1.7, which took place near El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, on March 23 and April 15, reaching a maximun value of 51.1 and 46.2 g m-2 d-1, respectively, five and eight days before the two seismic events. Other similar increases started thirteen and five days before the occurrence of two seismic events of magnitude 1.3 and 1.5 which took place on October 15 and 21 respectively, reaching the maximum values four and one day before the earthquakes. These changes were not related to variations in atmospheric or soil parameters. The Material Failure Forecast Method (FFM), which analyzes the rate of precursory phenomena, was successfully applied to forecast the first seismic event that took place in El Hierro Island in 2004.

  19. The Continuous Presence of News in the Ballad Tradition of the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroy Caballero, Andrés

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The author approaches the textual study of the oral tradition of ballads in the Canary Islands by focusing on the imprints left on these compositions by the events of History, Big and Small. Known as “Noticierismo”, this expression of popular culture —that of inserting historical news in such texts— has existed in the Islands for quite a long time. By considering the different ballad genres and revealing that noticierismo can be traced back to the late Middle Ages, he argues that its primary function, both in the Islands and elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world, especially with regard to the 18th Century-like compositions, has been that of spreading the word about those events from the past which most impressed its practitioners. From one generation to the next, the centuries-old tradition has kept the memory of such events alive to the present day.

    Nos acercamos al estudio textual del romancero recogido en la tradición oral de Canarias a través de las huellas que la pequeña o gran historia ha ido perpetuando en estas composiciones, como reflejo de la continuación de la práctica del noticierismo romancístico desde finales de la Edad Media hasta la actualidad. Mediante el análisis de los géneros romancísticos y la persistencia de esta tendencia noticiera en los textos, demostramos que el romancero noticiero en Canarias —y en el mundo hispánico en general— ha estado muy activo (sobre todo en los pliegos dieciochescos, modernos y locales, con la función primordial de dar publicidad a aquellos acontecimientos que más impresionaron en una época pretérita y que se han mantenido vigentes hasta la actualidad gracias a la labor de conservación de sus transmisores.

  20. Diversity, rarity and the evolution and conservation of the Canary Islands endemic flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Betancort, J. Alfredo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The endemic vascular flora of the Canary Islands comprises over 680, taxa collectively accounting for more than 50% of the total native flora. To investigate geographical patterns of diversity within the endemic flora, distribution data from published sources together with other field observation and herbarium data were used to compile a data matrix comprising the distributions of ca. 90% of endemic taxa scored on a 10 × 10km UTM grid. WORLDMAP was then used to investigate patterns of endemic diversity, range size rarity (a measure of endemicity, phylogenetic diversity and threatened taxon richness. Endemic taxon richness was found to be highly heterogeneous across the archipelago, with cells containing between one and 139 taxa each (0.05-22.82% of endemic diversity. Patterns of variation in range size rarity and phylogenetic diversity were found to be largely congruent with endemic diversity, although some cells exhibited markedly higher range size rarity scores than would be predicted by their endemic diversity scores. In contrast, the pattern of endangered taxon richness across the archipelago differed markedly from endemic taxon richness. Many cells in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria exhibit higher endangered taxon richness scores than would be predicted from their endemic richness scores whereas in Tenerife, El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera, the converse is generally true. The implications of the results both for understanding the evolution of Canary Island endemic diversity and for the conservation of the region’s unique and vulnerable flora are considered.La flora vascular endémica de las Islas Canarias comprende unos 680 táxones, lo que viene a representar más del 50% de la flora nativa. Con objeto de investigar patrones geográficos de diversidad en la flora endémica, se recopilaron los datos publicados que, junto con otras observaciones de campo y datos de herbario, sirvieron para completar una matriz de datos

  1. Annotated checklist of Capitellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta from the Iberian Peninsula, Chafarinas, Balearic and Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Haddad, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present annotated checklist has been elaborated after revision of preserved materials (from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid and the reference collection of the Marine Biology Laboratory of the University of Valencia and published literature related to capitellids from the Iberian Peninsula, Chafarinas, Balearic and Canary Islands. Twenty-four species and subspecies belonging to thirteen genera are recognized as valid taxa. With this checklist we include some taxonomic details and information on distribution at both global and regional levels. This work includes the setal formula and diagrammatic representation of capitellid taxa treated in this study.Se ha elaborado un listado taxonómico comentado de los capitélidos de la Península Ibérica, Islas Chafarinas, Baleares y Canarias a partir de la revisión de materiales (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid y colección de referencia del Laboratorio de Biología Marina de la Universidad de Valencia y de la bibliografía publicada referente a este grupo. Se reconocen como taxones válidos 24 especies y subespecies pertenecientes a 13 géneros. En esta lista se incluyen para cada especie algunos detalles taxonómicos e información sobre su distribución geográfica tanto a nivel mundial como regional. Asimismo, se aporta la fórmula setal y el diagrama gráfico para los taxones contemplados en este estudio.

  2. Family influences in academic achievement. A study of the Canary Islands

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    Pérez Sánchez, Carmen Nieves

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the family variables affecting academic achievement within a Canary Island sample. Parents’ level of education, parents’ expectations about academic achievement, Socioeconomic Status (SES, family size, type of family and parents’ control over the student’s homework are used as predicting variables in a logistic regression for predicting which variables load in high academic achievement. These variables are incorporated into two different theoretical models: the social capital view of Coleman and the cultural capital view of Bourdieu. The results indicate that the variables having a leading role are parents’ expectations, parents’ education, SES and family size.

    En este artículo estudiamos los efectos de las variables relacionadas con la familia en el rendimiento académico en una muestra de estudiantes de Canarias. A través de una regresión logística evaluamos el peso de las siguientes variables en el rendimiento académico: el nivel educativo de los padres, las expectativas de los padres sobre el rendimiento académico de sus hijos, el estatus socioeconómico, el tamaño de la familia, tipo de familia y prácticas de control familiar sobre el trabajo escolar. Estas variables son incorporadas a dos modelos teóricos diferentes: el de Coleman y el de Bourdieu. Los resultados indican que las variables que tienen un papel destacado son: las expectativas, el nivel educativo, el estatus socioeconómico de los padres y el tamaño de la familia.

  3. Native birds and insects, and introduced honey bees visiting Echium wildpretii (Boraginaceae) in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valido, Alfredo; Dupont, Yoko L.; Hansen, Dennis M.

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, we report observations of flower visitors of the endemic Echium wildpretii in Tenerife, Canary Islands. This plant inhabits the high altitudinal sub-alpine zone, which is characterized by a harsh climate, low species diversity and a short growing season. Echium wildpretii is a monocarpic perennial, producing a 2-3 m column-shaped, red-flowered, nectar-rich inflorescence. Although these floral traits have previously been suggested as being typical of ornithophilous flowers, this is the first study reporting observations of native birds ( Phylloscopus collybita and Serinus canarius) in addition to insects visiting the flowers for nectar. The purposes of this study were firstly to investigate levels of visitation by native birds, native insects, and introduced honey bees. Secondly, we studied the influence of floral display (plant height and number of flowers), nearest neighbours (distance and size) and local vegetation structure on visitation rate. Finally, we discuss the evolution of ornithophily in an otherwise entomophilous plant lineage. We found that the level of bird visitation was relatively high early in the flowering season, but decreased in mid/late season, while the opposite pattern was found for introduced honey bees. For native insects, the frequency of visits was similar in early and late season. Bird visits were correlated with floral display. In the early season, visitation rates of honey bees and the two most common native bee species were correlated with size of the plant or its nearest neighbours, consistent with preference patterns for larger resource patches. Since only insects visit the flowers of other species in the Echium clade, E. wildpretii appears to have evolved from a truly insect-pollinated lineage.

  4. Andromonoecy and buzz pollination in Solanum species (Solanaceae endemic to the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont, Yoko Luise

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the pollination and reproductive biology of two Canary Island endemics, Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii (Solanaceae. We measured male function (pollen development, female function (fruit initiation and spatial arrangement of reproductive parts within flowers and inflorescences. Furthermore, we observed flower visitors and monitored visitation rates. Both species of Solanum display andromonoecy: Longstyled flowers are functionally hermaphrodite and borne proximally on the inflorescences, while short-styled flowers are functionally male and borne distally on inflorescences. Large bees capable of buzzing were the main flower visitors. In particular, the endemic Canarian bumblebee, Bombus terrestris canariensis, was a frequent visitor and pollen vector of S. vespertilio.Se estudiaron la polinización y biología reproductiva de dos especies endémicas de las Islas Canarias: Solanum vespertilio y S. lidii (Solanaceae. Se midieron la función masculina (desarrollo polínico, la función femenina (iniciación de fruto y la disposición espacial de los órganos reproductivos, tanto en las flores como en las inflorescencias. Se registraron además los visitantes de las flores y su frecuencia. Ambos Solanum son andromonoicos: las flores con estilo largo son funcionalmente hermafroditas y proximales en las inflorescencias, mientras que las flores con estilo corto son funcionalmente masculinas y distales en la inflorescencia. Los visitantes más asiduos fueron grandes abejas y abejorros zumbadores. El abejorro endémico Bombus terrestris canariensis, en particular, fue un visitante frecuente y un vector de polen para S. vespertilio.

  5. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  6. A methodology for optimization of wind farm allocation under land restrictions: the case of the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño Moraga, C. A.; Suárez Santana, E.; Sabbagh Rodríguez, I.; Nebot Medina, R.; Suárez García, S.; Rodríguez Alvarado, J.; Piernavieja Izquierdo, G.; Ruiz Alzola, J.

    2010-09-01

    Wind farms authorization and power allocations to private investors promoting wind energy projects requires some planification strategies. This issue is even more important under land restrictions, as it is the case of Canary Islands, where numerous specially protected areas are present for environmental reasons and land is a scarce resource. Aware of this limitation, the Regional Government of Canary Islands designed the requirements of a public tender to grant licences to install new wind farms trying to maximize the energy produced in terms of occupied land. In this paper, we detail the methodology developed by the Canary Islands Institute of Technology (ITC, S.A.) to support the work of the technical staff of the Regional Ministry of Industry, responsible for the evaluation of a competitive tender process for awarding power lincenses to private investors. The maximization of wind energy production per unit of area requires an exhaustive wind profile characterization. To that end, wind speed was statistically characterized by means of a Weibull probability density function, which mainly depends on two parameters: the shape parameter K, which determines the slope of the curve, and the average wind speed v , which is a scale parameter. These two parameters have been evaluated at three different heights (40,60,80 m) over the whole canarian archipelago, as well as the main wind speed direction. These parameters are available from the public data source Wind Energy Map of the Canary Islands [1]. The proposed methodology is based on the calculation of an initially defined Energy Efficiency Basic Index (EEBI), which is a performance criteria that weighs the annual energy production of a wind farm per unit of area. The calculation of this parameter considers wind conditions, windturbine characteristics, geometry of windturbine distribution in the wind farm (position within the row and column of machines), and involves four steps: Estimation of the energy produced by

  7. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129I and 127I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129I and its species along the transect, whereas less change and variation are observed for the total 127I and its species. Transport of 129I from the western English Channel via Biscay Bay is the main source of 129I in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  8. New data on the Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Canary Islands, with a description of a new species of Apseudopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquete, Patricia; Ramos, Eva; Riera, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Benthic samples from two harbours at El Hierro and Tenerife (Canary Islands) yielded three species of Tanaidacea. Tanais dulongii and Leptochelia savignyi are recorded for the first time in Tenerife and El Hierro, respectively. A new species of Apseudomorpha, Apseudopsis rogi, was collected in both harbours and can be differentiated from other species of the genus by the male having a cheliped merus with a distinctive, cylindrical dorso-proximal spur. This is the first species of Apseudopsis described for the Macaronesian region. A key to the Atlantic and Mediterranean species of Apseudopsis is provided. PMID:27394493

  9. Abundance and distribution of sperm whales in the Canary Islands : can sperm whales in the Archipelago sustain the current level of ship-strike mortalities?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Fais; Tim P Lewis; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Omar Álvarez; Ana Tejedor; Natacha Aguilar de Soto

    2016-01-01

    Funding was provided through an agreement between the Canary Islands Government and the Spanish Ministries of the Environment and Defence. Additional survey effort on the Amanay, Banquete and Concepción seamounts was funded by the Fundación Biodiversidad-MAGRAMA via the LIFE-INDEMARES project. Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highes...

  10. Dike-swarms, key to the reconstruction of major volcanic edifices: The basic dikes of La Gomera (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancochea, E.; Brändle, J. L.; Huertas, M. J.; Hernán, F.; Herrera, R.

    2008-06-01

    The detailed study of the age and distribution of the basic dikes of La Gomera (Canary Islands) has allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of its main volcanic edifice. The dikes of the oldest unit (the Basal Complex) have a N70°-80° dominant direction at regional scale. On the other hand, the dikes of the post Basal Complex subaerial units are the result of local stress fields. The oldest swarm is composed of sills dated at 10.2-9.3 Ma. Four younger radial dike swarms have been identified (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with ages of 9.1-8.4 Ma; 8.2-6.7 Ma; 5.5-4.4 Ma and 5.3-4.0 Ma respectively. The reconstruction of the magmatic focus location using these swarms shows a migration southwards with an average speed of 1.6 mm/year. This temporal sequence of parallel swarms, sills and radial swarms is a pattern frequently repeated during the building of large insular volcanic edifices in the Canary Islands as well as in other archipelagos.

  11. Identification of a subtropical cyclone in the proximity of the Canary Islands and its analysis by numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitián-Hernández, L.; Martín, M. L.; González-Alemán, J. J.; Santos-Muñoz, D.; Valero, F.

    2016-09-01

    Subtropical cyclones (STC) are low-pressure systems that share tropical and extratropical characteristics. Because of the great economic and social damage, the study of these systems has recently grown. This paper analyzes the cyclone formed in October 2014 near the Canary Islands and diagnoses such a cyclone in order to identify its correspondence to an STC category, examining its dynamical and thermal evolution. Diverse fields have been obtained from three different numerical models, and several diagnostic tools and cyclone phase space diagrams have been used. An extratropical cyclone, in its early stage, experimented a process of cut-off and isolation from the midlatitude flow. The incursion of a trough in conjunction with a low-level baroclinic zone favored the formation of the STC northwestern of the Canary Islands. Streamers of high potential vorticity linked to the cyclone favored strong winds and precipitation in the study domain. Cyclone phase space diagrams are used to complement the synoptic analysis and the satellite images of the cyclone to categorize such system. The diagrams reveal the transition from extratropical cyclone to STC remaining for several days with a subtropical structure with a quite broad action radius. The study of the mesoscale environment parameters showed an enhanced conditional instability through a deep troposphere layer. It is shown that moderate to strong vertical wind shear together with relatively warm sea surface temperature determine conditions enabling the development of long-lived convective structures.

  12. A biological quality index for volcanic Andisols and Aridisols (Canary Islands, Spain): variations related to the ecosystem degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Cecilia María; Santana, Bayanor; Mora, Juan Luis; Notario, Jesús Santiago; Arbelo, Carmen Dolores; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2007-05-25

    The aim of this work is to identify indicators of biological activity in soils from the Canary Islands, by studying the variation of selected biological parameters related to the processes of deforestation and accelerated soil degradation affecting the Canarian natural ecosystems. Ten plots with different degrees of maturity/degradation have been selected in three typical habitats in the Canary Islands: laurel forest, pine forest and xerophytic scrub with Andisols and Aridisols as the most common soils. The studied characteristics in each case include total organic carbon, field soil respiration, mineralized carbon after laboratory incubation, microbial biomass carbon, hot water-extractable carbon and carboxymethylcellulase, beta-d-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities. A Biological Quality Index (BQI) has been designed on the basis of a regression model using these variables, assuming that the total soil organic carbon content is quite stable in nearly mature ecosystems. Total carbon in mature ecosystems has been related to significant biological variables (hot water-extractable carbon, soil respiration and carboxymethylcellulase, beta-d-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), accounting for nearly 100% of the total variance by a multiple regression analysis. The index has been calculated as the ratio of the value calculated from the regression model and the actual measured value. The obtained results show that soils in nearly mature ecosystems have BQI values close to unit, whereas those in degraded ecosystems range between 0.24 and 0.97, depending on the degradation degree. PMID:17316768

  13. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to DDT by breast milk analysis in Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Vall

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT has been banned since the late 1970s due to its toxicity. However, its long half-life makes it persistent in the environment and, consequently, almost everyone has DDT residues in the body. Human milk constitutes an ideal non-conventional matrix to investigate environmental chronic exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs residues. The study aimed to identify potential population risk factors of exposure to DDT due to the proximity to countries where it is still used. METHODS: Seventy-two consecutive lactating women were prospectively included in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain. A validated questionnaire was used to obtain socioeconomic, demographics data, and daily habits during pregnancy. DDT levels in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography with-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. Anthropometrics measurements in newborns were obtained. RESULTS: Thirty-four out of 72 (47.2% of the analysed milk samples presented detectable levels of DDT (mean: 0.92 ng/g, ranging between 0.08 to 16.96 ng/g. The socio-demographic variables did not significantly differ between detectable DDT and non-detectable DDT groups. We found positive association between DDT levels and vegetables (OR (95%CI: 1.23 (1.01-1.50 and poultry meat (OR (95%CI: 2.05 (1.16-3.60 consumption, and also between the presence of DDT in breast milk and gestational age (OR (95%CI: 0.59 (0.40-0.90. CONCLUSIONS: DDT is present in breast milk of women at the time of delivery. Residual levels and the spread from countries still using DDT explain DDT detection from vegetables and from animal origin food. The presence of this compound in breast milk represents a pre- and postnatal exposure hazard for foetuses and infants due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination, with possible deleterious effects on health. This data should be used to raise awareness of the risks of OCs exposure and to help establish health

  14. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Troll, V. R.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Klugel, A.; nstitute of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Germany; Longpre, M. -A.; Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Canada; Burchardt, S.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Deegan, F. M.; Laboratory for Isotope Geology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden; Carracedo, J. C.; Dept. of Physics (Geology), GEOVOL, University of Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, Spain; Wiesmaier, S.; Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians Universit¨at, Munich, Germany; Kueppers, U.; Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians Universit¨at, Munich, Germany; Dahern, B.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Hansteen, T. H.; Leibniz-Institute for Oceanography, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany; Freda, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Budd, D.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Jolis, E. M.; Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Polacci, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia

    2012-01-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed “restingolites” (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic “bombs” that exhibit cores of white ...

  15. Metallic content of wines from the Canary Islands (Spain). Application of artificial neural networks to the data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Sergio; Conde, José E; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Dohnal, Vlasta; Pérez-Trujillo, Juan P

    2002-10-01

    Eleven elements, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sr, Li and Rb, were determined in dry and sweet wines bearing the denominations of origin of El Hierro, La Palma and Lanzarote islands (Canary Islands, Spain). Analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, with the exceptions of Li and Rb for which flame atomic emission spectrophotometry was used. The content in copper and iron did not present risks of cases. All samples presented a copper and zinc content below the maximum amount recommended by the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) for these elements. Significant differences in the metallic content were found among the different islands. Thus, Lanzarote presented the highest mean content in sodium and lithium and the lowest mean content in rubidium, and La Palma presented the highest mean content in strontium and rubidium. Sweet wines from La Palma, elaborated as naturally sweet with over-ripe grapes, presented mean contents significantly higher with regard to dry wines from the same island in the majority of the analysed elements. Cluster analysis and Kohonen self-organising maps showed differences in wines according to the island of origin and the ripening state of the grapes. Back-propagation artificial neural networks showed better prediction ability than stepwise linear discriminant analysis. PMID:12428457

  16. Assessing the origin of unusual organic formations in lava caves from Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; de la Rosa, Jose M.; Garcia-Sanchez, Angela M.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Jurado, Valme; Fernández, Octavio; Knicker, Heike; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-04-01

    Lava tubes, like other caves, contain a variety of speleothems formed in the initial stage of a lava tube formation or due to leaching and subsequent precipitation of secondary minerals. Primary and secondary mineral formations in lava caves are mainly composed of silicate minerals, although secondary minerals common in limestone caves have been also reported in this type of caves. In addition, unusual colored deposits have been found on the walls and ceilings of lava tubes, some of them of unknown origin and composition. A brown to black-colored mud-like deposits was observed in "Llano de los Caños" Cave, La Palma Island, Canary Islands, Spain. These black deposits coat the wall and ceiling of the lava tube where sub-horizontal fractures occur. FESEM-EDS, X-ray micro-computed tomography and mineralogical analyses were conducted for morphological, 3D microstructural and compositional characterization of these unusual speleothem samples. These techniques revealed that they are mainly composed of amorphous materials, suggesting an organic carbon composition. Hence, analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS), solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and stable isotope analysis were applied to assess the nature and origin of the black deposits. The combination of these analytical tools permits the identification of specific biomarkers (di- and triterpenoids) for tracing the potential sources of the organic compounds in the speleothems. For comparison purposes, samples from the topsoil and overlaying vegetation were also analyzed. Chromatograms resulting from the Py-GC/MS showed an abundance of polysaccharides, lipids and terpenoids typically derived from the vegetation of the area (Erica arborea). In addition, levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-containing heterocyclic compounds were detected. They probably derived from the leaching of charred vegetation resulting from a wildfire occurred in the area in 2012. The lack of the typical pattern of odd

  17. Geochemical monitoring network at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and during 2011 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P. A.; Meletlidis, S.; Luengo-Oroz, N.; Moure, D.; Rodero, C.; Villasante-Marcos, V.; Abella, R.; López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Since 17 July 2011 an important increase in the number of seismic events located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) was detected by the seismic network of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (I.G.N.). This increment was interpreted as a precursory signal of a potential eruption, which in fact took place three months later (10th October 2011). In order to improve and complete the volcano monitoring network several geochemical parameters were measured since the beginning of the anomalous seismic activity. Measurements of CO2 diffuse flux through the soil were carried out in the major part of the island: the central zone, El Golfo (northern area) and the zone delimitated by the western rift. More than 450 measurements were accomplished during July, August, and September 2011. Analysis of the data revealed the existence of a spatial anomaly with relative high CO2 diffuse flux in the southwest part of the El Golfo area, close to the zone where the anomalous seismicity was located. This abnormal flux, almost aligned with the western limit of the seismic swarm, was not detected again in measurements accomplished on September in the same area. Between July and August, four geochemical stations were installed in three sub-horizontal galleries and in one well. Air and soil temperature were measured in all galleries and air 222Rn concentration was determined in the four stations. Two of the galleries were also equipped with a sensor in order to obtain measurements of CO2 concentration in the air. The sampling period for each parameter was established in ten minutes. Anomalous high 222Rn concentrations were detected in the station located in the well, apparently related to increases in the seismic accumulated energy and the GPS deformation rates. Taking into account the location of the earthquake epicentres and in order to study the evolution over the time of some physicochemical parameters of groundwater, four wells in the El Golfo area were regularly sampled since July 2011

  18. Volcanic and geochemical evolution of the Teno massif, Tenerife, Canary Islands: Some repercussions of giant landslides on ocean island magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Troll, Valentin R.; Walter, Thomas R.; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale, catastrophic mass wasting is a major process contributing to the dismantling of oceanic intraplate volcanoes. Recent studies, however, have highlighted a possible feedback relationship between flank collapse, or incipient instability, and subsequent episodes of structural rearrangement and/or renewed volcano growth. The Teno massif, located in northwestern Tenerife (Canary Islands), is a deeply eroded Miocene shield volcano that was built in four major eruptive phases punctuated by two lateral collapses, each removing >20-25 km3 of the volcano's north flank. In this paper, we use detailed field observations and petrological and geochemical data to evaluate possible links between large-scale landslides and subsequent volcanism/magmatism during Teno's evolution. Inspection of key stratigraphic sequences reveals that steep angular unconformities, relics of paleolandslide scars, are marked by polymict breccias. Near their base, these deposits typically include abundant juvenile pyroclastic material, otherwise scarce in the region. While some of Teno's most evolved, low-density magmas were produced just before flank collapses, early postlandslide lava sequences are characterized by anomalously high proportions of dense ankaramite flows, extremely rich in clinopyroxene and olivine crystals. A detailed sampling profile shows transitions from low-Mg # lavas relatively rich in SiO2 to lavas with low silica content and comparatively high Mg # after both landslides. Long-term variations in Zr/Nb, normative nepheline, and La/Lu are coupled but do not show a systematic correlation with stratigraphic boundaries. We propose that whereas loading of the growing precollapse volcano promoted magma stagnation and differentiation, the successive giant landslides modified the shallow volcano-tectonic stress field at Teno, resulting in widespread pyroclastic eruptions and shallow magma reservoir drainage. This rapid unloading of several tens of km3 of near-surface rocks

  19. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Troll

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012. In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga, appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite, (ii remelted magmatic material (trachyte, (iii altered volcanic rock, or (iv reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies

  20. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

    2012-03-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the

  1. An epizootic of avian pox in endemic short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) and Berthelot's pipits (Anthus berthelotti) in the Canary Islands, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Judit E.G.; Tella, José Luis; Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; López, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    Between January 2002 and November 2003, 50% (n = 395) of short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) and 28% (n = 139) of Berthelot's pipits (Anthus berthelotti) examined on the islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, Canary Islands, had gross lesions compatible with avian pox. However, Spanish sparrows (Passer hispaniolensis, n = 128) and trumpeter finches (Bucanetes githagineus, n = 228), which inhabit the same steppe habitats associated with goat husbandry, did not have poxlike lesions. Histo...

  2. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  3. International migration, transnational links and ethnic economy. The case of the Indostanic community in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María López Sala

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sindhi diaspora is one of the most extensive and influential of Asian commercial diasporas. Its expansion commenced in the 15th century, but it grew significantly in the second half of the 19th century and in the middle of the 20th. The aim of this article is to describe the Sindhis’ settling and commercial activity on the Canary Islands one of the establishing points of the network and to produce a critical reflection of some of the alternative guidelines for economic integration in places where, as in this case, the territory is presented as a space of opportunities for achieving economic objectives. Such an analysis must consider the make-up and dynamic of this transnational network through which information, capital, goods and people circulate.

  4. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Francisco Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.

  5. Planck Intermediate Results. XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes in the Canary Islands Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Ferragamo, A; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hempel, A; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Levrier, F; Lietzen, H; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Streblyanska, A; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories, as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep imaging observations were obtained for most of those sources; spectroscopic observations in either in long-slit or multi-object modes were obtained for many. We found optical counterparts for 73 of the 78 candidates. This sample includes 53 spectroscopic redshifts determinations, 20 of them obtained with a multi-object spectroscopic mode. The sample contains new redshifts for 27 Planck clusters that were not included in the first Planck SZ source catalogue (PSZ1).

  6. Under the volcano: phylogeography and evolution of the cave-dwelling Palmorchestia hypogaea (Amphipoda, Crustacea at La Palma (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oromí Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave habitats. A surface-dwelling closely related species (Palmorchestia epigaea lives in the humid laurel forest on the same island. Previous studies have suggested that an ancestral littoral Orchestia species colonized the humid forests of La Palma and that subsequent drought episodes in the Canaries reduced the distribution of P. epigaea favouring the colonization of lava tubes through an adaptive shift. This was followed by dispersal via the hypogean crevicular system. Results P. hypogaea and P. epigaea did not form reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial DNA clades. They showed geographically highly structured and genetically divergent populations with current gene flow limited to geographically close surface locations. Coalescence times using Bayesian estimations assuming a non-correlated relaxed clock with a normal prior distribution of the age of La Palma, together with the lack of association of habitat type with ancestral and recent haplotypes, suggest that their adaptation to cave life is relatively ancient. Conclusion The data gathered here provide evidence for multiple invasions of the volcanic cave systems that have acted as refuges. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the extant species of Palmorchestia is needed, as the division of the two species by habitat and ecology is unnatural. The information obtained here, and that from previous studies on hypogean fauna, shows the importance of factors such as the uncoupling of morphological and genetic evolution, the role of climatic change and regressive evolution as key processes in leading to subterranean biodiversity.

  7. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  8. Analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium in wines from the Canary Islands, Spain, by ICP/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaste, M; Medina, B; Perez-Trujillo, J-P

    2003-02-01

    Because of their high toxicity, arsenic, lead and cadmium need to be quantified in food and beverages. For the first time, in this study the content of arsenic, lead and cadmium was investigated in 152 wine samples from the Canary Islands, Spain, belonging to eight Denominations of Origin (DO) and four islands by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of concentration found were 0.58-8.45 microg l(-1) for arsenic, 0.20-1.73 microg l(-1) for cadmium and 3.89-159.5 microg l(-1) for lead, and the mean content was 3.13, 0.63 and 28.74 microg l(-1), respectively. None of the wines contained levels above the limits set by the International Office of Vine and Wine (OIV), and thus did not pose a health hazard. Significant differences in mean content of those elements between harvest, type of wine, islands and DO were observed. PMID:12623662

  9. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical sampling. The potential contribution of chloride to groundwater from endogenous HCl gas may invalidate the CMB method. The chloride-to-bromide molar ratio was an efficient tracer used to select recharge water samples having atmospheric origin of chloride. Yearly net aquifer recharge was 631 mm year−1, i.e., 69% of yearly precipitation. This result is in agreement with potential aquifer recharge estimated through an independent lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model operated by the Insular Water Council of Tenerife. This paper illustrates basic procedures and routines to use the CMB method for aquifer recharge in active volcanic oceanic islands having sparse-data coverage and groundwater receiving contribution of endogenous halides.

  10. Spiders on a Hot Volcanic Roof: Colonisation Pathways and Phylogeography of the Canary Islands Endemic Trap-Door Spider Titanidiops canariensis (Araneae, Idiopidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatova, Vera; Arnedo, Miquel A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted on volcanic islands have greatly contributed to our current understanding of how organisms diversify. The Canary Islands archipelago, located northwest of the coast of northern Africa, harbours a large number of endemic taxa. Because of their low vagility, mygalomorph spiders are usually absent from oceanic islands. The spider Titanidiops canariensis, which inhabits the easternmost islands of the archipelago, constitutes an exception to this rule. Here, we use a multi-locus approach that combines three mitochondrial and four nuclear genes to investigate the origins and phylogeography of this remarkable trap-door spider. We provide a timeframe for the colonisation of the Canary Islands using two alternative approaches: concatenation and species tree inference in a Bayesian relaxed clock framework. Additionally, we investigate the existence of cryptic species on the islands by means of a Bayesian multi-locus species delimitation method. Our results indicate that T. canariensis colonised the Canary Islands once, most likely during the Miocene, although discrepancies between the timeframes from different approaches make the exact timing uncertain. A complex evolutionary history for the species in the archipelago is revealed, which involves two independent colonisations of Fuerteventura from the ancestral range of T. canariensis in northern Lanzarote and a possible back colonisation of southern Lanzarote. The data further corroborate a previously proposed volcanic refugium, highlighting the impact of the dynamic volcanic history of the island on the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic taxa. T. canariensis includes at least two different species, one inhabiting the Jandia peninsula and central Fuerteventura and one spanning from central Fuerteventura to Lanzarote. Our data suggest that the extant northern African Titanidiops lineages may have expanded to the region after the islands were colonised and, hence, are not the source of colonisation. In

  11. Post-fire soil hydrology, water erosion and restoration strategies in Andosols: a review of evidence from the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neris J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Andosols are the most characteristic soils of volcanic regions such as the forested, fire-prone, hillslopes of the mountainous Canary Islands (Spain. Due to their volcanic nature, these soils have traditionally been considered highly resistant to water erosion processes in undisturbed conditions, but are also highly susceptible to environmental disturbances. In addition, volcanic terrains often underlie heavily-populated, steep areas where torrential rains are frequent, increasing the threat to the population and infrastructures down-slope. Numerous hydrological and erosional catastrophic events in disturbed Andosols in the Canary Islands and worldwide, leading to major losses to lives and properties, have been historically and recently reported. The impact of environmental alterations such as land use change on hydrological and erosional response of Andosols has been widely studied in the Canary Islands and worldwide. However, the effect on this soil type of wildfires, generally considered one of the main geomorphological agents, and historically connected to the forested fire-prone Andosols of the islands, has had scant attention to date. This review seeks to redress this knowledge gap by: (i evaluating the factors affecting the susceptibility of Andosols to catastrophic hydrological and erosional events; (ii summarizing the published studies on the impact of fire and the post-fire response of this soil type and the specific restoration measures developed to date; and (iii identifying research gaps and suggesting new lines of investigation in order to reduce the hydrological and erosional risks in these particular terrains.

  12. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  13. Estimating Natural Recharge by Means of Chloride Mass Balance in a Volcanic Aquifer: Northeastern Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Naranjo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The chloride mass balance method was used to estimate the average diffuse groundwater recharge on northeastern Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, where the largest recharge to the volcanic island aquifer occurs. Rainwater was sampled monthly in ten rainwater collectors to determine the bulk deposition rate of chloride for the 2008–2014 period. Average chloride deposition decreases inwardly from more than 10 g·m−2·year−1 to about 4 g·m−2·year−1. The application of the chloride mass balance method resulted in an estimated average recharge of about 28 hm3/year or 92 mm/year (24% of precipitation in the study area after subtracting chloride loss with surface runoff. The average storm runoff was estimated to be 12 hm3/year (9% of precipitation for the 1980–2014 period. Runoff was sampled during scarce rainy periods, which produce surface water flow. Average recharge varies from less than a few mm/year near the coast up to 270 mm/year in the highlands (about 33% of average rainfall, with a close-to-linear increase inwardly of about 18 mm·year−1·km−1. Recharge rate uncertainty corresponds to an estimated CV of 0.3–0.4 because of the short data series available.

  14. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Yannick [Universite de Paris-Sud 11, Groupe Reseaux Jean-Monnet-ADIS, 27 Avenue Lombart Bureau C 309, 92260 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Ramos Real, Francisco Javier [Departamento de Analisis Economico e Instituto de Desarrollo Regional, Camino de La Hornera s/n, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna. SC de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  15. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  16. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme

  17. Modeling and valuation of ecological impacts of land cover and land use changes on Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, S.; Siegmund, A.; Naumann, S.

    2010-10-01

    The island Tenerife is a popular destination for tourists, especially from European countries. From the middle of the 1970s, the mass tourism increased from about 1.3 million to 6 million tourists nowadays (2008).1 This development lead not only to an increasing expansion of infrastructure but also to a spatial concentration of settlements.2 Moreover, the Canary Islands and especially Tenerife are a hotspot of climate change with possible reorientation of atmospheric circulation. The presented research project follows the question how sensitive ecosystems (e.g. laurel forest or pinewood) on Tenerife will be affected by, on the one hand, global impacts of climate change and on the other hand by local socioeconomic effects in future. For this purpose existing time series of land cover and land use change, derived from medium spatial scaled remotely sensed data, will be upgraded with regard to the spatial and temporal resolution. Therefore an object-based classification of high spatial scaled satellite scenes has to be done followed by a change detection analysis. Taking into account the different local and global driving forces for these changes the spatial future development of the most important land use processes like e.g. increase of agricultural land (monocultures) and fallow land will then be simulated and visualised. Based on these results the impacts for different sensitive ecosystems can finally be analysed and valuated.

  18. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Foronda P.; Valladares B.; Rivera-Medina J.A.; Figueruelo E.; Abreu N.; Casanova J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6 241 .0 ± 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3); the louses, Columbicola c...

  19. Phenolic Constituents, Antioxidant and Preliminary Antimycoplasmic Activities of Leaf Skin and Flowers of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (syn. A. barbadensis Mill.) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros Rico; Ramírez, Ana S; Orestes Vega-Orellana; Miguel Suárez de Tangil; Aroa López

    2013-01-01

    The methanol extracts of leaf skins and flowers of Aloe vera from the Canary Islands were analyzed for their phenolic profiles and screened for their antioxidant and antimycoplasmic activities. The use of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) allowed the identification of 18 phenolic constituents. Leaf skin extracts were characterized by the abundance of catechin, sinapic acid and quercitrin. Gentisic acid, epicatechin and quercitrin were the most prominent phenolic ...

  20. Opportunistic nectar-feeding birds are effective pollinators of bird-flowers from Canary Islands: Experimental evidence from Isoplexis canariensis (Scrophulariaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, María Candelaria; Valido, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Insular floras, characterized by simple pollination networks, sometimes include novel mutualistic agents such as nonspecialist nectarivores. In this study we confirmed the effective pollination of Isoplexis canariensis by opportunistic nectar-feeding birds in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This plant is among the ornithophilous species of the Canarian flora that lack past and present specialist nectarivorous birds. Experimental hand pollinations revealed self-compatibility, but cross-pollin...

  1. Post-fire soil hydrology, water erosion and restoration strategies in Andosols: a review of evidence from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Neris J; Santamarta JC; Doerr SH; Prieto F; Agulló-Pérez J; García-Villegas P

    2016-01-01

    Andosols are the most characteristic soils of volcanic regions such as the forested, fire-prone, hillslopes of the mountainous Canary Islands (Spain). Due to their volcanic nature, these soils have traditionally been considered highly resistant to water erosion processes in undisturbed conditions, but are also highly susceptible to environmental disturbances. In addition, volcanic terrains often underlie heavily-populated, steep areas where torrential rains are frequent, increasing the threat...

  2. Salmonellosis and charter tourism: epidemiology and trends of imported human cases to Norway from the Canary Islands and Thailand, 1994-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberland, K E; Nygård, K; Aavitsland, P

    2012-09-01

    More than 70% of reported human Salmonella infections in Norway are infected abroad. The Canary Islands and Thailand are two of the most popular charter tourist destinations for Norwegians. Using surveillance data for the years 1994-2008, and denominator data on travel to the Canary Islands 2000-2008 and to Thailand 1997-2008, we present the epidemiology and trends of Salmonella infections in Norwegian tourists to these destinations. We found a declining trend in risk of salmonellosis in tourists returning from the Canary Islands, and a change in serovar distribution in travellers to Thailand with more S. Enteritidis infections, similar to that observed in Western European countries. The use of denominator data is important when studying risk of travel-related disease, as surveillance data tend to reflect travel activity more than the risk. Infections among tourists do not always affect the local residents and therefore may not be detected by local public health authorities. Sharing knowledge on the epidemiology of infections in tourists could be useful for observation of changes in trends in the countries visited, and in future outbreak investigations. PMID:22051449

  3. "Canary Islands, a volcanic window in the Atlantic Ocean": a 7 year effort of public awareness on volcano hazards and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Hernández, Pedro A.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar

    2016-04-01

    "Canary Islands: A volcanic window in the Atlantic Ocean" is an educational program born from the need to inform and educate citizens residing in the Canary Islands on the various hazards associated to volcanic phenomena. The Canary Islands is the only territory of Spain that hosts active volcanism, as is shown by the 16 historical eruptions that have occurred throughout this territory, being the last one a submarine eruption taking place on October 12, 2011, offshore El Hierro Island. In the last 7 years, ITER as well as INVOLCAN have been performing an educative program focused on educating to the population about the benefits of a volcanic territory, volcanic hazards, how to reduce volcanic risk and the management of volcanic risk in the Canary Islands. "Canary Islands: A volcanic window in the Atlantic Ocean" consists of three units, the first two dedicated to the IAVCEI/UNESCO videos "Understanding Volcanic Hazards" and "Reducing Volcanic Risk" and the third one dedicated to the management of volcanic risk in the Canary Islands, as well as some other aspects of the volcanic phenomena. Generally the three units are shown consecutively on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. This educative program has been roaming all around the 88 municipalities of the archipelago since this initiative started in 2008. The total number of attendees since then amounts to 18,911 people. The increase of assistance was constant until 2011, with annual percentages of 7.8, 17.1 and 20.9 respectively, regarding to ratio assistant/municipality. Despite the heterogeneity of the audience, the main audience is related to aged people of 45 years and older. This could be related to the memories of the recent eruptions occurred at La Palma Island in 1949 and 1971. It is important to point out that many of those people attending the educative program are representatives of local government (i.e. civil protection). Regarding the interest of the audience, the educational program attendees have

  4. Relative and probabilistic non linear relocation of the seismicity of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): Implications for the 2011-2012 eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Garcia-Yeguas, Araceli; De Angelis, Silvio; Prudencio, Janire; Ibañez, Jesus M.; Morales, José; Koulakov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, SPAIN) has recently attracted the interest of the international volcanological community. During a prolonged period of seismic and volcanic unrest, between July 2011 and April 2013, the local seismic network recorded more than 15,000 earthquakes accompanied by a submarine eruption. In this study we present an exhaustive relocation analysis of the original seismic catalog using two well established methods double-difference relative relocation (HypoDD), and probalistic non-linear location (NLLoc). Our relocations are based on 3D velocity models that were obtained from an active-source tomography experiment in the Canary Islands. The relocations constrain the spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity, and help to shed light on the patterns of stress propagation, and areas of crustal weakness under the island. The results show that the seismicity each of unrest recorded during this period is located within a small region close to the center of the island and located around 12 to 14 km depth. Then, the seismicity migrates away from the island. We confirm the presence of a high-velocity block centered underneath El Hierro (up to 15km depth) observed by other authors. This block may represent a barrier to magma propagation and it corresponds to the location of the bulk of seismicity at the beginning of each phase.

  5. A PHOTO-IDENTIFICATION CATALOGUE OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) IN THE CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN: A BASELINE INFORMATION FOR ITS CONSERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Verme, Valeria; Iannacone, José

    2011-01-01

    A catalog of photo-identification of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) was made on the island Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, between 2005 and 2006. A total of 391 sightings was made. Sightings took place on 95 days in 2005 and on 66 days in 2006, with a total of 70.1 h of interaction with dolphins. 129 individual adult dolphins were identified between 2005 and 2006. The frequency of re-sightings was not very high, with the most common being a dolphin resighted between 2...

  6. The 2011 volcanic crisis at El Hierro (Canary Islands): monitoring ground deformation through tiltmeter and gravimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.; Vélez, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is an ocean island located at the western end of the Canary Islands, and along with Tenerife and La Palma islands have been the most geologically active in the recent past. The island has a triple armed rift and, presently, is at the stage of growth, representing the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the seafloor at depth of 4000 m up to 1501 m above the sea level (Münn et al., 2006; Carracedo et al., 1999). Since July 19th, 2011 seismic activity has produced more than 11950 events up to date. The seismic crisis resulted in a volcanic eruption that began on October 10th, being still currently active. The new volcano is located 2 km off the coast and about 300 m depth, in the submarine flank of the southern rift of the island, which is extended some 40 km length. Since September 2004 until November 2010 two continuous tilt stations were installed at the north, Balneario site (BA), and at the center of the island, Aula de la Naturaleza (AU) site. Both stations were used to assess the pattern of local ground movements in the island. When seismic swarm started on past July 2011, we have reinstalled both tilt stations (BA and AU) and 2 new ones located at the south of the island, namely Montaña Quemada (MQ) and Restinga (RE) sites. We have used short base platform tiltmeters that measure ground tilts with resolutions varying from 0.1 up to 0.01 microradians (µrad). On October 8th, a 4.4 magnitude earthquake took place and is supposed that fractured the ocean crust at some 8-10 km off the south coast of the island and about 1000 m depth. Typical spike signals were observed at the tilt stations. Two days after, the eruption onset was recorded also at tilt stations through a remarkable increase of the high frequency signal, being of large amplitude the components (radial) orientated towards the new volcano edifice. When compared with previous tiltmeter records in the island, tilt pattern were clearly modified several times at the stations when strong

  7. First-order estimate of the Canary Islands plate-scale stress field: Implications for volcanic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Villaseñor, A.

    2016-06-01

    In volcanic areas, the existing stress field is a key parameter controlling magma generation, location and geometry of the magmatic plumbing systems and the distribution of the resulting volcanism at surface. Therefore, knowing the stress configuration in the lithosphere at any scale (i.e. local, regional and plate-scale) is fundamental to understand the distribution of volcanism and, subsequently, to interpret volcanic unrest and potential tectonic controls of future eruptions. The objective of the present work is to provide a first-order estimate of the plate-scale tectonic stresses acting on the Canary Islands, one of the largest active intraplate volcanic regions of the World. In order to obtain the orientation of the minimum and maximum horizontal compressive stresses, we perform a series of 2D finite element models of plate scale kinematics assuming plane stress approximation. Results obtained are used to develop a regional model, which takes into account recognized archipelago-scale structural discontinuities. Maximum horizontal compressive stress directions obtained are compared with available stress, geological and geodynamic data. The methodology used may be easily applied to other active volcanic regions, where a first order approach of their plate/regional stresses can be essential information to be used as input data for volcanic hazard assessment models.

  8. Possible mechanisms of host resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengyu; González, Jorge Francisco; Hernandez, Julia N.; McNeilly, Tom N.; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Frew, David; Morrison, Tyler; Yu, Peng; Li, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus appears to be the most economically important helminth parasite for small ruminant production in many regions of the world. The two sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands display distinctly different resistant phenotypes under both natural and experimental infections. Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) tends to have significantly lower worm burden and delayed and reduced egg production than the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS). To understand molecular mechanisms underlying host resistance, we compared the abomasal mucosal transcriptome of the two breeds in response to Haemonchus infection using RNAseq technology. The transcript abundance of 711 and 50 genes were significantly impacted by infection in CHB and CS, respectively (false discovery rate <0.05) while 27 of these genes were significantly affected in both breeds. Likewise, 477 and 16 Gene Ontology (GO) terms were significantly enriched in CHB and CS, respectively (P < 1.0 × 10−4). A broad range of mechanisms have evolved in resistant CHB to provide protection against the parasite. Our findings suggest that readily inducible acute inflammatory responses, complement activation, accelerated cell proliferation and subsequent tissue repair, and immunity directed against parasite fecundity all contributed to the development of host resistance to parasitic infection in the resistant breed. PMID:27197554

  9. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, A; Modry, D; Foronda, P

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective of identifying the species of Eimeria present in a cynegetic farm. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species is described from Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara, from the Canary Islands. Experimental infections were carried out in order to determine the prepatent period, sporulation time, site of infection, and morphology of endogenous stages. One species is described as new. Eimeria barbarae n. sp. has ellipsoidal oocysts, 20.0 × 14.4 (16-23 × 13-16) μm, with a shape-index (SI) of 1.39. Sporocysts are almond-shaped, 9.0 × 5.4 (6.5-11 × 4.5-6) μm, SI = 1.56. The endogenous development takes place along the intestine. The present study showed that E. barbarae causes severe pathologies in A. barbara chickens, with impact on their health condition. Control strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis at studied farm. PMID:26792431

  10. Chemical fingerprinting applied to the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts of Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical fingerprinting approach to environmental assessment is illustrated in the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts using two limpet species as bioindicator organisms, and based on profiles and concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues. Accidental and chronic releases of hydrocarbons can contaminate the marine environment of the Canary Islands not only because of their geographical situation but also because of the very dense tank traffic around. This situation affects coastal areas, fishing activities, tourism resort, etc. Concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soft tissues of the marine intertidal and subtidal limpets, Patella crenata and Patella ullysiponensis aspera, were evaluated. Limpet samples were collected at monthly intervals, at three locations on the southeast coast of Tenerife over a 3-year period (1991-93). Levels of hydrocarbons found in limpets are similar to concentrations found in unpolluted areas around the world. From application of principal component analysis, the interpretation of variable loading plots gives information on variable correlation and can be used to distinguish among potential sources of pollution and the ability of studied molluscs to be used as bioindicator organisms. (Author)

  11. Agrotourism, sustainable tourism and Ultraperipheral areas: The Case of Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Parra López, Eduardo; Calero García, Francisco Javier

    2006-01-01

    Ultraperipheral regions share certain common characteristics, such as their remoteness from the major supplying centres, their scanty resources, their island status or isolated location and consequent fragmentation of markets. Over the past decades, there has been an increasing awareness of the impact of ultraperiphericity on the development of a number of regions and islands. The concept of “ultraperiphericity” includes specific geographic circumstances that influence the development and spe...

  12. Application of a cross correlation-based picking algorithm to active seismic signals from experiments in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Yeguas, A.; Granados, M.; Garcia, L.; Benitez, C.; De la Torre, A.; Alvarez, I.; Diaz, A.; Ibañez, J.

    2013-12-01

    The detection of the arrival time of seismic waves or picking is of great importance in many seismology applications. Traditionally, picking has been carried out by human operators. This process is not systematic and relies completely on the expertise and judgment of the analysts. The limitations of manual picking and the increasing amount of data daily stored in the seismic networks worldwide distributed led to the development of automatic picking algorithms. The accuracy of conventional 'short-term average over long-term average' (STA/LTA) algorithm, the recently developed 'Adaptive Multiband Picking Algorithm' (AMPA) and the proposed cross correlation-based picking algorithm have been assessed using a huge data set composed by active seismic signals from experiments in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The experiment consisted of the deployment of a dense seismic network on Tenerife Island (125 seismometers in total) and the shooting of air-guns around the island with the Spanish Oceanographic Vessel Hespérides (6459 air shots in total). Thus, more than 800.000 signals were recorded and subsequently manually picked. Since the sources and receivers locations are known and considering that the ship travelled a small distance between two consecutive shots, a picking algorithm based on cross-correlation has been proposed. The main advantage of this approach is that the algorithm does not require to set up sophisticated parameters, in contrast to other automatic algorithms. This work was supported in part by the CEI BioTic Granada project (COD55), the Spanish mineco project APASVO (TEC2012-31551), the Spanish micinn project EPHESTOS (CGL2011-29499-C02-01) and the EU project MED-SUV.

  13. Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiras, F. G.; Arbones, B.; Montero, M. F.; Barton, E. D.; Arístegui, J.

    2016-05-01

    Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production were studied in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone. The region showed strong mesoscale activity, in which upwelling filaments and island eddies interacted to cause significant vertical displacements of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Oligotrophic stations both in the open ocean and within anticyclonic eddies were characterised by low values of integrated chlorophyll (33 ± 4 mg chl a m- 2) and dominance of pico- and nanophytoplankton, while stations associated with filaments and cyclonic eddies showed moderate chl a values (50 ± 17 mg m- 2). Shelf stations affected by upwelling exhibited the highest chl a (112 ± 36 mg m- 2) with microphytoplankton dominance. Photosynthetic variables in the three groups of stations showed similar depth gradients, with maximum photosynthetic rates (PmB) decreasing with depth and maximum quantum yields (ϕm) increasing with depth. However, the increase with depth of ϕm was not so evident in shelf waters where nutrients were not depleted at the surface. Primary production (PP) displayed a coast-ocean gradient similar to that of chl a, with highest values (2.5 ± 1.2 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the eutrophic shelf stations and lowest (0.36 ± 0.11 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the oligotrophic stations. Nevertheless, integrated PP at the oligotrophic stations was not related to integrated chl a concentration but was positively (r = 0.95) correlated to carbon fixation at the DCM and negatively (r = - 0.85) correlated to the depth of the DCM, suggesting that light, and not phytoplankton biomass, was the main factor controlling PP in oligotrophic environments. It is concluded that downward displacements of the DCM, either by convergence fronts or downwelling at the core of anticyclones can significantly reduce PP in the oligotrophic ocean.

  14. Scrophularia arguta, a widespread annual plant in the Canary Islands: a single recent colonization event or a more complex phylogeographic pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, Francisco Javier; López, Josefa; Álvarez, Juan; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have addressed evolution and phylogeography of plant taxa in oceanic islands, but have primarily focused on endemics because of the assumption that in widespread taxa the absence of morphological differentiation between island and mainland populations is due to recent colonization. In this paper, we studied the phylogeography of Scrophularia arguta, a widespread annual species, in an attempt to determine the number and spatiotemporal origins of dispersal events to Canary Islands. Four different regions, ITS and ETS from nDNA and psbA-trnH and psbJ-petA from cpDNA, were used to date divergence events within S. arguta lineages and determine the phylogenetic relationships among populations. A haplotype network was obtained to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes. Our results support an ancient origin of S. arguta (Miocene) with expansion and genetic differentiation in the Pliocene coinciding with the aridification of northern Africa and the formation of the Mediterranean climate. Indeed, results indicate for Canary Islands three different events of colonization, including two ancient events that probably happened in the Pliocene and have originated the genetically most divergent populations into this species and, interestingly, a recent third event of colonization of Gran Canaria from mainland instead from the closest islands (Tenerife or Fuerteventura). In spite of the great genetic divergence among populations, it has not implied any morphological variation. Our work highlights the importance of nonendemic species to the genetic richness and conservation of island flora and the significance of the island populations of widespread taxa in the global biodiversity. PMID:27386073

  15. Inbreeding Depression under Drought Stress in the Rare Endemic Echium wildpretii (Boraginaceae) on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlacek, Janosch; Schmid, Bernhard; Matthies, Diethart; Albrecht, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    How climate-change induced environmental stress may alter the effects of inbreeding in patchy populations of rare species is poorly understood. We investigated the fitness of progeny from experimental self- and cross-pollinations in eight populations of different size of Echium wildpretii, a rare endemic plant of the arid subalpine zone of the Canarian island of Tenerife. As control treatments we used open pollination and autonomous selfing. The seed set of open-pollinated flowers was 55% hig...

  16. Detection and assessment of land use dynamics on Tenerife (Canary Islands): the agricultural development between 1986 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, Sebastian; Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Since Spanish colonial times, the Canary Islands and especially Tenerife have always been used for intensive agriculture. Today almost 1/4 of the total area of Tenerife are agriculturally affected, whereas especially mountainous areas with suitable climate conditions are drastically transformed for agricultural use by building of large terraces. In recent years, political and economical developments lead to a further transformation process, especially inducted by an expansive tourism, which caused concentration- and intensification-tendencies of agricultural land use in lower altitudes as well as agricultural set-aside and rural exodus in the hinterland. The overall aim of the research at hand is to address the agricultural land use dynamics of the past decades, to statistically assess the causal reasons for those changes and to model the future agricultural land use dynamics on Tenerife. Therefore, an object-based classification procedure for recent RapidEye data (2010), Spot 4 (1998) as well as SPOT 1 (1986-88) imagery was developed, followed by a post classification comparison (PCC). Older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside with a higher level of natural succession can hardly be acquired in the used medium satellite imagery. Hence, a second detection technique was generated, which allows an exact identification of the total agriculturally affected area on Tenerife, also containing older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside. The method consists of an automatic texture-oriented detection and area-wide extraction of linear agricultural structures (plough furrows and field boundaries of arable land, utilised and non-utilised agricultural terraces) in current orthophotos of Tenerife. Once the change detection analysis is realised, it is necessary to identify the different driving forces which are responsible for the agricultural land use dynamics. The statistical connections between agricultural land use changes and these driving forces

  17. Absolute paleointensities during a mid Miocene reversal of the Earth's magnetic field recorded on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, R.; Soffel, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    An extensive paleointensity study was carried out on an approximately 14.1 Myr old reverse to normal transition of the geomagnetic field. One hundred eighty-eight samples from a mid Miocene volcanic sequence on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) were subjected to Thellier-type paleointensity determinations. Samples for paleointensity experiments were selected on the basis of high Curie temperatures, low viscosity indexes, and limited variations of the remanence-carrying magnetic content during thermal treatment. A modified Thellier technique, which facilitates the recognition of MD tails and the formation of new magnetic remanences with higher blocking temperatures than the actual heating step, was used on the majority of the samples. The application of this technique proved to be very successful and we obtained reliable paleointensity results for 35% of the 87 sampled lava flows. In general, the intensity of the reversed and normal magnetized parts of the sequence, before and after the transition, is lower than the field intensity expected for the mid Miocene. This observation is very likely related to a long term reduction of the field close to transitions. The mean field intensity after the reversal ( ~ 17 μ T) is about twice the value of that recorded in the rocks prior to the reversal. This observation points at a fast recovery of the dipolar structure of the field after this reversal. Very low paleointensities with values South America. Chronologically, within this cluster the paleointensity increases from about 9 μ T to 28 μ T followed by a decrease back to approximately 9 μ T. This variation of paleointensity between lava flows with similar direction indicates that independent records of the geomagnetic field were obtained and gives strong evidence for a stable transitional state which lasted a significant period of time. Our study supports reversal models with stable directional periods interrupted by rapid directional changes or geomagnetic impulses.

  18. Mercury and selenium status of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): A study in stranded animals on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Natalia; Fernández, Antonio; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Almunia, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-12-01

    The mercury (Hg) level in the marine environment has tripled in recent decades, becoming a great concern because of its high toxic potential. This study reports Hg and selenium (Se) status, and the first Se/Hg molar ratio assessment in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the waters of the Canary Islands. Total Hg and Se concentrations were determined in the blubber and liver collected from 30 specimens stranded along the coasts of the archipelago from 1997 to 2013. The median values for total Hg in the blubber and liver were 80.83 and 223.77 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw), and the median levels for Se in both tissues were 7.29 and 68.63 μg g(-1) dw, respectively. Hg concentrations in the liver were lower than 100 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww), comparable to those obtained in bottlenose dolphins from the North Sea, the Western Atlantic Ocean and several locations in the Pacific Ocean. The Mediterranean Sea and South of Australia are the most contaminated areas for both elements in this cetacean species. In addition, it must be stressed that the levels of Hg and Se in the liver showed an increasing trend with the age of the animals. As expected, a strong positive correlation between Hg and Se was observed (rs=0.960). Surprisingly, both younger and older specimens had a Se/Hg molar ratio different from 1, suggesting that these individuals may be at greater toxicological risk for high concentrations of both elements or a deficiency of Se without a protective action against Hg toxicity. PMID:26232758

  19. Retrieval and validation of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor for the Canary Islands IR-laser occultation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.; Brooke, J. S. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Thomas, C. B.; Wang, J.-G.; Tereszchuk, K. A.; González Abad, G.; Hargreaves, R. J.; Beale, C. A.; Harrison, J. J.; Martin, P. A.; Kasyutich, V. L.; Gerbig, C.; Loescher, A.

    2015-08-01

    The first ground-based experiment to prove the concept of a novel space-based observation technique for microwave and infrared-laser occultation between low-Earth-orbit satellites was performed in the Canary Islands between La Palma and Tenerife. For two nights from 21 to 22 July 2011 the experiment delivered the infrared-laser differential transmission principle for the measurement of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the free atmosphere. Such global and long-term stable measurements of GHGs, accompanied also by measurements of thermodynamic parameters and line-of-sight wind in a self-calibrating way, have become very important for climate change monitoring. The experiment delivered promising initial data for demonstrating the new observation concept by retrieving volume mixing ratios of GHGs along a ~144 km signal path at altitudes of ~2.4 km. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the measurements, following a recent publication that introduced the experiment's technical setup and first results for an example retrieval of CO2. We present the observational and validation data sets, the latter simultaneously measured at the transmitter and receiver sites; the measurement data handling; and the differential transmission retrieval procedure. We also determine the individual and combined uncertainties influencing the results and present the retrieval results for 12CO2, 13CO2, C18OO, H2O and CH4. The new method is found to have a reliable basis for monitoring of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2O in the free atmosphere.

  20. Retrieval and validation of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor for the Canary Islands IR-laser occultation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proschek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The first ground-based experiment to prove the concept of a novel space-based observation technique for microwave and infrared-laser occultation between Low Earth Orbit satellites (LMIO was performed in the Canary Islands between La Palma and Tenerife in July 2011. This experiment aimed to demonstrate the infrared-laser differential transmission principle for the measurement of greenhouse gases (GHGs in the free atmosphere. Such global and long-term stable measurements of GHGs, accompanied also by measurements of thermodynamic parameters and line-of-sight wind in a self-calibrating way, have become very important for climate change monitoring. The experiment delivered promising initial data for demonstrating the new observation concept by retrieving volume mixing ratios of GHGs along a ~ 144 km signal path at altitudes of ~ 2.4 km. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the measurements, following a recent publication that introduced the experiment's technical setup and first results for an example retrieval of CO2. We present the observational and validation datasets, the latter simultaneously measured at the transmitter and receiver sites, the measurement data handling, and the differential transmission retrieval procedure. We also determine the individual and combined uncertainties influencing the results and present the retrieval results for 12CO2, 13CO2, C18OO, H2O and CH4. The new method is found to have a reliable basis for monitoring of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2O in the free atmosphere.

  1. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120-418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands. PMID:26999791

  2. Abundance and Distribution of Sperm Whales in the Canary Islands: Can Sperm Whales in the Archipelago Sustain the Current Level of Ship-Strike Mortalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Andrea; Lewis, Tim P.; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Álvarez, Omar; Tejedor, Ana; Aguilar Soto, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km2, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120–418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands. PMID:26999791

  3. After Timanfaya: overpopulation and soil erosion in the north of Lanzarote (Canary Islands); Tras Timanfaya: susperpoblacion y erosion de suelo en el norte de Lanzarote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado, C.; Romero, C.; Solar, V.

    2009-07-01

    The eruption of Timanfaya (1730-1736) has been the most important volcanic activity on Canary Islands during historical times (after XV Century). The lave flows and piroclastic layers buried at least 1/4 of Lanzarote surface. Overall the island we can see artificial cross-sections showing ash layers, overlapping paleargids soils or interbedded between alluvial sediment on the bottom of in filled valleys. Sedimentological analysis has been applied on four cross-section located along the island. These data, together with historical information and pottery remains, allow conclude a very recent age for many of this layers, produced by a strong erosion input started by the overgrazing produced by the concentration of livestock during the volcanic crisis. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. An epizootic of avian pox in endemic short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) and Berthelot's pipits (Anthus berthelotti) in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, J E; Tella, J L; Carrete, M; Serrano, D; López, G

    2005-01-01

    Between January 2002 and November 2003, 50% (n = 395) of short-toed larks (Calandrella rufescens) and 28% (n = 139) of Berthelot's pipits (Anthus berthelotti) examined on the islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, Canary Islands, had gross lesions compatible with avian pox. However, Spanish sparrows (Passer hispaniolensis, n = 128) and trumpeter finches (Bucanetes githagineus, n = 228), which inhabit the same steppe habitats associated with goat husbandry, did not have poxlike lesions. Histopathology and electron microscopy confirmed poxvirus in the lesions, whereas serology using standard, fowl poxvirus-and pigeon poxvirus-based diagnostic agar gel immunodiffusion techniques was negative, likely because of the limited (74.6% pipit; 74.9% lark) similarity between the viruses in our species and fowlpox virus on which the serologic tests rely. On the basis of polymerase chain reaction analyses, the virus isolated from dried lesions of C. rufescens has 80.5% similarity with the virus isolated from A. berthelotti and 91.3% similarity with canarypox, whereas A. berthelotti poxvirus has only 80% similarity with canarypox. We have two distinct and possibly new avian poxviruses. Both poultry and the wild birds on the farms were heavily infested by fleas, which may have acted as vectors in transmission of poxvirus. Disease prevalence in these Canary Island passerines is higher than that described in song birds in Hawaii that are now threatened, endangered, or extinct. Environmental and biological factors contributing to increased disease susceptibility of these isolated populations must be investigated. PMID:15657273

  5. Post-fire soil erosion on vineyards and canary pine-stands on the subtropical island of La Palma: scope of application of TLS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstaedter, Kathrin; Haas, Florian; Becht, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Land use is considered as a main factor regarding post-fire soil erosion. Especially in the subtropical climate with extreme rainfall events in winter and drought periods during summer times, soil erosion can clearly exceed the soil reproduction rate. On the Canary Island of La Palma frequent wildfires and steep slopes contribute to a high likelihood of post-fire soil erosion. For a quantitative measurement of the erosion rate a terrestrial Laser Scanner with high resolution in combination with a dGPS is used. The main target of this study is to quantify the post-fire soil erosion rates on study sites with a different land use on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands). The investigation focuses on two land use forms; both are very common and widespread on the island: canary pine stands and vineyard areas. The study sites are characterized by a varying steepness, a different fire history (wildfires in 2000, 2009 and 2012) and different stages of soil development. Both denudation and gully erosion processes are spread over the sites. Intense precipitation events can trigger debris flows and extensive soil erosion on post-fire sites, like in the year 2009 in the south or in 2012 on the west and east side of La Palma. Regarding that, erosion is not just a problem for agriculture, but for the infrastructure. For our project we assume, that different topography, different land use and different forest fire history can result in a different soil erosion rate and type (gully incision, denudation processes). To calculate the post-fire erosion rates of the two land use forms, 24 study sites - 10 sites in vineyard areas, 14 in canary pines stands - were selected. By means of a 3D terrestrial Laser Scanner (Riegl LMS Z420i), high resolution digital terrain models of the study sites were compiled. The data acquisition was carried out in October 2011, May 2012 and December 2012 and subsequently the terrain models were compared. With this method not only erosion rates can be

  6. New radiometric ages and seismic data from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), Maio (Cape Verde Islands), and Sao Tome (Gulf of Guinea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early magmatic phase on the islands of Fuerteventura, Maio and Sao Tome ranges from Eocene to Middle Miocene. This conclusion is based on K-Ar datings, field observations and reflection seismic data which are all in good agreement. The three islands occur in different geological settings. The magmatic events are roughly synchronous and appear related in time to major unconformities on the continental margin of western Africa. They are also contemporaneous with major alpine orogenic events and cannot be connected with early opening stages of the Atlantic. A change in stress regime along the West African margin is probably in causal relationship with the collision of African and Eurasian continental masses. Deep-seated crustal deformation may have triggered off the early magmatic phase

  7. Monitoring the NW volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: sixteen years of diffuse CO_{2} degassing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Halliwell, Simon; Butters, Damaris; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria, is the only one that has developed a central volcanic complex characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. At present, one of the most active volcanic structures in Tenerife is the North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ), which has hosted two historical eruptions: Arenas Negras in 1706 and Chinyero in 1909. Since the year 2000, 47 soil CO2 efflux surveys have been undertaken at the NWRZ of Tenerife Island to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of CO2 efflux and their relationships with the volcanic-seismic activity. We report herein the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the NWRZ carried out in July 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area. Measurements were performed in accordance with the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. During 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 103 g m‑2 d‑1. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 403 ± 17 t d‑1, values higher than the background CO2 emission estimated on 143 t d‑1. For all campaigns, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 141 g m‑2 d‑1, with the highest values measured in May 2005. Total CO2 output from the studied area ranged between 52 and 867 t d‑1. Temporal variations in the total CO2 output showed a temporal correlation with the onsets of seismic activity, supporting unrest of the volcanic system, as is also suggested by anomalous seismic activity recorded in the area during April 22-29, 2004. Spatial distribution of soil CO2 efflux values also showed changes in magnitude and amplitude, with higher CO2 efflux values located along a trending WNW-ESE area. Subsurface magma movement is proposed as a cause for the observed changes in the total output of diffuse CO2 emission, as well as for the spatial distribution of

  8. Subtidal soft-bottom macroinvertebrate communities of the Canary Islands. An ecological approach

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    Oscar Monterroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Canarian archipelago is characterized by a mosaic of soft-bottoms such as Cymodocea nodosa meadows, Caulerpa spp. meadows, mäerl bottoms, sabellid fields and bare sandy seabeds, including various macroinfaunal communities. Vegetated habitats (e.g. Cymodocea and Caulerpa maintain more diverse communities than the non-vegetated seabeds. The results indicated that Caulerpa meadows and, to a lesser extent, Cymodocea nodosa and sabellid fields are the richest and most diverse ecosystems in the study area. Moreover, biodiversity differences among islands could be detected with maximum values on the eastern islands (Lanzarote and Gran Canaria and lowest values on the western ones (La Palma.O arquipélago das Canárias é caracterizado por um mosaico de fundos inconsolidados contendo bancos de Cymodocea nodosa, Caulerpa spp., fundos calcários, bancos de sabelídeos e sedimento não biogênico, que abrigam diferentes comunidades da macrofauna. Ambientes vegetados (Cymodocea e Caulerpa possuem comunidades mais diversificadas quando comparados aos ambientes de fundos não vegetados. Os resultados do presente estudo indicaram que os bancos de Caulerpa, primeiramente, e em seguida os bancos de Cymodocea nodosa e de sabelídeos, formam os sistemas mais ricos e diversificados da área. Além disso, puderam também ser detectadas diferenças de biodiversidade entre as ilhas do arquipélago, sendo os valores mais altos localizados nas ilhas ao leste (Lanzarote e Gran Canaria e os menores nas ilhas à oeste (La Palma.

  9. Evidence for long-term uplift on the Canary Islands from emergent Mio Pliocene littoral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, Joaquín; Scaillet, Stéphane; Guillou, Hervé; Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Carlos Carracedo, Juan; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan-Francisco; Cilleros, Antonio

    2007-06-01

    Several islands in the Canarian archipelago show marine deposits with identical fossil faunas, which are generally assigned to different glacioeustatic marine episodes: mainly Pleistocene episodes in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, and Mio-Pliocene ones in Gran Canaria. Three fossil species ( Saccostrea chili, Nerita emiliana and Strombus coronatus) characterize all the marine deposits from southern Lanzarote, to the west and south of Fuerteventura and northeast of Gran Canaria. Three other species ( Ancilla glandiformis, Rothpletzia rudista and Siderastraea miocenica) confirm the chronostratigraphic attribution of these deposits. Other more occasional fossils (as Chlamys latissima, Isognomon soldanii and Clypeaster aegyptiacus) fit an upper Miocene and lower Pliocene age. This agrees with new K/Ar ages obtained from pillow lavas emplaced into the marine deposits (ca. 4.1 Ma in Gran Canaria, ca. 4.8 Ma in Fuerteventura) and from underlying (ca. 9.3 Ma in Gran Canaria) or overlying (ca. 9.8 Ma in Lanzarote) lava flows. The marine deposits are eroded but large continuous segments are preserved sloping gently towards the coast. Variations in the highest and the lowest elevations of the deposits apsl (above present sea level) indicate post-depositional uplift movements. Glacioeustatic causes are unlikely to be responsible for these variations on the basis of the coastal location of the deposits and their equatorial fauna characteristic of Mio-Pliocene corals. Differential uplift of the deposits across the archipelago is argued to result from the progressive seaward tilting of the islands along the insular volcanic trail marking the westward migration of hot spot head since 20 Ma. Successive westward accretion of younger volcanic edifices resulted in increasing lithostatic load of the crust with progressive (diachronous) tilting of the older edifices and their palaeo-shorelines marked by past coastal deposits.

  10. Hazard assessment at Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Joan; Sobradelo, Rosa; Felpeto, Alicia

    2010-05-01

    Mid to long-term hazard assessment is conducted at Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex as a first step to evaluate volcanic risk in Tenerife, a densely populated island that is one of the biggest tourist destinations in Europe. Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes started to grow up in the interior of the Las Cañadas caldera, in the central part of Tenerife, about 190 ka ago, after the formation of the youngest sector of the caldera. Since then they have produced more than 150 km3 of rocks which represent a complete basanite to phonolite series. Eruptive activity at Teide-Pico Viejo complex has been traditionally considered as mostly effusive, but new field data has revealed that explosive activity of phonolitic and basaltic magmas, including plinian and subplinian eruptions and the generation of a wide range of PDCs, has also been significant, particularly during the last 30 ka. Most of the Teide products have been emplaced towards the north, inside the Icod and La Orotava valleys, or at the interior of the caldera, while towards the south the caldera wall has stopped the emplacement of such products from going further. The last eruption from the Teide-Pico Viejo central vents, the Lavas Negras eruption, took place about 1000 years ago, but younger eruptive episodes have occurred along the flanks of these stratovolcanoes. Despite the occurrence of numerous eruptions during the last 30 ka and the existence of unequivocal signs of activity in historical times (fumaroles, seismicity) and, even, a clear unrest episode that started in 2004 and is still ongoing, Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes have not been considered as a major threat by some scientists and also by the local authorities who have dedicated minimum attention to them in the recently approved regional emergency plan. If this view prevails it is obvious that risk mitigation in Tenerife will not succeed. In order to contribute to change that view on the danger potential of Teide-Pico Viejo, and to insist on the

  11. Inbreeding depression under drought stress in the rare endemic Echium wildpretii (Boraginaceae on Tenerife, Canary islands.

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    Janosch Sedlacek

    Full Text Available How climate-change induced environmental stress may alter the effects of inbreeding in patchy populations of rare species is poorly understood. We investigated the fitness of progeny from experimental self- and cross-pollinations in eight populations of different size of Echium wildpretii, a rare endemic plant of the arid subalpine zone of the Canarian island of Tenerife. As control treatments we used open pollination and autonomous selfing. The seed set of open-pollinated flowers was 55% higher than that of autonomously selfed flowers, showing the importance of animal pollination for reproductive success. The seed set, seed mass and germination rate of seedlings of hand-selfed flowers was similar to that of hand-crossed flowers, indicating weak inbreeding depression (seed set -4.4%, seed mass -4.1%, germination -7.3%. Similarly, under normal watering there were no significant effects of inbreeding on seedling survival (-3.0%. However, under low watering of seedlings inbreeding depression was high (survival -50.2%. Seed set of open- and hand-outcrossed-pollinated flowers was higher in large than in small populations, possibly due to more frequent biparental inbreeding in the latter. However, later measures of progeny fitness were not significantly influenced by population size. We predict that increasing drought duration and frequency due to climate change and reductions of population sizes may increase inbreeding depression in this charismatic plant species and thus threaten its future survival in the longer term.

  12. 222Rn and CO2 at las Canadas Caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, CO2 and environmental variables have been recorded during nearly three years at a shelter hosting a 505 m deep well located close to Teide volcano. Different temporal patterns are observed, annual, semi-annual, semidiurnal and multi-day fluctuations, the latter observed as gradual variation of the semidiurnal signal. CO2 is anticorrelated with atmospheric pressure (Patm) at daily and at multi-day scale, pointing to a barometric control on the rate of up-flow through the pipe of volcanic CO2 exhaled from the aquifer. Rn daily maximum lags pressure by 2 hours or more, exhibiting a positive correlation at the multi-day scale. Also, an apparent quasi-fortnightly period is detected for Rn, CO2 and Patm during summer months, with different relations among them (reversal at CO2 compared to Rn and Patm), pointing to a long period tidal modulation on these gases. Several anomalous large semidiurnal radon peaks were detected, some of them possibly related to seismic events within the volcanic edifice. This work defines radon baseline levels during a period of low geo-dynamic activity at a site which is in direct contact with a CO2 saturated aquifer that could be easily perturbed by potential unrest at the central volcanic edifice of the island. (authors)

  13. Contrasting recruitment seasonality of sea urchin species in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (eastern Atlantic

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    S. GARCIA-SANZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite sea-urchins can play an important role affecting the community structure of subtidal bottoms, factors controlling the dynamics of sea-urchin populations are still poorly understood. We assessed the seasonal variation in recruitment of three sea-urchin species (Diadema africanum, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula at Gran Canaria Island (eastern Atlantic via monthly deployment of artificial collectors throughout an entire annual cycle on each of four adjacent habitat patches (seagrasses, sandy patches, ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens and macroalgal-dominated beds within a shallow coastal landscape. Paracentrotus lividus and A. lixula had exclusively one main recruitment peak in late winter-spring. Diadema africanum recruitment was also seasonal, but recruits appeared in late summer-autumn, particularly on ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens with large abundances of adult conspecifics. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated non-overlapping seasonal recruitment patterns of the less abundant species (P. lividus and A. lixula with the most conspicuous species (D. africanum in the study area.

  14. Implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) Model in Spain: an example of a collaboration between Canarian universities and the department of education of the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Crespo, Patricia; González, Desirée; Artiles, Ceferino; Alfonso, Miguel

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of second tier intervention at-risk readers within the context of a Response to Intervention approach. The study was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain), directed by research team ¨Dificultades de Aprendizaje, Psicolingüística y Nuevas Tecnologías¨ (DEA&NT) from University of La Laguna, and supported by the Government of the Canary Islands. A sample of 1.123 Spanish children from fourteen schools districts were given the Spanish adaptation of The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist and children who scored at or above the 75th percentile on the test were classified as "at risk" for early reading difficulties. Half of the students were randomly assigned to a project-based intervention condition where they received small group supplementary intervention for 30 minutes daily using the Prevención de las Dificultades Específicas de Aprendizaje (PREDEA) curriculum from mid to late December and continued until mid June. The other half received whatever remedial services were available at their schools. Results indicated that children who received the PREDEA curriculum had higher scores on the Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (EGRA) on initial sound identification, listening comprehension, letter sound knowledge and oral reading fluency compared to the control group. PMID:21044535

  15. Reconstructing eroded paleovolcanoes on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, using advanced geomorphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karátson, D.; Yepes, J.; Favalli, M.; Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.; Fornaciai, A.

    2016-01-01

    Original volcanic edifices of two successive stages of Gran Canaria are reconstructed using a geomorphometric analysis of existent or restored paleosurfaces. In the reconstruction, surface fitting was applied preferably to planèzes (i.e. triangular facets of original volcano flanks) and quasi-planar surfaces, QPS (those occurring on planèzes, or scattered, slightly eroded portions derived from original cone surfaces) with the help of red relief image map (RRIM) analysis. Out of the long-lasting, Mid-Miocene to Holocene subaerial evolution of the island, the Late Miocene Fataga volcano and the subsequent, Pliocene Roque Nublo volcanoes were the largest and highest. The eruptive center of Fataga, a composite edifice (12.2-8.8 Ma) that may have grown up excentrically with respect to the previous Tejeda caldera, is well-defined by both two planèzes (named Veneguera-Mogán and Fataga-Tirajana) and QPS remnants. Its calculated original volume, ≤ 1000 km3, is close to the largest stratovolcanoes on Earth. However, its ≥ 3300 m elevation, obtained by exponential fit, may have been significantly lower due to the complex architecture of the summit region, e.g. a caldera responsible for ignimbrite eruptions. Roque Nublo, a 3.7-2.9 Ma stratovolcanic cone, which was superimposed upon the Fataga rocks ≥ 3 km west of the Fataga center, has left no considerable paleosurfaces behind due to heavy postvolcanic erosion. Yet, its remnant formations preserved in a radial pattern unambiguously define its center. Moreover, surface fitting of the outcropping rocks can be corrected taking the erosion rate for the past 3 Ma into account. Such a corrected surface fit points to a regular-shaped, ≥ 3000 m-high cone with a 25 km radius and ca. 940 km3 original volume, also comparable with the dimensions of the largest terrestrial stratovolcanoes.

  16. Object-based detection of LUCC with special regard to agricultural abandonment on Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, Sebastian; Siegmund, Alexander; Thunig, Holger; Michel, Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    The island Tenerife has always been used for intensive agriculture, whereby the natural landscape was continuously altered. Especially mountainous areas with suitable climate conditions have been drastically transformed for agricultural use by building of large terraces to get flat surfaces. In recent decades political and economic developments lead to a transformation process (especially inducted by an expansive tourism), which caused concentration- and intensificationtendencies of agricultural land use as well as agricultural set-aside and rural exodus. In order to get information about the land use and land cover (LULC) patterns and especially the agricultural dynamics on Tenerife, a multi-scale, knowledge-based classification procedure for recent RapidEye data was developed. Furthermore, a second detection technique was generated, which allows an exact identification of the total ever utilised agricultural area on Tenerife, also containing older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside with a higher level of natural succession (under the assumption that long-term fallow areas can be detected mainly together with old agricultural terraces and its specific linear texture). These areas can hardly be acquired in the used satellite imagery. The method consists of an automatic texture-oriented detection and area-wide extraction of linear agricultural structures (plough furrows and field boundaries of arable land, utilised and non-utilised agricultural terraces) in current orthophotos of Tenerife. Through the detection of recent agricultural land use in the satellite imagery and total ever utilised agricultural area in the orthophotos, it is possible to define the total non-active agricultural land as well as hot spots of agricultural decrease.

  17. Characterization of fibers as rockwool for insulation obtained from canary islands basalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass fibers in the shape of wool were obtained at laboratory scale from three samples of basaltic rocks from the Tenerife Island. The rockwool is widely used as thermal and acoustical insulation. The ability of these rocks to be fiberized was studied by means of the viscosity curves and can be quite improved by adding calcium and magnesium. The experimental fibers obtained from the rocks directly or mixed with either CaCO3 or CaMg(CO32 ye characterized in terms of chemical composition, microstructure and thermal and mechanical properties. These properties were compared with the ones determined for four commercial samples of rockcwool, founding that they are very close. This gives good prospects to these fibers from Canarian basalts as insulation material.

    Se ha obtenido fibra de vidrio en forma de lana, a escala de laboratorio, a partir de tres muestras de rocas basálticas de la Isla de Tenerife. La lana de roca se emplea extensamente como aislamiento térmico y acústico. La aptitud de estas rocas para su fibrado, estudiada mediante las curvas de viscosidad, mejora considerablemente con la adición de calcio y magnesio. Las fibras experimentales, obtenidas tanto a partir de las rocas directamente, como mezcladas en diferentes proporciones con CaCO3 o CaMg(CO32, se han caracterizado en lo referente a la composición química, la microestructura y propiedades térmicas y mecánicas. Así mismo, se han comparado estas propiedades con las determinadas para cuatro muestras comerciales de lana de roca, permitiendo comprobar que son bastante semejantes, lo que hace prever unas buenas cualidades para estas fibras de basaltos canarios en aplicaciones de aislamiento térmico y acústico.

  18. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  19. A PHOTO-IDENTIFICATION CATALOGUE OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS IN THE CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN: A BASELINE INFORMATION FOR ITS CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verme, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalog of photo-identification of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus was made on the island Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, between 2005 and 2006. A total of 391 sightings was made. Sightings took place on 95 days in 2005 and on 66 days in 2006, with a total of 70.1 h of interaction with dolphins. 129 individual adult dolphins were identified between 2005 and 2006. The frequency of re-sightings was not very high, with the most common being a dolphin resighted between 2 and 9 times. The standard catalogue of photo-identification obtained seems to provide good baseline information and a tool for conservation of the species and for future projects with high potential for environmental education and ecotourism in the area.

  20. Characterization of six microsatellite loci in Myrica faya (Myricaceae and cross amplification in the endangered endemic M. rivas-martinezii in Canary Islands, Spain

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    Miguel A. González-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from enriched libraries in Myrica faya Ait., recently renamed Morella faya , (fayatree, firetree, or firebush in order to examine the genetic diversity in natural populations. Also, test cross-specific amplification and genetic diversity in Myrica rivas-martinezii, which is endemic on the Canary islands. Microsatellite loci were screened in 225 individuals of both species from different islands of the Canarian archipelago. All markers were successfully amplified from both Myrica species, with an average number of 6.5 and 9.3 alleles per locus in M. rivas-martinezii and M. faya , respectively. There was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium between loci, and the probability of null alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.17.

  1. Evolutive and regressive soil sequences for characterization of soils in laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands

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    José Asterio Guerra-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation processes have achieved the recognition of a global environmental problem in recent years. It has been suggested by various international forums and organizations that in order to adequately establish methods to combat land degradation, it is necessary to evaluate this degradation locally and at a detailed scale. The evaluation of soil degradation of natural ecosystems at a detailed scale requires the definition of standards to which to compare this degradation. To define these standards and properly handle the processes that give rise to variations in soil quality and degradation, it is necessary to establish in some detail the pedogenic processes that have or have not taken place in a particular area and which lead to the formation of a mature soil. A mature soil should be considered as standard in these situations and, therefore, a non-degraded soil. This paper presents the possible evolutive and regressive sequences of soil, and provides some examples of using this methodology to evaluate the degradation of the same in the Monteverde of the island of Tenerife. It also presents some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of climacic mature soils, degraded soils and low quality soils, and examines their similarities and differences in this bioclimatic environment and on different parent materials. Thus it is observed that the main processes of degradation in these areas are related to plant cover modifications that lead to the decreasing protection of the soil surface, which results in the long term, in the onset of degradation processes such as water erosion, biological degradation, loss of andic properties, compaction and sealing and crusting surface, loss of water retention capacity, illuviation, etc. Climacic soils that can be found in areas of steep lava flows are Leptosols, while gently sloping areas are Cambisols and Andosols. On pyroclastic materials there are vitric Andosols and andic Andosols according to

  2. Shallow fractionation signature of phase chemistry in Taburiente lavas, La Palma, Canary Islands: Results of MELTS modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetschow, H. A.; Nelson, B. K.

    2002-12-01

    Depth of crystal fractionation influences the chemical evolution of ocean island basalts and has significant implications for the physical structures of these volcanoes. In contrast to dominantly shallow systems such as Hawaii, a range of fractionation depths have been reported for Canary Islands lavas. Magmas erupted on La Palma preserve fluid- and melt-inclusion evidence for high-pressure (> 10 kbar) crystallization (Klügel et al., 1998; Hansteen et al., 1998; Nikogosian et al., 2002). If high-pressure fractional crystallization were an early and dominant process, it would generate specific patterns in rock and phase chemistry of eruptive sequences. Alkalic basalts from Taburiente volcano display coherent major element trends consistent with evolution dominated by fractional crystallization while their phenocryst compositions, trace elements, and isotopic trends require mixing between multiple sources. The current model confirms the importance of both fractionation and mixing to achieve the full range of lavas observed. A low-pressure (1 kbar) thermodynamic fractional crystallization model performed with the MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) software closely reproduces major element trends from two stratigraphic sequences. This model also predicts the observed sequence of groundmass clinopyroxene compositions and phenocryst zoning reversals. In all low pressure simulations, olivine remains a modally significant liquidus phase during the first 20% and last 30% of the crystallization sequence, resulting in a negative correlation between the CaO and Fo content of olivine. These results are consistent with the presence of olivine phenocrysts that bear petrographic evidence of early crystallization, as well as observed compositional trends of groundmass olivine and clinopyroxene in Taburiente lavas. MELTS models that include an initial period of high pressure (12 kbar) clinopyroxene fractionation produce major element trends comparable to the low pressure model, but

  3. Influence of soil surface characteristics and water repellence on soil infiltration and soil loss of Andisols (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción, Jiménez; Jonay, Neris; Josué, Fuentes; Marisa, Tejedor

    2010-05-01

    Infiltration is a crucial process in the hydrological cycle, since it controls - among other things - the generation of run-off, erosion and aquifer recharge. Undisturbed Andisols are considered resistant to water erosion; a characteristic closely associated with their high porosity that permits a rapid rainfall infiltration and high structural stability. In spite of that, the high content of organic C on this type of soils, and the positive relation between this property and water repellence, could allow the presence of some soil surface characteristics that may change this behaviour. The aim of this work was to study the influence of these hydrophobic layers on water infiltration and soil loss on Andisols of Tenerife. Twelve sites were chosen, all of which are located on the northern side of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), between 825-1400 m.a.s.l. The soils are allophanic Andisols (Typic/Lithic Hapludands and Typic Haplustands) and vitric Andisols (Typic Udivitrands) under pine forest. In each site, soil surface features with potential hydrological implications were described. To determine infiltration, a rainfall simulator with the following characteristics was used: 35 x 25 x 30 cm metal box with nozzles in the bottom, 2.5 cm apart (diameter of drops = 2-3 mm). The 4 box adjustable legs were set at 2 m height. Prior to installing the rainfall simulator, study zones were marked out using 30 cm-tall metal sheets. Each area measured approximately 875 cm2 and measurements were taken for slopes of 10 and 30% when it was possible. At the end of the slope a 25 cm-wide collector was semi-buried to collect runoff and sediment. Rainfall of variable intensity between 50-70 mmh-1 was simulated for periods of 30-45 minutes. Time to runoff (TR), volume to runoff (VR), steady-state infiltration rate (IR), runoff/rainfall ratio (RR), soil loss rate (SED) and sediment concentration (CSED) were measured. For some of the studied soils, the formation of horizons

  4. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  5. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Seygo; Barrancos, José; Padrón, Eleazar

    2013-04-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great

  6. Geomorphological features in the southern Canary Island Volcanic Province: The importance of volcanic processes and massive slope instabilities associated with seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Desirée; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Somoza, Luis; León, Ricardo; López-González, Nieves; Medialdea, Teresa; Fernández-Salas, Luis-Miguel; González, Francisco-Javier; Rengel, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The margin of the continental slope of the Volcanic Province of Canary Islands is characterised by seamounts, submarine hills and large landslides. The seabed morphology including detailed morphology of the seamounts and hills was analysed using multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data, and very high resolution seismic profiles. Some of the elevation data are reported here for the first time. The shape and distribution of characteristics features such as volcanic cones, ridges, slides scars, gullies and channels indicate evolutionary differences. Special attention was paid to recent geological processes that influenced the seamounts. We defined various morpho-sedimentary units, which are mainly due to massive slope instability that disrupt the pelagic sedimentary cover. We also studied other processes such as the role of deep bottom currents in determining sediment distribution. The sediments are interpreted as the result of a complex mixture of material derived from a) slope failures on seamounts and submarine hills; and b) slides and slumps on the continental slope.

  7. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: jmorales@ull.es; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  8. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time

  9. Raised marine sequences of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura revisited—a reappraisal of relative sea-level changes and vertical movements in the eastern Canary Islands during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Cari; Goy, José Luis; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Soler, Vicente; González, José Ángel; Dabrio, Cristino J.; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2002-10-01

    Systematic mapping and morphosedimentary analysis of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote Islands supported by laboratory techniques (U-series mostly by TIMS, 14C analysis and allo-isoleucine measurements on biogenic carbonates from raised marine deposits, paleomagnetic and a few K/Ar measurements on volcanic formations related to marine deposits) provide a basis for constraining the age of Late Cainozoic marine units. The most complete sequences of raised marine terraces are found at similar elevations in both islands. They include up to 12 marine terraces (Episodes) at elevations between 0 m and 70 m above mean sea level (asl). At least six terraces should be of Quaternary age, and more recent than 1.2 Myr. Throughout the whole marine sequence with the exception of the Holocene terrace, the warm fauna assemblage is characterized by the presence of Ostrea virleti, Nerita emiliana, and Strombus ( S. cf. coronatus-S. cf. bubonius). However, there is a major change, highlighted by the disappearance of the first two species, below the 8-10 m terrace, that could possibly correspond to MIS 11. K-Ar measurements allow an estimate for mean uplift rate of 1.7 cm/ka during the last million years. The present elevation of the Last Interglacial deposits (about 1 and 2 m asl) shows discontinuous vertical movements with possibly a reverse trend since MIS 9 in eastern Canary Islands.

  10. Análisis geográfico de las actuales relaciones comerciales entre Canarias y Marruecos / Geographic analysis of commercial relations between the Canary Islands and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díaz Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo formulamos como hipótesis de partida que Canarias, como frontera meridional de Europa, en un contexto de creciente internacionalización, tiene en los mercados africanos una gran baza histórica que desempeñar. Dado el interés general que este asunto suscita entre las ciencias sociales, se requiere abordarlo desde el análisis geográfico. Para cumplimentar este estudio se emplearon las estadísticas que ofrecen organismos oficiales como el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Instituto Canario de Estadística, Agencia Estatal de la Administración Tributaria, Instituto de Comercio Exterior y entidades internacionales como la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Comercio y el Desarrollo (UNCTAD y la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OCM.In this work we formulate the hypothesis that the Canary Islands, as Europe’s southern border, must develop an important role in African markets, in a context of increasing internationalization. Because of the general interest in this issue within the social sciences, to address it from the geographic analysis is required. This study is based, on the one hand, on statistics provided by Spanish government agencies such as the National Statistics Institute, the Canary Institute of Statistics, the State Tax Administration Agency and the Institute of Foreign Trade and, on the other hand, by international entities such as the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development (UNCTAD and the World Trade Organization (WTO.

  11. The deep Canary poleward undercurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Belchi, P. J.; Hernandez-Guerra, A.; González-Pola, C.; Fraile, E.; Collins, C. A.; Machín, F.

    2012-12-01

    Poleward undercurrents are well known features in Eastern Boundary systems. In the California upwelling system (CalCEBS), the deep poleward flow has been observed along the entire outer continental shelf and upper-slope, using indirect methods based on geostrophic estimates and also using direct current measurements. The importance of the poleward undercurrents in the CalCEBS, among others, is to maintain its high productivity by means of the transport of equatorial Pacific waters all the way northward to Vancouver Island and the subpolar gyre but there is also concern about the low oxygen concentration of these waters. However, in the case of the Canary Current Eastern Boundary upwelling system (CanCEBS), there are very few observations of the poleward undercurrent. Most of these observations are short-term mooring records, or drifter trajectories of the upper-slope flow. Hence, the importance of the subsurface poleward flow in the CanCEBS has been only hypothesized. Moreover, due to the large differences between the shape of the coastline and topography between the California and the Canary Current system, the results obtained for the CalCEBS are not completely applicable to the CanCEBS. In this study we report the first direct observations of the continuity of the deep poleward flow of the Canary Deep Poleward undercurrent (CdPU) in the North-Africa sector of the CanCEBS, and one of the few direct observations in the North-Africa sector of the Canary Current eastern boundary. The results indicate that the Canary Island archipelago disrupts the deep poleward undercurrent even at depths where the flow is not blocked by the bathymetry. The deep poleward undercurrent flows west around the eastern-most islands and north east of the Conception Bank to rejoin the intermittent branch that follows the African slope in the Lanzarote Passage. This hypothesis is consistent with the AAIW found west of Lanzarote, as far as 17 W. But also, this hypothesis would be coherent

  12. Evaluation of changes in soil in the short and medium term due to a forest fire in the pine forest of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernández

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires lead to important changes in soil properties, which sometimes are non-reversible. In the Canary Islands, fires burn mainly Canarian pine (Pinus canariensis forests. This work evaluates the impact and evolution of some relevant physico-chemical and biological properties in burned soils affected in an area under Canarian pine forest in the NW of Tenerife. Four sites with different understory composition were selected, together with similar, unaffected neighboring areas as controls. In these areas, soil samples were gathered periodically (four times in each plot, along a period ranging between three months and three years after the fire. Samples were analyzed for different physico-chemical and biological parameters. The results showed increases in burned areas for pH, EC1: 5 and NH4+-N three months after the fire, without differences in further samplings. Increases were also found for the oxidizable carbon (Cox, total nitrogen (Ntot available cations, and water repellency. Furthermore, a considerable increase in soil respiration in the area affected by the fire was observed in the first sampling. However, this zone is also characterized by an initial decrease in the microbial biomass-linked organic C, and some enzymatic activities, particularly the phosphomonoesterase. In time, the enzymatic activities studied recovered progressively, without reaching the values measured at unburned areas.

  13. Influence of the fitted probability distribution type on the annual mean power generated by wind turbines: A case study at the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to quantify the influence that probability distribution selected to fit wind speed data has on the estimation of the annual mean energy production of wind turbines. To perform this task, a comparative analysis between the well-known two parameter wind speed Weibull distribution and alternative mixture of finite distribution models (less simple but providing better fits in many locations) is applied, in order to contrast simplicity versus accuracy. Data fitted from a set of weather stations located at the Canary Islands and a representative sample of commercial wind turbines are taken into account to carry out this analysis. The calculations provide a wide variety of numerical results but, as a general conclusion, the analysis evidences that any improvement in wind data fits given by the use of a mixture of finite distributions, instead of the standard Weibull distribution, is partially or even totally lost as the annual mean energy production is worked out, practically regardless the weather station, the wind speed distribution model, the turbine size or the turbine concept

  14. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.

    2015-06-01

    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  15. Distributional patterns of endemic, native and alien species along a roadside elevational gradient in Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bacaro, G.; Maccherini, S.; Chiarucci, A.; Jentsch, A.; Rocchini, D.; Torri, D.; Gioria, Margherita; Tordoni, E.; Martellos, S.; Altobelli, A.; Otto, R.; Escudero, C. G.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Fernández-Palacios, J. M.; Arévalo, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2015), s. 223-234. ISSN 1585-8553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13491S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive plants * island invasibility * road disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.214, year: 2014

  16. The canary tree

    OpenAIRE

    Mekler, Alan H.; Shelah, Saharon

    1993-01-01

    A canary tree is a tree of cardinality the continuum which has no uncountable branch, but gains a branch whenever a stationary set is destroyed (without adding reals). Canary trees are important in infinitary model theory. The existence of a canary tree is independent of ZFC + GCH.

  17. Precursory Subsurface 222Rn and 220Rn Degassing Signatures of the 2004 Seismic Crisis at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Marrero, Rayco; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Nolasco, Dácil

    2007-12-01

    Precursory geochemical signatures of radon degassing in the subsurface of the Tenerife Island were observed several months prior to the recent 2004 seismic-volcanic crisis. These premonitory signatures were detected by means of a continuous monitoring of 222Rn and 220Rn activity from a bubbling CO2-rich gas spot located at 2.850 m depth inside a horizontal gallery for groundwater exploitation at Tenerife. Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) on time series of the radon activity was applied to eliminate the radon activity fluctuation due to external variables such as barometric pressure, temperature and relative humidity as well as power supply. Material Failure Forecast Method (FFM) was successfully applied to forecast the anomalous seismicity registered in Tenerife Island in 2004. The changes in the 222Rn/220Rn ratio observed after the period of anomalous seismicity might suggest a higher gas flow rate and/or changes in the vertical permeability induced by seismic activity.

  18. Cruise report for FS METEOR Cruise 60 Leg 3 from Las Palmas, Canary Islands to Ponta Delgada, Azores, during February 28 - March 14, 1982 (NODC Accession 0078562)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of this cruise leg was physical oceanography of the area between the Canaries and the Azores within the program of the SFB 133 'Warm water sphere of the...

  19. Groundwater intensive exploitation and mining in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: Hydrogeological, environmental, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Cabrera, María Del Carmen; Poncela, Roberto; Puga, Luis-Olavo; Skupien, Elzbieta; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Intensive exploitation and continuous consumption of groundwater reserves (groundwater mining) have been real facts for decades in arid and semiarid areas. A summary of experience in the hydrogeological, economic, social and ethical consequences of groundwater intensive and mining exploitation in Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands, in the Canarian Archipelago, is presented. Groundwater abstraction is less than recharge, but a significant outflow of groundwater to the sea cannot be avoided, especially in Tenerife, due to its younger volcanic coastal formations. Consequently, the intensive aquifer groundwater development by means of wells and water galleries (tunnels) has produced a groundwater reserve depletion of about 2km(3). Should current groundwater abstraction cease, the recovery time to close-to-natural conditions is from decades to one century, except in the mid and high elevations of Tenerife, where this recovery is not possible as aquifer formations will remain permanently drained by the numerous long water galleries. The socio-economic circumstances are complex due to a long standing history of water resources exploitation, successive social changes on each island, and well-established groundwater water trading, with complex relationships that affect water governance and the resulting ethical concerns. Gran Canaria and Tenerife are in an advanced groundwater exploitation stage and have a large water demand. They are good examples that allow drawing guidelines to evaluate groundwater development on other small high islands. After presenting the hydrogeological background, the socio-economic results are discussed to derive general knowledge to guide on water governance. PMID:27017075

  20. Analysis and comparison of SIMCA models for denominations of origin of wines from de Canary Islands (Spain) builds by means of their trace and ultratrace metals content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaste, M.; Medina, B.; Sarabia, L.; Ortiz, M.C.; Perez-Trujillo, J.P

    2002-11-20

    Various models have been constructed and analysed for eight denominations of origin of wines bottled in the Canary Islands, using their content in different metals, with the Soft Independent Modelling Class Analogy (SIMCA) technique. The metals were grouped in three blocks: 'rare earths', 'lead isotope ratios' and 'other metals'. The model constructed with all the variables was taken as the reference model. This model has adequate sensibility and specificity. The contribution of each element to the model of each denomination of origin (DOs), as well as their capacity to discriminate between the DOs is shown. Cluster analysis, using the Ward method, of the SIMCA distances between the different DOs reveals the similarity of the different denominations of origin. Using only the rare earths or the lead isotope ratios it is not possible to construct adequate models for the different DOs given the low specificity obtained. The models constructed with the other metals, alone or combined with the lead isotope ratios, gave similar results to those obtained using all the variables. Finally, the similarity of the models was analysed by a weighted distance between the sensibilities and specificities of each of them compared with the rest. Cluster analysis using the Ward method shows the models which are similar as to their sensibility and specificity. The innovative aspect of the work lies in the use of cluster analysis to demonstrate the similarity between the SIMCA boxes of a model, and the definition of the distance between models based on the sensibility and specificity for the eight DOs with the five groups of variables considered.

  1. Analysis and comparison of SIMCA models for denominations of origin of wines from de Canary Islands (Spain) builds by means of their trace and ultratrace metals content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various models have been constructed and analysed for eight denominations of origin of wines bottled in the Canary Islands, using their content in different metals, with the Soft Independent Modelling Class Analogy (SIMCA) technique. The metals were grouped in three blocks: 'rare earths', 'lead isotope ratios' and 'other metals'. The model constructed with all the variables was taken as the reference model. This model has adequate sensibility and specificity. The contribution of each element to the model of each denomination of origin (DOs), as well as their capacity to discriminate between the DOs is shown. Cluster analysis, using the Ward method, of the SIMCA distances between the different DOs reveals the similarity of the different denominations of origin. Using only the rare earths or the lead isotope ratios it is not possible to construct adequate models for the different DOs given the low specificity obtained. The models constructed with the other metals, alone or combined with the lead isotope ratios, gave similar results to those obtained using all the variables. Finally, the similarity of the models was analysed by a weighted distance between the sensibilities and specificities of each of them compared with the rest. Cluster analysis using the Ward method shows the models which are similar as to their sensibility and specificity. The innovative aspect of the work lies in the use of cluster analysis to demonstrate the similarity between the SIMCA boxes of a model, and the definition of the distance between models based on the sensibility and specificity for the eight DOs with the five groups of variables considered

  2. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in the Canary Islands: a conformational disease due to I244T mutation in the P11L-containing alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A; Salido, E; Torres, A; Shapiro, L J

    2003-06-10

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT; EC 2.6.1.44). Most of the PH1 alleles detected in the Canary Islands carry the Ile-244 --> Thr (I244T) mutation in the AGXT gene, with 14 of 16 patients homozygous for this mutation. Four polymorphisms within AGXT and regional microsatellites also were shared in their haplotypes (AGXT*LTM), consistent with a founder effect. The consequences of these amino acid changes were investigated. Although I244T alone did not affect AGXT activity or subcellular localization, when present in the same protein molecule as Leu-11 --> Pro (L11P), it resulted in loss of enzymatic activity in soluble cell extracts. Like its normal counterpart, the AGXT*LTM protein was present in the peroxisomes but it was insoluble in detergent-free buffers. The polymorphism L11P behaved as an intragenic modifier of the I244T mutation, with the resulting protein undergoing stable interaction with molecular chaperones and aggregation. This aggregation was temperature-sensitive. AGXT*LTM expressed in Escherichia coli, as a GST-fusion protein, and in insect cells could be purified and retained enzymatic activity. Among various chemical chaperones tested in cell culture, betaine substantially improved the solubility of the mutant protein and the enzymatic activity in cell lysates. In summary, I244T, the second most common mutation responsible for PH1, is a protein conformational disease that may benefit from new therapies with pharmacological chaperones or small molecules to minimize protein aggregation. PMID:12777626

  3. Fungicide resistance of Botrytis cinerea in tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands and effectiveness of non-chemical treatments against gray mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Acosta, A; Rodríguez, C

    2014-09-01

    Tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands, Spain, were surveyed to estimate frequencies of resistance to benzimidazoles, dicarboximides, anilinopyrimidines and N-phenylcarbamates in Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and diethofencarb was found in 74.2, 86.4, 28.8 and 31.8% of isolates, respectively. Benzimidazole- and anilinopyrimide-resistant isolates were highly resistant, showing EC50 values above 500 µg/ml carbendazim and a mean EC50 value of 28.42 µg/ml pyrimethanil, respectively. By contrast, a low level of resistance was observed among dicarboximide-resistant isolates (mean EC50 value of 1.81 µg/ml iprodione). Phenotypes with double resistance to carbendazim and iprodione, and triple resistance to carbendazim, iprodione and pyrimethanil were the most common, occurring in 36.4 and 28.8% of isolates. The surveyed greenhouses had never been treated with fenhexamid and Signum™ (pre-packed mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin), and baseline sensitivities of B. cinerea isolates to these fungicides were determined. The EC50 values were within the range of 0.009-0.795 µg/ml fenhexamid and of 0.014-0.48 µg/ml Signum. In addition, available formulations based on elicitors of plant defense response and biocontrol agents were evaluated against B. cinerea in tomato plants under semi-controlled greenhouse conditions, the yeast Candida sake CPA-1 being able to reduce gray mold significantly when it was applied on petiole wounds and the plants were inoculated 24 h later. Likewise, C. sake was effective against B. cinerea in harvested tomato fruits, yeast-treated tomatoes showed a 70.66 and 30.31% reduction in the diameters of decay lesions compared with controls after 10 days of storage at 20 and 9 °C, respectively. PMID:24817605

  4. Degradation of Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson meadow at Las Canteras Beach (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Atlantic Ocean)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milena Polifrone; Miquel Rosell-Fieschi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the distribution of Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson in Las Canteras Beach (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain), comparing the status in 2005 with the distribution observed in 1985 and 1995. Methods: Field observations by selfcontained underwater breathing apparatus diving records and cartographic report.Results:rocks, which sheltered it from the strong north-east winds and swells. Since 1985 a gradual reduction of its extent has been observed and more than 80% of the original canopy disappeared in twenty years time, mostly due to the anthropogenic impact and modification of the sedimentary dynamics of the beach.Conclusions:Conclusions: The degradation of this seagrass meadow determinates the loss of the only meadow in the north of the island of Gran Canaria and the absence of a management plan for its conservation.

  5. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of endemic plant species of Tenerife (Canary Islands): relationship to vegetation zones and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry;

    2008-01-01

    -unidentified species. Besides, Trichoderma-specific SSCP resulted in low diversity of mainly cosmopolitan species, for example Hypocrea lixii/T. harzianum. The dominance of T. harzianum was confirmed by cultivation. All Trichoderma isolates show an extraordinarily high antagonistic potential towards different groups...... and plant communities with a high proportion of endemic plants. Little is known about the biodiversity of associated fungi. To understand the relationship between plant and fungal communities, we analysed soil/rhizosphere fungi from all vegetation zones. From 12 sampling points dispersed on the whole island......, molecular analysis of fungal communities was determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using universal and specific primers for Trichoderma. The highly diverse fungal communities were mainly characterized by ectomycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota and a high proportion of yet...

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the N-S volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during 2002-2015 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mar; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez, Fátima; Melián, Gladys; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria Island, is the only one with a central volcanic complex that started to grow at about 3.5 Ma. Nowadays the central complex is formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and was partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 Ma (Dóniz et al., 2008). Most of the monogenetic cones are aligned following a triple junction-shaped rift system, as result of inflation produced by the concentration of emission vents and dykes in bands at 120o to one another as a result of minimum stress fracturing of the crust by a mantle upwelling. The main structural characteristic of the southern volcanic rift (N-S) of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Four main volcanic successions in the southern volcanic rift zone of Tenerife, temporally separated by longer periods (˜70 - 250 ka) without volcanic activity, have been identified (Kröchert and Buchner, 2008). Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the N-S rift, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. We report here the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the N-S rift of Tenerife, performed using the accumulation chamber method in the summer period of 2015. The objectives of the surveys were: (i) to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area and (ii) to evaluate occasional CO2 efflux surveys as a volcanic surveillance tool for the N-S rift of Tenerife. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 31.7 g m‑2 d‑1. A spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, did not show an

  7. Occurrence of eight UV filters in beaches of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). An approach to environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Rodríguez, A; Rodrigo Sanz, M; Betancort Rodríguez, J R

    2015-07-01

    Due to the growing concern about human health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the use of UV filters has increased in recent decades. Unfortunately, some common UV filters are bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms and show a potential for estrogenic activity. The aim of the present study is to determine the presence of some UV filters in the coastal waters of six beaches around Gran Canaria Island as consequence of recreational seaside activities. Eight commonly used UV filters: benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octocrylene (OC), octyl-dimethyl-PABA (OD-PABA), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), homosalate (HMS), butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (BMDBM), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), were monitored and, with the exception of OD-PABA, all were detected in the samples collected. 99% of the samples showed some UV filters and concentration levels reached up to 3316.7 ng/L for BP-3. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) approach showed risk quotients (RQ) higher than 10, which means that there is a significant potential for adverse effects, for 4-MBC and EHMC for those samples with highest levels of UV filters. PMID:25792520

  8. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d‑1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m‑2 d‑1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  9. The family Pachylaelapidae Vitzthum, 1931 on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands), with description of seven new species of the genus Pachylaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata: Pachylaelapidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moraza, M.L. (María Lourdes); Peña, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY:The family Pachylaelapidae Vitzthum, 1931, in Tenerife Island (Canarian Archipelago) is represented by Pachyseius humeralis Berlese, 1910, and twelve species of Pachylaelaps, seven of which are new for science - P silviae, P mandibularis, P auricularis, P intermedius, P glandular is, P canariensis and P subkarawaiewi. P longisetis, Halbert, 1915, P brachyperitrematus, Koroleva, 1977, P regularis, Berlese, 1921 are recorded, and two unknown species which are not consi...

  10. Application of Spectroscopic Techniques (FT-IR, 13C NMR) to the analysis of humic substances in volcanic soils along an environmental gradient (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Antonio; María Armas Herrera, Cecilia; González Pérez, José Antonio; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Arbelo Rodríguez, Carmen Dolores; Mora Hernández, Juan Luis; Polvillo Polo, Oliva

    2010-05-01

    Andosols and andic soils are considered as efficient C-sinks in terms of C sequestration. These soils are usually developed from volcanic materials, and are characterized by a predominance of short-range ordered minerals like allophanes, imogolite and other Fe and Al oxyhydroxides. Such materials occur commonly associated with organic compounds, thus generating highly stable organo-mineral complexes and leading to the accumulation of a high amount of organic carbon. Spectroscopic methods like FT-IR and 13C NMR are suitable for the analysis of the chemical structure of soil humic substances, and allow identifying distinct functional groups and protein, lipids, lignin, carbohydrate-derived fragments. In this work we study the structural features of four soils developed on Pleistocene basaltic lavae in Tenerife (Canary Island, Spain), distributed along an altitudinal climatic gradient. The soil sequence comprises soils with different degree of geochemical evolution and andic character, including a mineral ‘Hypersalic Solonchak' (Tabaibal de Rasca), a slightly vitric ‘Luvic Phaeozem' (Los Frailes), a degraded and shallow ‘Endoleptic, fulvic, silandic Andosol' (Siete Lomas), and a well-developed and deep ‘Fulvic, silandic, Andosol' (Ravelo). Samples of the raw soil and humic and fulvic acids isolated from the surface horizons were analyzed. The results show a low content of organic carbon in the mineral soil, the inherited humin predominating, and a very high content of humic and fulvic acids in Andosols. The FT-IR and 13C NMR spectra of the raw soil samples show a low resolution, related to interferences from mineral complexes signals, particularly in soils with lower organic carbon content. 13C NMR shows a predominance of O-alkyl carbon (derived of carbohydrates) in andic soils, whereas O-alkyl and aromatic fractions are most evident in the mineral soil. The humic acids spectra are characterized by a dominance of alkyl and aromatic fractions with a high degree

  11. Scaling Erica arborea transpiration from trees up to the stand using auxiliary micrometeorological information in a wax myrtle-tree heath cloud forest (La Gomera, Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2013-09-01

    We investigate evapotranspiration, sap flow and top soil water content variations in a wax myrtle-tree heath ('fayal-brezal' in Spanish) cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands) over a 1-year period. We provide transpiration estimates for one of the representative species, the shrubby needle-like Erica arborea L., present in this relict subtropical forest. An ad hoc tree up to the stand scaling method that combines the sap flow and auxiliary reference evapotranspiration data is illustrated, showing to be useful when sap flow in a limited number of trees has been monitored. Individual daily-based scaling curves of the Gompertz type were necessary to explain the observed sap flow variability in E. arborea during the 1-year period investigated (r(2) ≥ 0.953 with mode of r(2) = 0.9999). The mean daily sap flow of an E. arborea individual amounted to 8.37 ± 5.65 kg day(-1) tree(-1), with a maximum of 20.48 kg day(-1) tree(-1), yielding an annual total of 3052.89 kg tree(-1). A comparison of the computed daily transpiration with the continuous micrometeorological time series monitored in the studied plot suggested that solar radiation was the main driving force of transpiration in E. arborea (cross correlation index = 0.94). Fog may also affect tree transpiration via its reduction of radiation and temperature, such that during foggy periods the mean daily water loss estimate of E. arborea was 5.35 ± 4.30 kg day(-1) tree(-1), which sharply contrasted with the 2.4-fold average transpiration values obtained for fog-free days, i.e., 12.81 ± 4.33 kg day(-1) tree(-1). The annual water balance rendered a 288 mm year(-1) water input to the forest and evidenced the need for accurately quantifying the contribution of fog water dripping from the canopy. PMID:24072518

  12. Diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal energy release 2015 surveys from the summit cone of Teide volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padilla, Germán; Alonso, Mar; Halliwell, Simon; Sharp, Emerson; Butters, Damaris; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Cook, Jenny; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    The summit cone of Teide volcano (Spain) is characterized by the presence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground, and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around this area. The temperature of the fumaroles (83° C) corresponds to the boiling point of water at discharge conditions. Water is the major component of these fumarolic emissions, followed by CO2, N2, H2, H2S, HCl, Ar, CH4, He and CO, a composition typical of hydrothermal fluids. Previous diffuse CO2 surveys have shown to be an important tool to detect early warnings of possible impending volcanic unrests at Tenerife Island (Melián et al., 2012; Pérez et al., 2013). In July 2015, a soil and fumarole gas survey was undertaken in order to estimate the diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal energy release from the summit cone of Teide volcano. A diffuse CO2 emission survey was performed selecting 170 observation sites according to the accumulation chamber method. Soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m‑2d‑1) up to 10,672 g m‑2d‑1, with an average value of 601 g m‑2d‑1. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. Measurement of soil CO2 efflux allowed an estimation of 162 ± 14 t d‑1 of deep seated derived CO2. To calculate the steam discharge associated with this volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 output, we used the average H2O/CO2 mass ratio equal to 1.19 (range, 0.44-3.42) as a representative value of the H2O/CO2 mass ratios for Teide fumaroles. The resulting estimate of the steam flow associated with the gas flux is equal to 193 t d‑1. The condensation of this steam results in a thermal energy release of 5.0×1011J d‑1 for Teide volcano or a total heat flow of 6 MWt. The diffuse gas emissions and thermal energy released from the summit of Teide volcano are comparable to those observed at other volcanoes. Sustained surveillance using these methods will be valuable for monitoring the activity of Teide volcano.

  13. Bayesian event tree for long-term volcanic hazard assessment: Application to Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.

    2010-05-01

    In modern volcanology one of the most important goals is to perform hazard and risk assessment of volcanoes near urbanized areas. Previous work has been done to assess volcanic hazard in the form of event tree structures containing possible eruptive scenarios. Probability methods have been applied to these structures to estimate the long term probability for each scenario. However, most of these event tree models show restrictions in the eruptive scenarios they consider and/or on the possibility of having volcanic unrest triggered by other forces than magmatic. In this paper, we present a Bayesian event tree structure which accounts for external triggers (geothermal, seismic) as a source of volcanic unrest and looks at the hazard from different types of magma composition and different vent locations (as opposite to a central vent only). We apply the model to the particular case of Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes, two alkaline composite volcanoes that have erupted 1.8-3 km3 of mafic and felsic magmas from different vent sites during the last 35 ka, situated on a densely populated island, one of the biggest tourist destinations of Europe, and for which limited geological and no historical data exist. Hence, the importance of volcanic hazard assessment for risk-based decision-making in land use planning and emergency management. A previous attempt to estimate the volcanic hazard for Teide-Pico Viejo has been done using an event tree structure based on Elicitation of Expert Judgment. The new method overcomes some limitations of the previous method, including human decision bias, epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties, restrictions on the segmentation complexity of the event tree structure, and automatically updating. The main steps are the following: (1) Design an extensive tree-shaped Bayesian network with possible eruptive scenarios following the case of Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. (2) Build a Bayesian model to estimate the long term volcanic hazard for each

  14. The submarine eruption of La Restinga (El Hierro, Canary Islands): October 2011-March 2012; La erupcion submarina de La Restinga en la isla de El Hierro, Canarias: Octubre 2011-Marzo 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Carracedo, J. C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Soler, V.; Troll, V. R.; Wiesmaier, S.

    2012-11-01

    The first signs of renewed volcanic activity at El Hierro began in July 2011 with the occurrence of abundant, low-magnitude earthquakes. The increasing seismicity culminated on October 10, 2011, with the onset of a submarine eruption about 2 km offshore from La Restinga, the southernmost village on El Hierro. The analysis of seismic and deformation records prior to, and throughout, the eruption allowed the reconstruction of its main phases: 1) ascent of magma and migration of hypo centres from beneath the northern coast (El Golfo) towards the south rift zone, close to La Restinga, probably marking the hydraulic fracturing and the opening of the eruptive conduit; and 2) onset and development of a volcanic eruption indicated by sustained and prolonged harmonic tremor whose intensity varied with time. The features monitored during the eruption include location, depth and morphological evolution of the eruptive source and emission of floating volcanic bombs. These bombs initially showed white, vesiculated cores (originated by partial melting of underlying pre-volcanic sediments upon which the island of El Hierro was constructed) and black basanite rims, and later exclusively hollow basanitic lava balloons. The eruptive products have been matched with a fissural submarine eruption without ever having attained surtseyan explosiveness. The eruption has been active for about five months and ended in March 2012, thus becoming the second longest reported historical eruption in the Canary Islands after the Timanfaya eruption in Lanzarote (1730-1736). This eruption provided the first opportunity in 40 years to manage a volcanic crisis in the Canary Islands and to assess the interpretations and decisions taken, thereby gaining experience for improved management of future volcanic activity. Seismicity and deformation during the eruption were recorded and analysed by the Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN). Unfortunately, a lack of systematic sampling of erupted pyroclasts and

  15. How to define nativeness in vagile organisms: lessons from the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, S; Vanderpoorten, A; Patiño, J; Werner, O; González-Mancebo, J M; Ros, R M

    2015-09-01

    The distinction between native and introduced biotas presents unique challenges that culminate in organisms with high long-distance dispersal capacities in a rapidly changing world. Bryophytes, in particular, exhibit large distribution ranges, and some species can truly be qualified as cosmopolitan. Cosmopolitan species, however, typically occur in disturbed environments, raising the question of their nativeness throughout their range. Here, we employ genetic data to address the question of the origin of the cosmopolitan, weedy moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife. The genetic diversity of B. argenteum on Tenerife was comparable to that found in continental areas due to recurrent colonisation events, erasing any signature of a bottleneck that would be expected in the case of a recent colonisation event. The molecular dating analyses indicated that the first colonisation of the island took place more than 100,000 years ago, i.e. well before the first human settlements. Furthermore, the significant signal for isolation-by-distance found in B. argenteum within Tenerife points to the substantial role of genetic drift in establishing the observed patterns of genetic variation. Together, the results support the hypothesis that B. argenteum is native on Tenerife; although the existence of haplotypes shared between Tenerife and continental areas suggests that more recent, potentially man-mediated introduction also took place. While defining nativeness in organisms that are not deliberately introduced, and wherein the fossil record is extremely scarce, is an exceedingly challenging task, our results suggest that population genetic analyses can represent a useful tool to help distinguish native from alien populations. PMID:25980839

  16. Towards the standardisation of the neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cell-based assay for ciguatoxin-like toxicity detection in fish: application to fish caught in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, A; Eixarch, H; de la Iglesia, P; Rodriguez, M; Dominguez, L; Andree, K B; Diogène, J

    2012-01-01

    The ouabain/veratridine-dependent neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cell-based assay (CBA) was applied for the determination of the presence of ciguatoxin (CTX)-like compounds in ciguatera-suspected fish samples caught in the Canary Islands. In order to avoid matrix interferences the maximal concentration of wet weight fish tissue exposed to the neuro-2a cells was set at 20 mg tissue equivalent (TE) ml(-1) according to the sample preparation procedure applied. In the present study, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of CTX1B equivalents in fish extract was set at the limit of detection (LOD), being defined as the concentration of CTX1B equivalents inhibiting 20% cell viability (IC(20)). The LOQ was estimated as 0.0096 ng CTX1B eq.g TE(-1) with 23-31% variability between experiments. These values were deemed sufficient even though quantification given at the IC(50) (the concentration of CTX1B equivalents inhibiting 50% cell viability) is more accurate with a variability of 17-19% between experiments. Among the 13 fish samples tested, four fish samples were toxic to the neuro-2a cells with estimations of the content in CTX1B g(-1) of TE ranging from 0.058 (± 0.012) to 6.23 (± 0.713) ng CTX1B eq.g TE(-1). The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay for CTX1B confirmed its suitability as a screening tool of CTX-like compounds in fish extracts at levels that may cause ciguatera fish poisoning. Species identification of fish samples by DNA sequence analysis was conducted in order to confirm tentatively the identity of ciguatera risk species and it revealed some evidence of inadvertent misidentification. Results presented in this study are a contribution to the standardisation of the neuro-2a CBA and to the risk analysis for ciguatera in the Canary Islands. PMID:22394180

  17. The use of leaves and roots of Laurus novocanariensis as an indicator for soil and rock chemical composition in the environment of a subtropical cloud forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidak, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Schöler, H. F.; Hernández-Moreno, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    On the Canary Island of Tenerife exists a sensitive and endangered ecosystem called "laurel forest". Laurel forest is an endemic type of a humid subtropical forest and it still covers a terrain of roughly 60 km2 on Tenerife (nearly 7% of the territory) (FERNANDEZ et al. 2001). The existing Laurel forest soils have been developed on different rocks. Corresponding to different moisture regimes, Vertisols, Alfisols, Ultisols, and Inceptisols are developed on basaltic lava flows. Inceptisols, allophanic Andisols, and vitric Andisols are present on pyroclastic rocks (ARNALDS et al., 2007). Three volcanic rock types of the basanite-phonolite assemblage are recognised (Rothe, 2008): Basic (basanites, ankaramites), intermediate (trachybasanites, plagioclase phonolites), and salic (trachyte, trachyphonolite, phonolite). Trachytes (sensu stricto) are comparatively rare. The present study aims to understand the element cycle and feed back mechanism between volcanic rocks, soils, roots, and leaves. Laurus novocanariensis stands as a key example how leaves and roots in a subtropical cloud forest, such as on Canary Islands, can be used as an indicator for soil and rock geochemistry. To obtain a wide spectrum of inorganic elements, we chose for our samples a combination of ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Our results show clearly that certain elements are enriched or depleted in leaves and roots. Other elements mirror the chemical composition of the soils and the volcanic rocks in great detail. This study indicates that Laurus novocanariensis can be used to trace the element distribution of certain elements from volcanic rocks thru soils to roots and leaves without a large disturbance of a sensitive ecosystem.

  18. Lifetime of an ocean island volcano feeder zone: constraints from U-Pb dating on coexisting zircon and baddeleyite, and 40/39Ar age determinations, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibon, James; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bussy, Francois; Cosca, Michael; Schaltegger, Urs; Bussien, Denise; Lewin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    High-precision isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages from the PX1 vertically layered mafic intrusion Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, indicate initiation of magma crystallization at 22.10 ± 0.07 Ma. The magmatic activity lasted a minimum of 0.52 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar amphibole dating yielded ages from 21.9 ± 0.6 to 21.8 ± 0.3, identical within errors to the U-Pb ages, despite the expected 1% theoretical bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dates. This overlap could result from (i) rapid cooling of the intrusion (i.e., less than the 0.3 to 0.6 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age uncertainties) from closure temperatures (Tc) of zircon (699-988 °C) to amphibole (500-600 °C); (ii) lead loss affecting the youngest zircons; or (iii) excess argon shifting the plateau ages towards older values. The combination of the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb datasets implies that the maximum amount of time PX1 intrusion took to cool below amphibole Tc is 0.8 Ma, suggesting PX1 lifetime of 520,000 to 800,000 Ma. Age disparities among coexisting baddeleyite and zircon (22.10 ± 0.07/0.08/0.15 Ma and 21.58 ± 0.15/0.16/0.31 Ma) in a gabbro sample from the pluton margin suggest complex genetic relationships between phases. Baddeleyite is found preserved in plagioclase cores and crystallized early from low silica activity magma. Zircon crystallized later in a higher silica activity environment and is found in secondary scapolite and is found close to calcite veins, in secondary scapolite that recrystallised from plagioclase. close to calcite veins. Oxygen isotope δ18O values of altered plagioclase are high (+7.7), indicating interaction with fluids derived from host-rock carbonatites. The coexistence of baddeleyite and zircon is ascribed to interaction of the PX1 gabbro with CO2-rich carbonatite-derived fluids released during contact metamorphism.

  19. Genotypic Characterization of Bradyrhizobium Strains Nodulating Endemic Woody Legumes of the Canary Islands by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) and 16S-23S rDNA Intergenic Spacers, Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR Genomic Fingerprinting, and Partial 16S rDNA Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Vinuesa, Pablo; Rademaker, Jan L. W.; de Bruijn, Frans J.; Werner, Dietrich

    1998-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic analysis of nine strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus) and other endemic woody legumes of the Canary Islands, Spain. These and several reference strains were characterized genotypically at different levels of taxonomic resolution by computer-assisted analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs), 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) RFLPs, and repeti...

  20. Deformation in volcanic areas: a numerical approach for their prediction in Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands); Deformaciones en areas volcanicas: una aproximacin numerica para su prediccion en el volcan Teide (Tenerife, Islas Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charco, M.; Galan del Sastre, P.

    2011-07-01

    Active volcanic areas study comprises both, observation of physical changes in the natural media and the interpretation of such changes. Nowadays, the application of spatial geodetic techniques, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) or InSAR (Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar), for deformation understanding in volcanic areas, revolutionizes our view of this geodetic signals. Deformation of the Earth's surface reflects tectonic, magmatic and hydrothermal processes at depth. In this way, the prediction of volcanic deformation through physical modelling provides a link between the observation and depth interior processes that could be crucial for volcanic hazards assessment. In this work, we develop a numerical model for elastic deformation study. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is used for the implementation of the numerical model. FEM allows to take into account different morphology, structural characteristics and the mechanical heterogeneities of the medium. Numerical simulations of deformation in Tenerife (Canary Islands) taking into account different medium hypothesis allow us to conclude that the accuracy of the predictions depends on how well the natural system is described. (Author) 22 refs.

  1. Estimated exposure to EU regulated mycotoxins and risk characterization of aflatoxin-induced hepatic toxicity through the consumption of the toasted cereal flour called "gofio", a traditional food of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Bernal-Suárez, María Del Mar; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Rial-Berriel, Cristian; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Díaz-Díaz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    "Gofio" is a type of flour made from toasted grain, which is part of the staple food in the Canary Islands, Spain, in which the occurrence of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) Ochratoxin A (OTA), Deoxynivalenol (DNV) and Zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated. 83% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 69.2% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxins (range 2 to 8). All the concentrations were well below the established limits (maximum values of AFs=0.42 μg/kg; FBs=178.3 μg/kg; OTA=0.3 μg/kg; DON=92.5 μg/kg; and ZEA=9.9 μg/kg). The daily dietary exposure to total AFs was estimated to be 7.1% of the TDI. This value was almost double in children, and considering the upper-bound approach could reach 35% of the TDI. For the rest of mycotoxins, the consumers would be exposed to less than 2% of their TDIs. The risk characterization indicates that there is a potential risk in developing aflatoxin induced liver cancer due to gofio consumption in the subpopulation which is simultaneously exposed to other hepatocarcinogens, such as the hepatitis B virus. PMID:27132021

  2. A study on distribution and population size of Androcymbium hierrense (Colchicaceae) an endangered taxon, in La Palma Biosphere Reserve (Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Medina, Félix; Fernández de León, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The scarce knowledge on the distribution of the natural populations of the Canarian endemic Androcymbium hierrense (Colchicaceae), an endangered species in the island of La Palma hampers the identification of priorities for undertaking actions for its conservation. Here we present a survey in which, the species is distributed in 14 locations grouped into two differentiated areas. This result represents an increase of ca. 200% in the occupancy area known for the species until now. A total of 1...

  3. Study of Techniques to Increase Water Resources and Run-Off in Semiarid Regions. The Case of the Canary Islands and Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal, Juan Carlos Santamarta

    2012-01-01

    AbstractSemiarid regions and some oceanic and Mediterranean islands, have the singularity of using the same traditional water exploitation like small dams made from local materials that intercept streams when it rains (run-off harvesting), in the other hand when the land is sloping plots are used. These environments , from around the world, have things in common as torrential rainfall pattern. For this reason they have problems with water erosion and soil conservation. Another point is that i...

  4. Power System Stability of a Small Sized Isolated Network Supplied by a Combined Wind-Pumped Storage Generation System: A Case Study in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Platero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Massive integration of renewable energy sources in electrical power systems of remote islands is a subject of current interest. The increasing cost of fossil fuels, transport costs to isolated sites and environmental concerns constitute a serious drawback to the use of conventional fossil fuel plants. In a weak electrical grid, as it is typical on an island, if a large amount of conventional generation is substituted by renewable energy sources, power system safety and stability can be compromised, in the case of large grid disturbances. In this work, a model for transient stability analysis of an isolated electrical grid exclusively fed from a combination of renewable energy sources has been studied. This new generation model will be installed in El Hierro Island, in Spain. Additionally, an operation strategy to coordinate the generation units (wind, hydro is also established. Attention is given to the assessment of inertial energy and reactive current to guarantee power system stability against large disturbances. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is shown by means of simulation results.

  5. The influence of mesoscale physical processes on the larval fish community in the Canaries CTZ, in summer

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Rodríguez; Barton, Eric D.; Hernández León, Santiago; Arístegui, Javier

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the relation between the hydrography, the composition and horizontal structure of the larval fish community, and the horizontal distribution patterns of larval fish abundances in an area characterised by strong mesoscale oceanographic activity, located between the Canary Islands and the African coast (the Canaries Coastal Transition Zone), during August 1999. Upwelling, upwelling filaments, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies and island wakes are typical mesoscale features of the...

  6. A study on distribution and population size of Androcymbium hierrense (Colchicaceae an endangered taxon, in La Palma Biosphere Reserve (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Medina, Félix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scarce knowledge on the distribution of the natural populations of the Canarian endemic Androcymbium hierrense (Colchicaceae, an endangered species in the island of La Palma hampers the identification of priorities for undertaking actions for its conservation. Here we present a survey in which, the species is distributed in 14 locations grouped into two differentiated areas. This result represents an increase of ca. 200% in the occupancy area known for the species until now. A total of 15010 individuals were recorded: 1294 individuals in the northern parts of the island (Garafía, and 13716 in the east (Mazo. The species exhibits an average density of 8.80±24.03 SD (n=1559 and an estimated population size of 21593-24851 individuals (with a 95% confidence interval, given a total population of 217995 plants for the entire species distribution area on the island. Considering these estimates and the current distribution of the species, it is important to analyse its actual conservation status in La Palma both at regional and global scales, taking into account that the main threat for the species is habitat destruction by human activities.El escaso conocimiento que se posee sobre la abundancia y distribución de Androcymbium hierrense (Colchicaceae, una especie vegetal endémica y amenazada del archipiélago canario presente en la isla de La Palma, impide que se puedan establecer las medidas adecuadas para su conservación. En un censo llevado a cabo en 2005, cuyos resultados se presentan en esta contribución, muestran que la especie está distribuida en 14 localidades correspondientes a dos áreas diferentes. Este resultado supone un incremento aproximado del 200% en su área de ocupación conocida hasta la actualidad. Se contabilizaron un total de 15010 individuos: 1394 plantas en el norte de la isla (Garafía y 13716 individuos en el este (Mazo. La especie presenta una densidad media de 8.80±24.03 SD (n=1559 y un tamaño poblacional

  7. Transferring and implementing the general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography at the scale of island fragments: the role of geological age and topography in plant diversification in the Canaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Rüdiger; Whittaker, Robert J.; von Gaisberg, Markus;

    2016-01-01

    distributions and richness of single island endemics (SIEs) across island landscapes of different age. We test these predictions by means of generalized linear models and binominal tests using gridded species occurrence data for vascular plant SIE species and a set of climatic, topographic and terrain age....... Phylogenetic divergence times of SIEs of important radiated plant lineages suggested an origin on the older parts of the islands. Metrics of anthropogenic disturbance and habitat availability were unrelated to the observed SIE pattern. Main conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that SIEs have evolved...

  8. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boada Luis D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD, and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR = 1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p = 0.024. Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk.

  9. Cas pratique : État de la retenue d’El Golfo dans l’île d’El Hierro (îles Canaries State of the EPDM polymeric geosynthetic barrier in the “El Golfo” water reservoir at the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCO, Manuel ; GARCIA, Florencio ; SORIANO, Jesús ; CASTILLO, Francisca ; AGUIAR, Escolàstico ; VARA, Tatiana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La pérennité des matériaux géosynthétiques garantit la mise en place d'un système de protection efficace et durable pour l'environnement. Cet article présente le comportement sur douze ans d’une géomembrane en caoutchouc synthétique installée dans la retenue d'eau d’El Golfo aux îles Canaries : des résultats encourageants qui montrent un bon état de conservation de la géomembrane face aux aléas climatiques.In 1995 the water reservoir named “El Golfo” (Spain was built and waterproofed with a synthetic rubber geomembrane of Ethylene-Propylene-Diene terpolymer (EPDM. The Central Laboratory of Structures and Materials CEDEX has tested the initial properties of the geomembrane that served as a basis to evaluate the membrane’s durability. Periodically, samples were taken and tested as follows: tensile strength, elongation at break, tensile strength at 300% of elongation, Shore-A hardness, static and dynamic puncture resistance, foldability at low temperature, shear and peel resistance of seams, optical and electron microscopy.

  10. Evaluación del progreso de aprendizaje en lectura dentro de un Modelo de Respuesta a la Intervención (RtI en la Comunidad Autónoma de Canarias /Evaluating progress in reading acquisition within a Response to Instruction model in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Jiménez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to provide an overview of monitoring progress within a Response to Intervention model (Tier-2, small group intervention used in the Canary Islands. This programme is conducted within the framework of a scientific cooperation agreement between the University of La Laguna research team “Dificultades de aprendizaje, psicolingüística y nuevas tecnologías” (“Problems in learning, psycholinguistics, and the new technologies”, the University of Oregon’s Center on Teaching and Learning, and the Consejería de Educación, Universidades y Sostenibilidad of the Canary Islands Government. The Indicadores Dinámicos del Éxito Lector is used for monitoring progress. The Indicadores Dinámicos del Éxito Lector is the Spanish version of Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. Its main purpose is to evaluate reading progress in students identified as “at risk” of developing reading difficulties using an Response to Intervention model.

  11. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  12. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Spectral Characteristics of Lava Surfaces: Field Spectrometry of Basaltic Lava Flows on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on spectral reflectance measurements of basaltic lava flows on Tenerife Island, Spain. Lava flow surfaces of different ages, surface roughness and elevations were systematically measured using a field spectroradiometer operating in the range of 350–2500 nm. Surface roughness, oxidation and lichen coverage were documented at each measured site. Spectral properties vary with age and morphology of lava. Pre-historical lavas with no biological coverage show a prominent increase in spectral reflectance in the 400–760 nm range and a decrease in the 2140–2210 nm range. Pāhoehoe surfaces have higher reflectance values than ʻaʻā ones and attain a maximum reflectance at wavelengths < 760 nm. Lichen-covered lavas are characterized by multiple lichen-related absorption and reflection features. We demonstrate that oxidation and lichen growth are two major factors controlling spectra of Tenerife lava surfaces and, therefore, propose an oxidation index and a lichen index to quantify surface alterations of lava flows: (1 the oxidation index is based on the increase of the slope of the spectral profile from blue to red as the field-observed oxidation level strengthens; and (2 the lichen index is based on the spectral reflectance in the 1660–1725 nm range, which proves to be highly correlated with lichen coverage documented in the field. The two spectral indices are applied to Landsat ETM+ and Hyperion imagery of the study area for mapping oxidation and lichen coverage on lava surfaces, respectively. Hyperion is shown to be capable of discriminating different volcanic surfaces, i.e., tephra vs. lava and oxidized lava vs. lichen-covered lava. Our study highlights the value of field spectroscopic measurements to aid interpretation of lava flow characterization using satellite images and of the effects of environmental factors on lava surface evolution over time, and, therefore, has the potential to contribute to the mapping as well as dating

  13. The challenges of the Canary Islands’ wine sector and its implications: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Duarte Alonso; Yi Liu

    2012-01-01

    News and reports acknowledge the challenges that Spanish wine regions are facing, including the Canary Islands, where wine designations of origin (DOs) have existed for less than two decades. The present study extends from preliminary research conducted on the islands’ wine industry to delve into the developments that continue to unfold in the archipelago’s wine sector. Winery owners, wine makers and managers of 55 wineries located in the six wine producing islands participated in face-to-fac...

  14. Virtual Community, social network and media environment of Canary Isands regional digital newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Francisco Manuel Mateos Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the new communication and information technologies has favoured the creation of multiple local newspaper websites in the Canary Islands, thus making the regional press emerge as an alternative on the rise. This tendency affects significantly both traditional and new editions of the different regional and local newspapers from the Canaries and motivates a different distribution, positioning and development within the local media environment in which these media share a novel dimension of communication with a specific virtual community and social network within the World Wide Web.

  15. Changes in infiltration rate into Andisols for change of use (Tenerife, Canary I.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volcanic island of Tenerife (Canary Islands) has a wide variety of Andisols which have formed on recent pyroclast materials (Udands, Ustands, Xerands and Vitrands. The Udands are situated on the nor then side of the island, at heights where condensation of the trade winds occurs (900-1600m), while the Ustands are also located mostly on this side, albeit at a lower attitudinal strip. Under natural conditions, these soils present favourable physical properties, with high structural stability and resistance to water erosion. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. Emergent littoral deposits in the eastern Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, Joaquin; Stearns, Charles E.

    1981-03-01

    K-Ar ages ( A. Abdel-Monem, P. D. Watkins, and P. W. Gast, 1971, American Journal of Science271, 490-521; this paper) and revised paleontological determinations ( J. Meco, 1977, "Los Strombus neogenos y cuatenarios del Atlantico euroafricano", Las Palmas, Ediciones del Excmo. Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria) show that "Quaternary" ( R. Crofts, 1967, Quaternaria 9, 247-260; G. Lecointre, K. J. Tinkler, and G. Richards, 1967, Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia Proceedings119, 325-344) littoral deposits on Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are early Pliocene and late Pleistocene. Early and middle Pleistocene strand lines are not represented. Early Pliocene littoral and marine deposits contain a characteristic fossil assemblage: Strombus coronatus, Nerità emiliana, Gryphaea virleti, Patella cf. intermedia, and Rothpletzia rudista. Differences in elevation record differential post-Pliocene uplift of the coastal platforms on which they lie. Late Pleistocene beach deposits at low elevations belong to two groups, an older with Strombus bubonius and a younger without. Differences in elevation of early Pliocene littoral deposits are reflected by differences in elevation of late Pleistocene beach deposits nearby.

  17. Fatal Systemic Morbillivirus Infection in Bottlenose Dolphin, Canary Islands, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, Eva; Zucca, Daniele; Arbelo, Manuel; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Andrada, Marisa; Déniz, Soraya; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A systemic morbillivirus infection was diagnosed postmortem in a juvenile bottlenose dolphin stranded in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean in 2005. Sequence analysis of a conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicated that the virus is closely related to dolphin morbillivirus recently reported in striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Fire effects on physical properties of Andisols (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neris, J.; Tejedor, M.; Jiménez, C.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires modify the main properties of affected soils. Soil physical properties of Andisols with pine forest burned were evaluated. Five burned zones were compared to unburned counterparts. Soil texture, structure, bulk density, water retention capacity and water repellency were determined. As most studies report, soils showed an increase in the sand and/or silt content related to a noticeably reduction in clay content in the zones affected by fire. According to these reports, cementation processes involving Al and Si hydroxides as cements during the fire are the main factors controlling this behaviour. Regarding to soil structure, aggregation and aggregate stability decreased considerably in burned zones, as is usually reported. The decrease in soil binding such as organic matter, clay content and short-range order products explains this trend. Nevertheless, bulk density and water retention capacity, some of the main characteristic properties of Andisols, showed contradictory patterns compared to most studies. Water retention capacity at -33 kPa increases considerably after fire, whereas at -1500 kPa no major changes were observed. Preliminary conclusions indicate that the high water retention of ashes included into the soil explains this trend at -33 kPa. On the other side, the decrease in organic matter and clay content offsets the water retention increase at -1500 kPa due the ash incorporation. In opposition to most studies, an important reduction in bulk density was observed in burned soils. Some authors have reported that the desiccation process leads to a loss of aggregation resulting in low-density microaggregates in Andisols of Tenerife. These soils are known locally as "dusty-soils". Finally, a decrease of soil water repellency was also observed in most zones after fire, despite a large number of studies reporting the opposite. The soil organic matter decline might be the key factor of this trend.

  19. En la población Canaria, la función de Framingham estima mejor el riesgo de mortalidad cardiovascular que la función SCORE Framingham function estimates the risk of cardio vascular mortality more effectively than SCORE function in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cabrera de León

    2009-06-01

    /height razón, abdomen/pelvis ratio, and excessive alcohol consumption. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 5,289 individuals aged 30 to 69 years old, recruited by random sampling of the general population of the Canary Islands. We calibrated the Framingham and SCORE functions and estimated their concordance. The cardiovascular mortality rate for the population in this age range was compared with the risk predicted by the two functions. Results: Among males, the mortality rate per 100,000 inhabitants was 67.4, while the Framingham, SCORE-low and SCORE-high estimations were 80, 140, and 270, respectively. Among females, the mortality rate was 19.3 while the estimations were 30, 50, and 70, respectively. Both functions detected the increased risk contributed by the factors studied, except for sedentariness among females with SCORE, and excessive alcohol consumption with both functions. Among males, taking cut points of > 12%, > 15%, and > 20% for Framingham, the concordance with SCORE-low yielded Kappa values of 0.6, 0.7, and 0.5, respectively. Conclusions: The Framingham function yielded the best estimate of cardiovascular mortality rates. Only Framingham detected the cardiovascular risk contributed by sedentariness in both genders. We recommend the use of the calibrated Framingham function for this population.

  20. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  1. Changes in infiltration rate into Andisols for change of use (Tenerife, Canary I.); Influencia del cambio de uso en la tasa de infiltracion de Andisoles (Tenerife, I. Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neris, J.; Fuentes, J.; Dorta, M. A.; Jimenez, C.; Tejedor, M.

    2009-07-01

    The volcanic island of Tenerife (Canary Islands) has a wide variety of Andisols which have formed on recent pyroclast materials (Udands, Ustands, Xerands and Vitrands. The Udands are situated on the nor then side of the island, at heights where condensation of the trade winds occurs (900-1600m), while the Ustands are also located mostly on this side, albeit at a lower attitudinal strip. Under natural conditions, these soils present favourable physical properties, with high structural stability and resistance to water erosion. (Author) 11 refs.

  2. Evolución de la mortalidad y de los años de vida perdidos prematuramente relacionados con el consumo de alcohol en las Islas Canarias (1980-1998 Trends in mortality and years of life lost related to alcohol in the Canary Islands, Spain (1980-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Bello

    2003-12-01

    óvenes.Objective: The aim of this article was to describe death rates and years of life lost prematurely (YLLP in relation to alcohol consumption in the Canary Islands. The study covered the period between 1980 and 1998. Methods: Deaths from 1980 to 1998 were classified by age, sex, and cause using data obtained from the National Institute of Statistics (Natural Changes in the Population. The number of alcohol-related deaths was calculated by year, sex, and age group using the attributable population fraction as proposed by the Centers for Disease Control (USA. The YLLP attributed to alcohol consumption were calculated for each cause of death by multiplying deaths by the attributable population fraction in 5-yearly age groups for both sexes (average span of five years, up to the age of 65 years. Results: Between 1980 and 1998, the number of alcohol-related deaths was 12,614, averaging 6.4% per year and with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 2:1. The main causes of death and YLLP in both men and women were malignant neoplasms, diseases of the digestive system, and alcohol-related accidents, although accidents were by far the main cause producing 50.6% of alcohol-related YLLP in men and 55.5% in women. Over the study period, the incidence of cirrhosis of the liver and that of other chronic liver diseases (CIE 571 decreased in men whilst remaining stable in women. Conclusions: The finding that the percentage of alcohol-related deaths and cirrhosis of the liver remained high in the Islas Canarias between 1980 and 1998 highlights the need for educational strategies on the effects of alcohol, together with policies designed to reduce its consumption, particularly among the young.

  3. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  4. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  5. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  6. Source identification of soil mercury in the Spanish islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Carbonell, Gregoria; Nanos, Nikos; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2013-02-01

    This study spatially analysed the relation between mercury (Hg) content in soil and Hg in rock fragment for the purpose of assessing natural soil Hg contribution compared with Hg from human inputs. We present the Hg content of 318 soil and rock fragment samples from 11 islands distributed into two Spanish archipelagos (the volcanic Canary Islands [Canaries] and the Mediterranean Balearic [Balearic] islands). Assumedly both are located far enough away from continental Hg sources to be able to minimise the effects of diffuse pollution. Physical and chemical soil properties were also specified for the samples. Hg contents were significantly greater in the Balearic limestone soils (61 μg kg(-1)) than in the volcanic soils of the Canaries (33 μg kg(-1)). Hg levels were also greater in topsoil than in rocky fragments, especially on the Balearics. The soil-to-rock ratios varied between 1 and 30. Interestingly, the highest topsoil-to-rock Hg ratio (>16 ×) was found in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Majorca, whereas no similar areas in the Canary archipelago were identified. PMID:23143275

  7. Estimates for Canary grass for combustion - summer - and spring harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economy of cultivating Canary grass for fuel has been estimated. All costs (work, machinery, fertilizers, processing) have been calculated. Total costs for summer or spring harvest are around 0.18 and 0.15 SEK/kWh (about 0.028 and 0.023 USD/kWh) respectively

  8. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans. PMID:21761223

  9. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae

    OpenAIRE

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, Nicola; Todisco, Gianluca; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Sparagano, Olivier; Camarda, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries w...

  10. Sub-regional ecosystem variability in the Canary Current upwrelling

    OpenAIRE

    Aristegui, J.; Barton, E D; Alvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Santos, A.M.P.; Figueiras, F. G.; Kifani, S.; Hernandez-Leon, S.; Mason, E.; Machu, Eric; Demarcq, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    The Canary Current upwelling ecosystem (CanC) constitutes one of the four main eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems (EBUEs) of the world, thus hosting high productivity and fisheries. Recent observations indicate that the CanC region as a whole has been experiencing a progressive warming and a decrease in productivity over the last decades. This overall trend is however not directly reflected in the fisheries of the region. Here we update recent results and previous reviews on the CanC, cove...

  11. Seasonal variability of the upper warmwatersphere in the Canary Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrí, Josep Lluís; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Hernández Guerra, Alonso; Martínez, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Two years of periodic XBT data, along seven transects covering the Canary Basin, were examined to analyse the seasonal cycle of the upper layers of the warmwatersphere. This is characterised by seasonal storage/release of heat in the surface mixed layer and by the winter formation of a subsurface positive temperature anomaly. Its maximum value takes place in early winter and deepens to about 150 m in late spring, disappearing afterwards. We present a very simple argument, which illustrates ho...

  12. On the Confession of a Canary Bird, Children on a Holiday Camp, and the Apology for Fleas Planned by Janusz Korczak

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Zgrzywa

    2013-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the memory of moving fragments of Janusz Korczak’s journal from Warsaw ghetto. The author confronts the fragments with Korczak’s earlier texts, such as the short storied about holiday camps for Polish and Jewish children, and the novel Król Maciuś na bezludnej wyspie [King Maciuś on a Desert Island]. The image of a canary bird, used in the novel, is confronted with other symbolic stories about this bird, such as the story in Wiesław Myśliwski’s Pałac...

  13. Does Large Genome Size Limit Speciation in Endemic Island Floras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kapralov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome sizes in plants vary by several orders of magnitude, and this diversity may have evolutionary consequences. Large genomes contain mainly noncoding DNA that may impose high energy and metabolic costs for their bearers. Here we test the large genome constraint hypothesis, which assumes that plant lineages with large genomes are diversifying more slowly Knight et al. (2005, using endemic floras of the oceanic archipelagos of the Canaries, Hawaii, and Marquesas Islands. In line with this hypothesis, the number of endemic species per genus is negatively correlated with genus-average genome size for island radiations on Hawaiian and Marquesas archipelagos. However, we do not find this correlation on the Canaries, which are close to the continent and therefore have higher immigration rate and lower endemism compared to Hawaii. Further work on a larger number of floras is required to test the generality of the large genome constraint hypothesis.

  14. An Improved Method to Retrieve Surface Emissivity in a Canary Pine Forest Using Aster Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Velasco, Africa; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Arbelo, Manuel; Podesta, Guillermo P.

    2012-07-01

    The widely-used Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm has been shown to provide reliable temperature and emissivity estimates from land-leaving thermal data. Nevertheless, TES has some important limitations mainly related to its inability to correct important inaccuracies for gray bodies, such as vegetation. In this study, this problem is addressed through an improvement to the current NEM (Normalized Emissivity Method) module included in the TES algorithm. The proposed method, called Modified NEM (ModNEM), has been specifically designed to retrieve an accurate surface emissivity for bodies with a spectral behavior typical of gray-bodies, i. e., flat and near spectrally invariant. ModNEM selects two different approximations of surface temperature instead of the usual maximum temperature, with the aim of accounting for the peculiar spectral behavior of brightness temperature and emissivity for vegetation. The NEM and TES, as well as the ModNEM, have been used to recover surface emissivity in a pine forest located in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Results have been compared and validated using reference emissivity values obtained from the pines by means of the box method. This validation study showed that high uncertainties are associated with the standard techniques (up to 0.034), whereas ModNEM results in lower uncertainties in emissivity estimates (NEM module are not suitable for surfaces with a spectral behavior similar to a grey body. This work was supported by MICINN under Grant CGL2010-22189-C02.

  15. CO2 - The Canary in the Energy Efficiency Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somssich, Peter

    2011-04-01

    While much of the discussion surrounding CO2 is focused on its role as a GHG (green house gas) and its affect on Climate Change, CO2 can also be viewed as an indicator for reductions in fossil fuel use and increased energy efficiency. Much as the canary in a mine was used to warn miners of unsafe health conditions in a mine, CO2 can be seen as allowing us to effectively track progress towards energy efficiency and sustainability. Such an effort can best be achieved by either a Carbon Tax or a Cap and Trade system which was highly effective as part of the 1992 Clean Air Act, contributing to a significant reduction of SO2 and acid rain. A similar attempt has been made using the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to reduce carbon emissions. The mechanisms of how this treaty was intended to work will be explained, and examples will be given, both in the USA and Europe, of how the protocol was used to reduce energy consumption and energy dependence, while also reducing CO2 emissions. Regardless of how strong an impact CO2 reduction may have for Climate Change issues, a reduction of CO2 is guaranteed to produce energy benefits, monetary benefits and can even enhance national security. For all of these reasons, we need the CO2 canary.

  16. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the long-eared bats (Plecotus) in the Mediterranean Palaearctic and Atlantic Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Muñoz, Joaquin;

    2004-01-01

    the different lineages are still fragmentary because of the limited geographic coverage of previous studies. Here we analyze Plecotus mitochondrial DNA sequences from the entire Mediterranean region and Atlantic Islands. Phylogenetic reconstructions group these western Palaearctic Plecotus into two major clades...... distributions in Europe, although the latter is apparently more restricted to mountain ranges. The other major clade, the austriacus group, includes the European species P. austriacus and at least two other related taxa from North Africa (including P. teneriffae from the Canary Islands), the Balkans...... and Anatolia (P. kolombatovici). The sister species of this austriacus group is P. balensis, an Ethiopian endemic. Phylogenetic reconstructions further suggest that P. austriacus reached Madeira during its relatively recent westwards expansion through Europe, while the Canary Islands were colonized by a North...

  17. Study about the relationship among crustal thickness, heat flow and gravimetric tide in the island of Lanzarote

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Torres, José; Vieira, Ricardo; Díez, J. L.; Toro y Llaca, Carmen de

    1991-01-01

    Data from heat flow and gramivetric tides are at our disposal in the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands); its formation is known and, in addition to it, a model of its. crust which provides us with its thicknes is at our disposal. When studying the relationship among these parameters, a disagreement with the results obtained from previous studies is observed; those studies show a clear relationship between positive anomalies in the cosine component of the M2 and 01 waves...

  18. Breeding bird territory placement in riparian wet meadows in relation to invasive reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, E.M.; Gray, B.R.; Fox, T.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plants are a growing concern worldwide for conservation of native habitats. In endangered wet meadow habitat in the Upper Midwestern United States, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a recognized problem and its prevalence is more widespread than the better-known invasive wetland plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Although resource managers are concerned about the effect of reed canary grass on birds, this is the first study to report how common wet meadow birds use habitat in relation to reed canary grass cover and dominance. We examined three response variables: territory placement, size of territories, and numbers of territories per plot in relation to cover of reed canary grass. Territory locations for Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) were positively associated with reed canary grass cover, while those for Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) were not. Only Swamp Sparrow (M. georgiana) territory locations were negatively associated with reed canary grass cover and dominance (which indicated a tendency to place territories where there was no reed canary grass or where many plant species occurred with reed canary grass). Swamp Sparrow territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and litter depth. Common Yellowthroat territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and shrub cover. Song Sparrow territories were negatively associated with litter depth. Reed canary grass cover within territories was not associated with territory size for any of these four bird species. Territory density per plot was not associated with average reed canary grass cover of plots for all four species. Sedge Wrens and Song Sparrows may not respond negatively to reed canary grass because this grass is native to wet meadows of North America, and in the study area it merely replaces other tall lush plants. Avoidance of reed canary grass by Swamp Sparrows may be mediated

  19. Labile carbon pools and biological activity in volcanic soils of the Canary Islands Fracciones de carbono orgánico lábil y actividad biológica en suelos de origen volcánico de las Islas Canarias Frações de carbono orgânico lábil e actividade biológica em solos de origem vulcânica das Ilhas Canárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia María Armas Herrera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important to assess the mineralisation of soil organic carbon (SOC to predict the short-term response of biosphere carbon reservoirs to changing environmental conditions. We investigated the labile (easily-mineralisable SOC in volcanic soils, where the bioavailability of SOC is typically affected by physico-chemical stabilisation mechanisms that are characteristic of these soils. Ten soils were selected that represent the most typical soil types (mainly Andosols and natural habitats (xerophytic scrubland, laurel forest and pine forest in the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago. Over two years we measured several physico-chemical SOC fractions with different degrees of bioavailability: water-soluble carbon in fresh soil samples (WSC and in the saturated extract (WSCse, hot water-extractable carbon (HWC, potassium sulphate-extractable carbon (PSC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, particulate organic carbon (POC, humic substances carbon (HSC, and total organic carbon (TOC, and performed CO2 emission incubation assays. We related these measurements to the potential C inputs of plant litter and roots and to the activity of certain hydrolytic enzymes (CM-cellulase, ?-D-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase that are involved in carbon turnover. In vitro carbon mineralisation measurements from short assays (ten days were fitted with simple first-order kinetics to investigate SOC. This procedure was simple and allowed us to obtain estimates both for potentially mineralisable SOC and for the heterogeneity of the substrates that were consumed during incubation. The investigated volcanic soils had large labile SOC concentrations in which simple carbohydrates predominated and that were mainly derived from roots and aboveground non-woody residues. Among the analysed physico-chemical SOC fractions, HWC (3.1 g kg-1 on average at 0-30 cm depth in Andosols was the most correlated with C0 (1.2 g kg-1 and therefore best represents potentially mineralisable SOC. PSC

  20. Social transmission of food handling in the context of triadic interactions between adults and young canaries (Serinus canaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Cadieu, Nicole; Winterton, P.; Cadieu, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    International audience We studied the factors that enhance food recognition and consumption in young canaries when confronted with adults. In contrast to previous studies on canaries in which social transmission of food habits was studied in the context of dyadic interactions (one juvenile – one adult), we proposed a more realistic framework in which young canaries were studied in the context of triadic interactions, free or not, with adults of both sexes. We found that during free interac...

  1. On the extinction of the Dune Shearwater () from the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Insular ecosystems have been subjected to severe hardship during the last millennia. Large numbers of insular bird species have undergone local disappearances and full extinctions, and a high number of insular birds are currently categorised as endangered species. In most of these cases, extinction?or endangerment?is in direct relation to the arrival of `aboriginal? and/or imperialist waves of human settlement. Insular bird extinction events have been documented to have oc...

  2. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, J.; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, B.; Pecková, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2011), 225-231. ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neoparamoeba * Diadema aff. antillarum * SSU rDNA phylogeny * Tenerife Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2011

  3. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.

  4. First report of southern Tomato virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Espino, A.; Botella, M.; Alfaro-Fernández, A.; Font, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2006, tomato plants with torrado disease were sampled in Spain. In a sample of cv. Mariana, originating from Gran Canaria, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV, genus Torradovirus) was detected (isolate GCN06; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010). In 2013, the sample was further analysed using next-gener

  5. Sensitive Habitats and fishing footprint off Canary Islands seamounts Amanay and El Banquete

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Sosa, P. (Pablo); González-Porto, M. (Marcos); Almón-Pazos, B. (Bruno); Acosta-Díaz, C. (Carolina); Arrese-González, B. (Beatriz); González-Irusta, José Manuel; Barreiro-Jueguen, S. (Santiago); Jiménez, S.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the LIFE+ INDEMARES project is to contribute to the protection and sustainable use of the biodiversity in the Spanish seas through the identification of valuable areas for the Natura 2000 Network. The Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been in charge of implementing scientific surveys to map sensitive habitats of seven of the ten INDEMARES areas, and to determine the fisheries footprint over these areas. Sur y Oriente de Fuerteventura y Lanzarote ...

  6. Evolutive and regressive soil sequences for characterization of soils in laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    José Asterio Guerra-García; Antonio Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Carmen Dolores Arbelo

    2014-01-01

    Soil degradation processes have achieved the recognition of a global environmental problem in recent years. It has been suggested by various international forums and organizations that in order to adequately establish methods to combat land degradation, it is necessary to evaluate this degradation locally and at a detailed scale. The evaluation of soil degradation of natural ecosystems at a detailed scale requires the definition of standards to which to compare this degradation. To define the...

  7. Banco de La Concepci´on: A new Natura 2000 Marine Site off Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Sosa, P. (Pablo); González-Porto, M. (Marcos); Almón-Pazos, B. (Bruno); Acosta-Díaz, C. (Carolina); Arrese-González, B. (Beatriz); González-Irusta, José Manuel; Barreiro-Jueguen, S. (Santiago); Jiménez, S. (Sebastián)

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the LIFE+ INDEMARES project is to contribute to the protection and sustainable use of the biodiversity in the Spanish seas through the identification of valuable areas for the Natura 2000 Network. The Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been in charge of implementing scientific surveys to map sensitive habitats of seven of the ten INDEMARES areas, and to determine the fisheries footprint over these areas. Banco de La Concepci´on is one of the areas...

  8. Effect of wildfires on the genetic microbial diversity in forest soils from Canary Islands (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, J.; A. Turmero; J. A. González-Pérez; F.J. González-Vila; C. Arbelo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, A.; M.I Pérez-Leblic; M.E. Arias

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires produce several ecological and environmental impacts on the physical and chemical soil characteristics, as well as on the properties and dynamics of soil microbial populations. Microorganisms are good indicators of ecosystem function and sustainability and therefore the studies about the impact of fire on microbial communities is relevant to understand the role of fire in ecosystem functioning. Although several authors have provided data about total microbial biomass and activity in...

  9. Nectar sugars and bird visitation define a floral niche for basidiomycetous yeast on the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Mittelbach, Moritz; Yurkov, Andrey M; Nocentini, Daniele; Nepi, Massimo; Weigend, Maximilian; Begerow, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on the diversity of yeasts in floral nectar were first carried out in the late 19th century. A narrow group of fermenting, osmophilous ascomycetes were regarded as exclusive specialists able to populate this unique and species poor environment. More recently, it became apparent that microorganisms might play an important role in the process of plant pollination. Despite the importance of these nectar dwelling yeasts, knowledge of the factors that drive their diversity and s...

  10. High paleointensities for the Canary Islands constrain the Levant geomagnetic high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Lennart V.; Béguin, Annemarieke; Kosters, Martha E.; van Rijsingen, Elenora M.; Struijk, Erzsébet L.M.; Biggin, Andrew J.; Hurst, Elliot A.; Langereis, Cor G.; Dekkers, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of enigmatic geomagnetic traits such as the Levant intensity high is currently challenged by a lack of full vector records of regional variations in the geomagnetic field. Here we apply the recently proposed multi-method paleointensity approach to a suite of 19 lavas from

  11. Geotechnical analysis of large volcanic landslides: The La Orotava events on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Hürlimann, Marcel

    1999-01-01

    Large volcanic landslides are one of the most hazardous of geological processes. They have occurred about once every 25 years during the last 500 years, and are a serious risk for the population due to their great volume and mobility. In spite of their destructive potential there are few comprehensive studies analysing large landslides on volcano flanks, and the mechanisms of such mass movements are not yet resolved. Within the last few years, several hypotheses concerning the potential cause...

  12. The felsic dikes of La Gomera (Canary Islands): identification of cone sheet and radial dike swarms

    OpenAIRE

    Ancochea Soto, Eumenio; Brandle, J.L.; Huertas Coronel, María José; Cubas, C. R.; Hernán, F.

    2003-01-01

    On the northern part of La Gomera there exists a great abundance of trachytic–phonolitic dikes showing a broad diversity in dip and strike. Several methods have been applied in order to separate these dikes in different sets, localise the area from where they derive, and reconstruct the geometry of the swarms. The oldest dikes correspond to a radial swarm dated at 8 Ma. The felsic activity migrated then southwestwards and a second radial swarm and a cone sheet complex were developed between 7...

  13. Anchialine fauna of the Corona lava tunnel (Lanzarote,Canary Islands): diversity, endemism and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Alexandro; Palmero, A M; Brito, M C; Núñez, J; Worsaae, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    A checklist of 77 taxa recorded from the anchialine sections of the Corona lava tube is provided, including information on habitats, faunal distribution within the cave, and main references. Of the nine major groups recorded, Crustacea shows the highest diversity with 31 species and the highest d...... Mollusca, 2 Nematoda, 2 Cnidaria, and 1 species each of Priapula, Ctenophora, Echinodermata and Echiura, are known from the lava tube, of which only 1 mollusc is endemic to this cave system....

  14. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro experience we consider the objectivity of the Volcanic Activity Level a powerful tool to focus the discussions in a Scientific Committee on the activity forecast and on the expected scenarios, rather than on the multiple explanations of the data fluctuations, which is one of the main sources of conflict in the Scientific Committee discussions. Although the Volcanic Alert System was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the involved methodologies may be applied to other situations of unrest.

  15. Indications for solar influence on radon signal in the subsurface of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon at two locations in Tenerife is investigated. The MM-0 site is located in a bunker near Teide volcano. Daily radon (DR) signals are dominated by a 12-hour (S2) periodicity. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of day-time and night-time series results in a day-night differentiation, which does not occur in the coeval temperature and pressure. This indicates that the radon system is directly affected by the rotation of Earth around its axis, and not via the pressure and/or temperature pattern. San Fernando sites are in an underground gallery, located at 2.1 and 3 km from the entrance. Alpha and gamma time series show DR signals having an S1 and a strong S2 periodicity. Sidebands occur around the S1 periodicity. The lower sideband is close to 0.9972696 cycles per day (CPD; = sidereal frequency) and the upper sideband at a symmetric frequency above. They reflect a driver containing two waveforms having periodicities of rotation of Earth around its axis and around the Sun that influences radon in a non-linear fashion, leading to the sidebands around the S1 periodicity. Observation in Tenerife of sidebands and day-night phenomena substantiates the notion that the periodic components in the diurnal and annual frequency band of radon time series are due to the influence of a component in solar radiation. (authors)

  16. Gamma emitting radionuclides in fruits and vegetables produced in the Canary Islands: domestic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determine the possible effects due to ingestion of radionuclides that can be found in health food is of interest from the viewpoint of radiation protection of the population. these determinations and analysis of the consequences on the health of people and jobs has led to studies that have had consequences in the form of rules to follow and values have to be attended to limit dictated by national and international agencies. (Author)

  17. Biogeographic ranges do not support niche theory in radiating Canary Island plant clades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Field, Richard; Fernández-Palacios, José María;

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Ecological niche concepts, in combination with biogeographic history, underlie our understanding of biogeographic ranges. Two pillars of this understanding are competitive displacement and niche conservatism. The competitive displacement hypothesis holds that very similar (e.g. closely related...... species in radiating clades in oceanic archipelagos, where closely related species exist in both sympatry and allopatry and the species’ entire ranges are known. We took advantage of this natural experimental system to test whether the climatic niche relationships predicted by the two hypotheses are found...

  18. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  19. Non-Controlled Emissión of VOCs from Arico's Landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, S.; de La Rosa, D. N.; Lima, R. N.; Nolasco, D.; Salazar, J. L.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2003-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of CH4 as well as other trace gas components to the environment. A large number of organic volatile components (VOCs) are present as tracers in landfill gases, and they are considered to be carcinogenic and toxic. In order to control the emissions of these contaminants to the atmosphere, extraction systems to recover biogas are installed in landfills. However, a significant amount of these emissions could be released to the atmosphere through the surface environment in a diffuse form, also known as a non-controlled emission of landfill gases. The aim of this study is evaluate the non-controlled emission of VOCs from Arico's landfill. The Arico landfill has an extension of 0.35 km2, and about 1,546 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) is daily deposited. A biogas extraction system was installed at the Arico landfill between 1998 and 1999. A non-controlled VOCs emission survey of 133 sampling sites was carried out during August, 2002. Surface CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR spectrometer and according to the accumulation chamber method. Surface CO2 efflux ranged from 1 to 10,580 gm-2d-1. At each sampling site, surface landfill gas samples were collected at 40 cm deep using a metallic probe. These gas samples were analyzed within 24 hours by means of GC-MS. Non-controlled emission rate of VOCs were estimated by multiplying surface CO2 efflux times (VOCs)i/CO2 weight ratio at each sampling site, respectively. The spatial distributions of VOCs at the Arico's landfill showed a different distribution pattern for each volatile component and it is related to actual use of the landfill. Taking into consideration the spatial distribution of the VOCs efflux values as well as the extension of the landfill, the non-controlled emission of VOCs to the atmosphere by Arico's landfill was estimated about 2108 Kgd-1 of which 1638 Kgd-1 are BTEX emissions.

  20. Quantum teleportation using active feed-forward between two Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiao-song; Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Wang, Daqing; Kropatschek, Sebastian; Naylor, William; Mech, Alexandra; Wittmann, Bernhard; Kofler, Johannes; Anisimova, Elena; Makarov, Vadim; Jennewein, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Quantum teleportation [1] is a quintessential prerequisite of many quantum information processing protocols [2-4]. By using quantum teleportation, one can circumvent the no-cloning theorem [5] and faithfully transfer unknown quantum states to a party whose location is even unknown over arbitrary distances. Ever since the first experimental demonstrations of quantum teleportation of independent qubits [6] and of squeezed states [7], researchers have progressively extended the communication dis...

  1. On the Confession of a Canary Bird, Children on a Holiday Camp, and the Apology for Fleas Planned by Janusz Korczak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zgrzywa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The point of departure for this article is the memory of moving fragments of Janusz Korczak’s journal from Warsaw ghetto. The author confronts the fragments with Korczak’s earlier texts, such as the short storied about holiday camps for Polish and Jewish children, and the novel Król Maciuś na bezludnej wyspie [King Maciuś on a Desert Island]. The image of a canary bird, used in the novel, is confronted with other symbolic stories about this bird, such as the story in Wiesław Myśliwski’s Pałac [Palace]. With reference to the image, the article invokes Korczak’s meditations on identity and tolerance, and human ethical and aesthetic choices. The audacity of Korczak’s thoughts and conclusions goes far beyond his time, and seems perfectly fit for ours.

  2. CanariCam/GTC observations of (99942) Apophis

    CERN Document Server

    Licandro, J; Alvarez, C; Alí-Lagoa, V; Delbò, M

    2015-01-01

    The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (99942) Apophis is one of the most remarkable near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in terms of impact hazard. A good determination of its surface thermal inertia is very important in order to evaluate the Yarkovsky effect on its orbital evolution. We present thermal infrared observations obtained on January 29, 2013, with CanariCam mid-infrared camera/spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain) using the Si2-8.7, Si6-12.5, and Q1-17.65 filters with the aim of deriving Apophis' diameter ($D$), geometric albedo ($p_V$), and thermal inertia ($\\Gamma$). We performed a detailed thermophysical model analysis of the GTC data combined with previously published thermal data obtained using Herschel Space Observatory PACS instrument at 70, 100, and 160 $\\mu$m.The thermophysical model fit of the data favors low surface roughness solutions (within a range of roughness slope angles $rms$ between 0.1 and 0.5), and constrains ...

  3. Accumulating pollutants in conifer needles on an Atlantic island - A case study with Pinus canariensis on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, Michael [School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick, Victoria 3363 (Australia); Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.tausz@uni-graz.at; Trummer, Walter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Goessler, Walter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Chemie, Analytische Chemie, Universitaetsplatz 1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Wonisch, Astrid [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Grill, Dieter [Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Naumann, Simone [Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH), Institut fuer Geographie und Geooekologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, Geb. 10.50, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jimenez, Maria Soledad [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Fisiologia Vegetal, E-38207 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Morales, Domingo [Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Fisiologia Vegetal, E-38207 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    Concentrations of potential pollutant elements Na, Cl, and S were investigated in needles of Pinus canariensis grown at 55 field plots in Tenerife. Microelement concentrations (including heavy metals) were measured at a subset of 18 plots. Na and Cl concentrations were high at low elevations (up to 8 mg g{sup -1} Cl and 5.5 mg g{sup -1} Na). Na/Cl ratio close to standard seawater indicated sea spray influence up to 1200 m a.s.l. Only at few plots, sulphur concentrations indicated possible pollutant impact. Cluster and correlation analyses identified a related group of V, As, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Al, possibly related to traffic exhaust aggregated with soil particles. Mainly north-eastern, lower elevated plots were exposed to those immissions, but metal concentrations were generally low compared to data from other studies. In conclusion, seawater and soil particles explained most of the element distribution pattern in pine needles in Tenerife, but strong indications for some effect of local sources of air pollutants were detected. - Pollutant concentrations in pine needles indicate moderate local impact of sulphur, particulate matter, and sea sprays at lower elevation plots in Tenerife.

  4. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  5. Large eruption-triggered ocean-island landslide at Tenerife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, P; Branney, M; Storey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An extensive debris-avalanche deposit has been discovered on Cañadas volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands). The onshore component of the 733 ± 3 ka Abona landslide deposit exposes classic block facies and mixed facies across 90 km2. Three lines of evidence together show that the avalanche was...... breadcrust surfaces; (3) these blocks yield the same 40Ar/39Ar date as the associated ignimbrite and fall deposit. Landslide hummocks dammed surface water, forming ephemeral lakes perched on the volcano flank. Phonolite dome growth destabilized the southeast sector of a mid-Pleistocene Cañadas caldera wall...

  6. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. The conditions for use of reed canary grass briquettes and chopped reed canary grass in small heating plants; Foerutsaettningar foer anvaendning av roerflensbriketter och hackad roerflen i mindre vaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Davidsson, Kent; Holmgren, Magnus A. (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)); Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Rikard; Leffler, Joel (ETC, Piteaa (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to test fuel blends of briquettes and chopped reed canary grass in three existing heating plants (50 kW - 500 kW) and elucidate the requirements for good performance and low emissions. In addition, the study investigated production of reed canary grass briquettes using a Polish screw press developed for straw. Some tests with a bale shredder were also undertaken. The screw press technique is of interest for reed canary grass because it is a simple technique, easy to handle, developed for small scale production, and for straw. The test with reed canary grass in this study showed that the technique worked well but that further adjustments and a longer test period are needed in order to achieve higher bulk density and mechanical strength. The test with chopped reed canary grass shows that a system with a forage harvester is slightly more effective than baling and cutting in a bale shredder. The study concluded that few existing heating plants of size 50 kW-1 MW that currently use wood fuels will be able to use reed canary grass without adjustment, conversion or replacement of the combustion equipment. Reed canary grass has 15-20 times higher ash content than wood briquettes and 2-3 times higher ash content than forest residue; the combustion equipment must be able to handle these properties. The boiler must be equipped with a continuously operating ashing system and it must be possible to move the ash bed mechanically. There is a risk of high content of unburned matter if the residence time in the boiler is too short, due to the structure and low bulk density of the reed canary grass ash. Using a blend of wood briquettes and reed canary briquettes results in lower ash content, but also affects the ash chemistry and tends to lower the initial ash fusion temperature compared to using 100 % reed canary grass. Blending chopped reed canary grass and wood chips in an existing small scale heating plant also requires measures to achieve an even fuel

  8. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from canaries (Serinus canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben V. Horn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Enterobacteriaceae family contains potentially zoonotic bacteria, and their presence in canaries is often reported, though the current status of these in bird flocks is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the most common genera of enterobacteria from canaries (Serinus canaria and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. From February to June of 2013, a total of 387 cloacal swab samples from eight domiciliary breeding locations of Fortaleza city, Brazil, were collected and 58 necropsies were performed in canaries, which belonged to the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies. The samples were submitted to microbiological procedure using buffered peptone water and MacConkey agar. Colonies were selected according to their morphological characteristics on selective agar and submitted for biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 61 isolates were obtained, of which 42 were from cloacal swabs and 19 from necropsies. The most isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli with twenty five strains, followed by fourteen Klebsiellaspp., twelve Enterobacterspp., seven Pantoea agglomerans, two Serratiaspp. and one Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial to which the strains presented most resistance was sulfonamides with 55.7%, followed by ampicillin with 54.1% and tetracycline with 39.3%. The total of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR was 34 (55.7%. In conclusion, canaries harbor members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and common strains present a high antimicrobial resistance rate, with a high frequency of MDR bacteria.

  9. Aphids and their parasitoids on the Canary grass, Phalaris canariensis in Malta (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovic, Sasa; Stary, Petr; Mifsud, David

    2013-01-01

    Adialytus ambiguus and Diaeretiella rapae were reared from Rhopalosiphum padi on the Canary grass, Phalaris canariensis in Malta. The identity to species level of the Adialytus required confirmation via DNA analysis of the respective species group. Some ecosystem interrelationships derived from the determined food webs are discussed.

  10. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture) is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG) can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG cultiv...

  11. Fleshy fruits in the diet of Canarian lizards Gallotia galloti (Lacertidae) in a xeric habitat of the Island of Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Valido, Alfredo; Nogales, Manuel; Medina, Félix M.

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the frugi vorous diet of the lizard Gallotia galloti, a Canary Island endemic, in relation to season and fruit availability in a xeric habitat from Tenerife. Gallotia galloti was omnivorous throughout the year (including>59% of plant material by volume in fecal pellets); only in the winter months (December and January) did invertebrates dominate the diet (>73% in volume). The most remarkable aspect of the diet was the high level of consuption of fleshy fruits, showing pronounced s...

  12. Geographic variation in the Buzzard Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758): Mid-Atlantic and West Mediterranean Islands (Aves: Accipitridae)

    OpenAIRE

    James, Anthony H.

    1984-01-01

    This study analizes the geographic variation in Buteo buteo from the mid-Atlantic and Mediterranean islands, based on an external morphological analysis of 143 museum specimens. I review the taxonomic status of these populations. Dimensions and plumage characters show the subspecies B. b. rothschildi (Azores) and B. b. arrigonii (Sardinia) are clearly subspecifically distinct. B. b. insularum (Canaries) has diagnostic plumage differences sufficient to recognize its subspecific status. B. b. h...

  13. Molecular epidemiology of systemic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium outbreak in canaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ashrafi Tamai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In May 2007, high mortality with severe septicemia was reported in 17 flocks of canaries in"ndifferent regions of Tehran province. This study was designed to follow up and study a great outbreak of salmonellosis in"nthese canaries."nMaterials and Methods: Two carcasses from every flock, environment, food and water resources were examined. After"nisolating the bacteria, serotyping and multiplex PCR were performed to confirm the bacteria identified. The isolates within the"nsame serovars were investigated by R-typing using 33 antibiotics and then subjected to RAPD-PCR with three primers. The"ngenomic DNA from these isolates were digested with XbaІ and the macro restriction fragment were separated by PFGE."nResults: S. Typhimurium was isolated from dead carcasses, visceral organs, stools and feed. Thirty-six isolated strains (35"nisolates from canary carcasses and one isolate from feed showed similar results in all of the tests, confirming the occurrence"nof an outbreak."nConclusion: Canaries seem to be very susceptible to infection with S. Typhimurium. The clonality of isolated organisms and"nits characteristics is significantly important due to the severe septicemia and high mortalities in this outbreak and its public"nhealth threats. Environmental contamination within the cages, and food contaminated with stools of other canaries were the"nsources of infection. Inspection for food hygiene, daily cleaning of canary’s cage from stool and carrier insects and rodents are"nnecessary to prevent such outbreaks. Combination of R-typing, RAPD-PCR and PFGE increase the differentiation power of"nisolates, however, they showed clonality of S. Typhimurium involved in this outbreak.

  14. Mouth colour is a reliable signal of need in begging canary nestlings

    OpenAIRE

    R., initials Kilner

    1997-01-01

    Begging passerine chicks display brightly coloured mouths as they solicit food from their parents. Despite a range of hypotheses, the function of vivid nestling mouth colour remains unknown. Here I report that mouth colour functions as a signal of need in canary nestlings, in the days immediately following hatching. Changes in mouth colour accurately reflect a nestling's state of need: the more food deprived the chick, the more intensely coloured its mouth. In controlled experiments with two ...

  15. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    OpenAIRE

    Karki, S.; L. Elsgaard; P. E. Lærke

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture) is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG) can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG cultivation on GHG emission from peatland rewetted to various extents. Mesocosms were manipulated to three different ground water levels (GWL), i.e., 0,...

  16. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    OpenAIRE

    Karki, S.; L. Elsgaard; P. E. Lærke

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture) is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG) can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG cultivation on GHG emission from peatland rewetted to various extents. Mesocosms were manipulated to three different ground water levels (GWLs), i.e. 0, −10 and −20 cm below the soil surfa...

  17. Dilute solution properties of canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) starch in comparison to wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mahdi; Razavi, Seyed M A; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann

    2016-06-01

    Dilute solution properties of an unknown starch are important to understand its performance and applications in food and non-food industries. In this paper, rheological and molecular properties (intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight, shape factor, voluminosity, conformation and coil overlap parameters) of the starches from two hairless canary seed varieties (CO5041 & CDC Maria) developed for food use were evaluated in the dilute regime (Starch dispersions in DMSO (0.5g/dl)) and compared with wheat starch (WS). The results showed that Higiro model is the best among five applied models for intrinsic viscosity determination of canary seed starch (CSS) and WS on the basis of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE). WS sample showed higher intrinsic viscosity value (1.670dl/g) in comparison to CSS samples (1.325-1.397dl/g). Berry number and the slope of master curve demonstrated that CSS and WS samples were in dilute domain without entanglement occurrence. The shape factor suggested spherical and ellipsoidal structure for CO5041 starch and ellipsoidal for CDC Maria starch and WS. The molecular weight, coil radius and coil volume of CSSs were smaller than WS. The behavior and molecular characterization of canary seed starch showed its unique properties compared with wheat starch. PMID:26902890

  18. Long term effects of ash fertilization of reed canary grass; Laangtidseffekter av askgoedsling vid roerflensodling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva

    2011-03-15

    Reed canary grass (RCG) is a bio-energy crop with large potential. It is a 1.5 . 2.5 m tall grass that is harvested in spring when it is grown as a fuel. At spring harvest it yields 3 . 10 ton field dried material per ha and year. One disadvantage when reed canary grass is used as a fuel is the high ash content, 5-10 %. This means that large quantities of ash have to be deposited which is expensive, about 1000 SEK/ton. However, since reed canary grass ash contains reasonable amounts of plant nutrients like phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) it could be recycled as fertilizer in agriculture. The ash can be used without any pretreatment since, in agriculture, plant availability is desirable. The aim of this project, was to evaluate a field experiment, where ash was used as a fertilizer in reed canary grass. The experiment was established at the SLU research station in Umea, Sweden in the spring 2002. Three different fertilizer treatments were applied: Treatment A was fertilized with an ash produced by combustion of RCG together with municipal wastes (paper, plastic, leather), treatment B, an ash from combustion of RCG, and for treatment C commercial fertilizers were used. In total, 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (N), 15 kg ha-1 of phosphorous (P) and 80 kg ha-1 of potassium (K), were applied each year in all treatments. The amount of ash in treatment A and B was calculated from the chemical analysis of the ashes to be equal to the required amount of P, while K and N were supplied also by commercial fertilizers. [Table 1. Composition of the ashes] Literature study: There is a lack of knowledge about fertilization with reed canary grass ash, since few experiments have been conducted. The composition of reed canary grass is dependent of harvest date and the soil substrate. The amount of ash and the amount of harmful substances such as potassium and chloride generally decreases over winter, giving an increased fuel quality from spring harvest compared to autumn

  19. Invertebrate populations in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Llysdinam Field Centre, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Monitoring of invertebrates at four field sites in Herefordshire, England, growing miscanthus and reed canary-grass was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of these crops on ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping; and arboreal invertebrates by sweep netting and stem beating. The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Butterflies Monitoring Scheme methodology was used to record butterflies. The effects of the biomass crops on invertebrates were indirect, through the use of weeds as food resources and habitat. The greater diversity of weed flora within miscanthus fields than within reed canary-grass fields had a greater positive effect on invertebrates. Ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates were more abundant and diverse in the most floristically diverse miscanthus fields. The difference in crop architecture and development between miscanthus and reed canary-grass was reflected in their differences in crop height and ground cover early on in the season. However, most of the difference in arthropod abundance between the two crops was attributed to the difference in the agronomic practice of growing the crops such as plant density, and the effect of this on weed growth. Since perennial rhizomatous grasses require a single initial planting and related tillage, and also no major chemical inputs; and because the crops are harvested in the spring and the land is not disturbed by cultivation every year, the fields were used as over-wintering sites for invertebrates suggesting immediate benefits to biodiversity. (author)

  20. Hydrogen, fuel cells and renewable energy integration in islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D. [E4tech Ltd., Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology, (United Kingdom); Foradini, F.; Hart, D. [E4tech Ltd., Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    Remote areas such as islands rely on costly and highly polluting diesel and heavy fuel oil for their electricity supply. This paper explored the opportunities for exploiting economically and environmentally viable renewable energy sources, in particular hydrogen storage, on such islands. In particular, this study focused on addressing the challenge of matching energy supply with demand and with technical issues regarding weak grids that are hindered with high steady state voltage levels and voltage fluctuations. The main technical characteristics of integrated renewable energy and hydrogen systems were determined by modelling a case study for the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The paper referred to the challenges regarding the technical and economic viability of such systems and their contribution to the economic development of remote communities. It was noted that energy storage plays an important role in addressing supply and demand issues by offering a way to control voltage and using surplus electricity at times of low load. Electrical energy can be stored in the form of potential or chemical energy. New decentralized generation technologies have also played a role in improving the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources. The feasibility of using hydrogen for energy storage was examined with particular reference to fuel-cell based energy supply in isolated island communities. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Hydrogen, fuel cells and renewable energy integration in islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote areas such as islands rely on costly and highly polluting diesel and heavy fuel oil for their electricity supply. This paper explored the opportunities for exploiting economically and environmentally viable renewable energy sources, in particular hydrogen storage, on such islands. In particular, this study focused on addressing the challenge of matching energy supply with demand and with technical issues regarding weak grids that are hindered with high steady state voltage levels and voltage fluctuations. The main technical characteristics of integrated renewable energy and hydrogen systems were determined by modelling a case study for the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The paper referred to the challenges regarding the technical and economic viability of such systems and their contribution to the economic development of remote communities. It was noted that energy storage plays an important role in addressing supply and demand issues by offering a way to control voltage and using surplus electricity at times of low load. Electrical energy can be stored in the form of potential or chemical energy. New decentralized generation technologies have also played a role in improving the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources. The feasibility of using hydrogen for energy storage was examined with particular reference to fuel-cell based energy supply in isolated island communities. 4 refs., 5 figs

  2. Les formations marines et continentales intervolcaniques des îles Canaries orientales (Grande Canarie. Fuerteventura et Lanzarote: Stratigraphie et signiflcation paleoclimatique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meco, J.

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 m. y. of continuous activity in the Canary Islands have brought about the fossilization of marine fauna and soils which prove the existence of alternating warm and numid conditions of guinean origen, and also of drier influences from the Sahara, connected with the arrival of cold waters from the Lusitanian Sea. The sea deposits of the lower Pleistocene with Strombus coronatus and those of the upper Pleistocene with Strombus bubonius, which are caracteristically warm and the deposits of middle and upper Pleistoeene and of the Holocene, with various species of Patella and caracteristically cold (Meco, 1977, have already been related to volcanic activities dated by K/Ar (Meco y Steams, 1981 and are new being related to rapid effects of soil formation, the result of evaporation an clayey neoformation of volcanic materials which are constantly being renoved. The fairly rapid fossilization caused by volcanic activity, eliminates some of the effects accumulated over a period of time on the paleosoils, The existence of Saharian quartz, a mineral not found in volcanic products, and the simultaneous existence of more distant matters on the evolution of soilformation, like crusts which contain gypsum or attapulgyte of desert origin and bauxites containing nickel and tale of tropical, humid origin (Pomel, 1985, all this permit to find coherents conclusions.

    Más de 20 m. a. de actividad volcánica continuada ha permitido en las Canarias la fosilización de faunas marinas y suelos que testimonian una alternancia de condiciones cálidas y húmedas, de origen guineano, y de influencias secas, saharianas, relacionadas con aportes de aguas frescas de procedencia lusitana. Los depósitos marinos del Plioceno inferior con Strombus coronatus y los del Pleistoceno superior con Strombus bubonius, que revelan un carácter cálido, y los depósitos del Pleistoceno medio y superior y del Holoceno, con varias

  3. No contact transmission of avian bornavirus in experimentally infected cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Brosinski, Katrin; Rinder, Monika; Olbert, Marita; Kaspers, Bernd; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed disease of parrots. Distinct ABV lineages were also found in various non-psittacine avian species, such as canaries, but the pathogenic role of ABV in these species is less clear. Despite the wide distribution of ABV in captive parrots and canaries, its mode of transmission is poorly understood: both horizontal transmission via the urofaecal-oral route and vertical transmission are discussed to play a role. In this study we investigated pathology and horizontal transmission of ABV in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), two natural host species commonly used for experimental ABV infections. ABV inoculation resulted in persistent infection of all inoculated animals from both species. ABV-infected cockatiels exhibited PDD-like symptoms, such as neurologic signs or shedding of undigested seeds. In contrast, infected domestic canaries did not develop clinical disease. Interestingly, we did not detect viral RNA in cloacal swabs and organ samples or ABV-specific antibodies in serum samples of contact-exposed sentinel birds from either species at any time during a four months observation period. Our results strongly indicate that horizontal transmission of ABV by direct contact is inefficient in immunocompetent fully fledged domestic canaries and cockatiels. PMID:24933163

  4. Happy Island

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, Larry

    2011-01-01

    I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, $N_c$ is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy Island in the $\\mu_B$-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy Island.

  5. Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in the Solomon Islands and to identify gaps where engagement could further develop financial resilience. It also aims to encourage peer exchange of regional knowledge, specifically by encouraging dialogue on past experiences, lessons learned, optimal use of these financial tool...

  6. The community of deep-sea decapod crustaceans between 175 and 2600 m in submarine canyons of a volcanic oceanic island (central-eastern Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; González, José A.

    2015-11-01

    The community structure and faunal composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans in submarine canyons on the slope off Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, central-eastern Atlantic) were investigated. Samples were collected during five research cruises (115 stations) at depths between 175 and 2554 m. A total of 26387 decapod specimens, belonging to 24 families and 38 species, were collected with traps. A cluster analysis of the stations showed four distinct assemblages: (i) in the transition area between shelf and slope (175-302 m); (ii) on the upper slope (361-789 m); (iii) on the middle slope (803-1973 m); and iv) on the lower slope (2011-2554 m). The deep-sea decapod fauna of the Canary Islands is dominated by shrimp of the family Pandalidae, which make up more than 23% of the species. Within the Pandalidae, species of the genus Plesionika stand out as those of greatest abundance on the island slope. The greatest diversity of species was located on the upper slope. The standardized mean abundance and mean biomass for the transition zone between the shelf and slope and for the upper slope were nearly 5 times greater in abundance and 4 times greater in biomass than those estimated for the middle slope, and nearly 53 and 29 times greater for the lower slope, indicating a lower abundance and biomass at the shallower part of the insular slope. The mean weight per individual showed an increasing pattern with depth and an inverse pattern with the bottom temperature and salinity. The existence of depth boundaries around the Canary Islands is known to be closely linked to oceanographic conditions, determined by the water masses present in this archipelago explaining the discontinuities observed at depths of 800 and 2000 m. The boundary observed inside the bathymetric region of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water can be related with the transition zone between the shelf and the slope of the island.

  7. Isotopic signatures of otoliths and the stock structure of canary rockfish along the Washington and Oregon coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Otoliths of 120 canary rockfish were analyzed for δ18O and δ13C. ► δ18O and δ13C values of the otoliths ranged from −0.2‰ to +1.7‰ and −5.4‰ to −1.4‰. ► No separation was observed from the isotopic data and δ18O vs. δ13C correlation. ► No significant difference was computed between WA and OR samples especially in δ13C. ► Canary rockfish may belong to a single spawning stock or population coast-wide. - Abstract: Canary rockfish are one of the commercially important rockfish species along the US Pacific coast. Yet little is known about their life history and stock structure. In this study 120 canary rockfish otoliths were collected from waters off the Washington and Oregon coast and subjected to stable O and C isotope (δ18O and δ13C) analyses. One powder sample was taken from the nucleus of each otolith, and the other from the 5th annual ring. Data from otolith nuclei can provide information on the natal sources and spawning stock separations, while data from age-1 to age-5 may indicate changes in fish habitat. Overall the δ18O values in otoliths of canary rockfish ranged from −0.2‰ to +1.7‰, whereas δ13C values of the same samples ranged from −5.4‰ to −1.4‰. The isotopic data and correlation of δ18O versus δ13C did not show clear separation between Washington and Oregon samples, similar to those for a previous study on yelloweye rockfish from the same region. These results suggest that canary rockfish may belong to a single spawning stock or population along the Washington and Oregon coast

  8. Wind-forced modeling studies of currents, meanders, eddies, and filaments of the Canary Current System

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Eric J.

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A high-resolution, multi-level, primitive equation ocean model is used to examine the response of an eastern boundary oceanic regime to both wind forcing and irregular coastline geometry. The focus of this study is the coastal region from 300 N to 42.50 N, a portion of the Canary Current System (CCS). To study the generation, evolution, and sustainment of the currents, meanders, eddies and filaments of the CCS, the model is forced from...

  9. Exercise Tiger: assessing the BCM impact of the 2012 Olympics on Canary Wharf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games will see huge opportunity for businesses in London, and across Europe, but not without cost. Canary Wharf lies in the heart of London's Docklands and less than three miles from the Olympic Park at Stratford. Purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working population of 95,000 people, is home to some of the world's leading brands and has a vibrant retail complex of over 200 shops, bars and restaurants. This business community is preparing for every aspect of the Olympics and, in particular, the disruption the Games will bring. As a private estate, the community resilience approach fostered here is both better defined and finite in terms of those it includes as a result. Preparing together with joint exercises, forums and open communications in a network of trusted partners is yielding collective benefits and lending a stronger voice in the call for more information from official agencies. This paper outlines the benefits of collective planning and reports on the success of Canary Wharf's annual estate-wide business continuity exercise - the first major collective Olympics planning exercise in London. PMID:21482513

  10. Open-loop tomography with artificial neural networks on CANARY: on-sky results

    CERN Document Server

    Osborn, J; Guzman, D; Basden, A; Morris, T J; Gendron, E; Butterley, T; Myers, R M; Gueslaga, A; Lasheras, F S; Victoria, M G; Rodriguez, M L S; Gratadour, D; Rousset, G

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the initial testing of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based tomographic reconstructor Complex Atmospheric Reconstructor based on Machine lEarNing (CARMEN) on Canary, an Adaptive Optics demonstrator operated on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope, La Palma. The reconstructor was compared with contemporaneous data using the Learn and Apply (L&A) tomographic reconstructor. We find that the fully optimised L&A tomographic reconstructor outperforms CARMEN by approximately 5% in Strehl ratio or 15nm rms in wavefront error. We also present results for Canary in Ground Layer Adaptive Optics mode to show that the reconstructors are tomographic. The results are comparable and this small deficit is attributed to limitations in the training data used to build the ANN. Laboratory bench tests show that the ANN can out perform L&A under certain conditions, e.g. if the higher layer of a model two layer atmosphere was to change in altitude by ~300~m (equivalent to a shift of appr...

  11. Analysis of on-sky MOAO performance of CANARY using natural guide stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Fabrice; Rousset, Gerard; Morris, Tim; Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard; Brangier, Matthieu; Chemla, Fanny; Dipper, Nigel; Gratadour, Damien; Henry, David; Hubert, Zoltan; Longmore, Andy; Martin, Olivier; Talbot, Gordon; Younger, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    The first on-sky results obtained by CANARY, the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) demonstrator, are analysed. The data were recorded at the William Herschel Telescope, at the end of September 2010. We describe the command and calibrations algorithms used during the run and present the observing conditions. The processed data are MOAO-loop engaged or disengaged slope buffers, comprising the synchronised measurements of the four Natural Guide Stars (NGS) wavefront sensors running in parallel, and near Infra-Red (IR) images. We describe the method we use to establish the error budget of CANARY. We are able to evaluate the to- mographic and the open loop errors, having median values around 216 nm and 110 nm respectively. In addition, we identify an unexpected residual quasi-static field aberration term of mean value 110 nm. We present the detailed error budget analysed for three sets of data for three different asterisms. We compare the experimental budgets with the numerically simulated ones and demonstrate a...

  12. Short-term variability and trophic interactions within planktonic community in subtropical waters of he Canary Islands (Northeast atlantic)

    OpenAIRE

    Franchy Gil, Gara

    2014-01-01

    ES]Los giros subtropicales abarcan grandes áreas del océano donde la productividad del ecosistema se sostiene a través del reciclado de materia y energía. En estas aguas, la interacción entre la disponibilidad de recursos y la presión de los niveles tróficos superiores determina la dinámica de la comunidad planctónica. Sin embargo, en aguas subtropicales, el conocimiento de la variabilidad temporal o el papel de los diferentes componentes de la comunidad dentro de la red trófica es bastante l...

  13. Lateralization in escape behaviour at different hierarchical levels in a gecko: Tarentola angustimentalis from Eastern Canary Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Muñoz

    Full Text Available At the individual level, to be behaviourally lateralized avoids costly duplication of neural circuitry and decreases possible contradictory order from the two brain hemispheres. However, being prey behaviour lateralized at higher hierarchical levels could generate different negative implications, especially if predators are able to make predictions after multiple encounters. These conflicting pressures, namely between the advantages for individuals and the disadvantages for populations could be concealed if higher-level lateralization would arise from the combination of lateralized behaviours of individuals which are mutually dependent. Here, we investigated the lateralization patterns in the escape behaviour of the gecko Tarentola angustimentalis undergoing a predatory attack simulation in a "T" maze experiment. Results showed that gecko populations displayed different degrees of lateralization, with an overall dominance of right-biased individuals. This trend is similar to that observed in the Podarcis wall lizards, which share predators with Tarentola. In addition, different morphological parameters plausible to affect refuge selection were explored in order to link directional asymmetries at morphological level with lateralization during refuge selection.

  14. A review of wind speed probability distributions used in wind energy analysis. Case studies in the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Ramirez, P. [Department of Renewable Energies, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, Pozo Izquierdo Beach s/n, 35119 Santa Lucia, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Velazquez, S. [Department of Electronics and Automatics Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The probability density function (PDF) of wind speed is important in numerous wind energy applications. A large number of studies have been published in scientific literature related to renewable energies that propose the use of a variety of PDFs to describe wind speed frequency distributions. In this paper a review of these PDFs is carried out. The flexibility and usefulness of the PDFs in the description of different wind regimes (high frequencies of null winds, unimodal, bimodal, bitangential regimes, etc.) is analysed for a wide collection of models. Likewise, the methods that have been used to estimate the parameters on which these models depend are reviewed and the degree of complexity of the estimation is analysed in function of the model selected: these are the method of moments (MM), the maximum likelihood method (MLM) and the least squares method (LSM). In addition, a review is conducted of the statistical tests employed to see whether a sample of wind data comes from a population with a particular probability distribution. With the purpose of cataloguing the various PDFs, a comparison is made between them and the two parameter Weibull distribution (W.pdf), which has been the most widely used and accepted distribution in the specialised literature on wind energy and other renewable energy sources. This comparison is based on: (a) an analysis of the degree of fit of the continuous cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for wind speed to the cumulative relative frequency histograms of hourly mean wind speeds recorded at weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago; (b) an analysis of the degree of fit of the CDFs for wind power density to the cumulative relative frequency histograms of the cube of hourly mean wind speeds recorded at the aforementioned weather stations. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the coefficient of determination R{sup 2}. Amongst the various conclusions obtained, it can be stated that the W.pdf presents a series of advantages with respect to the other PDFs analysed. However, the W.pdf cannot represent all the wind regimes encountered in nature such as, for example, those with high percentages of null wind speeds, bimodal distributions, etc. Therefore, its generalised use is not justified and it will be necessary to select the appropriate PDF for each wind regime in order to minimise errors in the estimation of the energy produced by a WECS (wind energy conversion system). In this sense, the extensive collection of PDFs proposed in this paper comprises a valuable catalogue. (author)

  15. A semi-empirical error estimation for PWV derived from atmospheric radiosonde data at the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Almazán; Pérez-Jordán, Gabriel; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana

    2016-01-01

    An unbiased method to estimate the error and the optimum number of sampled levels in Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) determinations from atmospheric radiosoundings is proposed. Two components have been considered, the uncertainties in the measures and the sampling error. The sampling component has been modelled from an empirical dataset of 64 high vertical resolution radiosounding profiles equipped with sondes Vaisala RS80 and RS92. The balloons were launched at the astronomical Roque de los ...

  16. A competitive study of two tourism destinations through the application of conjoint analysis techniques: the case of the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra López, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration to know and to correspond to consumer expectations, supposes a continuous challenge that companies must confront and has become a central issue in an extant literature. There is ample agreement about the importance of consumer orientation for the competitiveness of companies. Businesses are faced with the need to satisfy customers today and to develop new products for the future. These requirements are accentuated in the tour-ist sector because they have a particular dependence on "tourist preferences". The aim of this paper is to contribute to this debate with the results of an analysis that seeks to deepen the knowledge of competitive advantages in the hotel sector of two tourism destinations by studying the utility that the different products offered provides to de-mand. By means of the application of the statistical techniques of conjoint analysis and simulation, we have obtained a model to apply to entrepreneurial decision-making that enables us to recognise the product that, among those supplied, most value provides to the demand of each tourism destination, as well as the observation of significant differences between those destinations

  17. Phylogenetic signal in growth and reproductive traits and in their plasticity: the Descurainia radiation in the Canary Islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Rydlová, Věra; Fér, T.; Suda, Jan; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Wildová, Radka; Wild, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2014), s. 384-398. ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0081 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : phenotypic plasticity * Brassicaceae * phylogenetic constraints Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.534, year: 2014

  18. A competitive study of two tourism destinations through the application of conjoint analysis techniques: the case of the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Parra López

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La aspiración de conocer y corresponder las expectativas de los consumidores, supone un continuo objetivo en la gran mayoría de las empresas, así como un tema central de análisis y debate a lo largo y ancho de la literatura. Existe un amplio consenso sobre la importancia que la orientación al cliente tiene para la competitividad de las empresas actuales. Este hecho se acentúa aún más si cabe en las empresas del sector turístico. En este trabajo tratamos de profundizar en el conocimiento de las ventajas competitivas del sector hotelero de dos destinos turísticos a través del estudio de la utilidad que aportan a la demanda los diferentes productos ofertados. Mediante la aplicación de técnicas estadísticas de análisis conjunto y de simulación hemos obtenidos un modelo de aplicación en la toma de decisiones empresariales, y que permite reconocer no sólo el producto que, entre los ofertados, mayor valor aporta a la demanda de cada destino turístico sino la existencia de diferencias significativas entre destinos

  19. Giraudia sphacelarioides (Phaeophyceae) at the Canary Islands and in Danish waters: a study in ecotypic differentiation and its biogeographical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Aase; Pedersen, Poul Møller

    2003-01-01

    ecotypic differentiation. In Danish waters salinity decreases from c. 30 ‰ in the northern Kattegat to below 8 ‰ in the inner parts and therefore becomes an important factor for the immigration of species into the Baltic Sea. Combined salinity (30-20-10-5 ‰) and temperature (4 to 30°C) experiments show...

  20. Molecular phylogeny and ultrastructure of the lichen microalga Asterochloris mediterranea sp. nov. from Mediterranean and Canary Islands ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Patricia; Škaloud, Pavel; Chiva, Salvador; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Vančurová, Lucie; Barreno, Eva

    2015-06-01

    The microalgae of the genus Asterochloris are the preferential phycobionts in Cladonia, Lepraria and Stereocaulon lichens. Recent studies have highlighted the hidden diversity of the genus, even though phycobionts hosting species of the genus Cladonia in Mediterranean and Canarian ecosystems have been poorly explored. Phylogenetic analyses were made by concatenation of the sequences obtained with a plastid - LSU rDNA - and two nuclear - internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and actin - molecular markers of the phycobionts living in several populations of the Cladonia convoluta-Cladonia foliacea complex, Cladonia rangiformis and Cladonia cervicornis s. str. widely distributed in these areas in a great variety of substrata and habitats. A new strongly supported clade was obtained in relation to the previously published Asterochloris phylogenies. Minimum genetic variation was detected between our haplotypes and other sequences available in the GenBank database. The correct identification of the fungal partners was corroborated by the ITS rDNA barcode. In this study we provide a detailed characterization comprising chloroplast morphology, and ultrastructural and phylogenetic analyses of a novel phycobiont species, here described as Asterochloris mediterranea sp. nov. Barreno, Chiva, Moya et Škaloud. A cryopreserved holotype specimen has been deposited in the Culture Collection of Algae of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (CAUP) as CAUP H 1015. We suggest the use of a combination of several nuclear and plastid molecular markers, as well as ultrastructural (transmission electron and confocal microscopy) techniques, both in culture and in the symbiotic state, to improve novel species delimitation of phycobionts in lichens. PMID:25757706

  1. Chabazite and dolomite formation in a dolocrete profile: An example of a complex alkaline paragenesis in Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Bustamante, Leticia; Huerta, Pedro; Rodríguez-Berriguete, Álvaro; Huertas, María José

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the weathering and soil formation processes operating on detrital sediments containing alkaline volcanic rock fragments of the Mirador del Río dolocrete profile. The profile consists of a lower horizon of removilised weathered basalts, an intermediate red sandy mudstones horizon with irregular carbonate layers and a topmost horizon of amalgamated carbonate layers with root traces. Formation occurred in arid to semiarid climates, giving place to a complex mineralogical association, including Mg-carbonates and chabazite, rarely described in cal/dolocretes profiles. Initial vadose weathering processes occurred in the basalts and in directly overlying detrital sediments, producing (Stage 1) red-smectites and dolomicrite. Dominant phreatic (Stage 2) conditions allowed precipitation of coarse-zoned dolomite and chabazite filling porosities. In Stages 3 and 4, mostly pedogenic, biogenic processes played an important role in dolomite and calcite accumulation in the profile. Overall evolution of the profile and its mineralogical association involved initial processes dominated by alteration of host rock, to provide silica and Mg-rich alkaline waters, suitable for chabazite and dolomite formation, without a previous carbonate phase. Dolomite formed both abiogenically and biogenically, but without a previous carbonate precursor and in the absence of evaporites. Dominance of calcite towards the profile top is the result of Mg/Ca decrease in the interstitial meteoric waters due to decreased supply of Mg from weathering, and increased supply of Ca in aeolian dust. Meteoric origin of the water is confirmed by C and O isotope values, which also indicate lack of deep sourced CO2. The dolocrete studied and its complex mineral association reveal the complex interactions that occur at surface during weathering and pedogenesis of basalt-sourced rocks.

  2. Acoetidae (Annelida, Polychaeta from the Iberian Peninsula, Madeira and Canary islands, with description of a new species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Núñez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six species of acoetid polychaetes are reported from the Iberian Peninsula and Macaronesia: Euarche tubifex Ehlers, 1887, Euarche cristata Núñez, n. sp., Eupanthalis kinbergi McIntosh, 1876, Eupolyodontes gulo (Grube, 1855, Polyodontes maxillosus (Ranzani, 1817, and Panthalis oerstedi (Kinberg, 1856. Material was collected during several sublittoral benthic surveys. Descriptions, figures, and a key for the six species are included. The new species Euarche cristata is characterized by its prostomium with cristate or serrated posterior margin.

  3. Acoetidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Iberian Peninsula, Madeira and Canary islands, with description of a new species.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Núñez; María del Carmen Brito; Alejandro Martínez; Ana María Palmero

    2008-01-01

    Six species of acoetid polychaetes are reported from the Iberian Peninsula and Macaronesia: Euarche tubifex Ehlers, 1887, Euarche cristata Núñez, n. sp., Eupanthalis kinbergi McIntosh, 1876, Eupolyodontes gulo (Grube, 1855), Polyodontes maxillosus (Ranzani, 1817), and Panthalis oerstedi (Kinberg, 1856). Material was collected during several sublittoral benthic surveys. Descriptions, figures, and a key for the six species are included. The new species Euarche cristata is characterized by its p...

  4. EVOLUTIVE AN REGRESSIVE SOIL SEQUENCES FOR ASSESSMENT OF SOIL DEGRADATION IN DESERTIFIED AREAS OF CANARY ISLANDS (SPAIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, J. A.; Arbelo, C. D.; A. Rodríguez Rodríguez; Rodríguez, J.L. Mora; J.S. Notario

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of soil degradation in natural ecosystems must necessarily beperformed from a non-conventional perspective, focused on agricultural productivity. Thus,the assessment of soil degradation in natural ecosystems requires the definition of standardswith which to compare other soils and thus evaluate their quality. In order to define thesestandards and manage appropriately the processes involved in the degradation and variation ofsoil quality, it is necessary to understand and establ...

  5. Polypropylene fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete for the reconstruction of the cathedral of La Laguna, Canary Island, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pacios Alvarez, Antonia; Carballosa de Miguel, Pedro; Gutiérrez Jiménez, J.P.; Tanner, P.

    2011-01-01

    High performance materials are needed for the reconstruction of such a singular building as a cathedral, since in addition to special mechanical properties, high self compact ability, high durability and high surface quality, are specified. Because of the project’s specifications, the use of polypropylene fiber-reinforced, self-compacting concrete was selected by the engineering office. The low quality of local materials and the lack of experience in applying macro polypropylene fiber for str...

  6. Pineapple yield and quality on a banana soil of the Canary Islands irrigated with acid and saline water

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, C E; Carracedo Torres, A. E.; Iglesias-Jiménez, Emeterio; Bravo, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) plants, cultivar "Red Spanish", weree grown in a greenhouse in 300-L containers, with soil from a banana plantation, and irrigated with saline and acid waters, Essential chemical soil chartacteristics were a pH of 6.9 electrical conductivity (EC) 1.26 dS m$ and available nutrient status 188 ppm P, 11,95 meq (100-g)$ Ca, 5.25 meq (100-g)$ Mg, 3.96 meq (100-g)$ K, and 2.17 meq (100-g)Na. Irrigation water treatments consisted of control (tap water); 7, 14, 21, ...

  7. Islands for SAT

    OpenAIRE

    H Fang; Kilani, Y.; Lee, J.H.M.; Stuckey, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    In this note we introduce the notion of islands for restricting local search. We show how we can construct islands for CNF SAT problems, and how much search space can be eliminated by restricting search to the island.

  8. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  9. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them. PMID:27447205

  10. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  11. L’identité amazighe aux Canaries : l’historiographie des origines1

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Martín, Josué

    2014-01-01

    Les habitants des îles Canaries, non loin des côtes africaines, ont toujours eu une place, plus ou moins importante selon les époques, au sein des discours sur l’histoire et l’identité berbère. Peu de recherches ont cependant approfondi les raisons et les modalités de ce lien. Cet article tente d’analyser comment l’historiographie des époques les plus reculées du passé canarien a inclus les Berbères (ou Amazighs) dans ce récit sur les origines. Nous décrirons dans un premier temps la genèse d...

  12. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecian, W James; Witt, Matthew J; Attrill, Martin J; Bearhop, Stuart; Becker, Peter H; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W; Godley, Brendan J; González-Solís, Jacob; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Patrick, Samantha C; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A; Stenhouse, Iain J; Votier, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. PMID:27531154

  13. Production and survival of projection neurons in a forebrain vocal center of adult male canaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurons are produced in the adult canary telencephalon. Many of these cells are incorporated into the high vocal center (nucleus HVC), which participates in the control of learned song. In the present work, 3H-thymidine and fluorogold were employed to follow the differentiation and survival of HVC neurons born in adulthood. We found that many HVC neurons born in September grow long axons to the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (nucleus RA) and thus become part of the efferent pathway for song control. Many of these new neurons have already established their connections with RA by 30 d after their birth. By 240 d, 75-80% of the September-born HVC neurons project to RA. Most of these new projection neurons survive at least 8 months. The longevity of HVC neurons born in September suggests that these cells remain part of the vocal control circuit long enough to participate in the yearly renewal of the song repertoire

  14. Effect of Additives and Fuel Blending on Emissions and Ash-Related Problems from Small-Scale Combustion of Reed Canary Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Fournel; Joahnn H. Palacios; Stéphane Godbout; Michèle Heitz

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural producers are interested in using biomass available on farms to substitute fossil fuels for heat production. However, energy crops like reed canary grass contain high nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), potassium (K) and other ash-forming elements which lead to increased emissions of gases and particulate matter (PM) and ash-related operational problems (e.g., melting) during combustion. To address these problematic behaviors, reed canary grass was blended with wood (50 wt%) and fuel addit...

  15. The use of reed canary grass and giant miscanthus in the phytoremediation of municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2016-05-01

    The application of municipal sewage sludge on energy crops is an alternative form of recycling nutrients, food materials, and organic matter from waste. Municipal sewage sludge constitutes a potential source of heavy metals in soil, which can be partially removed by the cultivation of energy crops. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of municipal sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by monocotyledonous energy crops. Sewage sludge was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM · ha(-1) once, before the sowing of plants. In a 6-year field experiment, the effect of four levels of fertilisation with sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by two species of energy crops, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) of 'Bamse' cultivar and giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus GREEF et DEU), was analysed. It was established that the increasing doses of sewage sludge had a considerable effect on the increase in biomass yield from the tested plants. Due to the increasing doses of sewage sludge, a significant increase in heavy metals content in the energy crops was recorded. The heavy metal uptake with the miscanthus yield was the highest at a dose of 20 Mg DM · ha(-1), and at a dose of 40 Mg DM · ha(-1) in the case of reed canary grass. Research results indicate that on account of higher yields, higher bioaccumulation, and higher heavy metal uptake, miscanthus can be selected for the remediation of sewage sludge. PMID:26841773

  16. Delayed harvest of reed canary grass translocates more nutrients in rhizomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaojun Xiong; Landstroem, Staffan; Olsson, Rolf (Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    Two field experiments, one in large plots and the other in small framed plots, were conducted in Umeaa, northern Sweden. The objectives were (1) to examine the seasonal patterns of rhizome growth and nutrient dynamics of the energy crop reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in ley I and II, and (2) to evaluate the roles of soil type (mineral vs. organic), fertilisation level (0, 50, and 100 kg N/ha), and season/harvest time (Oct-96, May-97, and Aug-97) on the rhizome growth and nutrient dynamics by means of a factorially designed experiment. The general pattern of rhizome growth was that biomass was low in June during initiation of shoot growth, but increased steadily during the growing season, reached a peak in late autumn, and remained high until next spring. The N and P accumulation in rhizomes followed a similar pattern. During ley years I and II, reed canary grass rhizome growth was less dependent on soil type, and more dependent on fertilisation and season, with fertilisation being the most important predictor of growth. The season/harvest time, followed by soil type, was the most important factor for both concentrations and therefore total uptake of N, P, and K in rhizomes. Soil type affected N content in rhizomes significantly, and also interacted with season and enhanced the effect on N, P, and K content in rhizomes. The seasonal dynamics of the nutrient content in rhizomes indicate a remobilisation of the nutrients from rhizomes to the regrowth of shoots and roots in spring and relocation/storage from aboveground shoots to rhizomes during late summer and autumn. The results of this study suggest that delaying the harvest to later than October would result in considerably more energy and nutrient resources being translocated from aboveground shoots to rhizomes for growth in the next season

  17. Caliope: an operational air quality forecasting system for the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands and Canary Islands ? first annual evaluation and ongoing developments

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Baldasano; P. Jiménez-Guerrero; O. Jorba; Pérez, C.; López, E.; Güereca, P.; Martín, F; M. G. Vivanco; I. Palomino; X. Querol; Pandolfi, M.; Sanz, M. J.; Diéguez, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Caliope project funded by the Spanish Ministry of the Environment establishes an air quality forecasting system for Spain to increase the knowledge on transport and dynamics of pollutants in Spain, to assure the accomplishment of legislation and to inform the population about the levels of pollutants, topics in which the European Commission has shown a great concern. The present contribution describes the first quantitative verification study performed so far with two chemistry transport ...

  18. Modelling the extreme precipitation event over Madeira Island on 20 February 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Luna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the morning of the 20 February of 2010 an extreme precipitation event occurred over Madeira Island. This event triggered several flash floods and mudslides in the southern parts of the island, resulting in 42 confirmed deaths, 100 injured, and at least 8 people still missing. These extreme weather conditions were associated to a weather frontal system moving northeastwards embedded in a low pressure area centered in the Azores archipelago. This storm was one in a series of such storms that affected Portugal, Spain, Morocco and the Canary islands causing flooding and strong winds. These storms were bolstered by an unusually strong sea surface temperature gradient across the Atlantic Ocean.

    In this study, the WRF model is used to evaluate the intensity and predictability of this precipitation extreme event over the island. The synoptic/orographic nature of the precipitation is also evaluated, as well as the sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution and cumulus parameterization. Orography was found to be the main factor explaining the occurrence, amplitude and phase of precipitation over the Island.

  19. Detailed analysis of the Canary on-sky results at the WHT using Rayleigh laser guide stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, O.; Gendron, É.; Morris, T.; Basden, A.; Hubert, Z.; Gratadour, D.; Osborn, J.; Vidal, F.; Chemla, F.; Rousset, G.; Myers, R.

    2014-07-01

    CANARY is the multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) on-sky demonstrator developed by Durham University and LESIA Observatoire de Paris, in the perspective of the E-ELT. Since 2013, CANARY has been operating with 3 off-axis NGS and 4 off-axis Rayleigh LGS and compensating for one on-axis NGS observed with a near IR camera and the Truth Sensor (TS) for diagnostic purpose. In this paper, we present the tomographic performance of CANARY during the runs in 2013. We propose a detailed analysis of the tomographic error leading to the establishment of the CANARY wave-front error budget. In particular we are able to evaluate the tomographic error for each altitude in the atmosphere for a given reconstructor by modelling a set of one-layer covariance matrices. This tool allows us to understand the tradeoffs to be made in the building of the tomographic reconstructor. We present two methods for the wavefront error budget computation. The DTI one uses input system parameters and open loop WFS slopes to estimate the error in a number of independent terms. The DMTS method directly uses the Truth Sensor measurements to estimate the error. We show a good agreement between the two approaches making us confident in our modelling of the instrument. We derive estimations of the Strehl ratio from the error variance and compare them to the recorded IR image Strehl ratio. We find a good agreement between the two, hence validating our wavefront error analysis. Finally we present an on-sky validation of the tomographic reconstruction using LGS based on GLAO and MOAO data. We also quantify the gain brought by the LGS, comparing results obtained in MOAO with 3 NGS and with or without LGS in the wavefront measurements.

  20. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D

    2007-11-04

    Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.

  1. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on...... contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies...

  2. Palaeo-islands as refugia and sources of genetic diversity within volcanic archipelagos: the case of the widespread endemic Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, M; Sanmartín, I; Aldasoro, J J; Culshaw, V; Manolopoulou, I; Alarcón, M

    2015-08-01

    Geographical isolation by oceanic barriers and climatic stability has been postulated as some of the main factors driving diversification within volcanic archipelagos. However, few studies have focused on the effect that catastrophic volcanic events have had on patterns of within-island differentiation in geological time. This study employed data from the chloroplast (cpDNA haplotypes) and the nuclear (AFLPs) genomes to examine the patterns of genetic variation in Canarina canariensis, an iconic plant species associated with the endemic laurel forest of the Canary Islands. We found a strong geographical population structure, with a first divergence around 0.8 Ma that has Tenerife as its central axis and divides Canarian populations into eastern and western clades. Genetic diversity was greatest in the geologically stable 'palaeo-islands' of Anaga, Teno and Roque del Conde; these areas were also inferred as the ancestral location of migrant alleles towards other disturbed areas within Tenerife or the nearby islands using a Bayesian approach to phylogeographical clustering. Oceanic barriers, in contrast, appear to have played a lesser role in structuring genetic variation, with intra-island levels of genetic diversity larger than those between-islands. We argue that volcanic eruptions and landslides after the merging of the palaeo-islands 3.5 Ma played key roles in generating genetic boundaries within Tenerife, with the palaeo-islands acting as refugia against extinction, and as cradles and sources of genetic diversity to other areas within the archipelago. PMID:26096229

  3. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  4. Diffuse Helium and Hydrogen Degassing to Reveal Hidden Geothermal Resources in Oceanic Volcanic Islands: The Canarian Archipelago Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Dionis, Samara; López, Gabriel; Marrero, Rayco; Padilla, Germán D.; Barrancos, José; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2015-05-01

    We report herein the results of soil gas geochemistry studies, focused mainly on nonreactive and/or highly mobile gases such as He and H2, in five mining licenses at Tenerife and Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, during 2011-2014. The primary objective was to sort the possible geothermal potential of these five mining licenses, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the areas with highest geothermal potential for future exploration works. By combining the overall information obtained by the statistical-graphical analysis of the soil He and H2 data, the spatial distribution of soil gas concentrations and the analysis of selected chemical ratios of the soil gas to evaluate the influence of deep-seating degassing, two of the five mining licenses ( Garehagua and Abeque, both located in Tenerife Island) seemed to show the highest geothermal potential. These results will be useful for future implementation and development of geothermal energy in the Canaries, the only Spanish territory with potential high-enthalpy geothermal resources, thus the most promising area for high-enthalpy geothermal installations.

  5. Island political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Geoffrey; Poirine, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one million), exhibit a remarkably wide range of economic structures built on a correspondingly wide range of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general class, but there clearly exist several distinct "species" within that class, and a corresponding menu of strategic options open to islander comm...

  6. Impact of habitat conditions on the biological traits of the reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kieloch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the morphology, and selected aspects of biology (seed germination capacity, biomass productivity of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. growing in two locations with different soil conditions near Wrocław. Habitat 1 was characterized by low to moderate contents of nutrients, slightly acidic pH, and low organic matter content in the soil, whereas habitat 2 had soil richer in nutrients, a neutral pH, and higher organic matter content. During the growing period, phytosociological relevés were taken and biometric measurements were performed. In controlled conditions, the germination rate and biomass productivity were estimated in the initial growth stage. The soil conditions that were more favorable for P. arundinacea growth (neutral pH, higher content of organic matter and nutrients promoted its dominance, and substantially limited the occurrence of other taxa. The floristic composition in the less fertile habitat was considerably richer and the abundance of P. arundinacea was much lower in it, compared with the other location. Phalaris arundinacea plants growing on the nutrient-richer soil were higher and had longer leaf blades and panicles with a greater number of spikelets per panicle than specimens growing on the poorer soil. Seeds collected from plants growing on the more fertile soil exhibited greater germination capacity than seeds from plants originating from the poorer habitat. However, there were no differences in the quantity of biomass produced in the controlled conditions.

  7. Observations of the Lensed Quasar Q 2237+0305 with CanariCam at GTC

    CERN Document Server

    Vives-Arias, H; Kochanek, C S; Mediavilla, E; Jimenez-Vicente, J

    2016-01-01

    We present new mid-IR observations of the quadruply lensed quasar Q 2237+0305 taken with CanariCam on the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Mid-IR emission by hot dust, unlike the optical and near-IR emission from the accretion disk, is unaffected by the ISM (extinction/scattering) or stellar microlensing. We compare these "true" ratios to the (stellar) microlensed flux ratios observed in the optical/near-IR to constrain the structure of the quasar accretion disk. We find a half-light radius of $R_{1/2}=3.4_{-2.1}^{+5.3}\\sqrt{\\langle M \\rangle/0.3M_\\odot}$ light-days at $\\lambda_{rest}=1736$ \\AA, and an exponent for the temperature profile $R \\propto \\lambda^{p}$ of $p=0.79\\pm0.55$ where $p=4/3$ for a standard thin disk model. We find a lower limit for the size of the mid-IR emitting region of $R_{1/2} \\gtrsim 200\\,\\sqrt{\\langle M \\rangle/0.3M_\\odot}$ light-days. We also test for the presence of substructure/satellites by comparing the observed mid-IR flux ratios with those predicted from smooth lens models. We...

  8. Canary tomato export prices: comparison and relationships between daily seasonal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martin-Rodriguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical procedures are proposed to describe, compare and forecast the behaviour of seasonal variations in two daily price series of Canary tomato exported to German and British markets, respectively, over the last decade. These seasonal patterns are pseudo-periodic as the length of the seasonal period changes frequently in dependence of market conditions. Seasonal effect at a day in the harvesting period is defined as a spline function of the proportion of the length of such a period elapsed up to such a day. Then, seasonal patterns for the two series are compared in terms of the area between the corresponding spline functions. The ability of these models to capture the dynamic process of change in the seasonal pattern is useful to forecasting purpose. Furthermore, an analytical tool is also proposed to obtain forecasts of the seasonal pattern in one of these two series from the forecasts of the seasonal pattern in the other one. These procedures are useful for farmers in developing strategies related to the seasonal distribution of tomato production exported to each market.

  9. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  10. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  11. Heaven it's my wife! Male canaries conceal extra-pair courtships but increase aggressions when their mate watches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy Ung

    Full Text Available Many animals live in a communication network, an environment where individuals can obtain information about competitors or potential mates by observing interactions between conspecifics. In such an environment, interactants might benefit by changing their signalling behaviour in the presence of an audience. This audience effect seems widespread among species, has been observed during various types of interaction (e.g. intra-sexual vs. inter-sexual interaction and varies according to the social context (e.g. gender, hierarchical or mating status of the audience. However, the way individuals might adapt their signalling behaviour to a combination of these factors remains poorly understood. To address this question, we studied how the presence of an audience affects the behaviour of male domestic canaries Serinus canaria during two types of interactions: (i an extra-pair interaction and (ii a male-male competition for food. Males were observed under three conditions: (a in the absence of audience, (b in the presence of their mate or (c of a familiar female. Our results show that male domestic canaries minutely adapt their courting and agonistic behaviours to a combination of: (i the type of interaction (extra-pair interaction/male-male competition, (ii the social context (mate, familiar female or nobody in audience and (iii the behaviours of both the audience and the interactant. These results highlight the ability of animals to subtly adapt their behaviour to the social environment. This also raises questions about the cognitive foundations and evolution of these processes especially considering that canaries are known neither for having high cognitive abilities nor for being a typical example for the social intelligence hypothesis.

  12. Prediction of biogas yield and its kinetics in reed canary grass using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Uffe;

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method is needed to assess biogas and methane yield potential of various kinds of substrate prior to anaerobic digestion. This study reports near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid alternative method to the conventional batch methods for prediction of specific biogas yield...... (SBY), specific methane yield (SMY) and kinetics of biogas yield (k-SBY) of reed canary grass (RCG) biomass. Dried and powdered RCG biomass with different level of maturity was used for biochemical composition analysis, batch assays and NIRS analysis. Calibration models were developed using partial...

  13. Does mesoscale matters in decadal changes observed in the northern Canary upwelling system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, P.; Luís, J.; Santos, A. M. P.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Iberia constitutes the northern limb of the Canary Current Upwelling System, one of the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems of the world ocean. The strong dynamic link between the atmosphere and the ocean makes these systems highly sensitive to global change, ideal to monitor and investigate its effects. In order to investigate decadal changes of the mesoscale patterns in the Northern Canary upwelling system (off Western Iberia), the field of the satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) trends was built at the pixel scale (4x4 km) for the period 1985-2007, based on the monthly mean data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board NOAA series satellites, provided by the NASA Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The time series were limited to the nighttime passes to avoid the solar heating effect and a suite of procedures were followed to guarantee that the temperature trends were not biased towards the seasonally more abundant summer data, when the sky is considerably clear. A robust linear fit was applied to each individual pixel, crossing along the time the same pixel in all the processed monthly mean AVHRR SST images from 1985 until 2007. The field of the SST trends was created upon the slopes of the linear fits applied to each pixel. Monthly mean SST time series from the one degree enhanced International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) and from near-shore measurements collected on a daily basis by the Portuguese Meteorological Office (IM) are also used to compare the results and extend the analysis back until 1960. A generalized warming trend is detected in the coastal waters off Western Iberia during the last decades, no matter which data set we analyse. However, significant spatial differences in the warming rates are observed in the satellite-derived SST trends. Remarkably, off the southern part of the Western Iberia the known

  14. Blood Dendritic Cells: Canary in the Coal Mine to Predict Chronic Inflammatory Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie eMiles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of risk factors for chronic inflammatory diseases are unknown. This makes personalized medicine for assessment, prognosis, and choice of therapy very difficult. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that low-grade subclinical infections may be an underlying cause of many chronic inflammatory diseases and thus may contribute to secondary outcomes (e.g. cancer. Many diseases are now categorized as inflammatory-mediated diseases that stem from a dysregulation in host immunity. There is a growing need to study the links between low-grade infections, the immune responses they elicit, and how this impacts overall health. One such link explored in detail here is the extreme sensitivity of myeloid dendritic cells (mDC in peripheral blood to chronic low-grade infections and the role that these mDCs play in arbitrating the resulting immune responses. We find that emerging evidence supports a role for pathogen-induced mDCs in chronic inflammation leading to increased risk of secondary clinical disease. The mDCs that are elevated in the blood as a result of low-grade bacteremia often do not trigger a productive immune response, but can disseminate the pathogen throughout the host. This aberrant trafficking of mDCs can accelerate systemic inflammatory disease progression. Conversely, restoration of DC homeostasis may aid in pathogen elimination and minimize dissemination. Thus it would seem prudent when assessing chronic inflammatory disease risk to consider blood mDC numbers, and the microbial content (microbiome and activation state of these mDCs. These may provide important clues (the canary in the coal mine of high inflammatory disease risk. This will facilitate development of novel immunotherapies to eliminate such smoldering infections in atherosclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and pre-eclampsia.

  15. Darwin and the island

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Justin Daniel.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis examines the fictional island and assesses the impact of Darwinism on the genre. I show how islands have been a recurring feature in European literature, fictional spaces where authors create a microcosm in which they satirise, criticise or hold up a mirror to their own society. I argue that traditonal Utopian islands are static realms and that through the introduction of evolution (Darwin and Wallace made their most important discoveries regarding the mechanism of...

  16. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  17. Pre-study - mobile briquetting plant for reed canary grass in inland Northern Sweden; Foerstudie - mobil briketteringsanlaeggning foer roerflen i norrlands inland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Lundmark, Bo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to summarize existing information and to develop an outline plan for a mobile briquette plant based on the conditions and requirements of reed canary grass production on forestry land. The results of the study show that there is potential to build up small-scale briquette production from reed canary grass in the areas around Arvidsjaur, Lycksele and Malaa. Important conclusions from the study are that there are potential users for reed canary grass briquettes in all three areas studied, but that profitability for mobile briquette plants is dependent on the willingness of the users to pay well for the briquettes. These briquette plants would need a relatively high degree of automation for commercial operation to be profitable. The first plant should therefore be collocated with another business so that staff, machinery (e.g. loader) and storage space can be shared with other operations. One appropriate location would be to build up activities for a mobile reed canary grass briquette plant around Glommers Miljoeenergi's pellet plant in Glommerstraesk. Thus, the plant could be used as a demonstration mobile unit, with a stationary 'home production base'CO{sub 2} Glommerstraesk

  18. The Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This country note is produced is part of The Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment andFinancing Initiative (PCRAFI). The geographic spread of the Cook Islands poses logistical problems for any necessary post-disaster relief and response efforts. The events of 2005 demonstrated that the Cook Islands is extremely vulnerable to the threat of tropical cyclones (TCs): in the two months of Februar...

  19. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  20. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  1. Back to Treasure Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  2. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG cultivation on GHG emission from peatland rewetted to various extents. Mesocosms were manipulated to three different ground water levels (GWL, i.e., 0, −10 and −20 cm below the soil surface in a controlled semi-field facility. Emissions of CO2 (ecosystem respiration, ER, CH4 and N2O from mesocosms with RCG and bare soil were measured at weekly to fortnightly intervals with static chamber techniques for a period of one year. Cultivation of RCG increased both ER and CH4 emissions, but decreased the N2O emissions. The presence of RCG gave rise to 69, 75 and 85% of total ER at −20, −10 and 0 cm GWL, respectively However, this difference was due to decreased soil respiration at the rising GWL as the plant-derived CO2 flux was similar at all three GWL. For methane, 70–95% of the total emission was due to presence of RCG, with the highest contribution at −20 cm GWL. In contrast, cultivation of RCG decreased N2O emission by 33–86% with the major reductions at −10 and −20 cm GWL. In terms of global warming potential, the increase in CH4 emissions due to RCG cultivation was more than off-set by the decrease in N2O emissions at −10 and −20 cm GWL; at 0 cm GWL the CH4 emissions was offset only by 23%. CO2 emissions from ER obviously were the dominant RCG-derived GHG flux, but above-ground biomass yields, and preliminary measurements of gross photosynthetic production, show that ER could be more than balanced due to the uptake of CO2 by RCG. Our results support that RCG cultivation could be a good land use option in terms of mitigating GHG emission from rewetted peatlands, potentially turning these ecosystems into a sink of atmospheric CO2.

  3. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S.; Elsgaard, L.; Lærke, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture) is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG) can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG cultivation on GHG emission from peatland rewetted to various extents. Mesocosms were manipulated to three different ground water levels (GWLs), i.e. 0, -10 and -20 cm below the soil surface in a controlled semi-field facility. Emissions of CO2 (ecosystem respiration, ER), CH4 and N2O from mesocosms with RCG and bare soil were measured at weekly to fortnightly intervals with static chamber techniques for a period of 1 year. Cultivation of RCG increased both ER and CH4 emissions, but decreased the N2O emissions. The presence of RCG gave rise to 69, 75 and 85% of total ER at -20, -10 and 0 cm GWL, respectively. However, this difference was due to decreased soil respiration at the rising GWL as the plant-derived CO2 flux was similar at all three GWLs. For methane, 70-95% of the total emission was due to presence of RCG, with the highest contribution at -20 cm GWL. In contrast, cultivation of RCG decreased N2O emission by 33-86% with the major reductions at -10 and -20 cm GWL. In terms of global warming potential, the increase in CH4 emissions due to RCG cultivation was more than offset by the decrease in N2O emissions at -10 and -20 cm GWL; at 0 cm GWL the CH4 emissions was offset only by 23%. CO2 emissions from ER were obviously the dominant RCG-derived GHG flux, but above-ground biomass yields, and preliminary measurements of gross photosynthetic production, showed that ER could be more than balanced due to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by RCG. Our results support that RCG cultivation could be a good land use option in terms of mitigating GHG emission from rewetted peatlands, potentially turning these ecosystems into a sink of atmospheric CO2.

  4. Project Seavolc: sea-level change and the stability and activity of coastal and island volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, W.J. [Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The entire eastern flank of Mount Etna has been unstable for much of its history, demonstrating seaward slumping of a 30 km wide segment of the edifice which borders the Ionian Sea. Project Seabolc aims to better constrain the temporaral history of instability and slope movement, and to correlate this behaviour with both sea-level change and eruptive activity during the late Quaternary. Results from the Etna study, together with evidence from volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Aeolian Islands, and Bay of Naples, will enable us to test a model relating slope instability and eruptive activity at coastal and island volcanoes, to the repeatedly changing sea levels which characterized the Quaternary. The disposition of tectonic plates constrains the locations of most volcanoes to marine settings or to adjacent continental margins, leading to their being strongly susceptible either to the direct effects of changing sea levels (e.g. edifice erosion or debuttressing) or to general crustal loading and unloading caused by changing ocean volumes. Temporal distribution of tephra horizons in eastern Mediterranean sediments supports a correlation between episodes of rising and falling sea level, and increased levels of explosive volcanic activity, which we attribute to the dynamic response of volcanic edifices to a wide range of primary and secondary effects induced by variations in sea level. Implications of the proposed model for climate change are profound and important, with explosive volcanic activity triggered by changing sea levels having the potential to modulate the Quaternary global temperature profile. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, Alejandro

    2014-07-21

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. © 2014 Ariza et al.

  6. Census Snapshot: Rhode Island

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Baumle, Amanda; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in Rhode Island. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in Rhode Island. In many ways, the over 2,400 same-sex couples living in Rhode Island are similar to married coupl...

  7. Chemical composition and methane yield of reed canary grass as influenced by harvesting time and harvest frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Møller, Henrik Bjarne;

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of harvest time on biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, biochemical composition and biological methane potential of reed canary grass harvested twice a month in one-cut (OC) management. The regrowth of biomass harvested in summer was also harvested in autumn as...... a two-cut management with (TC-F) or without (TC-U) fertilization after summer harvest. The specific methane yields decreased significantly with crop maturity that ranged from 384 to 315 and from 412 to 283 NL (normal litre) (kg VS)-1 for leaf and stem, respectively. Approximately 45% more methane...... was produced by the TC-F management (5430 Nm3 ha-1) as by the OC management (3735 Nm3 ha-1). Specific methane yield was moderately correlated with the concentrations of fibre components in the biomass. Larger quantity of biogas produced at the beginning of the biogas assay from early harvested biomass...

  8. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  9. Reed canary grass as energy and fiber raw material; Roerflen som energi- och fiberraavara. En system- och ekonomistudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf; Rosenqvist, H.; Vinterbaeck, J.; Burvall, J.; Finell, M.

    2001-12-01

    In this report, a system and economic analysis is reported for cultivation of RCG for energy purpose and as a raw material for the paper industry. The interest in cultivation of Reed Canary Grass (RCG) is growing in Sweden due to the new tax on waste disposal, since sewage sludge could be recycled in RCG cultivation. Increased carbon sinks in soil is another positive factor. Plant selection work in Finland and Sweden have resulted in 20% higher harvests than the feed varieties of RCG. Silty/sandy soils give highest yields. Before investments could be made in paper industry, a production volume of about 100,000 tons/year would have to be reached, demand a cultivation area of about 40,000 ha. The initial market before this level is reached should be the energy sector, specially smaller district heating systems. Processed to pellets, briquettes or powder, RCG can substitute fuel oil.

  10. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  11. Solomon Islands; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes Solomon Islands’ ongoing reforms concerning of the mineral taxation regime and the fiscal impact of mineral resources. The analysis shows that mineral revenue could be substantial, provided that mineral prices remain strong in the medium term. Enforcing the tax agreement with, a Gold Ridge company, and implementing the new resource taxation regime are critical to ensure that the forthcoming mineral wealth spills over to the rest of the economy. Solomon Islands should ado...

  12. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  13. Topgrass. A trial of the suitability of switchgrass and reed canary grass as biofuel crops under UK conditions. 4th interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, A.B.

    2004-04-01

    This report summarises the results of the Topgrass project growing miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass at nine UK sites and covers a one year period between the winter harvesting of the plots in 2002/3 and 2003/4. Details are given of the rainfall, air temperature and solar radiation; crop monitoring for pests, diseases and weeds; crop measurements; and a comparison of all sites. Appendices present individual site diaries and individual site operations and costs.

  14. Small scale combustion of reed canary grass - inventory and evaluation of available technology; Smaaskalig foerbraenning av roerflen - inventering och vaerdering av tillgaenglig teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Paulrud, Susanne

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of commercially available boilers in the interval 50 kW to 1 MW for use with reed canary grass (RCG) as fuel has been preliminary evaluated. The capacity to handle the large ash volumes generated by RCG both in terms of ash withdrawal and combustion quality was used as the main criteria. Nine boilers and two burners were identified and classified in a three-step scale from verified functioning on RCG to possible functioning with some design changes

  15. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  16. Bioclimatic and vegetation mapping of a topographically complex oceanic island applying different interpolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Machado, Víctor; Otto, Rüdiger; del Arco Aguilar, Marcelino José

    2014-07-01

    Different spatial interpolation techniques have been applied to construct objective bioclimatic maps of La Palma, Canary Islands. Interpolation of climatic data on this topographically complex island with strong elevation and climatic gradients represents a challenge. Furthermore, meteorological stations are not evenly distributed over the island, with few stations at high elevations. We carried out spatial interpolations of the compensated thermicity index (Itc) and the annual ombrothermic Index (Io), in order to obtain appropriate bioclimatic maps by using automatic interpolation procedures, and to establish their relation to potential vegetation units for constructing a climatophilous potential natural vegetation map (CPNV). For this purpose, we used five interpolation techniques implemented in a GIS: inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), ordinary cokriging (OCK), multiple linear regression (MLR) and MLR followed by ordinary kriging of the regression residuals. Two topographic variables (elevation and aspect), derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), were included in OCK and MLR. The accuracy of the interpolation techniques was examined by the results of the error statistics of test data derived from comparison of the predicted and measured values. Best results for both bioclimatic indices were obtained with the MLR method with interpolation of the residuals showing the highest R 2 of the regression between observed and predicted values and lowest values of root mean square errors. MLR with correction of interpolated residuals is an attractive interpolation method for bioclimatic mapping on this oceanic island since it permits one to fully account for easily available geographic information but also takes into account local variation of climatic data.

  17. Sea level changes during the last and present interglacials in Sal Island (Cape Verde archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Dabrio, C. J.; González-Delgado, J. A.; Cabero, A.; Bardají, T.; Ghaleb, B.; Soler, V.

    2010-07-01

    Last interglacial and Holocene deposits are particularly well developed in the southern parts of Sal Island (Cape Verde Archipelago). They primarily consist of low-elevation (≤ 2 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) marine deposits made of a basal conglomerate embedded in carbonate mud, passing upwards to calcarenites. All deposits contain an abundant fauna with corals, algae and molluscs with Strombus latus Gmelin and accompanying warm water species of the "Senegalese" fauna. Small scale geomorphological mapping with detailed morphosedimentary analysis revealed lateral facies changes and imbricate (offlapping) structures that suggest small-scale oscillations of paleo-sealevels during high sea stand intervals. U-series measurements (in coral fragments) allowed unequivocal identification of Marine Isotope Substage (MIS) 5.5 units, but were not precise enough to date the sea level oscillations of the interval. However, geomorphological data and sedimentary facies analysis suggest a double sea level highstand during the peak of the last interglacial. MIS 5.5 age deposits occur at Sal and the Canary Islands at low topographic elevations, between 1 and 2 masl. However, these values are lower than the elevations measured for the correlative terraces outcropping at the western tropical Atlantic islands, widely considered to be tectonically stable. Combining the results in this paper with earlier investigations of the "Senegalese" fauna distribution as far north as the Mediterranean basin, it is suggested that the last-interglacial oceanic temperatures in this basin, as well as the temperatures in other islands of the Eastern Atlantic and the coasts of Morocco, were warmer than modern temperatures.

  18. Deep intrusions, lateral magma transport and related uplift at ocean island volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Andreas; Longpré, Marc-Antoine; García-Cañada, Laura; Stix, John

    2015-12-01

    Oceanic intraplate volcanoes grow by accumulation of erupted material as well as by coeval or discrete magmatic intrusions. Dykes and other intrusive bodies within volcanic edifices are comparatively well studied, but intrusive processes deep beneath the volcanoes remain elusive. Although there is geological evidence for deep magmatic intrusions contributing to volcano growth through uplift, this has rarely been demonstrated by real-time monitoring. Here we use geophysical and petrological data from El Hierro, Canary Islands, to show that intrusions from the mantle and subhorizontal transport of magma within the oceanic crust result in rapid endogenous island growth. Seismicity and ground deformation associated with a submarine eruption in 2011-2012 reveal deep subhorizontal intrusive sheets (sills), which have caused island-scale uplift of tens of centimetres. The pre-eruptive intrusions migrated 15-20 km laterally within the lower oceanic crust, opening pathways that were subsequently used by the erupted magmas to ascend from the mantle to the surface. During six post-eruptive episodes between 2012 and 2014, further sill intrusions into the lower crust and upper mantle have caused magma to migrate up to 20 km laterally, resulting in magma accumulation exceeding that of the pre-eruptive phase. A comparison of geobarometric data for the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption with data for other Atlantic intraplate volcanoes shows similar bimodal pressure distributions, suggesting that eruptive phases are commonly accompanied by deep intrusions of sills and lateral magma transport. These processes add significant material to the oceanic crust, cause uplift, and are thus fundamentally important for the growth and evolution of volcanic islands. We suggest that the development of such a magma accumulation zone in the lower oceanic crust begins early during volcano evolution, and is a consequence of increasing size and complexity of the mantle reservoir system, and potentially

  19. Effect of Additives and Fuel Blending on Emissions and Ash-Related Problems from Small-Scale Combustion of Reed Canary Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fournel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers are interested in using biomass available on farms to substitute fossil fuels for heat production. However, energy crops like reed canary grass contain high nitrogen (N, sulfur (S, potassium (K and other ash-forming elements which lead to increased emissions of gases and particulate matter (PM and ash-related operational problems (e.g., melting during combustion. To address these problematic behaviors, reed canary grass was blended with wood (50 wt% and fuel additives (3 wt% such as aluminum silicates (sewage sludge, calcium (limestone and sulfur (lignosulfonate based additives. When burned in a top-feed pellet boiler (29 kW, the four blends resulted in a 17%–29% decrease of PM concentrations compared to pure reed canary grass probably because of a reduction of K release to flue gas. Nitrogen oxides (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions varied according to fuel N and S contents. This explains the lower NOx and SO2 levels obtained with wood based products and the higher SO2 generation with the grass/lignosulfonate blend. The proportion of clinkers found in combustion ash was greatly lessened (27%–98% with the use of additives, except for lignosulfonate. The positive effects of some additives may allow agricultural fuels to become viable alternatives.

  20. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  1. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, PSEG Long Island LLC (PSEG LI), Long Island...

  2. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  3. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  4. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Boada Luis D; Zumbado Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández Luis; Almeida-González Maira; Álvarez-León Eva E; Serra-Majem Lluis; Luzardo Octavio P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlor...

  5. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  6. Changing eruptive styles and textural features from phreatomagmatic to strombolian activity of basaltic littoral cones: Los Erales cinder cone, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gould, R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Montaña Los Erales is a 70 m high Quaternary cinder cone in the Bandas del Sur region, south Tenerife. Field observations on excavated sections and SEM analysis of tephra samples from the cone suggest that the eruption style of this vent changed progressively from an initial hydrovolcanic phase, through a transitional stage, to one that was entirely strombolian. Clast sizes increase from ≤1 cm angular lapilli in hydrovolcanic samples to 15 cm bombs in strombolian samples. Vesicles also increase in size from 0.5 mm to 1.2 mm, becoming more rounded in the strombolian samples. Palagonitization, extensive in the hydrovolcanic deposits, becomes less noticeable in strombolian deposits. To investigate the causes for and the nature of these changes in eruptive style, products from each major unit were analysed for their morphology, using scanning electron microscopy with both SE and BSE imaging as tephra morphologies are known to reflect the eruptive regime and degree of explosivity at the time of eruption. SEM imaging of hydrovolcanic samples illustrate angular fragments that have been rapidly quenched and contain high levels of palagonitisation and zeolitisation, whereas strombolian samples appear to be less altered and display larger clast sizes and vesicles. Our results confirm that the initial phase of activity was largely driven by magma-water (coolant interaction, where magma may have interacted with a lens of fresh ground or surface water, causing intense fragmentation of the magma. With proceeding eruptive activity the water became exhausted, giving rise to an entirely strombolian eruptive style. Additionally, fossil diatoms were found in hydrovolcanic samples, further emphasising the influence of a, probably fluvial, water source during the early phase of emplacement.La Montaña de Los Erales es un cono de cínder del Cuaternario de 70 m de altura situado en la zona de las Bandas del Sur, en el litoral meridional de la isla de Tenerife. Observaciones de campo en secciones excavadas en los flancos del cono y análisis SEM de las muestras de tefra sugieren que el estilo eruptivo de este aparato volcánico cambió progresivamente durante la erupción de una fase inicial hidrovolcánica a una final enteramente estromboliana, con estadios intermedios transicionales. El tamaño de los clastos aumenta de ≤1 cm de lapilli angular en las muestras hidrovolcánicas a bombas de 15 cm en las estrombolianas. Las vesículas también aumentan en tamaño desde 0,5 mm a 1,2 mm, volviéndose más redondeadas en las muestras estrombolianas. Los intensos procesos de palagonitización de los depósitos hidrovolcánicos son menos significativos en las fases estrombolianas. Con objeto de investigar la naturaleza y las causas de estos cambios se analizó la morfología de los productos de las principales fases. Se han utilizado para ello imágenes de microscopía electrónica (SE y BSE, ya que se sabe que las diferentes morfologías de estos piroclastos reflejan el régimen eruptivo y el grado de explosividad durante la erupción. Las imágenes SEM de las muestras hidrovolcánicas presentan fragmentos angulares que se han enfriado rápidamente y con elevado grado de palagonitización y zeolitización. Las estrombolianas, en cambio, aparecen menos alteradas y muestran mayor tamaño de clastos y vesículas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la fase inicial de la erupción se caracteriza por una importante interacción magma-agua (refrigerante, probablemente relacionada con una cantidad limitada de agua superficial o freática que produjo la intensa fragmentación del magma. En el transcurso de la erupción la fuente de agua se agotó, dando lugar a las fases finales de carácter enteramente estromboliano. Fósiles de diatomeas, que se han encontrado asociados a las muestras hidrovolcánicas, refuerzan la posibilidad de que el agua fuera de origen superficial, probablemente el cauce de un barranco.

  7. Seasonal to interannual variability in density around the Canary Islands and their influence on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26°N

    OpenAIRE

    Duchez, Aurelie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Castro, Natalia; Hirschi, Joel; Coward, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The meridional interior flow obtained from the RAPID array is determined by horizontal density fluctuations at the eastern and western boundary of 26°N. The physical causes of these density variations are responsible for fluctuations in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and through it, the meridional heat transport of the Atlantic. In this modelling study, a high resolution ocean model is used to investigate the source and origin of the AMOC variability associated with th...

  8. Paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of XVIII century coprolites from the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Gijón Botella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of coprolites recovered during the excavation of the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Coprolites (n = 4 were rehydrated and a multidisciplinary analysis was conducted. The paleobotanic analysis showed numerous silicates, seeds and fruits of the family Moraceae. In the paleoparasitologic study, Ascaris sp. eggs (n = 344 were identified. The paleogenetic results confirmed the Ascaris sp. infection as well as the European origin of human remains. These findings contribute to our knowledge of ancient helminthes infections and are the first paleoparasitological record of Ascaris sp. infection in Spain.

  9. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, A G; Fernandez, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, Pza. de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); MartI, J [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole SabarIs s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Wooller, L; Rymer, H [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); GarcIa, A [Department of Volcanology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: j.gottsmann@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  10. A study of hydrogen density in emerging flux loops from a coordinated Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and Canary Islands observation campaign

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mein, N.; Schmieder, B.; DeLuca, E. E.; Heinzel, Petr; Mein, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 556, č. 1 (2001), s. 438-451. ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : solar activity * magnetic fields * UV radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.921, year: 2001

  11. Variable plumage coloration of breeding Barbary Falcons Falco (peregrinus) pelegrinoides in the Canary Islands: do other Peregrine Falcon subspecies also occur in the archipelago?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Siverio, Felipe; Siverio, Manuel; Rodríguez, Airam

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the Barbary Falcon has been controversial for many years, it being variously considered a subspecies of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides) or treated as a full species (F. pelegrinoides). Although morphological and molecular studies are still scarce, they suggest that subspecific status is more appropriate. Other subspecies of Peregrine, such as F. p. brookei, exhibit some plumage characteristics similar to Barbary Falcon. We quantitatively describe colo...

  12. DNA-based confirmation that the parasitic wasp Cotesia glomerata (Braconidae, Hymenoptera) is a new threat to endemic butterflies of the Canary Islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Monaghan, M. T.; Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef; Žurovcová, Martina; Brož, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2008), s. 1431-1437. ISSN 1566-0621 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant ostatní: EU SYNTHESIS(BE) GB-TAF-2063; UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(GB) BBS/B/04358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : alien parasitoids * threatened butterflies * laurel forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.408, year: 2008

  13. Non-Controlled Biogenic Emission of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 from Lazareto's Landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, D.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2002-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of contaminant gases to the surrounding environment and a significant amount of them could be released to the atmosphere through the surface environment in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission of landfill gases. CH4 and CO2 are major components in landfill gases and other gas species are only present in minor amounts. Trace compounds include both inorganic and a large number of volatile organic components. The goal of this study is to evaluate the non-controlled biogenic emission of inorganic toxic gases from Lazareto's landfill. Which is located in the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, with a population of about 150,000, and is used as a Palm tree park. Lazareto's landfill has an extension of 0.22 Km2 and it is not operative since 1980. A non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out from February tod March, 2002. Surface CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according with the accumulation chamber method. Surface CO2 efflux ranged from negligible values up to 30,600 gm-2d-1. At each sampling site, surface landfill gas samples were collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic soil probe. These gas samples were analyzed within 24 hours for major and inorganic toxic gas species by means of microGC and specific electrochemical sensors. The highest concentrations of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 were 3, 20, 2,227, 0.010 ppmV, respectively. Non-controlled biogenic emission rate of CO, H2S, NH3, and Hg0 were estimated by multiplying the observed surface CO2 efflux times (Inorganic Toxic Gas)i/CO2 weight ratio at each sampling site, respectively. The highest surface inorganic toxic gas efllux rates were 699 gm-2d-1 for NH3, 81, 431 and 4 mgm-2d-1 for CO, H2S and Hg0, respectively. Taking into consideration the spatial distribution of the inorganic toxic gas efflux values as well as the extension of the landfill, the non-controlled biogenic emission of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 to the atmosphere by Lazareto's landfill are 0.1, 0.9, 0.7, and 0.7 Kgd-1, respectively.

  14. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  15. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  16. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  17. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  18. Marketing plan for Kuuskajaskari Island

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, JUANJUAN

    2009-01-01

    Marketing palan for Kuuskajaskari Island. ‡b Kuuskajaskari Island owned by the town of Rauma. Marketing plan should help the entrepreneurs of the islands to create services that target groups want and promote them by using the efficient marketing mix. The theoretical part consists of nature of tourism industry, travel consumers in general, then focus on Rauma areas and its island as targeted destination. Data was gathered from different official Finnish websites, books and from Sanni-Mari Aal...

  19. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Peci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARMTM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (DebianTM as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  20. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  1. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  2. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  3. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  4. Solomon Islands : Workforce Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Solomon Islands has undertaken a comprehensive assessment of the strength of its workforce development (WfD) policies and institutions to support these initiatives and enhance evidence based dialogue on their implementation. This assessment has been based on the World Bank s Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) systems benchmarking initiative, under which a suite of analyt...

  5. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  6. Christmas Island birds returning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  7. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  8. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  9. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  10. Constraints on the substellar companions in wide orbits around the Barnard's Star from CanariCam mid-infrared imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gauza, B; Rebolo, R; Álvarez, C; Bihain, G; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Caballero, J A; Telesco, C M; Packham, C

    2015-01-01

    We have performed mid-infrared imaging of Barnard's Star, one of the nearest stars to the Sun, using CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We aim to investigate an area within 1-10 arcsec separations, which for the 1.83 pc distance of the star translates to projected orbital separations of 1.8-18 AU (P > 12 yr), which have not been explored yet with astrometry or radial velocity programs. It is therefore an opportunity to enter the domain of distances where most giant planets are expected to form. We performed deep imaging in the N-band window (Si-2 filter, 8.7 {\\mu}m) reaching a 3{\\sigma} detection limit of 0.85+/-0.18 mJy and angular resolution of 0.24 arcsec, close to the diffraction limit of the telescope at this wavelength. A total of 80 min on-source integration time data were collected and combined for the deepest image. We achieved a dynamical range of 8.0+/-0.1 mag in the 8.7 {\\mu}m band, at angular separations from ~2 to 10 arcsec and of ~6-8 mag at 1-2 arcsec. No additional sources were...

  11. Trends in the number of extreme hot SST days along the Canary Upwelling System due to the influence of upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xurxo Costoya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the number of extreme hot days (days with SST anomalies higher than the 95% percentile were analyzed along the Canary Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE over the period 1982- 2012 by means of SST data retrieved from NOAA OI1/4 Degree. The analysis will focus on the Atlantic Iberian sector and the Moroccan sub- region where upwelling is seasonal (spring and summer are permanent, respectively. Trends were analyzed both near coast and at the adjacent ocean where the increase in the number of extreme hot days is higher. Changes are clear at annual scale with an increment of 9.8±0.3 (9.7±0.1 days dec-1 near coast and 11.6±0.2 (13.5±0.1 days dec-1 at the ocean in the Atlantic Iberian sector (Moroccan sub-region. The differences between near shore and ocean trends are especially patent for the months under intense upwelling conditions. During that upwelling season the highest differences in the excess of extreme hot days between coastal and ocean locations (Δn(#days dec-1 occur at those regions where coastal upwelling increase is high. Actually, Δn and upwelling trends have shown to be significantly correlated in both areas, R=0.88 (p<0.01 at the Atlantic Iberian sector and R=0.67 (p<0.01 at the Moroccan sub-region.

  12. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  13. The conventional island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the conventional island, GEC Alsthom designs, manufactures and supplies: Mechanical equipment for the conventional island, Electrical equipment for the entire PWR unit, Safety-class mechanical equipment. Its experience and its own R and D resources, as well as close collaboration with EDF and experience feedback from equipment manufacturing, plant unit construction, and operation, enabled GEC Aslthom to meet the challenge of making a success of the massive nuclear power program launched in France. The latest step in the French nuclear power program is the 'N4' generation of 1450 MWe class units, for which GEC Alsthom has developed a second generation of impulse turbines, more compact and efficient moisture separator/reheaters and seawater-tight condensers

  14. Magnetic islands' dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode is studied within the framework of single fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for different cases. First, the most simple instance of magnetic islands is studied, that is, the reduced MHD model within the cylindrical approximation for a given or constant resistivity profile. The nonlinear saturation of the tearing instability is then treated using two different methods: the first one, called the flux coordinate method, takes into account the fact that the current density is a flux function, whereas the second, simply called the perturbative method, does not. The generalized Rutherford equation is then provided by the asymptotic matching condition. It is shown not to depend on the choice of normalizations, as it should, and, in addition to new terms calculated for the first time, gives back all the results derived in previous work on the subject. It is also shown that the magnetic island gives rise to an order w3 modification of the poloidal magnetic flux, where w is the saturated island width, which is due to the flattening of the current density profile inside the separatrix. The perturbative method is then used to tackle two other issues, the first one being that of island rotation and the presence of an outer perturbation to the system. The corrections to the Rutherford equation due to these new effects are derived, and the importance of regularizing the vorticity profile in a new viscous-resistive boundary layer centered on the separatrix is emphasized, although not done explicitly. The second issue deals with the saturation of the tearing mode in full MHD, assuming single helicity and zero pressure. The equations are rewritten in a way that resembles the reduced MHD equations, so that the saturation equation can be derived using the perturbative method. Finally, the interest of such a study concerning the Reversed Field Pinch is discussed, and, in particular, the possibility that the tearing mode saturation may provide

  15. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  16. Psychological aspects in a volcanic crisis: El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, P.; Llinares, A.; Garcia, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    The recent eruption on the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has shown that Psychology plays an important role in the emergence management of a natural phenomenon. However, Psychology continues to have no social coverage it deserves in the mitigation of the effects before, during and after the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Keep in mind that an unresolved psychological problem involves an individual and collective mismatch may become unrecoverable. The population of El Hierro has been under a state of alert since July 2011, when seismic activity begins, until the occurrence of submarine eruption in October 2011 that is held for more than three months. During this period the inhabitants of the small island have gone through different emotional states ranging from confusion to disappointment. A volcanic eruption occurs not unexpectedly, allowing to have a time of preparation / action before the disaster. From the psychological point of view people from El Hierro Island have responded to different stages of the same natural process. Although the island of El Hierro is of volcanic origin, the population has no historical memory since the last eruption occurred in 1793. Therefore, the educational system does not adequately address the formation in volcanic risk. As a result people feel embarrassment when the seismovolcanic crisis begins, although no earthquakes felt. As an intermediate stage, when the earthquakes are felt by the population, scientists and operational Emergency Plan care to inform and prepare actions in case of a possible eruption. The population feel safe despite the concerns expressed by not knowing where, how and when the eruption will occur. Once started the submarine eruption, taking into account that all the actions (evacuation, relocation, etc.) have worked well and that both their basic needs and security are covered there are new states of mind. These new emotional states ranging from disenchantment with the phenomenology of the

  17. Silicon isotopes reveal recycled altered oceanic crust in the mantle sources of Ocean Island Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Jackson, Matthew G.; Moreira, Manuel; Day, James M. D.

    2016-09-01

    The study of silicon (Si) isotopes in Ocean Island Basalts (OIB) has the potential to discern between different models for the origins of geochemical heterogeneities in the mantle. Relatively large (∼several per mil per atomic mass unit) Si isotope fractionation occurs in low-temperature environments during biochemical and geochemical precipitation of dissolved Si, where the precipitate is preferentially enriched in the lighter isotopes relative to the dissolved Si. In contrast, only a limited range (∼tenths of a per mil) of Si isotope fractionation has been observed from high-temperature igneous processes. Therefore, Si isotopes may be useful as tracers for the presence of crustal material within OIB mantle source regions that experienced relatively low-temperature surface processes in a manner similar to other stable isotope systems, such as oxygen. Characterizing the isotopic composition of the mantle is also of central importance to the use of the Si isotope system as a basis for comparisons with other planetary bodies (e.g., Moon, Mars, asteroids). Here we present the first comprehensive suite of high-precision Si isotope data obtained by MC-ICP-MS for a diverse suite of OIB. Samples originate from ocean islands in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean basins and include representative end-members for the EM-1, EM-2, and HIMU mantle components. On average, δ30Si values for OIB (-0.32 ± 0.09‰, 2 sd) are in general agreement with previous estimates for the δ30Si value of Bulk Silicate Earth (-0.29 ± 0.07‰, 2 sd; Savage et al., 2014). Nonetheless, some small systematic variations are present; specifically, most HIMU-type (Mangaia; Cape Verde; La Palma, Canary Islands) and Iceland OIB are enriched in the lighter isotopes of Si (δ30Si values lower than MORB), consistent with recycled altered oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle in their mantle sources.

  18. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  19. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  20. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  1. Solomon Islands : Operational Procurement Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Solomon Islands is a remote, scattered archipelago about 1,900 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific, with terrain ranging from about 1,000 mountainous islands to low-lying coral atolls stretching in a 1,450 km chain east of Papua New Guinea across the Coral Sea to Vanuatu. The archipelago covers a total area of 725,197 sq km (approx 280,000 sq miles) with the main islands being C...

  2. Effect of chemical and physical factors on germination capacity of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) seed depending on storage time

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the research results regarding the effect of temperature (-15oC) and sulfuric and gibberellic acids on germination capacity of 1-, 2- and 4-year-old seed of reed canary grass (P. arundinacea). According to the results obtained, the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of the above mentioned factors depended on seed age and the time of seed exposure. A significant increase in germination capacity under the influence of low temperature (-15oC) was recorded only for 2- and 4-yea...

  3. A trial of the suitability of switchgrass and reed canary grass as biofuel crops under UK conditions. 5th interim report March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richie, A.B.

    2005-07-01

    The Topgrass Project, established in 2002, investigated the potential of miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass as biofuel crops at various sites in the UK. This interim report covers the period from the harvesting in winter 2003/04 to the harvesting in winter 2004/05. The report gives details on (i) pest and weed control and (ii) yields and associated costs per species per unit area. It was concluded that maximum potential yield has not been reached at some sites. The study was funded by the DTI and carried out by IACR Rothamstead with ADAS Consulting, Duchy College Cornwall and SCRI Invergowrie as collaborators. The project has now terminated.

  4. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target of the project was to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non-economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In fluid bed combustion 10-30 % addition of rape seed straw and reed canary grass, which have high ash melting point, seems to be less problematic compared to other straw species, which are used for example in Denmark. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agro fibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. The laboratory results show that a good quality pulp can be produced to be mixed with conventional wood fibres, the quality of flax pulp is even better compared to conventional pulp. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion. (orig.)

  5. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The target of the project was to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non-economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In fluid bed combustion 10-30 % addition of rape seed straw and reed canary grass, which have high ash melting point, seems to be less problematic compared to other straw species, which are used for example in Denmark. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agro fibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. The laboratory results show that a good quality pulp can be produced to be mixed with conventional wood fibres, the quality of flax pulp is even better compared to conventional pulp. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion. (orig.)

  6. Adaptation and diversification on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losos, Jonathan B; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2009-02-12

    Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other areas, resulting in unusual faunas and floras, often unlike those found anywhere else. For these reasons, island research provides valuable insights into speciation and adaptive radiation, and into the relative importance of contingency and determinism in evolutionary diversification. PMID:19212401

  7. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  8. Islanders' Perspectives on Sustainable Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Cambers

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An internet forum, supported by the Small Islands Voice initiative, has since 2002 provided a place where islanders from around the world could discuss issues and problems and also learn from the experiences of others. This paper provides a reflective overview of the discussions over the past four years and attempts to identify some specific characteristics that identify islanders in their approaches to everyday living. An analysis of the forum respondents shows that approximately two thirds are male; one half come from the Pacific islands; and more than a half are employed in island-based occupations. Discussions have covered infrastructural development; resource management; environmental, social and economic issues. The overview indicates islanders are very willing to speak out and take ownership of their issues and problems and their discussions show a significant level of understanding about the need to balance limited resources and economic development. Proposals for action are practical and feasible and there is a strong vein of common sense running through the responses. Most significantly, islanders show a deep love for their island homes, an attitude of caring about the future development of their islands, and a willingness to try to solve their problems themselves.

  9. Life-cycle assessment of a reed canary grass plantation in an abandoned peat extraction area to mitigate GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Abandoned peat extraction areas are continuous emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG); hence, abandonment of peat extraction areas should immediately be followed by conversion to an appropriate after-use. Our primary aim was to clarify the atmospheric impact of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) cultivation on an abandoned peat extraction area and to compare it to other after-treatment alternatives. In addition to measurement of GHGs using the closed chamber and gas-chromatograph method, measuring C and N balance in study plots and aboveground and belowground biomass of RCG for the period April 2009-September 2011, we performed a life-cycle assessment for five different after-use options for a drained organic soil withdrawn from peat extraction: (I) bare peat soil (no management), (II) non-fertilised Phalaris cultivation, (III) fertilized Phalaris cultivation, (IV) afforestation, and (V) rewetting. Our results showed that on average the non-fertilised and fertilised Phalaris alternatives had a cooling effect on the atmosphere, whereas afforestation, rewetting, and no management alternatives contributed to global warming. The main components influencing the global warming potential of different after-use alternatives were site GHG emissions, carbon assimilation by plants, and emissions from combustion, while management-related emissions played a relatively minor role. The results of this study indicate that, from the perspective of atmospheric impact during following 10 years, the most suitable after-use option for an abandoned peat extraction area is cultivation of RCG. For the long term effect, dynamics of Phalaris production and carbon sequestration in soil must be taken into the consideration.

  10. Isolation of the P5CS gene from reed canary grass and its expression under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, L L; Zhang, X Q; Yang, F Y; Liu, S J; Zhang, Y W

    2014-01-01

    Reed canary grass (RCG) is a perennial grass traditionally cultivated for forage. It is also used as fuel to produce energy in Finland and Sweden, and other countries have expressed interest in the cultivation of RCG. In China, arable land is limited. Salinity is considered to be a major factor limiting plant crop development and productivity. To boost biofuel production of RCG and extend its range in saline soil, we seek to improve its salt tolerance. Proline acts as an osmolyte that accumulates when plants are subjected to abiotic stress. P5CS plays a crucial role in proline biosynthesis. We isolated a P5CS gene from RCG, designated B231P5CS (GenBank accession No. JQ622685). B231P5CS is a fragment (971 bp) that encodes a 323-amino acid polypeptide. We also cloned an actin gene fragment from RCG as a reference gene in expression analysis of B231P5CS gene. Expression analysis revealed that B231P5CS transcripts were upregulated in leaves after treatment with salt (200 mM NaCl) and that transcript levels of B231P5CS reached a maximum 12 h after exposure, which was 14.69 times the level in control plants. The trends of expression were exactly opposite in roots; transcripts were downregulated after salt treatment. Proline concentration increased in leaves after stress. In contrast, proline content of roots decreased up to 3.6-fold relative to controls. Changes in proline concentration after stress were correlated with B231P5CS expression. Our results suggest that B231P5CS is a stress-inducible gene and plays a non-redundant role in plant development. This gene may be used to improve stress tolerance of RGC and other bioenergy feedstock. PMID:25366804

  11. Carbon-allocation dynamics in reed canary grass as affected by soil type and fertilization rates in northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaojun Xiong (Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)); Kaetterer, Thomas (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    A field experiment was conducted in northern Sweden between 1995 and 1997, with the objectives (1) to quantify the dynamics of carbon accumulation in above- and below ground crop components of reed canary grass (RCG) during the second and third year after sowing and (2) to examine the effect of fertilization and soil type (mineral vs. organic) on C allocation. Across all treatments, carbon accumulation in below ground organs in the top 20 cm was on average 3 and 3.4 Mg C by the end of the second and third year, respectively, with roots and rhizomes accounting for up to 80%. Roots contributed most to below ground C mass during the second growing season but during the preceding winter, root biomass C decreased by 44-67%, and, thereafter, during the third growing season, the proportion of rhizome C increased. The dynamics of root biomass was considerably high, suggesting high root turnover rates. Rhizomes support re-growth during spring and rhizome biomass seems to increase with crop age. Thus, early harvesting before October may impact on the productivity during the following season. Among the factors studied, harvest date was the most influential and affected C allocation in all crop components considerably. Fertilization stimulated growth of shoots, rhizomes, and BSBs (below ground shoot bases) but not that of roots. However, root biomass was higher in the organic than in the mineral soil. In this study, we considered only plant components above 20 cm depth. More detailed studies are needed to calculate more complete soil C balances. However, high below ground biomass production and root turnover indicate a high C input to the soil, which may result in positive soil C balances. Therefore, RCG cropping could have considerable carbon-sequestration potential

  12. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  14. Urban heat island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  15. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  16. Mediterranean Islands: A Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lopašić, A.

    2001-01-01

    This article represents some of the results of my fieldwork and research on the islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Malta, Sicily, Crete and Susak between the years 1962–1986. My main filed-work in Sardinia was supported by the Social Science Research Council, London and the University of Reading/Berks, and the ones in Corsica, Malta and Sardinia by the Department of Ethnology, University of Cologne (Institut für Völkerkunde, Universität Köln) forming a part of a project on the Medit...

  17. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  18. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  19. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  20. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  1. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  3. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  4. Solomon Islands : Health Financing Options

    OpenAIRE

    Somanathan, Aparnaa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Policy Note is to provide an assessment of available options for financing health care in the Solomon Islands. In doing so, the analysis will factor in the country-specific economic, social and political factors, which will ultimately influence the performance of the health financing mechanisms. The Note was motivated by the Solomon Islands Government s (SIG) interest...

  5. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly transported to the remote islands before they would reach equilibrium (i.e., desorption completed). Because POPs concentrations in the other media are at trace levels in these remote environments, the sporadic high concentrations of POPs in the plastic debris may pose threat to the

  6. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  7. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  8. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Register on August 14, 2007 (72 FR 45444), announcing our intent to complete a CCP/EA and inviting public... natural processes to occur with minimal human intervention; monitoring wildlife species; and working with... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges,...

  9. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  10. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary

  12. Man made floating island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinak, B.

    1987-08-04

    An artificial island is described for use in energy production from ocean waves, comprising: a platform disposed atop the ocean surface; vertically disposed rigid posts extending beneath the platform short of the ocean floor; a stationary wave amplifier affixed to the posts, the wave amplifier of a conical shape with inclined sides for directing water upwardly from substantially any lateral direction when submerged to amplify wave action; a movable inverted conical float slidably mounted for translation movement along the posts and disposed between the platform and the wave amplifier for movement with the waves; an apex of the conical float directed substantially toward an apex of the conical wave amplifier; and an energy-drive device disposed on the platform. A means is provided for converting the motion of the float to transmittable energy for operating the energy-driven device.

  13. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour;

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over the...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  14. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  15. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  16. IslandViewer update: improved genomic island discovery and visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Chiu, Terry A.; Laird, Matthew R.; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

    2013-01-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate met...

  17. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  18. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  19. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  20. Guest editorial introduction: Understanding island cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.

  1. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  2. ROE Long Island Hypoxia Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This raster map uses five color-coded categories to show concentrations of dissolved oxygen in bottom waters of Long Island Sound during the summer of 2014. Data...

  3. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  4. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  5. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  6. Popham Buys St. Vincent Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An announcement has recently been made that William Lee Popham has purchased an option on Saint Vincent Island including all of the water bottoms legally belonging...

  7. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal : Synopsis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a synopsis of the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal. It covers information such as the location of the proposed area, management the wilderness...

  8. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  9. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  10. Solomon Islands national situation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Govan, H.; Schwarz, A.M.; Harohau, D.; Oeta, J.

    2013-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (CRP AAS) was approved by the CGIAR Fund Council in July, 2011. Solomon Islands, one of five countries targeted by the program, began its rollout with a five month planning phase between August and December of 2011. Subsequent steps of the Program rollout include scoping, diagnosis and design. This report is the first to be produced during the scoping phase in Solomon Islands; it addresses the national setting and provides basic infor...

  11. Invasive rodent eradication on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howald, Gregg; Donlan, C Josh; Galván, Juan Pablo; Russell, James C; Parkes, John; Samaniego, Araceli; Wang, Yiwei; Veitch, Dick; Genovesi, Piero; Pascal, Michel; Saunders, Alan; Tershy, Bernie

    2007-10-01

    Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to assess its current state and identify actions to make it more effective. Worldwide, 332 successful rodent eradications have been undertaken; we identified 35 failed eradications and 20 campaigns of unknown result. Invasive rodents have been eradicated from 284 islands (47,628 ha). With the exception of two small islands, rodenticides were used in all eradication campaigns. Brodifacoum was used in 71% of campaigns and 91% of the total area treated. The most frequent rodenticide distribution methods (from most to least) are bait stations, hand broadcasting, and aerial broadcasting. Nevertheless, campaigns using aerial broadcast made up 76% of the total area treated. Mortality of native vertebrates due to nontarget poisoning has been documented, but affected species quickly recover to pre-eradication population levels or higher. A variety of methods have been developed to mitigate nontarget impacts, and applied research can further aid in minimizing impacts. Land managers should routinely remove invasive rodents from islands <100 ha that lack vertebrates susceptible to nontarget poisoning. For larger islands and those that require nontarget mitigation, expert consultation and greater planning effort are needed. With the exception of house mice (Mus musculus), island size may no longer be the limiting factor for rodent eradications; rather, social acceptance and funding may be the main challenges. To be successful, large-scale rodent campaigns should be integrated with programs to improve the livelihoods of residents, island biosecurity, and reinvasion response

  12. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Three Mile Island accident taught a lesson to the industry. Packaged units, ancillary units, off-plots and so on need as much detailed attention as the main stream, especially when their failure can cause a shut-down of the main stream. To try to clear the choke, the operators used instrument air. Its pressure was lower than that of the water so water got back into the instrument air lines. There was a non-return valve in the line but it was faulty. How often have the authors connected process equipment to service lines at a lower pressure and ended up with flammable gas in the nitrogen lines or oil in the compressed air lines? The actual pressures in services lines are often lower than the nominal pressures. Instrument air should never be used for line blowing. The water in the instrument air lines caused several instrument failures and the turbine tripped. This stopped heat removal from the radioactive core. The production of heat by fission stopped automatically within a few minutes. (Silver rods drop down into the core. They absorb neutrons and stop radioactive fission.) However the heat produced by radioactive decay (about 6 percent of the normal load) had to be removed. This caused the primary water to boil. The pilot-operated relief valve (PORV) on the primary circuit lifted and pumps started up automatically to replace the water evaporated from the primary circuit. (Unfortunately the PORV stuck open)

  13. Radiometric evidence for involvement of floating islands in the formation of Florida Everglades tree islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Patrick J.; Piepgras, Donald; Stone, Peter A.; Stipp, Jerry

    1980-04-01

    Inversions of radiocarbon dates were determined on samples from the peat profiles of two small extant tree islands in the northeastern Everglades, Florida. These reversals were predicted from the theory that such tree islands developed on laterally displaced floating islands.

  14. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants...

  15. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  16. LA ARQUEOLOGÍA HISTÓRICA EN CANARIAS. EL YACIMIENTO SEPULCRAL DE LA IGLESIA DE NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA CONCEPCIÓN DE SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE (Historical archaeology in the Canaries. The burial site of the church of Our Lady of the Conception in Santa Cruz de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Arnay de la Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio revisamos la situación actual de la Arqueología Histórica en las Islas Canarias, disciplina que, a diferencia de la americana, estaba poco desarrollada en las islas hasta hace unos 20 años. El reciente estudio de yacimientos históricos importantes ha modificado esta situación. Como ejemplo, comentamos algunos resultados derivados de la excavación de la iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, en cuyo subsuelo se enterró a la población de Santa Cruz de Tenerife durante siglos. Pese a la pobre preservación de los esqueletos, ha sido posible inferir hábitos dietéticos, estado nutricional, exposición a tóxicos, y realizar estudios de DNA mitocondrial. El material recuperado (cerámica, pipas, crucifijos y adornos varios permite establecer estrechas relaciones con la colonización española del Nuevo Mundo. ENGLISH: This study includes an updated review of the current status of Historical Archaeology in the Canary Islands. Traditionally, in contrast with the situation in America, archaeological activity was devoted to studies on the prehistoric remains of population. In the last 20 years, excavation of some important historical sites has allowed the development of Historical Archaeology. As an example, we comment some results obtained from the excavation of the floor of the church of Our Lady of the Conception, where the deads of Santa Cruz de Tenerife were interred during centuries. Despite the poor preservation of the skeletons, it has been possible to infer dietary habits, toxic exposure, nutritional status and genetic lineages (mitochondrial DNA. Smoking pipes, ceramics and adornments associated with interments show a high similitude with those from colonial sites of the New World.

  17. Chov kanárů v různých systémech

    OpenAIRE

    Hájková Březinová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    This work which is focused on breeding canary trying to capture the evolution of wild species of the genus Serinus to their targeted breeding in captivity. Origin of subspecies Serinus canaria domestica found in Africa, specifically in the Palaearctic Atlantic Islands, the Canary Islands, Azores and Island of Madeira where the original species occurs in the wild. On the mainland the canaries got along with Spaniards who settled the islands. Canary behind the emergence of what is known today i...

  18. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  19. A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Melo, Carlos; Silva, Luís; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Quartau, Rui; Hipólito, Ana; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Rebelo, Ana Cristina; Madeira, Patrícia; Rovere, Alessio; Hearty, Paul J.; Henriques, Diamantino; Silva, Carlos Marques da; Martins, António M. de Frias; Zazo, Caridad

    2015-04-01

    group of 21 thermophilic species was directly affected by the lower sea surface temperature, whereas a group of four sand-associated species was indirectly but similarly affected by the lowering of the sea level. Both groups have locally disappeared from the Azores. However, none of the extant endemic species found on the studied MIS 5e outcrops was apparently affected by the lowering SST. In contrast to the biogeographical relationships of the recent Azorean shallow marine molluscs, which are predominantly with the Mediterranean Region, Portugal and with the Madeira and Canary Islands archipelagos, the palaeobiogeographical relationships of the MIS 5e Azorean marine molluscs are mainly with Canaries and West Africa. Despite the general low similarity of the biogeographical relationships between the Azores and Cape Verde Archipelago, on both the recent and the MIS 5e analysis, this similarity is nevertheless higher for the MIS 5e mollusc assemblages, emphasizing the role of Cape Verde as an important source of warm-water species during the Last Interglacial.

  20. Bird and mammal abundance at Nizki Island with notes on observations at Alaid Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To document migratory bird use and response following elimination of introduced Arctic foxes from an island in the western Aleutian Islands. Fox elimination from an...