WorldWideScience

Sample records for canals and waterways

  1. 78 FR 67938 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... accommodate the annual Christmas parade. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in the closed-to-navigation position for the set up of the event and the duration of the Christmas parade. DATES: This... their annual Christmas parade. Normally, the bridge opens on signal; except that, from 6 a.m. to 7...

  2. 2012 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Seattle, Duwamish Waterway, and Lake Washington Ship Canal, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  3. Ten years of experience in combining ecology and navigation on Dutch waterways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeters, R.E.A.M.; Havinga, H.; Litjens, G.; Verheij, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the experience gained in the Netherlands with the multifunctional management of waterways. We will especially go into how the functions of rivers and canals for navigation and nature are combined. For this we will briefly go back to the national paper for Seville 1994,

  4. A regional waterway management system for balancing recreational boating and resource protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swett, Robert A; Listowski, Charles; Fry, Douglas; Boutelle, Stephen; Fann, David

    2009-06-01

    Florida's coasts have been transformed over the past three decades as population growth and unprecedented demand for individual shore access to bays and estuaries led to the creation of residential canal developments. Thousands of miles of channels and basins were dredged as a by-product of this urbanization process. The navigable waterways that resulted are now being stressed by increasing boat traffic and canal-side activities. Recognizing their common goal to preserve the recreational and ecological value of southwest Florida waterways, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the four-county West Coast Inland Navigation District, and the University of Florida Sea Grant College Program signed a Memorandum of Agreement. The signatories agreed to develop a science-based Regional Waterway Management System (RWMS), which is a new approach to waterway planning and permitting based on carefully mapped channel depths, a census of actual boat populations, and the spatial extent of natural resources. The RWMS provides a comprehensive, regional overview of channel conditions and the geographic distribution and severity of existing impediments to safe navigation and resource protection. RWMS information and analyses result in regional-scale permitting to accommodate water-dependent uses while minimizing environmental impacts and reducing public expenditures. Compared with traditional approaches to waterway management, the science-based RWMS is relatively unbiased, objective, transparent, ecologically sound, and fiscally prudent. PMID:19020927

  5. Margins of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines legal questions coming from points of contact of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways on the one hand with the Waste Management Law, the Atomic Energy Law and Criminal Law on the other hand. He tries to find ways for solving the practical problems which arise with the execution of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways. (HSCH)

  6. An investigation of the geochemistry and petrology of canal sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Juliet S.

    2000-01-01

    Canals are artificial waterways, which are distinct from natural aquatic systems. As a result of their industrial heritage they have experienced high loadings of anthropogenic material, and consequently their sediments tend to have a bulk composition that is distinct from natural sediment. It is therefore expected that the geochemical behaviour of canal sediment may deviate significantly from that of natural sediment. This study investigates and contrasts the geochemistry and petrology of a r...

  7. 33 CFR 207.20 - Cape Cod Canal, Mass.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Canal Electric Terminal. (iv) Fourth—To merchant vessels, towboats, commercial fishing vessels.... Fishing boats, yachts, cabin cruisers and other craft utilizing the East Boat Basin on the south side of... and craft of every description through the canal and the operation and maintenance of the waterway...

  8. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Canals and Aqueducts of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the canals, aqueducts, and the Intracoastal Waterway in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  9. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.

    2015-10-28

    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  10. Do We Need to Rethink Our Waterways? Values of Ageing Waterways in Current and Future Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijdra, Arjan; Arts, Jos; Woltjer, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the past canals were developed, and some rivers were heavily altered, driven by the need for good transportation infrastructure. Major investments were made in navigation locks, weirs and artificial embankments, and many of these assets are now reaching the end of their technical lifetime. Since

  11. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... enforced only 24 hours in advance of, and during the duration of, any of the following predicted weather... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this interim rule, call or e-mail Lieutenant... you have questions on viewing or submitting material to the docket, call Renee V. Wright,...

  12. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Canals and Aqueducts of the United States 201406 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the canals, aqueducts, and the Intracoastal Waterway in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  13. Andean waterways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    , social, and cultural concerns. Set in the highland town of Recuay in Ancash, the book traces the ways in which water affects political and ecological relations as glaciers recede. By looking at the shared waterways of four villages located in the foothills of Cordillera Blanca, it addresses pertinent...

  14. State Lands by Administrator - Trails and Waterways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  15. Public safety around dams and waterways : European and Swedish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norstedt, U. [Vattenfal, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    In Europe, there are more casualties due to misbehaviour and insufficient protection around dams than because of dam breaks. This presentation addressed dam safety and security in Europe. Public safety is a prevailing issue because of fatalities; increased safety requirements in society; increased tourism activities; and experience from other countries such as Canada, France, and the United States. The presentation outlined the benefits of co-operation with a country like Canada and discussed the Swedish experience. It also presented a working group of the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) whose purpose was to learn from each other; foster cooperation and exchange experience between member countries and individuals about public safety in the vicinity of dams and waterways; and compare different legal and management concepts. Several incidents, accidents, and safety policies of other countries and organizations were also offered. The presentation concluded with a discussion of public safety at Stornorrfors, an ideal dam for a public safety pilot project in Sweden. Recommendations included the need for installation of audible and visible alerts/alarms; buoys; fencing; signs; and television monitors. figs.

  16. Provision, transport and deposition of debris in urban waterways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deonie Allen; Scott Arthur; Nicolas Wallerstien; Janice Blanc; Heather Haynes

    2015-01-01

    abstract The transport of woody debris from urban surfaces, through local urban waterways, to constriction and blockage risk locations is not well understood. Flume trials have identified debris and water-course dimensions as influential factors on debris movement, and large woody debris movement has been traced in the natural rural environment using time series photography, active transponders, and field surveys. Using novel passive transponder technology, small woody debris has been traced through an urban case study watercourse to establish key influential factors on urban debris transport. Through incorporating urban debris transport detail into the source and deposition process, a complete picture of urban debris transport can be created, supporting effective culvert and trash screen design, watercourse maintenance and blockage risk assessment. This case study highlights that factors beyond watercourse depth and velocity are influential in debris movement within an urban watercourse. Debris dimension and source location upstream are shown to significantly affect the potential for debris to reach a downstream constriction, illustrating a possible distance limitation in nuisance flow debris blockage risk.

  17. Research on Spatial Configuration Model of Islands and Waterways Based on Voronoi Diagram%基于Voronoi图的岛礁水道空间配置模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石伟; 苏奋振; 周成虎

    2014-01-01

    A waterway is any navigable body of water. Waterways can include natural water area such as rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, and artificial water area such as canals and harbor. In order for a waterway to be navigable, it must be deep and wide enough and has suitable hydrology to allow vessels passing safely. In the sea, waterways usually connect mainland or islands. Especially, in the water area filling with reefs, they will be the only passage and the lifeline of the transportations and supplies. The islands and reefs also can influence the security of the wa-terways in that area. Consider the relationships between islands and waterways, it can not only influence the secu-rity of the waterways, but also reflect the value of the islands. In this paper, a spatial configuration model of is-lands and waterways based on Voronoi diagram was proposed to describe the spatial relationships between is-lands and waterways. The intensity of waterways controlled by islands was used to indicate the security state of the waterways and reflect the value of the islands. Then the data of 43 islands and three waterways were used to calculate the intensity and extent of the three waterways controlled by the islands and the spatial configuration of islands and waterways is analyzed. The results of this research showed:(1) the relationship of spatial configura-tion is a key factor of the intensity and extent of the waterways controlled by the islands. (2) Under the spatial in-teraction conditions, the more prominent on the location advantage of islands, the more outstanding on the effect of the control. This study provided a new vision of the security of waterways and the value of islands. The meth-od is easy and useful to evaluate the security of waterways and the value of islands.%水道是连接两侧大陆或岛屿的狭长水域,是水上的生命线。在海洋中,水道通常与岛屿相伴而生,特别在礁体丛生的海域,岛礁与水道间的关系更为微妙,岛

  18. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any of the land cuts except as a regular established landing or wharf without written permission... dredged channel or narrow portion of a waterway for the purpose of fishing, if navigation is obstructed... vessel, or whose rigging projects over the side of the vessel so as to endanger passing vessels,...

  19. Evolution of canals system linking the Vistula, Dnieper and Neman basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykala, Dariusz; Badziai, Vitali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to reconstruct landscape changes in the Polesie Region - one of the largest European swampy areas (Belarus), as a result of the creation and operation of a network of canals. From the 16th century efforts were undertaken to connect the Polish areas located in the drainage basins of the Black Sea and Baltic Sea with canals. Already in 1631 the Polish Sejm (parliament) approved the project to build a canal linking the River Berezina (Dnieper basin) with the River Neris (Neman basin). However, the complicated political and economic situation of the country did not allow doing this. Only in the second half of the 18th c. hetman Ogiński financed the construction of a canal linking the Dnieper and Neman basins. The canal connecting the River Szczara (Neman basin) with the River Jasiołda (Pripyat basin) was named after its creator - the Ogiński Canal. At the same time the construction of the Królewski (Royal) Canal linking the River Muchavets (Vistula basin) and the River Pina (Pripyat basin) was under way. The construction of the canal was completed in 1783. The winding channels of the Pina and Muchavets were straightened, and the numerous canals feeding the waterway system drained vast area of marshes and wetlands of the Polesia Region. The last element that connects the catchments of the Vistula and Neman is the Augustów Canal built in the years 1825-1839 (linking the catchments of the Biebrza and Neman). Numerous changes in political boundaries in the watershed area between the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea drainage basins caused the destruction of the hydraulic structures. All the analysed canals were completely destroyed during the two world wars. In the last 200 years the amount and type of locks and weirs has changed. For example, there were no weirs on the Royal Canal in the late 18th c., in the middle of the 19th c. there were 22 such structures, while now that number has gone down to 10. All canals were created for economic reasons

  20. Environmental stress model for evaluation of vessel traffic in ports and waterways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhiwu; CHEN Weijiong; INOUE K

    2005-01-01

    Environmental stress model is proposed as an effective tool to the analysis and evaluation of navigational safety in ports and waterways. Marine traffic simulations are carried out in a virtual port area with various arrangements and conditions. Calculations of stress values and traffic volume criteria are illustrated. The simulation results provide a valuable hint for safety management of vessel traffic. The model provides quantitative information and helps administrators in decision making to achieve desired safety level and improve the efficiency of vessel traffic in ports and waterways.

  1. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

  2. The number and probability of canalizing functions

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Winfried; Shmulevich, Ilya; Konvalina, John

    2003-01-01

    Canalizing functions have important applications in physics and biology. For example, they represent a mechanism capable of stabilizing chaotic behavior in Boolean network models of discrete dynamical systems. When comparing the class of canalizing functions to other classes of functions with respect to their evolutionary plausibility as emergent control rules in genetic regulatory systems, it is informative to know the number of canalizing functions with a given number of input variables. Th...

  3. Advection of the salt wedge and evolution of the internal flow structure in the Rotterdam Waterway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nijs, M.A.J.; Pietrzak, J.D.; Winterwerp, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of field measurements recorded over a tidal cycle in the Rotterdam Waterway is presented. These measurements are the first to elucidate the processes influencing the along-channel current structure and the excursion of the salt wedge in this estuary. The salt wedge structure remained sta

  4. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied...

  5. Prospects of Waterway Development as a Catalyst to Improve Regional and Community Socio-Economy Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman M. Yassin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Malaysia has achieved a number of successes in its transportation development. The success of Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Northern and Southern Highway project for examples have given the community lot of benefits in term of social and economic development, but what if an inland waterway system can be developed in Malaysia especially along Pahang River and Muar River. Can this proposed waterway bring significant impact to local people in term of their social and economic development? This has become the main objective of this study which is to investigate whether the future Pahang Muar Waterway could have significant socio-economy impact on the local community or not. Approach: This is a qualitative study. Observations, structured and unstructured in-depth interview and literature analysis were used to gain the data needed the research team has traversed along the way (University Putra Malaysia to Muar to Bahau and ended in Pekan these two rivers flow. For the in-depth interviews, a total of seventeen informants among the public and government officers were selected. Data from the in depth interviews was transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed by identifying similarities and consistent themes. A constant comparative method was employed in order to uncover patterns in the data. The data in this study is presented descriptively. Results: From the observation, interviews and literature analysis done, it can be concluded that the Pahang Muar Waterways is believed to develop economic activities, recreational activities, tourism industry, enhance the socio-economy life of local community and provide sustainable mobility. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results gained, it can be concluded that majority of the community interviewed believed that Pahang Muar waterways offer a vast opportunity for social and economic development for the local community. It can be noted that specific planning on constructing the

  6. Analysis of Salinity Intrusion in the Waccamaw River and Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, 1995–2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record is a USGS unpublished report about saltwater intrusion in the Waccamaw River and the Intracoastal Waterway. Six reservoirs in North Carolina discharge...

  7. Determining optimal transit charges: The Kiel Canal in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Heitmann, Nadine; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The Kiel Canal in Germany connects ports on the Baltic Sea with the rest of the world and is the most-used artificial waterway in the world. Despite this fact, it generates a balance sheet loss. Revenues, which are mainly generated by the transit charge, do not cover its operating expenses. This situation raises the question: What reforms could be made to make the canal generate a balance sheet profit? In this paper, we focus solely on the canal's revenue. Because the canal is a monopoly that...

  8. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws.

  9. The World Bank Policy for Projects on International Waterways : An Historical and Legal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salman M.A. Salman

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the evolution and context of the Bank policy for projects on international waterways. It starts with a brief description of how the Bank has faced the challenges stemming from such projects, and the different approaches deliberated by the Bank that led to the issuance of the first policy in 1956. The study then reviews the implementation experience of the policy and a...

  10. Interacting effects of vegetation and hydrogeomorphic complexity on nitrate in agricultural waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A.; Cadenasso, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Intensive cultivation in the California Central Valley has resulted in the loss of ~95% of riparian habitat. In addition, small streams have been replaced by denuded agricultural waterways to convey irrigation drainage high in nitrate (NO3). A variety of strategies are being used to increase riparian vegetation along agricultural waterways, but many of the ecological functions of these novel habitat features are unknown. An extensive study was conducted in summer 2014 to investigate which riparian ecosystem features are associated with variable NO3 levels in waterways draining irrigated cropland. Eighty sites were selected to represent a wide range of riparian vegetation, hydrogeomorphic features, and agricultural contexts. Sites were visited three times to correspond to the early, mid, and late irrigation season. At each visit, water samples were taken 300m apart and analyzed for turbidity, pH, temperature, and NO3. To characterized hydrogeomorphic complexity, the frequency of features associated with transient storage and increased retention time were quantified. Vegetation cover and structure on banks, foreshores, and in channels was also measured. Using a generalized linear model, we tested for the interaction of upstream [NO3-N] with vegetation and hydrogeomorphic variables to predict downstream [NO3-N], the dependent variable. As expected, upstream [NO3-N] strongly predicted downstream [NO3-N] and no features directly predicted downstream [NO3-N]. The frequency of hydrogeomorphic features, however, interacted with upstream [NO3-N] to predict downstream [NO3-N], indicating an effect of hydrogeomorphic complexity on NO3 from up to downstream. Vegetation factors did not interact with upstream [NO3-N], but woody vegetation cover was positively correlated with the frequency of hydrogeomorphic features. These findings support the use of woody riparian vegetation to increase NO3 retention in agricultural waterways, via an indirect association with hydrogeomorphic

  11. Portable XRF and wet materials: application to dredged contaminated sediments from waterways

    OpenAIRE

    Lemiere, Bruno; Laperche, Valérie; Haouche, Laurence; Auger, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    International audience The sustainable management of dredged waterway sediments requires on-site determination of the main pollutants to facilitate their safe reuse or treatment. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is commonly used for similar applications with contaminated soil, but the high water content of dredged sediments precludes any application of standard methods. Measurements for Pb, Zn, Cu and As were performed on-site on raw wet sediments with 50 to 70% water contents during dre...

  12. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

  13. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin; LI Jiyou; YAO Yunfeng; LU Aiping; WANG Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish a tectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.Here,we report on the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with an upper-third rectal adenocarcinoma.Five months after resection,he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.The histological slides of both tumors were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins(CKs)7 and 20 were performed.The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.For this reason,we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.It is very important to difierentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available,especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

  14. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  15. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  16. [Frequency and most common localisation of root canal curvature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasković-Subat, V

    1991-01-01

    The root canal therapy of the curved canals is a complex operative procedure. Therefore 260 root canals were analysed radiologically to determine the frequency and the most common localisation of the root canal curvature. The frequency of the curved canals averaged at 59%, being greater in the sample of posterior than in the anterior teeth (p less than 0.05). The root canal curvature was most frequently localised at the apical third part (53.9%), followed by the cervical (33.3%) and the middle (12.8%) third part. The apical curvature was predominant in the sample of the anterior, while the cervical predominant (45.2%) in the sample of the posterior teeth. This study pointed out that the frequency of the curved canals is rather high. Consequently, the necessity for practising the modern root canal preparation techniques, bearing in mind their potential danger, is emphasized. PMID:1819932

  17. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesopha

  18. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal. Experimental and clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-05-01

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 10/sup 0/. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th/sub 1/, Th/sub 2/ levels and round at Th/sub 3/-Th/sub 10/ and large oval at Th/sub 11/, Th/sub 12/. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE RISK MANAGEMENT IN SERBIAN INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Backalic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes require special attention and global monitoring. Impacts on nature and industry are increasingly evident. Water transport could be the backbone of the future European combined transport system. Unfortunately, risks in water transport are perhaps an under researched area and consequently, this article outlines a rationale, why it is necessary to develop competence about risk in water transport. The development of the cargo transport in river traffic depends directly on technical-exploitative characteristics of the network of inland waterways. Research of navigational abilities of inland waterways always comes before building ships or making a transport schedule. Navigation characteristics of rivers have to be determined as precise as possible, especially from the aspect of determination the possible draught of vessels. River transport due to their operational business and environmental conditions faced with several risks having different degrees of consequences. Current risk assessment methods for water transport just consider some dramatic events. We present a new method for the assessment of risk and vulnerability of water transport where river depth represents a crucial part. The analysis of water level changes on Serbian rivers during the last sixty years was done.

  20. The behaviour of radium in waterways and aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coordinated Research Program was designed to develop systematic information on the form and movement of radium in water under a range of environmental conditions. The final report contains: a) Selection and standardization of methods for determination of radium in water; b) The distribution of soluble and insoluble radium in natural waters, affected by mining or milling operations; c) The factors affecting the leaching rate from ore heaps and tailings piles; d) The uptake of radium by biological systems, especially those which form part of man's food chain. This information being of great value to those authorities responsible for assessing the consequences of radium releases to water and to those responsible for setting discharge limits

  1. Alternative Fuels for Marine and Inland Waterways: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    MOIRANGTHEM KAMALJIT

    2016-01-01

    Alternative fuels for marine transport can play a crucial role in decarbonising the shipping sector and ultimately contribute towards climate change goals. Market penetration by alternative fuels have already begun with ship builders, engine manufacturers and classification bodies by introducing greener ships running on cleaner fuels. This can be attributed in large part to the MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) regulations in place since the 1970s an...

  2. Morphology of the mandibular canal and the angulation between the mandibular and mental canals in dry skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, S R; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    -angles. In order to analyse internal morphology, a metallic pin was placed in the mental canal on the left side before radiography. The angle between the mental and the mandibular canals was termed the 'mental angle' and that expressing the curvature of the mandibular canal, the 'mandibular angle'. Spearman......-angles. The findings show that the internal courses of the mandibular and mental canals are interrelated. They also indicated that the course and morphology of the mandibular canal are interrelated with external mandibular morphology....

  3. 76 FR 70349 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... necessary to accommodate the annual Christmas parade event. DATES: This deviation is effective from 4 p.m... 117.997(g), to accommodate the annual Christmas parade event. Normally, the bridge opens on signal... of 8.5 feet, above mean high water. The Chesapeake annual Christmas parade event is scheduled...

  4. 78 FR 76596 - Proposed Levels of Service at Locks and Dams on the J Bennett Johnston Waterway (Red River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 34083). The hours of availability for locking at Lindy C. Boggs Lock and Dam, John H... Johnston Waterway (Red River) AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... regulation governing the use, administration, and navigation of the Red River and Locks is Section 4 of...

  5. Aeration remediation of a polluted waterway increases near-surface coarse and culturable microbial aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M Elias; O'Mullan, Gregory D

    2014-04-15

    Aeration remediation is currently used in polluted urban waterways to increase oxygen levels in the water column. Recent studies have provided increasing evidence that the bursting of bubbles at water surfaces introduced by aeration, or other surface disturbances, can transfer viable bacteria to the air. In heavily sewage-polluted waterways these water-originated bacterial aerosols may pose as a health risk to recreators in small boats or residents inhabiting the shoreline. Nonetheless, few studies have explored aerosols above active aeration remediation projects in waterways or investigated how bacterial aerosols change with vertical distance from aeration activities. This study, conducted at the Newtown Creek superfund site in Brooklyn, NY, USA, measured coarse aerosol particles and culturable bacteria in near-surface air above waters undergoing aeration remediation. Regardless of aeration operation culturable bacterial fallout was greater near-surface (0.6m above water) than previously-reported measurements made at 2.5m. Molecular analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences from isolated bacteria demonstrates that water and air shared a large number of bacterial genera and that the genera present in the near-surface aerosols (0.6m) contained water-associated Vibrio and Caulobacter, which were not present at 2.5m, despite the smaller sequence library size from the near-surface. Also, the near-surface microbial assemblage had significantly greater association with sequences detected previously in aquatic environments compared to the 2.5m library. We found compelling evidence that aeration activity contributed to this vertical gradient in bacterial aerosol concentrations and identity. Similar to results from 2.5m, concentrations of near-surface respirable coarse aerosols (aeration was occurring. Culturable bacterial aerosol fallout was also greater near-surface when the aerator was on compared to simultaneous measurements made at 2.5m. Furthermore, when the aerator was

  6. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  7. Geophysical investigation of a dutch levee and canal using various seismic and GPR techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Kleine, M.P.E. de; Kruiver, P.P.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Mesdag, C.S.; Hoogendoorn, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey has been carried out on the Juliana Canal and levee in the south of the Netherlands. For a stretch of about 35 km along this canal various construction works are planned, to deepen and widen the canal. The canal is in a geological setting such that leakage from the canal to the

  8. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  9. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniketh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and contents be eliminated as sources of infection. As the Enterococcus faecalis is a lso found to be the most important cause for endodontic failures, the action and efficacy of fewer irrigants against E. faecalis should also be given prime importance as of others. Therefore, the introduction of an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant during root canal therapy should be given priority in the hierarchy of root canal treatment. The purpose of this article is to analyse root canal irrigants, irrigation techniques and irrigation protocol.

  10. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakantan, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation resistance of an epoxy resin based root canal sealer and tricalcium silicate based root canal sealers, (ii) the influence of irrigation protocols on the sealing ability and chemical interactions with ...

  11. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Hai-Bin; Wang, Yi; ZHANG Li-ying; Liu, Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, ...

  12. Feasibility and limitations of endoscopy in Guyon's canal

    OpenAIRE

    Noszczyk, Bartłomiej H.; Zdybek, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This retrospective report summarizes observations from eight operations where the endoscopically assisted approach was used to explore Guyon's canal syndromes of idiopathic aetiology. Aim To evaluate the feasibility and limitations of endoscopic Guyon's canal release performed from a distal forearm incision. Material and methods Eight charts and video records of eight ulnar tunnel syndrome patients presenting concomitant idiopathic Guyon's canal syndromes were retrospectively rev...

  13. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  14. [Canal infection. Ecological theory and repair with osteodentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, M A; Zeberio, T

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the infection in the root canal are analyzed, specially its development before pulpal necrosis. It is inferred that it is an ecological infection with a function: to decompose the necrosis. Inactivating the infection in the canal by the formocresol technique, calcium hidroxide or with the conventional basic treatment in Endodontics, cleaning, washing, disinfecting and, in this case, with partial obturation of the canal, it is possible to induce a reparation with osteodentine that can cover all the free extension of the canal. PMID:1882104

  15. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterization of benthic and emergent areas in the Intracoastal Waterway, Sarasota County, Florida in 1987 (NODC Accession 0000607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS layer graphically represents algae, seagrass, tidal marshes, mangroves, and oyster bed coverages found throughout the Intracoastal Waterway in Sarasota...

  16. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  17. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sungwook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  18. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwook

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI) technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  19. Effects of hydrologic modifications on salinity and formation of hypoxia in the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and adjacent waterways, southeastern Louisiana, 2008 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Mize, Scott V.

    2014-01-01

    The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) was constructed between 1958 and 1968 to provide a safer and shorter route between the Gulf of Mexico and the Port of New Orleans for ocean-going vessels. In 2006, the U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to develop and implement a plan to deauthorize a portion of the MRGO ship channel from its confluence with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to the Gulf of Mexico. In 2009, in accordance with plans submitted to Congress, the USACE built a rock barrier across the MRGO near Hopedale, Louisiana. Following Hurricane Katrina, Congress also authorized the USACE to implement the Hurricane Storm Damage Risk Reduction System (HSDRRS) by building structures in the MRGO and adjacent surface waters, to reduce vulnerability of this area to storm surge. The HSDRRS includes the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway-Lake Borgne Surge Barrier and Gate Complex near mile 58 of the deauthorized portion of the MRGO and the Seabrook Gate Complex on the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC). By blocking or limiting tidal exchange in the MRGO, these barriers could affect water quality in the MRGO and nearby waters including Lake Pontchartrain, the IHNC, and Lake Borgne. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, began a study to document the effects of the construction activities on salinity and dissolved oxygen in these surface waters. Data were collected from August 2008 through October 2012. Completion of the rock barrier in the vicinity of mile 35 in July 2009 reduced hydrologic circulation and separated the MRGO into two distinct salinity regimes, with substantially fresher conditions prevailing upstream from the rock barrier. The rock barrier also contributed to a zone of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 milligrams per liter) that formed along the channel bottom during the warmer summer months in each year of this monitoring; the zone was much more developed downstream from the rock barrier. The most

  20. Digital waterway construction based on inland electronic navigation chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Pan, Junfeng; Zhu, Weiwei

    2015-12-01

    With advantages of large capacity, long distance, low energy consumption, low cost, less land occupation and light pollution, inland waterway transportation becomes one of the most important constituents of the comprehensive transportation system and comprehensive water resources utilization in China. As one of "three elements" of navigation, waterway is the important basis for the development of water transportation and plays a key supporting role in shipping economic. The paper discuss how to realize the informatization and digitization of waterway management based on constructing an integrated system of standard inland electronic navigation chart production, waterway maintenance, navigation mark remote sensing and control, ship dynamic management, and water level remote sensing and report, which can also be the foundation of the intelligent waterway construction. Digital waterway construction is an information project and also has a practical meaning for waterway. It can not only meet the growing high assurance and security requirements for waterway, but also play a significant advantage in improving transport efficiency, reducing costs, promoting energy conservation and so on. This study lays a solid foundation on realizing intelligent waterway and building a smooth, efficient, safe, green modern inland waterway system, and must be considered as an unavoidable problem for the coordinated development between "low carbon" transportation and social economic.

  1. Grand Canal and Catholic in Jiangsu%大运河与江苏的天主教传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩

    2011-01-01

    Waterway was a major route of transportation and personnel transfer in ancient generations.As a Serial Cultural Heritages,Grand Canal is not only a mode tokeep economic prosperity,but also a route of spread culture.North-south exchange bring new religions to The residents along the canal.Including native water nymph worship and western religion.This article taking Catholic in Jiangsu as an example,discussing the relationship between Grand Canal and the Catholic spread.%在现代交通方式没有兴起之前,水道一度是物资运输及人员流动的重要路线。作为巨型线性遗产的大运河不仅承担着维系经济繁荣的职能,同时也是传播文化的重要途径,南北的交流为沿岸居民们带来了新的宗教信仰,除了与水运息息相关的水神崇拜之外,甚至也在一定程度上包括了可谓是"边缘"的西方宗教。本文以天主教在江苏境内的传播为例,探讨运河与天主教传播的关系。

  2. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Moshari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103 with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5 and 7 experimental (n = 14 groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212 and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04, 35.06 and 40.06. All the experimental groups were irrigated with 2 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation and finally rinsed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (2 mL followed by 5.25% NaOCl (2 mL and sterile distilled water. Colony counting was performed after incubation. Statistical Analysis Used: Resulting data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey′s post-hoc test, (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P < 0.001. Although the greater the size/taper or both led to more decreased amount of bacteria, differences between the groups with the identical size and different tapers, and among the groups with the same taper and different sizes were not significant. Based on this study, 25.04 along with using 2 mL of 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, and using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl as final rinse successively after the termination of preparation, can effectively reduce intra-canal bacteria and preserve root structure.

  3. Controls on water acidification and de-oxygenation in an estuarine waterway, eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.; Wood, M.; Haskins, P.; Ryffel, T.; Lin, J.

    2004-09-01

    The quality of soil and water was investigated in an estuarine floodplain system, eastern Australia. The backswamp portion of the floodplain is underlain by sulfidic sediments at depths about 0.5-0.9 m below the ground surface. Actual acid sulfate soils have developed due to sulfide oxidation as a consequence of land drainage since the early 1900s. These acid sulfate soils have a high measured total actual acidity (TAA, up to 500 mmol H +/kg). However, only a very small proportion (quality monitoring in the creek (Rocky Mouth Creek) draining the estuarine embayment during the period from May 1998 to July 2000 shows that acidic flows (pHexported into the creek from acid sulfate soils through an artificial drain network. It is hypothesized that Fe 2+ is being generated by biological iron reduction, which consumes H + and thereby drives the conversion of retained acids to soluble acids. This allows the release of retained acids and subsequently the translocation of acids from soils to the adjacent waterway. Monitoring results also show clear responses of pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) to heavy rainfall events during the period of alternating high (>6) pH-dominated flows. Frequently, pH and DO levels in the creek water drop during flooding. Results from field investigation and experimental simulation suggest that DO depletion associated with organic matter decomposition takes place rapidly in the floodwater inundating the soils and this DO-depleted water has a significant capacity to further de-oxygenate any receiving water. However, the consumption of DO in floodwater is not clearly related to oxidation of Fe 2+. It is not certain what other DO consumers are involved in the process and further research is needed to fill this knowledge gap.

  4. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal

    OpenAIRE

    NOZAWA, HIROAKI; ISHIHARA, SOICHIRO; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; YASUDA, KOJI; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for t...

  5. Detection of Mesiobuccal Canal in Maxillary Molars and Distolingual Canal in Mandibular Molars by Dental CT: A Retrospective Study of 100 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Rathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To detect presence of MB2 canal in maxillary molars and distolingual canal in mandibular molars by Dental CT. Material and Methods. A retrospective study of 100 Dental CTs was done. Axial and paraxial images obtained were used to assess the presence of MB2 canal in maxillary molars and distolingual canal in mandibular molars. Results. The youngest patient was of 11 years while the eldest patient was of 77 years. Males were 58 in number and females were 42 in number. MB2 canals were present in 57 patients and distolingual canal was present in 18 patients. Maximum MB2 canals were present in age group between 51 and 60 years, while distolingual canals were present in age group of 21–30 years. Conclusion. Dental CT allows adequate visualization of variation in root canal morphology and can be important diagnostic tool for successful endodontic therapy.

  6. The classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter authors give information about frequency of cancerous growths of the anal canal, general analysis of observations the classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal, clinical-anatomy classification of cancerous growths of the anal canal and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal

  7. Clinical Treatment and Anatomy Study of Maxillary First Molars with Five Root Canals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuo Wan; Shun-yun Luo; Ji-zhi Zhao; Hai-yun Wang; Lin Ma; Wen-dong Yang

    2011-01-01

    @@ THE purpose of root canal treatment is to thoroughly clean the root canal system and fill it in all its dimensions.1 To achieve this goal, the entire root canal system must be adequately debrided and completely filled.In clinical practice, variations in the canal morphology pose a constant challenge to Received for publication April 26, 2011.

  8. On the Waterway Staff Training Management and Innovation%试论航道员工培训管理与创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    镇卫兵

    2014-01-01

    近年来我国航道事业随着社会经济的快速发展越来越被重视,航道作为水路运输的重要组成部分,其管理状况对水运发展起着直接影响作用。本文通过对航道现行体制与管理情况探讨,结合员工培训管理与创新分析,提出加强航道管理水平的策略,以实现水运交通事业快速持续健康发展的目标。%In recent years, with the rapid development of social economy, waterway business in China has been paid more and more attention. As an important part of water transportation, waterway's management conditions have a direct impact on water transportation development. Through the discussion of current system and management conditions of waterway, combined with analysis of employee training management and innovation, this article puts forward the strategies to strengthen the waterway management level, in order to achieve the goal of rapid, sustainable and healthy development of waterway transportation business.

  9. Seepage from canals having variable shape and partial lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnateghi, A.; Bruch, J. C.

    1983-07-01

    The numerical models presented here are solutions to the steady two-dimensional flow through a porous medium from canals of variable shape with partial lining. Two main cases are studied. The first case is the seepage flow from canals with impervious lining on their sloping sides. The second case is for seepage from canals in which the impervious lining is located on the base of the canal and the sides are unlined. The Baiocchi transformation and method is used to develop a boundary value problem which is then solved by the finite-difference successive over-relaxation method with projection. A sample problem of each case is presented. The discharge rates and free surfaces of the seepage flows are obtained through the numerical scheme, and are compared with available analytical results.

  10. Root canal irrigants: a review of their interactions, benefits, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amit; Sahoo, Sanjit Kumar; Govind, Shashirekha

    2015-04-01

    Endodontic treatment success depends on a combination of appropriate instrumentation, effective irrigation and decontamination of root canal spaces to apices, and obturation of the root canals. Irrigation of the root canal is paramount in determining periapical tissue healing. This article reviews presently available root canal irrigants, their interactions, advantages, and limitations. For this review, the authors performed a Medline search for all English language articles published through January 2014 with "root canal irrigants" and "endodontic irrigants" as keywords. PMID:25821937

  11. Canals in the Roof of the Pharynx :Anatomic Study and their Clinical Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are small canals which connect the roof of the nasopharynx to the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The pterygopalatine fossa represents a major pathway for spread of malignant tumors and infections. In most of the classic anatomy texts brief descriptions of the palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are provided. There is still a scarcity of studies comparing the radiologic and microdissection findings~([1]). The aim of t...

  12. Transport and handling of dangerous goods. Training of persons in charge of vehicles or vessels carrying dangerous goods by road or by inland waterways (Dangerous Goods 1979 No.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order supplements the Regulations of 15 April 1945 on the transport of dangerous goods by rail, land and inland waterways. It deals with the training of persons in charge of vehicles or boats carrying dangerous goods by road or by inland waterways. It refers in particular to transport of radioactive materials. (NEA)

  13. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Sabine Lake, Texas Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Sabine Lake, Texas, and adjoining Intracoastal Waterway canals was determined as part of bioeffects assessment studies managed by...

  14. Origin and evolution of the canal raphe system in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Elizabeth C; Theriot, Edward C

    2011-11-01

    One lineage of pennate diatoms has a slit through the siliceous cell wall, called a "raphe," that functions in motility. Raphid pennate diatoms number in the perhaps tens of thousands of species, with the diversity of raphe forms potentially matching this number. Three lineages-the Bacillariales, Rhopalodiales, and Surirellales-possess a complex and presumably highly derived raphe that is physically separated from the cell interior, most often by a set of siliceous braces. Because the relationship among these three lineages is unclear, the number of origins of the canal raphe system and the homology of it and its constitutive parts among these lineages, is equally unclear. We reconstructed the phylogeny of raphid pennate diatoms and included, for the first time, members of all three canal raphid diatom lineages, and used the phylogeny to test specific hypotheses about the origin of the canal raphe. The canal raphe appears to have evolved twice, once in the common ancestor of Bacillariales and once in the common ancestor of Rhopalodiales and Surirellales, which form a monophyletic group in our analyses. These results recommend careful follow-up morphogenesis studies of the canal raphe in these two lineages to determine the underlying developmental basis for this remarkable case of parallel evolution.

  15. Very long term development of the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport System: Policy analysis, transport projections, shipping scenarios, and a new perspective on economic growth and future discounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses how a new method for the evaluation of policies with a very long term impact on the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) system can be developed. It proposes an outline for a very long term transport model, prepares a number of very long term scenarios, and indicates that a di

  16. The training, examination and certification of safety advisers for the transport of dangerous goods by road, rail and inland waterways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of the European Union Council Directive 96/35/EC on the appointment and vocational qualification of safety advisers for the transport of dangerous goods by road, rail and inland waterways has posed significant challenges for administrators and industry. The concept of a mandatory qualification in this specific transport area was novel and cut across existing legislative requirements and industry schemes of 'best practice'. Within the Members of the European Union only the United Kingdom opposed the adoption of the Directive fearing that the requirement could lead to increased industry costs without any appreciable enhancement of current safety standards. The United Kingdom lost the debate but being good members of the European Union set out to implement the Directive using the flexibilities contained in the Directive and bearing in mind existing national safety procedures. The aim was implementation with 'as light a touch as possible consistent with the UK's treaty obligations'. (author)

  17. [Spatial Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils and Sediments in Shunde Waterway, Southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-min; Chen, Wei-ping; Peng, Chi; Wang, Tie-yu; Xiao, Rong-bo

    2016-05-15

    Environmental quality of soils and sediments around water source area can influence the safety of potable water of rivers. In order to study the pollution characteristics, the sources and ecological risks of heavy metals Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in water source area, surface soils around the waterway and sediments in the estuary of main tributaries were collected in Shunde, and ecological risks of heavy metals were assessed by two methods of potential ecological risk assessment. The mean contents of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the surface soils were 186.80, 65.88, 54.56, 32.47, 22.65 and 0.86 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except those of Cu and Ni. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the sediments were 312.11, 111.41, 97.87, 92.32, 29.89 and 1.72 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except that of Ni. The results of principal component analysis illustrated that the main source of Cr and Ni in soils was soil parent materials, and Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in soils mainly came from wastewater discharge of local manufacturing industry. The six heavy metals in sediments mainly originated from industry emissions around the Shunde waterway. The results of potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals showed that Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni had a slight potential ecological risk. Cd had a slight potential ecological risk in surface soils, but a moderate potential ecological risk in surfaces sediments. Because the potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals took the soil properties and heavy metal forms into account, its results of risks were lower than those of Hakanson methods, and it could avoid overestimating the potential risks of heavy metals.

  18. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  19. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; Yasuda, Koji; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for tumor cells. Six years later, an elevated lesion, macroscopically five millimeters in size, was detected in the left wall of the anal canal in a follow-up colonoscopy. Local excision of the tumor was performed, and the lesion was pathologically confirmed to be tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia limited to the mucosa. The patient is currently alive without any evidence of recurrence for six months after surgery. Although she had a past history of cervical cancer, the multiple tumors arising in the anal canal were unlikely to be related to human papilloma virus infection. Our case report underscores the importance of careful observations throughout colonoscopy to detect precancerous lesions, particularly in anatomically narrow segments. PMID:26249723

  20. Irrigation and crop management in Gandak Canal command of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gandak Project is one of the biggest irrigation projects in India, covering a culturable command area (CCA) of 4.44 lakh ha in U.P., 9.6 lakh ha CCA in Bihar and 0.44 lakh ha in Nepal (Singh and Khan, 2002). The total culturable command areas are 14.44 lakh hectares. The command area is located in between latitude 25 deg 40' to 27 deg 25' and longitude between 83 deg 15' to 85 deg 15'. It is a diversion project through construction of a barrage on the river Gandak. This project area covers up to five districts in the Command of Tirhut Main Canal (TMC) and 3 districts in the Saran Main Canal (SMC) command. The length of main canal is usually long (990 and 650 R.D.'s in eastern and western side, respectively) and the channels are unlined and seepage loss is quite high. (author)

  1. Classification, mechanism and surgical treatments for spinal canal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Sun

    2016-01-01

    A variety of cystic lesions may develop in spinal canal. These cysts can be divided into intramedullary, intradural, extradural, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral cysts according to anatomical presentation, as well as arachnoid, meningeal, perineural, juxtafacet, discal, neurenteric cysts, and cyst-like lesions according to different etiologies. Mechanisms of initiation and growth vary for different cysts, such as congenital, trauma, bleeding, inflammatory, instability, hydrostatic pressure, osmosis of water, secretion of cyst wall, and one-way-valve effect, etc. Up to now, many treatment methods are available for these different spinal canal cysts. One operation method can be applied in cysts with different types. On the other hand, several operation methods may be utilized in one type of cyst according to the difference of location or style. However, same principle should be obeyed in surgical treatment despite of difference among spinal canal cysts, given open surgery is melely for symptomatic cyst. The surgical approach should be tailored to the individual patient.

  2. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  3. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  4. Shaping ability of the M4 handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files in simulated root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A; Jaunberzins, A; Dhopatkar, A; Bryant, S; Dummer, P M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the shaping ability of the M4 reciprocating handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files in simulated canals. A total of 40 simulated canals of various angles and positions of curvature were prepared with an M4 handpiece using Safety Hedstrom files oriented with the ground, flattened surface towards the inner aspect of the curve. A standard regimen was adopted throughout. Pre- and post-operative longitudinal images of the canals were taken with a video camera and stored and manipulated in a computer with image analysis software. The presence of canal aberrations and the amount and location of resin material removed as a result of preparation were determined from composite images of superimposed pre- and post-operative views. Preparation time varied significantly (P canal types; overall, 20 degrees canals were prepared more quickly than 40 degrees canals. Zips and elbows were observed in 16 out of the 40 canals with most (11) being created in 40 degrees specimens. Ledges were found in 19 canals and perforations in only 1. There were no significant differences between canal shapes for these aberrations. Excessive removal of material from the inner aspect of the canal at the curve to create a danger zone was found in 20 canals, but only in those with 40 degrees curves. Significant differences in total canal width between the canal types were seen at the zips (P danger zones (P danger zones varied significantly (P canal types. Under the conditions of this study, the M4 handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files created hour-glass preparations in a substantial proportion of canals. In reality, the Safety Hedstrom file with its one flattened surface was ineffective at reducing removal of material along the inner aspect of canal curves in severely curved specimens and clearly has the potential to create strip perforations in teeth. PMID:9477790

  5. Spatial orientation of semicircular canals and afferent sensitivity vectors in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Rotational head motion in vertebrates is detected by the semicircular canal system, whose innervating primary afferent fibers carry information about movement in specific head planes. The semicircular canals have been qualitatively examined over a number of years, and the canal planes have been quantitatively characterized in several animal species. The present study first determined the geometric relationship between individual semicircular canals and between the canals and the stereotactic head planes in pigeons. Stereotactic measurements of multiple points along the circumference of the bony canals were taken, and the measured points fitted with a three-dimensional planar surface. Direction normals to the plane's surface were calculated and used to define angles between semicircular canal pairs. Because of the unusual shape of the anterior semicircular canals in pigeons, two planes, a major and a minor, were fitted to the canal's course. Calculated angle values for all canals indicated that the horizontal and posterior semicircular canals are nearly orthogonal, but the anterior canals have substantial deviations from orthogonality with other canal planes. Next, the responses of the afferent fibers that innervate each of the semicircular canals to 0.5 Hz sinusoidal rotation about an earth-vertical axis were obtained. The head orientation relative to the rotation axis was systematically varied so that directions of maximum sensitivity for each canal afferent could be determined. These sensitivity vectors were then compared with the canal plane direction normals. The afferents that innervated specific semicircular canals formed homogeneous clusters of sensitivity vectors in different head planes. The horizontal and posterior afferents had average sensitivity vectors that were largely co-incident with the innervated canal plane direction normals. Anterior canal afferents, however, appeared to synthesize contributions from the major and minor plane components of the

  6. News of CanalUGR tracked on Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-Solana, V??ctor; Arboledas M??rquez, Luis; Leger??n-??lvarez, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Dataset contains 613 news of CanalUGR (University of Granada Communication Office) tracked on the main online news aggregators (Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News). We include: number in CanalUGR, media, country, type.

  7. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps.

  8. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  9. Mimamata and Love Canal: A Pollution Tale of Two Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about case studies of the environmental disasters of Minamata, Japan and Love Canal, New York. Compares how the legal cases were handled in two constitutional democracies. Provides six handouts that include maps, role descriptions for simulations, and student readings. (CFR)

  10. Lightlike Hypersurfaces and Canal Hypersurfaces of Lorentzian Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lightlike hypersurfaces in semi-Euclidean space are of special interest in Relativity Theory. In particular, the singularities of these lightlike hypersurfaces provide good models for the study of different horizon types. And we obtain some geometrical propositions of the canal hypersurfaces of Lorentzian surfaces. We introduce the notions of flatness for these hypersurfaces and study their singularities.

  11. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  12. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus is on the......This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus...... is on the extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes...... and deformation fields. The results show that the ear canal changes shape significantly in all subjects and that the deformation is more complicated than previously described in the literature. It is shown that the deformation at specific locations in the ear is significantly correlated to comfort issues reported...

  13. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Brajkovic, Denis; Ilic, Dragan; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djuric, Marija; Busse, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples' microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  14. The spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal in beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensor, Jennifer D; Suydam, Robert; George, John C; Liberman, M C; Lovano, Denise; Rhaganti, Mary Ann; Usip, Sharon; Vinyard, Christopher J; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-12-01

    With the increase of human activity and corresponding increase in anthropogenic sounds in marine waters of the Arctic, it is necessary to understand its effect on the hearing of marine wildlife. We have conducted a baseline study on the spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal of the cochlea in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) as an initial assessment of auditory anatomy and health. We present morphometric data on the length of the cochlea, number of whorls, neuron densities along its length, Rosenthal's canal length, and cross-sectional area, and show some histological results. In belugas, Rosenthal's canal is not a cylinder of equal cross-sectional area, but its cross-section is greatest near the apex of the basal whorl. We found systematic variation in the numbers of neurons along the length of the spiral ganglion, indicating that neurons are not dispersed evenly in Rosenthal's canal. These results provide data on functionally important structural parameters of the beluga ear. We observed no signs of acoustic trauma in our sample of beluga whales.

  15. Exposure and direct stimulation of the semicircular canal cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Harada, Y

    1985-01-01

    The ampullary wall of the posterior semicircular canal was isolated from the frog, cut and the cupula exposed in frog Ringer's solution. The cupula was stimulated by depression with a fine glass micropipette. Three points on the cupula were selected for depression: point A, the lowest point on the midline of the cupula surface on the utricular side; point B, the uppermost on the midline of the same surface; and point C, in the middle of the lateral surface of the cupula. Depression at points A and B was toward the canal, whereas depression at point C was toward the centre of the cupula. The amount of depression was controlled by a micromanipulator. At point A, the minimum depression facilitating the posterior canal action potential was 1 micron; at point B, a greater amount of depression was needed to produce the action potential. Even a large amount of depression at point C resulted in only a small action potential, possibly because the direction of the sensory cell polarity is along the long axis of the canal.

  16. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  17. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in curved root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Perez, Ana; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of endodontic irrigation procedures can be compromised by the complexity of the root canal system. Delivering irrigants to the apical third of curved canals presents a particular challenge to endodontists. This study compared the effects of two ultrasonic irrigation techniques on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main canal and simulated lateral canals of curved roots in extracted teeth. Material and Methods Two sets of simulated lateral canals were created at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the working length in 60 single-rooted teeth (6 canals/tooth, n = 360 canals). The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental irrigation groups: group 1 (n = 20), positive pressure irrigation (PPI); group 2 (n = 20), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 3 (n = 20), continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). To assess the irrigation solution penetration, 20% Chinese ink (Sanford Rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was added to a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution and delivered into the curved root canals. The penetration of contrast solution into the simulated lateral canals was scored by counting the number of lateral canals (0-2) penetrated to at least 50% of the total length. Results The CUI group showed significantly higher (P irrigant penetration into the lateral canals and into the apical third of the main canals. The PPI group showed significantly lower sodium hypochlorite penetration (P irrigant penetration was observed in the PUI group than the PPI group. Conclusions Using CUI as the final rinse significantly increased the penetration of irrigant solution into the simulated lateral canals and apical third of curved roots. Key words:Continuous ultrasonic irrigation, curved root canals, passive ultrasonic irrigation, positive pressure irrigation, root canal irrigation.

  18. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Lind, Peter; Vennervald, B.J.;

    1996-01-01

    The present work comprises a longitudinal study of Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyper-exposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of chemotherapy on humoral immune parameters. The study groups included chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 19), newly recruited canal...... cleaners (n = 17), normally exposed adults (n = 31), school children (n = 46) and Sudanese negative controls (n = 48). Previous studies of the same canal cleaners have demonstrated that chronically infected canal cleaners were more resistant to reinfection than newly recruited canal cleaners. ELISA...... was used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection...

  19. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  20. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...... enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. Methodology Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were scanned using X‐ray microcomputed tomography. Root canals were prepared using either a GT/Profile protocol or a Ra......Ce/NiTi protocol. Variables used for evaluation were the following: distance between root canal surfaces before and after preparation (distance after preparation, DAP), percentage of root canal area remaining unprepared and increase in canal volume after preparation. Root canals were classified according to size...

  1. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ. College of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81{+-}1.41 mm, 6.46{+-}1.33 mm, and 7.91{+-}1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42{+-}2.20 mm, 6.23{+-}2.29 mm, and 7.89{+-}2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  2. Recent waterway incidents around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowat, L. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed recent waterway incidents around dams. Several case histories were presented, including a man who drowned when he slipped from the top of the South Idaho Power Plant Spillway in June 3 2004; 2 brothers who drowned near a spillway in Watson Minnesota, in June, 2004; a jet-skier who plunged to his death after ramping the 50 foot Brasfield Dam, in Virginia in June, 2004; a couple whose boat on Lake Austin was swept up against the sluicegate; an angler who drowned at a dam in Bridgeville, Delaware; a man who drowned swimming below a dam in San Marcos, Texas in April, 2005; and a fisherman who drowned at Logan Martin Dam in Birmingham, Alabama in April, 2005. A list of examples of fatalities at dams in 2004 and international incidents at dams from 2005 and 2006 to 2008 were also provided. Examples of Canadian incidents at dams were also listed. figs.

  3. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (proot canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (proot canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  4. Assessment of bifid and trified mandicular canals using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashsyren, Oyuntugs [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mongolian National University Medical Science, Ulaanbaatar (United States); Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diameter, length, and angles were measured using PACSPLUS Viewer and ImageJ 1.46r. Statistical analysis with chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was performed. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals were found in 22.6% of the 500 patients and 16.2% of the 755 sides. There was no significant difference between genders and among age groups. The retromolar canal type accounted for 71.3% of the identified canals; the dental canal type, 18.8%; the forward canal type, 4.1%; and the trifid canal type, 5.8%. Interestingly, seven cases of the trifid canal type, which has been rarely reported, were observed. The mean diameter of the bifid and trifid mandibular canals was 2.2 mm and that of the main mandibular canal was 4.3 mm. Their mean length was 16.9 mm; the mean superior angle was 149.2 degrees, and the mean inferior angle was 37.7 degrees. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals in the Korean population were observed at a relatively high rate through a CBCT evaluation, and the most common type was the retromolar canal. CBCT is suggested for a detailed evaluation of bifid and trifid mandibular canals before mandibular surgery.

  5. Deadbands and the Dynamic Response and Performance of Large Water Transfer Canal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; TAN Guangming; GUAN Guanghua

    2009-01-01

    An operating simulation mode for multireach canal system in series under gate regulating is established. The discharge feedforward plus water lever feedback PID controller was adopted. And the performance indicators are introduced to evaluate the control effects of canal operation. Influence on dynamic response process and dynamic performance as well as the control actions of canal system are studied according to the variation of the gate deadband and water level deadband. The results showed that the larger the gate deadband, the worse, the control effect of canal system over water level, and so done the stable process of gate discharge, yet the stable process of gate opening was getting better, while the upstream gate regulation of each canal pool was less at the time when canal stabilizes;the closer to downstream end of canal, the lager steady-state error of this canal pool was, and the lager influence of gate deadband on the steady-state error as well as response time of this canal pool was;the canal system can not acquire superiority in both the control performance and control actions when only the water level deadband was established.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of canalization: Hsp90 and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Salathia; Christine Queitsch

    2007-04-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone machine facilitates the maturation of a diverse set of ‘client’ proteins. Many of these Hsp90 clients are essential nodes in signal transduction pathways and regulatory circuits, accounting for the important role Hsp90 plays in organismal development and responses to the environment. Recent findings suggest a broader impact of the chaperone on phenotype: fully functional Hsp90 canalizes wild-type phenotypes by suppressing underlying genetic and epigenetic variation. This variation can be expressed upon challenging the Hsp90 machinery by environmental stress, genetic or pharmaceutical targeting of Hsp90. The existence of Hsp90-buffered genetic and epigenetic variation together with plausible release mechanisms has wide-ranging implication for phenotype and possibly evolutionary processes. Here, we discuss the role of Hsp90 in canalization and organismal plasticity, and highlight important questions for future experimental inquiry.

  7. Using Modified Sorbents for Reducing Negative Impact of Oil-Containing Industrial Wastes on Natural and Artificial Waterways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljudmila Anatolievna Marchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at developing and using co-precipitated hydroxides (CPH of aluminum and magnesium as sorbents, in order to reduce the negative impact of oil-containing industrial wastes on natural and artificial waterways. A new method of synthesizing a modified sorbent has been developed, featuring high sorption capacity to a wide range of pollutants in low-acid, neutral, and low-alkaline environments, able to extract complex compounds. A possibility to use this sorbent has been shown, and its sorption capacity has been studied. Sorption parameters have been defined. It has been shown that the value of the maximum achievable concentration efficiency in extracting the said ions on a co-precipitated sorbent is about ten times higher than the corresponding values that characterize sorption on analogous sorbents. In performing analytical studies, standard methods were used, as well as modern methods of physical and chemical analysis: x-ray phase, x-ray fluorescent, atomic absorption, spectral, chemical, thin layer chromatography, and chromato-mass-spectrometry. The specific surface of the samples was defined by the temperature of nitrogen absorption, using the chromatographic method, followed by processing the obtained results using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Porosity was defined using mercury porometry. The performed research has made it possible to obtain new highly efficient sorbents and assess their economic efficiency. The performed research will make it possible to resolve ecological and social problems by preventing the damage caused by environmental pollution with anthropogenous wastes.

  8. Dynamic displacement of normal and detached semicircular canal cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Richard D; Breneman, Kathryn D; King, Curtis; Yamauchi, Angela M; Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M

    2009-12-01

    The dynamic displacement of the semicircular canal cupula and modulation of afferent nerve discharge were measured simultaneously in response to physiological stimuli in vivo. The adaptation time constant(s) of normal cupulae in response to step stimuli averaged 36 s, corresponding to a mechanical lower corner frequency for sinusoidal stimuli of 0.0044 Hz. For stimuli equivalent to 40-200 deg/s of angular head velocity, the displacement gain of the central region of the cupula averaged 53 nm per deg/s. Afferents adapted more rapidly than the cupula, demonstrating the presence of a relaxation process that contributes significantly to the neural representation of angular head motions by the discharge patterns of canal afferent neurons. We also investigated changes in time constants of the cupula and afferents following detachment of the cupula at its apex-mechanical detachment that occurs in response to excessive transcupular endolymph pressure. Detached cupulae exhibited sharply reduced adaptation time constants (300 ms-3 s, n = 3) and can be explained by endolymph flowing rapidly over the apex of the cupula. Partially detached cupulae reattached and normal afferent discharge patterns were recovered 5-7 h following detachment. This regeneration process may have relevance to the recovery of semicircular canal function following head trauma.

  9. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future.

  10. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future. PMID:27250138

  11. 75 FR 754 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... data which indicates that Asian carp are much closer to the Great Lakes waterway system than originally thought. The possibility exists that vessels will transport Asian carp eggs, gametes or juvenile fish... transported and discharged on the other side of the barrier. The Asian carp are the subject of an...

  12. Delineating ground water recharge from leaking irrigation canals using water chemistry and isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F E; Sibray, S S

    2001-01-01

    Across the Great Plains irrigation canals are used to transport water to cropland. Many of these canals are unlined, and leakage from them has been the focus of an ongoing legal, economic, and philosophical debate as to whether this lost water should be considered waste or be viewed as a beneficial and reasonable use since it contributes to regional ground water recharge. While historically there has been much speculation about the impact of canal leakage on local ground water, actual data are scarce. This study was launched to investigate the impact of leakage from the Interstate Canal, in the western panhandle of Nebraska, on the hydrology and water quality of the local aquifer using water chemistry and environmental isotopes. Numerous monitoring wells were installed in and around a small wetland area adjacent to the canal, and ground water levels were monitored from June 1992 until January 1995. Using the water level data, the seepage loss from the canal was estimated. In addition, the canal, the monitoring wells, and several nearby stock and irrigation wells were sampled for inorganic and environmental isotope analysis to assess water quality changes, and to determine the extent of recharge resulting from canal leakage. The results of water level monitoring within study wells indicates a rise in local ground water levels occurs seasonally as a result of leakage during periods when the canal is filled. This rise redirects local ground water flow and provides water to nearby wetland ecosystems during the summer months. Chemical and isotopic results were used to delineate canal, surface, and ground water and indicate that leaking canal water recharges both the surface alluvial aquifer and upper portions of the underlying Brule Aquifer. The results of this study indicate that lining the Interstate Canal could lower ground water levels adjacent to the canal, and could adversely impact the local aquifer.

  13. Cadmium and chromium concentrations in six forage species irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were investigated in six different forage species, i.e., Trifolium alexandrium, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa, irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water. The Cd levels of the forages irrigated with different water treatments in this study were greater than the tolerance level for grazing livestock reported in the literature. Thus, the Cd levels in the six plant species found in the current study showed high potential threat for livestock consuming these forages. Similarly, high levels of Cr in the six forages were observed with sewage water treatment only. However, in the present investigation, Cr concentration of forages was below the toxic level. Therefore, there was no threat of Cr toxicity for animals being reared on these forages. (author)

  14. Cone-beam computed tomography study of root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional radiography is limited in its ability to give reliable information on the number and morphology of root canals. The application of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a non-invasive three-dimensional confirmatory diagnosis as a complement to conventional radiography. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population using CBCT scanning. The sample included 149 CBCT images comprising 178 mandibular first premolars and 178 second premolars. The tooth position, number of roots and canals, and canal configuration according to Vertucci’s classification were recorded. The results showed that 98% of mandibular first premolars had one root and 2% had two roots; 87.1% had one canal, 11.2% had two canals and 0.6% had three canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 1.1%. All mandibular second premolars had one root; 97.2% had one canal and 2.2% had two canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 0.6%. The prevalence of multiple canals in mandibular first premolars was mainly of Type V, and mandibular second premolars had a low rate of canal variation in this western Chinese population. Root canal bifurcation occurred at the middle or apical third in most bicanal mandibular premolars. CBCT scanning can be used in the management of mandibular premolars with complex canal morphology

  15. Groundwater quality and soil salinization in a canal command area and management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to examine the groundwater quality and soil salinization in canal irrigated areas. Data were collected along six secondary canals (2 each at head, middle and tail end) of a main canal and nine tertiary canals (3 each at head, middle and tail) on each of the secondary canal. The farmers were also interviewed to investigate the impact of location along the irrigation channels on their crop yield and income. The results showed that groundwater quality has deteriorated from head to tail reaches of the irrigation channels i.e. the main canal, the secondary and the tertiary canals. Similarly, the soil salinization has increased with increase in distance from the head of the irrigation system along all the irrigation channels. Location of the water users along the canal irrigation system has significant impact on their crop yield as well as income and these parameters decrease with increase in distance from the head of the irrigation channels. The net income of the tail end farmers is only 43-59% of the head end farmers. The reduced canal water supply at lower reaches of the irrigation system forced the down reach water users to pump more groundwater of inferior quality resulting in many times increase in their irrigation cost. The deteriorating groundwater quality further added misery to the downstream farmers by degrading productivity of their lands due to increased soil salinity. (author)

  16. STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES OF SHIPS IN NARROW WATERWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xie-dong; Wu Xiu-heng

    2003-01-01

    The collision of ships in narrow waterway may occur for a variety of reasons. The hydrodynamic forces between two ships change the maneuvering characteristics of ships greatly. So based on the boundary element method, this paper proposes a calculation method for hydrodynamic interaction forces between ships under meeting and passing conditions in narrow waterway. The results from this method are compared with the existing results obtained from other theoretical approaches, and they are in good agreement.

  17. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  18. 75 FR 75145 - Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL; Safety Zone, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... data which indicates that Asian carp are much closer to the Great Lakes waterway system than originally thought. The possibility exists that vessels will transport Asian carp eggs, gametes or juvenile fish... transported and discharged on the other side of the barrier. The Asian carp are the subject of an...

  19. Building and Testing a Statistical Shape Model of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Laugesen, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    Today the design of custom in-the-ear hearing aids is based on personal experience and skills and not on a systematic description of the variation of the shape of the ear canal. In this paper it is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based...... for gender related differences in size and shape of the ear canal....

  20. Dental implants in bilateral bifid canal and compromised interocclusal space using cone beam computerized tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nizar; Arunachalam, Lalitha Tanjore; Jacob, Caroline Annette; Kumar, Suresh Anand

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of various anatomic landmarks is pivotal for important success. Bifid canals pose a challenge and can lead to difficulties while performing implant surgery in the mandible. Bifid canals can be diagnosed with panoramic radiography and more accurately with cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). This case report details the placement of the implant in a patient with bilateral bifid canal and compromised interocclusal space, which was successfully treated using CBCT. PMID:27433073

  1. Radiographic Evaluation of Root and Canal Morphologies of Third Molar Teeth in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Root and canal morphology of teeth has a significant role in endodontic treatment success. Third molars have strategic roles after losing first and second molars. Objectives This study investigated the morphology of permanent third molar using radiography in Dentistry University of Hamadan during 2011. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 352 extracted molars (179 maxillary and 173 mandibular molars were collected. After preparing access cavity and file placement in canals, to investigate the number of roots, canals and canal type periapical radiographies were taken from two directions (mesiodistal and buccolingual. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software and descriptive statistics. Results According to the study on 173 mandibular third molars, 92.4%, 4.6%, and 2.89% had two, one, and three roots, respectively. Majority of them had two or three canals and most of mesial root canals were type 2; but in 179 maxillary third molars, findings showed that 67.6%, 15%, 11.7%, and 5.6% of teeth had three, one, two, and four roots, respectively, majority of which had three canals (68.7%. Canals of 100% of distobuccal and palatal roots and 91% of mesiobuccal roots were type 1. Conclusions However, root and canal anatomies of third molar teeth are unknown, but studies focusing on third molar teeth have shown their possibility of treatment.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Diode Laser and Sodium Hypochlorite in Enterococcus Faecalis-Contaminated Root Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi, Khosrow; Sooratgar, Aidin; Zolfagharnasab, Kaveh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: The root canals of 18 extracted single-rooted premolars were prepared by rotary system. After decoronation, the roots were autoclaved. One specimen was chosen for the negative control, and the remaining teeth were incub...

  3. Chlorhexidine as a root canal irrigant: Antimicrobial and scanning electron microscopic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Živković Slavoljub; Pavlović Violeta

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Selection of irrigant is very important for longterm success of root canal therapy. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) against five selected microorganisms and to evaluate its efficacy in root canal cleaning. Methods. In this study, by agar diffusion test, were evaluated antimicrobial effects of three root canal irrigants: 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX. The microorganisms tested in ...

  4. In vitro comparison of antimicrobial effectiveness of QMix and other final irrigants in human root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Liu; Lili Guo; Yuqin Li; Xiangjun Guo; Bin Wang; Ligeng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Final root canal irrigation stands as an effective strategy for eliminating the dentin infection. This study aimed to investigate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of QMix and other four final irrigation regimens in reducing Enterococcus faecalis within human root canals. Single-canal human teeth contaminated with E. faecalis for 4 weeks were prepared chemomechanically with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Then, the teeth were randomly assigned into six groups according to the final irrigati...

  5. External ear canal cholesteatoma after ventilation tube insertion and mastoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Dragoslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Etiopathogenetically, there are two types of chollesteatomas: congenital, and acquired. Numerous theories in the literature try to explain the nature of the disease, however, the question about cholesteatomas remain still unanswered. The aim of the study was to present a case of external ear canal cholesteatoma (EEC developed following microsurgery (ventilation tube insertion and mastoidectomy, as well as to point ant possible mechanisms if its development. Case report. A 16-yearold boy presented a 4-month sense of fullness in the ear and otalgia on the left side. A year before, mastoidectomy and posterior atticotomy were performed with ventilation tube placement due to acute purulent mastoiditis. Diagnosis was based on otoscopy examination, audiology and computed tomography (CT findings. CT showed an obliterative soft-tissue mass completely filled the external ear canal with associated erosion of subjacent the bone. There were squamous epithelial links between the canal cholesteatoma and lateral tympanic membrane surface. They originated from the margins of tympanic membrane incision made for a ventilation tube (VT insertion. The position of VT was good as well as the aeration of the middle ear cavity. The tympanic membrane was intact and of normal appearance without middle ear extension or mastoid involvement of cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma and ventilation tube were both removed. The patient recovered without complications and shortly audiology revealed hearing improving. Follow-up 2 years later, however, showed no signs of the disease. Conclusion. There could be more than one potential delicate mechanism of developing EEC in the ear with VT insertion and mastoidectomy. It is necessary to perform routine otologic surveillance in all patients with tubes. Affected ear CT scan is very helpful in showing the extent of cholesteatoma and bony defects, which could not be assessed by otoscopic examination alone.

  6. Study on congenital microtia and atresia after external canal plasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In treating congenital microtia and atresia, we conduct simultaneous external canal plasty, tympanoplasty, and auricle elevation with plastic surgeons about 6 months after auricleplasty by only plastic surgeons. The results are good both cosmetically and functionally. We report 13 cases in which hearing did not improve satisfactorily after surgery using postoperative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone. Lateral healing was seen in 9 (69%), new bone proliferation in 3 (23%), malpositioning of a cartilage block in 2 (15%), and both lateral healing and malpositioning of a cartilage block in 1 (7.6%). (author)

  7. Effects of irrigation solutions and Calcium hydroxide dressing on root canal treatments of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Nirmala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of root canal in endodontic treatment plays an important role in treating non vital teeth with periapical lesion. Some factors influence the success of root canal treatment in short and long terms are the irrigation of root canal using antiseptic solution and the use of root canal medicament. The aim of this literature study is to determined the effect of irrigation solution and Calcium hydroxide dressing in root canal treatment of periapical lesions. The use of root canal medicament during the endodontic treatment could sterilized and decreased the number of pathogenic microorganism of root canal. An effective root canal irrigation solution must be able to dissolve organic and anorganic debris, lubricate endodontic instruments, disinfect microorganisms, non toxic and economical. The best irrigation solution has maximum antimicrobial effect with minimum toxicity. Division of calcium hydroxide into Calcium and hydroxyl ions is responsible for alkalinization of cavity, subsequently it makes the condition of cavity to be inappropriate for bacterial endotoxin in vitro as well as in vivo, and considered as the only clinically effective medicament in inactivating bacterial endotoxin. Calcium hydroxide is the only medication which has the ability to clinically inactive bacterial endotoxin in vitro in vivo and accepted as the best of root canal medication.

  8. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  9. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-04-05

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  10. Conflict analysis and management alternative for the Manayunk Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution of a water resource allocation problem by an alternative social arrangement is presented. Classical Austrian economic theory and the new resources economics provide both theoretical and practical evidence to support the development of well-defined, private property rights to the water resource in question. A conflict analysis demonstrates that management of the Manayunk Canal by a firm would reconcile existing confrontations through compromise use of the water resource. Benefit and cost calculations show that a compromise among industrial and recreational interests, currently competing in the political arena, would increase social benefits

  11. Comparison of Irrigation Penetration into the Apical Part of Canals in Hand and Rotary Instrumentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khabiri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The penetration of irrigating solution to the apical one third of canals and removal of debris are dependent on the final size of the instruments and instrumentation techniques used in the canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of final instrument size, on irrigation penetration into the apical part of canals in hand K-file instrumentation versus rotary system of Hero 642.Methods and Materials: The mesiobuccal canals of 48 first mandibular molar teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were divided into 2 groups of 24 in each and the mesiobuccal canals were instrumented by hand K-file or rotary system of Hero 642 at 2 stages. After each stage, a contrast medium was injected into the canals and radiographs were taken by RVG system. The irrigation penetration was measured in radiographs by Diamax software. The data were analyzed using t – student test.Results: This study showed that instrumentation up to # 25 file is not enough for irrigation penetration into the apical area. Also by more flaring the canals, more irrigating solution penetrates into the apical part of canals (P 0 0.001, but the difference between hand and rotary systems was not statistically significant (P > 0.05.Discussion: According to this study, instrumentation up to # 30 file results in better irrigation penetration into the apical area. The flaring of the canals is essential for better cleaning and irrigation of apical area.

  12. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water. PMID:25251589

  13. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zielhofer

    Full Text Available The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  14. On biogeochemistry and water quality of river canals in Northern France subject to daily sediment resuspension due to intense boating activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Northern France, channelized rivers facilitate greatly the waterway transport that should still increase in the coming years to replace as much as possible the road traffic, considered as a heavier source of pollution. These rivers are now subjected to the good potential status objectives required by the Water Framework Directive. The impact of the recurrent resuspension by the current boat traffic of polluted sediments (due to strong historical pollution) on the water quality is the main concern of this work. Our study reveals that the navigation seems to play a limited role on the enrichment of the water columns by dissolved metals and phosphorus, as well as on the oxygenation of surface waters. Conversely, the cycling of the phytoplankton over the year appears to partly control the physico-chemical and chemical evolutions of the overlying waters. - Highlights: • In river canals boating results in the daily resuspension of polluted sediments. • Chemical indexes indicate that metals should be well trapped in the sediments. • Polluted sediments in Cd and Pb may only slightly enrich the river waters. • Daily boating activity results in the scavenging of dissolved phosphorus. • Phytoplanktonic biomass and seasonal effects partly control the water quality. - Polluted sediments resuspension in river canals by daily boat traffic seems to play a limited role on the enrichment of the water columns by dissolved metals and phosphorus

  15. Dentascan CT of mandibular incisive canal. Radiological anatomy and therapeutic implications; Tomografia computerizzata con Dentascan del canale incisivo mandibolare. Anatomia radiologica e implicazioni terapeutiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calgaro, A.; Bison, L.; Bellis, G.B.; Pozzi Mucelli, R. [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Ist. di radiologia

    1999-11-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of CT depiction of the mandibular incisive canal. This anatomical structure contains a major neurovascular bundle and is thus very important in the planning of mandibular implants in the canine-incisive area. The importance of careful assessment of the mandibular canal course before implantology is now widely recognized. The same holds true for the canine-incisive region in the jaw, to detect the incisive canal if present and prevent any complications from its accidental damage. CT with a dedicated software showed the incisive canal in a large number of patients, which calls for precise reporting of its presence, course, and relationships with teeth. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' sottolineare l'importanza di rilevare e segnalare la visibilita' con Tomografia Computerizzata del canale incisivo mandibolare, struttura anatomica al cui interno decorre un fascio vasculo nervoso e percio' di rilevante importanza in previsione di intervento implantologico nella regione mesiale della mandibola. In previsione di seduta implantologica appare fondamentale l'attenta valutazione non solo del decorso del canale mandibolare ma anche della regione canino-incisiva della mandibola per la possibile esistenza del canale incisivo al fine di evitare eventuali complicanze derivanti dal suo accidentale danneggiamento. Il riscontro di tale struttura con TC con programma dedicato e apparso tutt'altro che trascurabile e percio' risulta di primaria importanza segnalarne presenza, decorso ed eventuali rapporti con gli elementi dentari.

  16. 内河航道采砂监测系统设计及应用%Design and Application of Sand Mining Monitoring System for Inland River Waterway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 陈先桥; 初秀民; 尹奇志

    2013-01-01

    Illegal sand mining activities affect the natural variation of river bed in sand mined river,and they are harmful to flood control safety,navigation safety and ecological environment.In this paper,on the basis of analyzing the development and current situation about sand monitoring technology,information technology in Yangtze River waterway,the automatic acquisition and recognition method of sand mining area,sand quantity,sand area waterway structure were studied.And the design scheme of real -time monitoring system for the Yangtze River Waterway sand mining was proposed.The practical application shows that it has achieved good social and economic benefits.Based on the sand mining monitoring system design scheme and the introduced key processing technology,it will improve the service quality and the traffic capacity in inland waterway.%针对违法违规采砂活动严重影响采砂河段河床的自然变化,对采砂河段的防洪安全、船舶航行安全及生态环境等都带来不良影响的问题,在查阅国内外大量文献的基础上,分析了国内外采砂监管技术发展现状、重点河道的采砂监管现状、长江航道监控信息化技术现状,研究了采砂区域、采砂量、采砂区域航道结构信号的自动采集和识别方法,给出了长江航道采砂实时监测系统设计方案.实际应用表明,根据该设计方案和关键处理技术研制的长江航道采砂远程监控系统应用效果良好,取得了较好的社会和经济效益,对提高内河航道服务品质及内河航道通行能力起到了重要的促进作用.

  17. Effect of needle insertion depth and root canal curvature on irrigant extrusion ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psimma, Z.; Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Vasiliadis, L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, apical preparation size, and root canal curvature on irrigant extrusion by using a recently introduced method. Methods Sixteen human teeth with a straight root canal (group A) and 16 with a moderatel

  18. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6 miles per hour. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33...

  19. Classification of root canal microorganisms using electronic-nose and discriminant analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Özbilge Hatice; Kaya Esma; Er Özgür; Kahraman Yasemin; Asyalı Musa H; Aksebzeci Bekir H; Kara Sadık

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Root canal treatment is a debridement process which disrupts and removes entire microorganisms from the root canal system. Identification of microorganisms may help clinicians decide on treatment alternatives such as using different irrigants, intracanal medicaments and antibiotics. However, the difficulty in cultivation and the complexity in isolation of predominant anaerobic microorganisms make clinicians resort to empirical medical treatments. For this reason, identific...

  20. Comparison of root canal lathing measurement by conventional and digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correct working length is a critical factor within the endodontic treatment. The length of the root canal can be measured by different methods. The aim of this study was to compare methods used for measuring the length of root canals using conventional and digital radiology. The measurement was provided in both - in vitro and in vivo conditions. (authors)

  1. Testing for Gender Related Size and Shape Differences of the Human Ear canal using Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2002-01-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the shape of the human ear canal. It is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser scanned ear impressions and a sparse set of anatomical landmarks placed by an expert. The dense...

  2. Disinfection of the root canal by sonic, ultrasonic and laser-activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Verhaagen, B.; Macedo, R.; Versluis, M.; Cohenca, N.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigants are chemically inactivated after their reaction with the biofilm and therefore need to be mixed with fresh irrigants. Insight in the flow of the irrigant during a root canal treatment is crucial to understand the importance of the disinfection of the root canal system. This chapter discuss

  3. 环北极国家与地区的北极航道通行政策及其发展趋势分析%STUDY OF ARCTIC WATERWAY TRANSIT POLICY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT ON CIRCUMPOLAR NATIONS AND REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 王杰; 张浩

    2015-01-01

    Global warming has accelerated and the speed of melting of the Arctic sea ice has increased, which means that the Arctic’ s waterways will be opened much earlier than originally expected.Therefore, the transportation value of Arctic waterways has become increasingly prominent, which has prompted Circumpolar Nations to propose various policies and claims regarding Arctic waterway transit.Although China is not an Arctic state, the availability of an Arctic waterway could shorten international shipping routes, reducing the time and cost of foreign trade, and de-creasing the risks of piracy and terrorism.Therefore, to maintain the potential benefits of Arctic waterways to Chi-na, attention should be given to this problem.In this paper, the origins of the problems pertaining to the Arctic wa-terway are introduced, the policies proposed by Russia, Canada, the United States, and the European Union re-garding Arctic waterway transit are elaborated, and the trend of development of Arctic waterway transit policy is an-alyzed.%全球变暖加快了北冰洋融化的速度,从而使得北极航道全面开通的时间将比预期大大提前,北极航道的交通价值也日益凸显。在这种情况下,环北极国家与地区纷纷提出了对北极航道通行的政策和主张。中国虽不是环北极国家,但北极航道能缩短中国国际贸易的海运距离,节约货物海上运输的时间和成本,并降低传统航线的海盗和恐怖主义袭击风险,所以从维护中国在北极航道通行问题上的“潜在利益”的角度出发,中国应该加强对北极航道通行问题的关注。本文首先介绍了北极航道问题的由来,逐一阐述了俄罗斯、加拿大、美国和欧盟在北极航道通行问题上的政策和主张,最后分析了北极航道通行政策的发展趋势。

  4. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraz Pasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT as a diagnostic tool in endodontics.

  5. Cone beam CT findings of retromolar canals: Report of cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retromolar canal is an anatomical variation in the mandible. As it includes the neurovascular bundle, local anesthetic insufficiency can occur, and an injury of the retromolar canal during dental surgery in the mandible may result in excessive bleeding, paresthesia, and traumatic neuroma. Using imaging analysis software, we evaluated the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images of two Korean patients who presented with retromolar canals. Retromolar canals were detectable on the sagittal and cross-sectional images of cone-beam CT, but not on the panoramic radiographs of the patients. Therefore, the clinician should pay particular attention to the identification of retromolar canals by preoperative radiographic examination, and additional cone beam CT scanning would be recommended.

  6. A comparison between radiovisiography and clearing technique in the study of the root canal types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daming Wu; Younong Wu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the radiovisiography (RVG) with the clearing technique using Kappa value in the study of the root canal types. Methods: One hundred recently extracted human maxillary first premolars were used. Standard periapical RVG images were taken from a buccolingual and mesiodistal direction. The specimens were then accessed, injected with ink, demineralized,dehydrated, and finally were cleared. The RVG images and the transparent teeth were examined by a trained endodontist, and the date of root canal types following Wu's classification was collected. Results: The reliability of RVG was high for studies on simple root canals,but was poor for the studies on the multiple root canals. The Kappa value between the two techniques was 0.3793, indicating the agreement was poor. Conclusion: It is concluded that the limited value of RVG alone when studying certain aspect of the root canal system. The resolution of the RVG system should be enhanced.

  7. Semicircular canal dehiscence: comparison of T2-weighted turbo spin-echo MRI and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinary Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the value of MRI for delineation of dehiscence of the superior or posterior semicircular canal, as compared with CT, the current standard study for this entity. We reviewed heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo images and high-resolution CT of the temporal bones of 185 patients independently semicircular canal dehiscence and its extent. In 30 patients (19 men, 11 women) we identified dehiscence of the bone over the superior and/or posterior semicircular canal on MRI. In 27 of these cases CT also showed circumscribed bone defects. In one patient dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal was initially overlooked on MRI, but seen on CT. MRI imaging thus had a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 98%. Knowledge of the appearances of this entity on MRI may contribute to early diagnosis in patients with vertigo due to semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  8. Cone beam CT findings of retromolar canals: Report of cases and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Sun [Dept. of Dental Hygiene, Eulji University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A retromolar canal is an anatomical variation in the mandible. As it includes the neurovascular bundle, local anesthetic insufficiency can occur, and an injury of the retromolar canal during dental surgery in the mandible may result in excessive bleeding, paresthesia, and traumatic neuroma. Using imaging analysis software, we evaluated the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images of two Korean patients who presented with retromolar canals. Retromolar canals were detectable on the sagittal and cross-sectional images of cone-beam CT, but not on the panoramic radiographs of the patients. Therefore, the clinician should pay particular attention to the identification of retromolar canals by preoperative radiographic examination, and additional cone beam CT scanning would be recommended.

  9. Renewable Energy Based Floating Power Generator (Rivers and Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J.R.Gandhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a stand alone, (river and canal water stream floating power generator system for village electrification, agriculture water pumping, bridge street lights and such other utilities. The system is the unique one of its kind as per our knowledge and various surveys. The physical structure of the system is made of the non corrosive and unbreakable materials like mild steel, fiber glass etc. It works, as it rotates in the water flow. It does not require any kind of the external electric grid power for its working. As the water flows, the specially designed blades of the system rotate in the direction of the flow and ultimately the consistent power is generated, this power can be used directly or it may be stored in battery and the utilized as and when required. No permanent installation, No pollution and environment friendly floating Pico turbine. The observations taken from the sight are tabulated and accordingly results are discussed.

  10. Shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Dummer, P M

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this laboratory-based study was to determine the shaping ability of NT Engine and McXim nickel-titanium rotary instruments in simulated root canals. A total of 40 canals with four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curve were prepared with NT Engine and McXim instruments, using the technique recommended by the manufacturer. Part 2 of this report describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of prevalence of canal aberrations, the amount and direction of canal transportation and overall postoperative shape. Pre- and postoperative images of the canals were taken using a video camera attached to a computer with image analysis software. The pre- and postoperative views were superimposed to highlight the amount and position of material removed during preparation. No zips, elbows, perforations or danger zones were created during preparation. Forty-two per cent of canals had ledges on the outer aspect of the curve, the majority of which (16 out of 17) occurred in canals with short acute curves. There were significant differences (P canal shapes in terms of the incidence of ledges. There were highly significant differences (P canal shapes in total canal width at specific points along the canal length and in the amount or resin removed from the inner and outer aspects of the curve. The direction of canal transportation at the end-point of preparation was most frequently towards the outer aspect of the curve, especially in canals with 40 degrees curves. At the beginning of the curve, transportation in the majority of canals was towards the inner aspect of the curve. Mean absolute transportation was less than 0.03 mm throughout the curve and towards the end-point, with significant differences between canal shapes occurring at the apex (P canals was good. PMID:9477813

  11. Root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ′root canal irrigants′ and ′endodontic irrigants.′ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  12. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study of Root and Canal Morphology of Maxillary first Molar in an Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi; Shokri; Shams; Vossoghi; Khoshbin

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of endodontic treatment depends on detection of all root canals so that they could be cleaned, shaped and obturated appropriately. To achieve this, it is essential to know root canals complexities such as the number of canals and types of each root canal, which are genetically determined. Besides, the highest failure rates occur in maxillary first molars. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to in...

  13. Lateral semicircular canal fistula in cholesteatoma: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anais; Bouchetemblé, Pierre; Costentin, Bertrand; Dehesdin, Danièle; Lerosey, Yannick; Marie, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to present the authors' experience on the management of labyrinthine fistula secondary to cholesteatoma. 695 patients, who underwent tympanoplasty for cholesteatoma, in a University Hospital between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed, to select only those with labyrinthine fistulas. 42 patients (6%) had cholesteatoma complicated by fistula of the lateral semicircular canal (LSCC). The following data points were collected: symptoms, pre- and postoperative clinical signs, surgeon, CT scan diagnosis, fistula type, surgical technique, preoperative vestibular function and audiometric outcomes. Most frequent symptoms were unspecific, such as otorrhea, hearing loss and dizziness. However, preoperative high-resolution computed tomography predicted fistula in 88 %. Using the Dornhoffer and Milewski classification, 16 cases (38 %) were identified as stage 1, 22 (52 %) as stage II, and 4 (10 %) as stage III. The choice between open or closed surgical procedure was independent of the type of fistulae. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed from the fistula and immediately covered by autogenous material. In eight patients (19 %), the canal was drilled with a diamond burr before sealing with autologous tissue. After surgery, hearing was preserved or improved in 76 % of the patients. There was no statistically significant relationship between the extent of the labyrinthine fistula and the hearing outcome. In conclusion, a complete and nontraumatic removal of the matrix cholesteatoma over the fistula in a one-staged procedure and its sealing with bone dust and fascia temporalis, with sometimes exclusion of the LSCC, is a safe and effective procedure to treat labyrinthine fistula. PMID:26351038

  14. Housewife data: Citizen science and the case of Love Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Nolan M.

    Citizen science is defined as members of the public acting to produce science outside of their normal working lives in order to enhance or preserve their health, environment, knowledge, or capital. It is a science by the people. Over the last several decades, it has emerged as a powerful force for the democratization of science. In response to this growing trend in citizen science, this thesis addresses the question: What is citizen science? Citizen science is discussed through the development of a definition, its historical and political context, the benefits of its use, and some frameworks for understanding. Later, the thesis explores a case study of citizen science, the Love Canal environmental crisis, and offers commentary on its methods and findings.

  15. 13至19世纪黄淮间运河自然史研究%Study on natural history of The Grand Canal between the Yellow River and Huai River during 13th and 19th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭徐明; 陈方舟; 李云鹏; 万金红

    2014-01-01

    1128年黄河改道,经由泗水入淮,改变了战国以来黄淮间运河与自然河流的关系。元开会通河以及徐州以下漕行河运,构成了运河与黄河利害并存的关系:黄河既为水源,又为水道,更以频繁决溢给运河以极大干扰。本文研究了黄淮间运河水道的重构过程与区域水环境演变,得出如下结论:(1)徐州以上,由黄河北泛泛道形成的耐牢坡河,对会通河济宁以南水道和泗水流域水系演变起到了至关重要的作用;(2)徐州以上黄河决溢直接关系会通河-黄河漕运水道的水源丰枯。明前期引沁入汴入河的努力,维系了近200年黄河水道通航。河行漕运最后以徐州洪、吕梁洪淤塞而终结;(3)会通河济宁以南,徐州以下黄河水道的淤积是区域水环境蜕变,泇河、中运河及微山诸湖形成的主要动因。而微山湖等具有水源调蓄功能运河水柜产生,使运河最终摆脱了对黄河水源和水道的依赖,换来了其后大运河200余年的畅通。本文认为,黄河南行的700年间,在黄河南北泛道泥沙累积淤淀与运河工程体系运用的共同作用下,淮北平原自然环境发生了沧海桑田的改变,这是大运河不可忽略的自然史特性。%In 1128AD, the Yellow River changed its course from the Sishui River to the Huai River, which changed the relationship between the canal and other natural rivers since Warring States. The Huitong River and the Canal south of Xuzhou section, which was excavated in the Yuan dynasty, formed a special structure between the Canal and the Yellow River:in term of advantage, the Yellow River served both as the water source and as the waterway for the Canal, however, the Yellow River also brought the Canal a big distraction as its frequent burst. The paper studied the process of reconstruction of the Canal between the Yellow River and the Huai River as weel as the evolution of the

  16. The cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal in children with normal cochlea but cochlear nerve deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Fei; Li, Jianhong; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Zhenchang [Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)], e-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com; Mo, Lingyan [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: There is an increasing frequency of requests for cochlear implantation (CI) in deaf children and more detailed image information is necessary for selecting appropriate candidates. Cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) is a contraindication to CI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to evaluate the integrity of the cochlear nerve. The abnormalities of the cochlear nerve canal (CNC) and internal auditory canal (IAC) have been reported to be associated with CND. Purpose: To correlate CNC manifestation, size, and IAC diameter on high-resolution CT (HRCT) with CND diagnosed by MRI in children. Material and Methods: HRCT images from 35 sensorineurally deaf children who had normal cochlea but bilateral or unilateral CND diagnosed by MRI were studied retrospectively. The CNC and IAC manifestation and size were assessed and correlated with CND. Results: CND was diagnosed by MRI in 54/70 ears (77.1%). Thirty-two ears had an absent cochlear nerve (59.3%), while 22 ears had a small cochlear nerve (40.7%). The CNC diameter was <1.5 mm in 36 ears (66.7%). The CNC diameter ranged between 1.5 and 2.0 mm in seven ears (13.0%) and was >2.0 mm in 11 ears (20.4%). The IAC diameter was <3.0 mm in 25 ears (46.3%) and >3.0 mm in 29 ears (53.7%). Conclusion: The hypoplastic CNC might be more highly indicative of CND than that of a narrow IAC.

  17. Cartilage canals in newborn dogs: histochemical and immunohistochemical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Giancamillo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage canals (CCs are microscopic structures involved in secondary ossification centers (SOCs development. The features of CCs were investigated in the humeral and femoral proximal epiphyses of small-sized newborn dogs (from premature to 28 days after birth with histochemical and immunohistochemical approaches. Masson’s Trichrome revealed a ring-shaped area around CCs, which changes in colour from green (immature collagen to red (mature collagen as ossification progresses; perichondrium staining always matched the ring colour. Safranin-O was always negative. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed immunopositivity for both collagen type I and V around the CCs; collagen type II was negative. CCs count showed a tendency to be higher in the humerus than in the femur. This work enlightened for the first time changes in composition of CCs surrounding matrix during SOCs development in dogs, paving the way to further investigations.

  18. 77 FR 75553 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Biscayne Bay, and Miami River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ..., Biscayne Bay, and Miami River, Miami, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviations... governing the operation of the following four bridges in Miami, Florida: The Venetian Causeway Bridge (West... Biscayne Bay; the Miami Avenue Bridge, mile 0.3, across the Miami River; and the Brickell Avenue...

  19. The road less taken: modularization and waterways as a domestic disaster response mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Donald A; Cunnion, Stephen O; Godwin, Evelyn A

    2013-01-01

    Preparedness scenarios project the need for significant healthcare surge capacity. Current planning draws heavily from the military model, leveraging deployable infrastructure to augment or replace extant capabilities. This approach would likely prove inadequate in a catastrophic disaster, as the military model relies on forewarning and an extended deployment cycle. Local equipping for surge capacity is prohibitively costly while movement of equipment can be subject to a single point of failure. Translational application of maritime logistical techniques and an ancient mode of transportation can provide a robust and customizable approach to disaster relief for greater than 90 percent of the American population. PMID:24180065

  20. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  1. Feasibility study and design of shallow draft ore carriers for inland waterways

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Om Prakash; Paliencar, Satish; Nagarajan, Vishwanath; Suresh, Chandra Misra

    2013-01-01

    The surge in iron ore exports from the Indian state of Goa has increased the demand for larger size inland iron ore carriers. Operating economics of these inland vessels have resulted in a steady increase in their carrying capacity. However, attempt to increase the deadweight of these vessels has encountered challenges in form of loading and unloading point restrictions, increased squat, sway force and yaw moment at shallow waters. The present work, based on a request from Ministry of Shippin...

  2. 78 FR 4070 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviations from regulations... the following two bridges in Miami, Florida: The Venetian Causeway Bridge (West), mile 1088.6, across... deviations are necessary due to the high volume of vessel and vehicle traffic anticipated during the...

  3. Medium and long term perspectives of Inland Waterway Transport in the European Union. Executive Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    If inland shipping is to remain the greenest mode of transport, it will need to improve its environmental act in the coming years. If it fails to do so, it will be overtaken by road transport. That is one of the conclusions of the title study. In this study CE Delft performed the analyses of emissions and offers recommendations for reducing them. The key issue in this regard is to create financial incentives for ship owners to invest in modern, clean engines and retrofit technologies, complementing standards for new engines. The study will be used as a basis for drawing up policy on inland shipping towards 2020, in line with the EU White Paper on transport policy.

  4. Bank erosion of navigation canals in the western and central Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Wilson, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Erosion of navigation canal banks is a direct cause of land loss, but there has been little quantitative analysis to determine why certain major canals exhibit faster widening rates (indicative of erosion) than others in the coastal zones of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. We hypothesize that navigation canals exhibit varying rates of erosion based on soil properties of the embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region (derived from digital versions of state geologic maps), and the presence or absence of canal bank armaments (that is, rock rip-rap, concrete bulkheads, or other shoreline protection structures). The first objective of this project was to map the shoreline position and substrate along both banks of the navigation canals, which were digitized from 3 different time periods of aerial photography spanning the years of 1978/79 to 2005/06. The second objective was to quantify the erosion rates of the navigation canals in the study area and to determine whether differences in erosion rates are related to embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region, or soil type. To measure changes in shoreline position over time, transects spaced at 50-m (164-ft) intervals were intersected with shorelines from all three time periods, and an annual rate of change was calculated for each transect. Mean annual rates of shoreline change ranged from 1.75 m/year (5.74 ft/year) on the west side of the Atchafalaya River, La., where there was shoreline advancement or canal narrowing, to -3.29 m/year (-10.79 ft/year) on the south side of the Theodore Ship Channel, Ala., where there was shoreline retreat or erosion. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in shoreline retreat rates according to geologic region and marsh vegetation type, and a weak relationship with soil organic content. This information can be used to better estimate future land loss rates associated with navigation canals and to prioritize the location of

  5. The connective tissue of the adductor canal--a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-03-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 microm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop.

  6. An in vitro comparison of root canal transportation by reciproc file with and without glide path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiumars Nazarimoghadam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of ideal canal preparation is to prevent iatrogenic aberrations such as transportation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root canal transportation by Reciproc file with and without glide path.Thirty acrylic-resin blocks with a curvature of 60° and size#10 (2% taper were assigned into two groups (n= 15. In group 1, the glide path was performed using stainless steel k-files size#10 and 15 at working length In group 2, canals were prepared with Reciproc file system at working length. By using digital imaging software (AutoCAD 2008, the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation digital images were superimposed over, taking the landmarks as reference points. Then the radius of the internal and external curve of the specimens was calculated at three α, β and γ points (1mm to apex as α, 3mm to apex as β, and 5mm to apex as γ. The data were statically analyzed using the independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test by SPSS version 16.Glide path was found significant for only external curve in the apical third of the canal; that is, 5mm to apex (P=0.005. But in the other third, canal modification was not significant (P> 0.008.Canal transportation in the apical third of the canal seems to be significantly reduced when glide path is performed using reciprocating files.

  7. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Ming; Guo, Bin; Guo, Li-Yang; Yang, Yan; Hong, Xiao; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. PMID:27525269

  8. The incidence and configuration of the bifid mandibular canal in Koreans by using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ju Han; Lee, Kook Sun; Oh, Min Gyu; Choi, Hwa Young; Lee, Sae Rom; Oh, Song Hee; Choi, Yoon Joo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was performed to investigate the incidence and configuration of the bifid mandibular canal in a Korean population by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. CBCT images of 1933 patients (884 male and 1049 female) were evaluated using PSR-9000N and Alphard-Vega 3030 Dental CT units (Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd, Kyoto, Japan). Image analysis was performed by using OnDemand3D software (CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea). The bifid mandibular canal was identified and classified into four types, namely, the forward canal, buccolingual canal, dental canal, and retromolar canal. Statistical analysis was performed by using the chi-squared test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Bifid mandibular canals were observed in 198 (10.2%) of 1933 patients. The most frequently observed type of bifid mandibular canal was the retromolar canal (n=104, rate: 52.5%) without any significant difference among the incidence of each age and gender. The mean diameter of the accessory canal was 1.27 mm (range: 0.27-3.29 mm) without any significant difference among the mean diameter of each type of the bifid mandibular canal. The mean length of the bifid mandibular canals was 14.97mm(range: 2.17-38.8 mm) with only a significant difference between the dental canal and the other types. The bifid mandibular canal is not uncommon in Koreans and has a prevalence of 10.2% as indicated in the present study. It is suggested that a CBCT examination be recommended for detecting a bifid canal.

  9. National Waterway Network (line), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [usace_nav_waterway_lin_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The National Waterway Network is a comprehensive network database of the nation's navigable waterways. The data set covers the 48 contiguous states plus the...

  10. Navigable Waterway Routes (National) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Waterway Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Waterway Network (NTAD 2015) is a comprehensive network database of the nation's navigable waterways. The data set covers the 48 contiguous states plus...

  11. Navigable Waterway Nodes (National) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Waterway Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Waterway Network (NTAD 2015) is a comprehensive network database of the nation's navigable waterways. The data set covers the 48 contiguous states plus...

  12. National Waterway Network (node), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [usace_nav_waterway_nod_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The National Waterway Network is a comprehensive network database of the nation's navigable waterways. The data set covers the 48 contiguous states plus the...

  13. The expansion of water communication and transportation between north and south China during the Six dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Dezhang

    2006-01-01

    Although a split and turbulent age,the Wei,Jin,and Northern and Southern dynasties,known as the Six dynasties,witnessed a continuous expansion of waterway communication and transportation between north and south China.A significant waterway from Hangzhou to Tianjin held the greatest potential for development during this period,eventually leading to the construction of the Grand Canal in the Sui dynasty.

  14. Physicochemical Properties, Contamination and Suitability of Canal Water for Irrigation, Lahore Branch Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Aftab

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollution status of Lahore branch canal was determined by physical, chemical and metal constituents because the water is used for irrigation of lands in and around the city. The average result of each physical, chemical and metal parameter at 12 different sites (Location-1 to Location-12 of Lahore branch canal was compared with Food and Agricultural organization (FAO. All physical and chemical parameters were within standards limit while metals concentrations were found in variable quantities in canal water samples. cadmium, copper and chromium concentration was found much higher than the permissible FAO standards.

  15. U.S. Navigated Waterway Mile Marker Locations from USCOE source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [river_mile_markers_USACE_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset representing 10,044 sequential mile positions of navigable inland waterways and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. These data were developed as...

  16. Double Mandibular Foramina and Canal: Report of a Case with Interactive CT-Based Planning Softwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikzad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the mandibular canal and its anatomic variations is of great importance in many branches of dentistry, especially in implant dentistry and prior to endosteal implant insertion. This knowledge is even more demanding when the mandible has been compromised by different degrees of atrophy and bone resorption. In this study we describe a rare case of double mandibular canal identified by three-dimensional imaging techniques during the process of diagnosis. It is concluded that mandibular canals may often be undetected during the diagnosing phase of implant treatment, and tomographic imaging is the only way to identify some of these distinctive features.

  17. Maxillary lateral incisors with two canals and two separate curved roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit George Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the roots and root canal anatomy seems to be the norm rather than an exception. For a successful endodontic treatment, a clinician should have a thorough knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy and its variations. Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit single canal with a single root. In this case, clinical examination and radiographs clearly demonstrates the presence of two root canals with two separate curved roots. This case report emphasizes the need for attention during endodontic management of maxillary lateral incisors.

  18. Water quality of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, New Jersey, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Gray, Bonnie; Rice, Donald E.; Tessler, Steven; Barringer, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1934, the Delaware and Raritan Canal has been used to transfer water from the Delaware River Basin to the Raritan River Basin. The water transported by the Delaware and Raritan Canal in New Jersey is used primarily for public supply after it has been treated at drinking-water treatment plants located in the Raritan River Basin. Recently (1999), the raw water taken from the canal during storms has required increased amounts of chemical treatments for removal of suspended solids, and the costs of removing the additional sludge or residuals generated during water treatment have increased. At present, action to control algae is unnecessary.

  19. Directional sensitivity of anterior, posterior, and horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular neurons in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettler, S C; Baker, J F

    2001-10-01

    Neurons subserving the vestibulo-ocular reflex transform the directionality and timing of input from semicircular canals into commands that are appropriate to rotate the eyes in a compensatory fashion. In order to assess the degree to which this transformation is evident in vestibular nucleus neurons of alert cats, we recorded the extracellular discharge properties of 138 second-order vestibular neurons in the superior and medial vestibular nucleus, including 64 neurons identified as second-order vestibulo-ocular neurons by antidromic responses to oculomotor nucleus stimulation and short-latency orthodromic responses to labyrinth stimulation (1.3 ms or less). Neuronal response gains and phases were recorded during 0.5-Hz sinusoidal oscillations about many different horizontal axes and during vertical axis rotations to define neuronal response directionality more precisely than in past studies. Neurons with spatial responses similar to anterior semicircular canal afferents were found to have more diverse maximal activation direction vectors than neurons with responses resembling those of posterior or horizontal canal afferents. The mean angle from neuron response vector to the axis of the nearest canal or canal pair was 19 degrees for anterior canal second-order neurons (n=28) and 20 degrees for anterior canal second-order vestibulo-ocular neurons (n=18), compared with 11 degrees for posterior canal second-order neurons (n=43) and 11 degrees for posterior canal second-order vestibulo-ocular neurons (n=25). Only two second-order vestibulo-ocular neurons (3%) showed a marked dependence of response phase on rotation direction, which is indicative of convergent inputs that differ in both dynamics and directionality. This suggests that spatiotemporal convergence is uncommon in the three-neuron vestibulo-ocular reflex arc of the cat. Neuron vectors included many that were closely aligned with canal axes and several that were better aligned with oblique or superior rectus

  20. 33 CFR 329.7 - Intrastate or interstate nature of waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intrastate or interstate nature of waterway. 329.7 Section 329.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF... or interstate nature of waterway. A waterbody may be entirely within a state, yet still be capable...

  1. Risk-Based Disposal Plan for PCB Paint in the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Montgomery

    2008-05-01

    This Toxic Substances Control Act Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyl Disposal plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to address painted surfaces in the empty canal under 40 CFR 761.62(c) for paint, and under 40 CFR 761.61(c) for PCBs that may have penetrated into the concrete. The canal walls and floor will be painted with two coats of contrasting non-PCB paint and labeled as PCB. The canal is covered with open decking; the access grate is locked shut and signed to indicate PCB contamination in the canal. Access to the canal will require facility manager permission. Protective equipment for personnel and equipment entering the canal will be required. Waste from the canal, generated during ultimate Decontamination and Decommissioning, shall be managed and disposed as PCB Bulk Product Waste.

  2. A rare case of maxillary first molar with single root and single canal diagnosed using spiral computed tomographic scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Saxena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in dental anatomy and canal morphology are found in all teeth. Knowledge of these variations, particularly the location and treatment of all canals, plays a key role in the success of endodontic therapy. The presence of extra canals, apical ramification, or lateral canals is commonly encountered, and their incidence and significance have been well-documented. However, the clinician should also be aware of the possibility of the existence of fewer root and/or canal numbers. Here is a case report of left maxillary first permanent molar with a single root and single canal. The goal of this clinical article is to report a maxillary molar with single root and single canal and to highlight the role of spiral computed tomography (SCT as a method to confirm the three-dimensional (3D anatomy of teeth.

  3. Tidal flow dynamics and background fluorescence of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in the vicinity of Sullivan’s Island and the Isle of Palms, South Carolina, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Journey, Celeste A.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Levesque, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    To effectively plan site-specific studies to understand the connection between wastewater effluent and shellfish beds, data are needed concerning flow dynamics and background fluorescence in the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway near the effluent outfalls on Sullivan’s Island and the Isle of Palms. Tidal flows were computed by the U.S. Geological Survey for three stations and longitudinal water-quality profiles were collected at high and low tide. Flows for the three U.S. Geological Survey stations, the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway by the Isle of Palms Marina, the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway by the Ben M. Sawyer Memorial Bridge at Sullivan’s Island, and Breach Inlet, were computed for the 53-day period from December 4, 2011, to January 26, 2012. The largest flows occurred at Breach Inlet and ranged from -58,600 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) toward the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway to 63,300 ft3/s toward the Atlantic Ocean. Of the two stations on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, the Sullivan’s Island station had the larger flows and ranged from -6,360 ft3/s to the southwest (toward Charleston Harbor) to 8,930 ft3/s to the northeast. Computed tidal flow at the Isle of Palms station ranged from -3,460 ft3/s toward the southwest to 6,410 ft3/s toward the northeast. The synoptic water-quality study showed that the stations were well mixed vertically and horizontally. All fluorescence measurements (recorded as rhodamine concentration) were below the accuracy of the sensor and the background fluorescence would not likely interfere with a dye-tracer study.

  4. Accessory roots and root canals in human anterior teeth: a review and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H M A; Hashem, A A

    2016-08-01

    Anterior teeth may have aberrant anatomical variations in the number of roots and root canals. A review of the literature was conducted using appropriate key words in major endodontic journals to identify the available reported cases as well as experimental and clinical investigations on accessory roots and root canals in anterior teeth. After retrieving the full text of related articles, cross-citations were identified, and the pooled data were then discussed. Results revealed a higher prevalence in accessory root/root canal variations in mandibular anterior teeth than in maxillary counterparts. However, maxillary incisor teeth revealed the highest tendency for accessory root/root canal aberrations caused by anomalies such as dens invaginatus and palato-gingival groove. Primary anterior teeth may also exhibit external and internal anatomical variations in the root, especially maxillary canines. Therefore, dental practitioners should thoroughly assess all teeth scheduled for root canal treatment to prevent the undesirable consequences caused by inadequate debridement of accessory configurations of the root canal system. PMID:26174943

  5. A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF COLORECTAL AND ANAL CANAL MALIGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majethia Nikhil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma is considered a calamity for humanity, but it could have a long survival if it is diagnosed early. The epidemiology of this calamity is also interesting and has always been the subject of investigati on in the in the western world. AIMS: 1. To compare the findings in a series of 215 cases studied over a period of 6 years from 2008 to 2013 . 2. T o study the incidence of colorectal carcinoma in a population with respect to age, sex, religion and diet . 3. T o study the occurrence of the carcinoma in a different parts of the colon . 4. To study the different histological an d m orphological types of carcinoma of colon . 5. To study the stages of carcinoma at the time of presentation by American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC staging system . 6. To study the clinical presentation of colorectal carcinoma. SETTINGS: Lokmanya Til ak Municipal General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai . DESIGN: A retrospective observational study . METHODS AND MATERIAL: The malignant tumor of large bowel and anal canal received in the Surgical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Lokmanya Tilak Medical College an d General Hospital in Mumbai in the form of biopsy and resected speciemen were studied after microscopic confirmation of diagnosis over a period of 6 years from 2008 to 2013. A total number of cases studied are 215 cases excluding the superficial biopsy an d doubtful cases. RESULTS: Of total 46255 surgical specimen, 6911 were gastrointestinal specimen i.e. 14.9% of all specimens , and 4271 were colorectal specimen. Of 4271 gastrointestinal specimens 497 gastrointestinal malignancy while 215 had colorectal malignancy. The common age group affected is 51 - 60 years. Rectum (57.74% is the most common site of colorectal malignancy. Abdo minal pain (33.5% was the most common clinical feature. Ulceroinfilterative is the most common type of gross morphology of tumor in rectum. Hindu and non - vegetarian are most common risk factors

  6. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  7. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  8. Entrainment, retention, and transport of freely swimming fish in junction gaps between commercial barges operating on the Illinois Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremiah J.; Jackson, Patrick; Engel, Frank; LeRoy, Jessica Z.; Neeley, Rebecca N.; Finney, Samuel T.; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Large Electric Dispersal Barriers were constructed in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) to prevent the transfer of invasive fish species between the Mississippi River Basin and the Great Lakes Basin while simultaneously allowing the passage of commercial barge traffic. We investigated the potential for entrainment, retention, and transport of freely swimming fish within large gaps (> 50 m3) created at junction points between barges. Modified mark and capture trials were employed to assess fish entrainment, retention, and transport by barge tows. A multi-beam sonar system enabled estimation of fish abundance within barge junction gaps. Barges were also instrumented with acoustic Doppler velocity meters to map the velocity distribution in the water surrounding the barge and in the gap formed at the junction of two barges. Results indicate that the water inside the gap can move upstream with a barge tow at speeds near the barge tow travel speed. Water within 1 m to the side of the barge junction gaps was observed to move upstream with the barge tow. Observed transverse and vertical water velocities suggest pathways by which fish may potentially be entrained into barge junction gaps. Results of mark and capture trials provide direct evidence that small fish can become entrained by barges, retained within junction gaps, and transported over distances of at least 15.5 km. Fish entrained within the barge junction gap were retained in that space as the barge tow transited through locks and the Electric Dispersal Barriers, which would be expected to impede fish movement upstream.

  9. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : Roadside ditches, canals, and brush piles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1997 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all units, roads, and delivery canals to be burned. The objective of this burn is to return...

  10. A comparative study of intra canal stress pattern in endodontically treated teeth with average sized canal diameter and reinforced wide canals with three different post systems using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Amandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study methodology: This is a comparative study of intra canal stress patterns in endodontically treated maxillary central incisor with: average sized canal diameter and wide canals reinforced with three different post systems - cast post and core, carbon fiber post, stainless steel post; restored with ceramic crown using finite element analysis (FEA. All the models were subjected to a force of 100N applied at 450 to the long axis of the tooth at the middle third of the palatal surface of the restored ceramic crown. Results: The FEA revealed that all the post systems showed maximum stress in the coronal and middle third of the root. Maximum stress was seen on the inner dentinal wall in case of stainless steel post followed by cast gold and carbon fiber post, both in the models without reinforcement as well as in the reinforced models.

  11. Evaluation of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal canal by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To examine the anatomy, length and angulation of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal canals (AECs and PECs) using computed tomography (CT), and to determine the anatomical landmarks in which the canals are expected to be seen in transverse and coronal planes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images of 150 patients were analysed. One, 2, and 3 mm thick sections were obtained separately in axial and coronal images. The frequency of visualization of the AECs and PECs, and if present, a third canal, was noted. The course and the angulation of the AEC and the PEC in transverse and coronal planes were recorded. On axial sections the distance between the AEC and PEC and the previously defined landmarks were measured. On coronal images, the distances were calculated from the thickness of the cross-section and the number of sections between the various structures. RESULTS: The AEC was identified as a separate canal in 84% of patients, and was embedded in the ethmoid roof in 16%. The PEC was seen as a separate canal in 8% and was present in the ethmoid roof in 92%. On the 1 mm thick coronal and transverse sections, a third canal was identified at the junction of the middle and posterior third of the AEC-PEC distance in both of the images. The average lengths of these canals were 4-12 mm (mean 8.2 mm) for the AEC, and 2-13 mm (mean 7.6 mm) for the PEC. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the complications that can develop during endoscopic sinus surgery; the course, length and the angulations of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries and their canals can be identified by CT in standard positions if a sufficiently thin section thickness is used. The present study has shown the exact CT localization of the AECs and PECS, which are frequently overlooked when evaluating para-nasal sinuses

  12. Assessment of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Rashsuren, Oyuntugs; Choi, Jin-Woo; Han, Won-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. Materials and Methods CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diame...

  13. Comparison of Different Irrigants in the Removal of Endotoxins and Cultivable Microorganisms from Infected Root Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Carneiro Valera; Flávia Goulart da Rosa Cardoso; Adriana Chung; Ana Cláudia Carvalho Xavier; Mariana Diehl Figueiredo; Frederico Canato Martinho; Renato Miotto Palo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different irrigants used to remove endotoxins and cultivable microorganisms during endodontic therapy. Forty root canals were contaminated and divided into groups according to the irrigant: 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, 2.5% NaOCl, and pyrogen-free saline solution (control). Samples were collected after root canal contamination (S1), after instrumentation (S2), and 7 days after instrumentation (S3). Microorganisms and endotoxins were r...

  14. Rigidity and retention of ceramic root canal posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purton, D G; Love, R M; Chandler, N P

    2000-01-01

    Ceramic root-canal posts offer potential advantages over other types with respect to aesthetics and biocompatibility. Any post must be sufficiently rigid and retentive to withstand functional forces. Ceraposts (1.2 mm coronal diameter, ceramic, tapering, smooth posts) and Paraposts (1.25 mm, stainless-steel, parallel, serrated posts) were tested for rigidity by means of a three-point bending test. To test retention in roots, ceramic posts were cemented using one of three protocols: (1) glass-ionomer cement, (2) silane coupling agent and resin cement, or (3) sandblasted post surface, silane coupling agent, and resin cement. Stainless-steel posts were cemented with resin. The tensile force required to dislodge the posts, following four weeks of storage in water, was recorded. Data were compared using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U analysis. Ceraposts were significantly more rigid than Paraposts (p < 0.001). Paraposts cemented with resin were significantly more strongly retained than Ceraposts following any cementation protocol (p < 0.001). Retention of the ceramic posts was significantly greater with a silane coupling agent and resin cement than with glass-ionomer cement (p < 0.001). Sandblasting the ceramic posts produced variable results and needs further investigation before it could be recommended.

  15. Cortical evoked potentials in response to rapid balloon distension of the rectum and anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K;

    BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological evaluation of anorectal sensory function is hampered by a paucity of methods. Rapid balloon distension (RBD) has been introduced to describe the cerebral response to rectal distension, but it has not successfully been applied to the anal canal. METHODS: Nineteen...... healthy women received 30 RBDs in the rectum and the anal canal at intensities corresponding to sensory and unpleasantness thresholds, and response was recorded as cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) in 64-channels. The anal canal stimulations at unpleasantness level were repeated after 4 min to test...... the within-day reproducibility. CEPs were averaged, and to overcome latency variation related to jitter the spectral content of single sweeps was also computed. KEY RESULTS: Repeated stimulation of the anal canal generated CEPs with similar latencies but smaller amplitudes compared to those from the rectum...

  16. Cortical evoked potentials in response to rapid balloon distension of the rectum and anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological evaluation of anorectal sensory function is hampered by a paucity of methods. Rapid balloon distension (RBD) has been introduced to describe the cerebral response to rectal distension, but it has not successfully been applied to the anal canal. METHODS: Nineteen...... healthy women received 30 RBDs in the rectum and the anal canal at intensities corresponding to sensory and unpleasantness thresholds, and response was recorded as cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) in 64-channels. The anal canal stimulations at unpleasantness level were repeated after 4 min to test...... the within-day reproducibility. CEPs were averaged, and to overcome latency variation related to jitter the spectral content of single sweeps was also computed. KEY RESULTS: Repeated stimulation of the anal canal generated CEPs with similar latencies but smaller amplitudes compared to those from the rectum...

  17. Cholesteatoma associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Ben Gamra

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: SCC of the external auditory canal can mimic cholesteatoma. A precise diagnosis of the disease is important to predict the treatment outcome. Optimal management relies on early surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, thus offering the greatest chance of cure.

  18. Marine habitat mapping of the Milford Haven Waterway, Wales, UK: Comparison of facies mapping and EUNIS classification for monitoring sediment habitats in an industrialized estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Drew A.; Hayn, Melanie; Germano, Joseph D.; Little, David I.; Bullimore, Blaise

    2015-06-01

    A detailed map and dataset of sedimentary habitats of the Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) was compiled for the Milford Haven Waterway Environmental Surveillance Group (MHWESG) from seafloor images collected in May, 2012 using sediment-profile and plan-view imaging (SPI/PV) survey techniques. This is the most comprehensive synoptic assessment of sediment distribution and benthic habitat composition available for the MHW, with 559 stations covering over 40 km2 of subtidal habitats. In the context of the MHW, an interpretative framework was developed that classified each station within a 'facies' that included information on the location within the waterway and inferred sedimentary and biological processes. The facies approach provides critical information on landscape-scale habitats including relative location and inferred sediment transport processes and can be used to direct future monitoring activities within the MHW and to predict areas of greatest potential risk from contaminant transport. Intertidal sediment 'facies' maps have been compiled in the past for MHW; this approach was expanded to map the subtidal portions of the waterway. Because sediment facies can be projected over larger areas than individual samples (due to assumptions based on physiography, or landforms) they represent an observational model of the distribution of sediments in an estuary. This model can be tested over time and space through comparison with additional past or future sample results. This approach provides a means to evaluate stability or change in the physical and biological conditions of the estuarine system. Initial comparison with past results for intertidal facies mapping and grain size analysis from grab samples showed remarkable stability over time for the MHW. The results of the SPI/PV mapping effort were cross-walked to the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) classification to provide a comparison of locally derived habitat mapping with European-standard habitat

  19. Endodontic management of mandibular second premolar with three roots and three root canals: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High level of success in endodontic treatment requires an understanding of root canal anatomy and morphology. The clinician must be prepared to identify those teeth that tend to vary generally from norm. Thorough debridement and obturation of such teeth can be challenging and failing to do so can lead to treatment failure. Mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having aberrant anatomy. However, the occurrence of three separate canals with three separate foramina in mandibular premolars is very rare. The incidence of three canals is as high as 23% in mandibular first premolars, whereas in second premolars incidence is as low as 0.4%. Three rooted mandibular second premolar is reported to be 0.2%. This case report describes endodontic management of one such tooth with unusual morphological variations in canal anatomy of mandibular second premolar.

  20. Effect of difference of cupula and endolymph densities on the dynamics of semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachuk, A V; Sirenko, S P; Boyle, R

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different densities of a cupula and endolymph on the dynamics of the semicircular canals is considered within the framework of a simplified one-dimensional mathematical model where the canal is approximated by a torus. If the densities are equal, the model is represented by Steinhausen's phenomenological equation. The difference of densities results in the complex dynamics of the cupulo-endolymphatic system, and leads to a dependence on the orientation of both the gravity vector relative to the canal plane and the axis of rotation, as well as on the distance between the axis of rotation and the center of the semicircular canal. Our analysis focused on two cases of canal stimulation: rotation with a constant velocity and a time-dependent (harmonically oscillating) angular velocity. Two types of spatial orientation of the axis of rotation, the axis of canal symmetry, and the vector of gravity were considered: i) the gravity vector and axis of rotation lie in the canal plane, and ii) the axis of rotation and gravity vector are normal to the canal plane. The difference of the cupula and endolymph densities reveals new features of cupula dynamics, for instance--a shift of the cupula to a new position of equilibrium that depends on the gravity vector and the parameters of head rotation, and the onset of cupula oscillations with multiple frequencies that results in the distortion of cupula dynamics relative to harmonic stimulation. Factors that might influence the density difference effects and the conditions under which these effects occur are discussed.

  1. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliosa, Andre; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Silva-Souza, Yara Teresinha Correa; Alfredo, Edson, E-mail: ysousa@unaerp.br [Universidade de Ribeirao Preto (UNAERP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Versiani, Marco Aurelio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odoentologia

    2015-03-01

    The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10), according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR), Liberator (LB), ProTaper (PT), and Twisted File (TF). The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR); -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB); -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT); -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF). The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR); -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB); -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT); -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF). Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape. (author)

  2. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10), according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR), Liberator (LB), ProTaper (PT), and Twisted File (TF). The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR); -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB); -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT); -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF). The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR); -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB); -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT); -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF). Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape. (author)

  3. Human tooth and root canal morphology reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    DRĂGAN, OANA CARMEN; FĂRCĂŞANU, ALEXANDRU ŞTEFAN; CÂMPIAN, RADU SEPTIMIU; TURCU, ROMULUS VALERIU FLAVIU

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Visualization of the internal and external root canal morphology is very important for a successful endodontic treatment; however, it seems to be difficult considering the small size of the tooth and the complexity of the root canal system. Film-based or digital conventional radiographic techniques as well as cone beam computed tomography provide limited information on the dental pulp anatomy or have harmful effects. A new non-invasive diagnosis tool is magnetic resonance ...

  4. In situ biomonitoring of juvenile Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) using biomarkers of chemical exposures and effects in a partially remediated urbanized waterway of the Puget Sound, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Eva [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way Northeast, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States); Kelley, Matthew; Zhou, Guo-Dong; He, Ling Yu; McDonald, Thomas; Wang, Shirley [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1266 (United States); Duncan, Bruce [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Meador, James [Ecotoxicology Division, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Donnelly, Kirby [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1266 (United States); Gallagher, Evan, E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way Northeast, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    In situ biomonitoring has been used to assess the effects of pollution on aquatic species in heavily polluted waterways. In the current study, we used in situ biomonitoring in conjunction with molecular biomarker analysis to determine the effects of pollutant exposure in salmon caged in the Duwamish waterway, a Pacific Northwest Superfund site that has been subject to remediation. The Duwamish waterway is an important migratory route for Pacific salmon and has received historic inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Juvenile pre-smolt Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caged for 8 days in the three contaminated sites in close proximity within the Duwamish were analyzed for steady state hepatic mRNA expression of 7 exposure biomarker genes encompassing several gene families and known to be responsive to pollutants, including cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2K1, glutathione S-transferase {pi} class (GST-{pi}), microsomal GST (mGST), glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), UDP-glucuronyltransferase family 1 (UDPGT), and type 2 deiodinase (type 2 DI, or D2). Quantitation of gene expression was accomplished by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in assays developed specifically for Chinook salmon genes. Gill PAH-DNA adducts were assessed as a chemical effects biomarker using {sup 32}P-postlabeling. The biomarkers in the field-caged fish were analyzed with respect to caged animals maintained at the hatchery receiving flow-through water. Chemical analysis of sediment samples from three field sampling sites revealed relatively high concentrations of total PAHs in one site (site B2, 6711 ng/g dry weight) and somewhat lower concentrations of PAHs in two adjacent sites (sites B3 and B4, 1482 and 1987 ng/g, respectively). In contrast, waterborne PAHs at all of the sampling sites were relatively low (<1 ng/L). Sediment PCBs at the sites ranged from a low of 421 ng/g at site B3

  5. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Kennedy published his channel-forming discharge theory in 1895. Subsequently different theories have been developed and are used around the world. All of them assume uniform and steady flow conditions ...

  6. Effects of adductor-canal-blockade on pain and ambulation after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P; Lund, J;

    2012-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with intense post-operative pain. Besides providing optimal analgesia, reduction in side effects and enhanced mobilization are important in this elderly population. The adductor-canal-blockade is theoretically an almost pure sensory blockade. We...... hypothesized that the adductor-canal-blockade may reduce morphine consumption (primary endpoint), improve pain relief, enhance early ambulation ability, and reduce side effects (secondary endpoints) after TKA compared with placebo....

  7. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Richland and Wapato Canal Fish Screening Facilities, Spring 1987 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Abernethy, C.Scott; Lusty, E.William; Wampler, Sally J.

    1988-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of new fish screening facilities at the Richland and Wapato canals in south-central Washington State. The screen integrity tests at the Richland Screens indicated that 100% of fall chinook salmon fry (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released in front of the screens were prevented from entering the canal behind the screens. Our estimate is based on a 61% catch efficiency for control fish planted behind the screens. At the Wapato Canal, we estimated that between 3% and 4% of the test fish were either impinged on the screen surface and passed over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based on a greater than 90% capture of control fish released in front of the screens. At the Wapato Screens, we estimated that 0.8% of steelhead smolts (Salmo gairdneri) and 1.4% of spring chinook salmon smolts released during low canal flow tests wee descaled. During full canal flow tests, 1.6% of the steelhead and 3.1% of the spring chinook salmon released were descaled. The fish return pipe at the Wapato Canal was tested: the estimate of descaled test fish wa not different from the estimate of descaled control fish. The time required for fish to exit from the Wapato Screen forebay varied with species and with canal flow. During low canal flows, 43.2% of steelhead and 61.6% of spring chinook salmon smolts released at the trash racks were captured in the fish return within 96 hr. 11 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. The cartilage bone junction and its implications for deep canal hearing instrument fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Darkner, Sune

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of hearing instruments deeply placed in the ear canal has been driven by their superior cosmetic characteristics. However, people fitted with these hear- ing instruments often complain about the sound qual- ity of their voice, which is typically described as being hollow, echoing......, or like talking in a barrel. This problem is caused by the occlusion effect. The effect is primarily due to vibrations of the walls in the soft part of the ear canal, which generate a sound pressure that is trapped in the cavity between the tip of the occluding hearing aid and the tympanic membrane....... If the hearing aid is fitted with a seal in the bony portion of the ear canal, preventing vibration in the soft part of the ear canal from reaching the tympanic membrane, then occlusion problems can be solved or at least reduced in most cases. 1–4 Work carried out by Garcia has shown that if the seal...

  9. LPS levels in root canals after the use of ozone gas and high frequency electrical pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Tiago André Fontoura de; Gründling, Grasiela Sabrina Longhi; Montagner, Francisco; Scur, Alcione Luiz; Steier, Liviu; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli de; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to verify the effect of ozone gas (OZY® System) and high frequency electric pulse (Endox® System) systems on human root canals previously contaminated with Escherichia colilipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fifty single-rooted teeth had their dental crowns removed and root lengths standardized to 16 mm. The root canals were prepared up to #60 hand K-files and sterilized using gamma radiation with cobalt 60. The specimens were divided into the following five groups (n = 10) based on the disinfection protocol used: OZY® System, one 120-second-pulse (OZY 1p); OZY® System, four 24-second-pulses (OZY 4p); and Endox® System (ENDOX). Contaminated and non-contaminated canals were exposed only to apyrogenic water and used as positive (C+) and negative (C-) controls, respectively. LPS (O55:B55) was administered in all root canals except those belonging to group C-. After performing disinfection, LPS samples were collected from the canals using apyrogenic paper tips. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) was used to quantify the LPS levels, and the data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The disinfection protocols used were unable to reduce the LPS levels significantly (p = 0.019). The use of ozone gas and high frequency electric pulses was not effective in eliminating LPS from the root canals. PMID:26981752

  10. LPS levels in root canals after the use of ozone gas and high frequency electrical pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago André Fontoura de MELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aims to verify the effect of ozone gas (OZY® System and high frequency electric pulse (Endox® System systems on human root canals previously contaminated with Escherichia colilipopolysaccharide (LPS. Fifty single-rooted teeth had their dental crowns removed and root lengths standardized to 16 mm. The root canals were prepared up to #60 hand K-files and sterilized using gamma radiation with cobalt 60. The specimens were divided into the following five groups (n = 10 based on the disinfection protocol used: OZY® System, one 120-second-pulse (OZY 1p; OZY® System, four 24-second-pulses (OZY 4p; and Endox® System (ENDOX. Contaminated and non-contaminated canals were exposed only to apyrogenic water and used as positive (C+ and negative (C- controls, respectively. LPS (O55:B55 was administered in all root canals except those belonging to group C-. After performing disinfection, LPS samples were collected from the canals using apyrogenic paper tips. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL was used to quantify the LPS levels, and the data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The disinfection protocols used were unable to reduce the LPS levels significantly (p = 0.019. The use of ozone gas and high frequency electric pulses was not effective in eliminating LPS from the root canals.

  11. Comparison of Endoflas and Zinc oxide Eugenol as root canal filling materials in primary dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Nivedita Rewal; Arun Singh Thakur; Vinod Sachdev; Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zinc oxide eugenol has long been the material of choice of pediatric dentists worldwide, although it fails to meet the ideal requirements of root canal filling material for primary teeth. Endoflas, a mixture of zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide, and iodoform, can be considered to be an effective root canal filling material in primary teeth as compared with zinc oxide eugenol. This study was carried out to compare zinc oxide eugenol with endoflas for pulpectomy in primary denti...

  12. Length and Geometric Patterns of the Greater Palatine Canal Observed in Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Howard-Swirzinski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The greater palatine canal is an important anatomical structure that is often utilized as a pathway for infiltration of local anesthesia to affect sensation and hemostasis. Increased awareness of the length and anatomic variation in the anatomy of this structure is important when performing surgical procedures in this area (e.g., placement of osseointegrated dental implants. We examined the anatomy of the greater palatine canal using data obtained from CBCT scans of 500 subjects. Both right and left canals were viewed (=1000 in coronal and sagittal planes, and their paths and lengths determined. The average length of the greater palatine canal was 29 mm (±3 mm, with a range from 22 to 40 mm. Coronally, the most common anatomic pattern consisted of the canal traveling inferior-laterally for a distance then directly inferior for the remainder (43.3%. In the sagittal view, the canal traveled most frequently at an anterior-inferior angle (92.9%.

  13. Quantifying canal leakage rates using a mass-balance approach and heat-based hydraulic conductivity estimates in selected irrigation canals, western Nebraska, 2007 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The water supply in areas of the North Platte River Basin in the Nebraska Panhandle has been designated as fully appropriated or overappropriated by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR). Enacted legislation (Legislative Bill 962) requires the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) and the NDNR to develop an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) to balance groundwater and surface-water supply and demand in the NPNRD. A clear understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems is critical for the development of a successful IMP. The primary source of groundwater recharge in parts of the NPNRD is from irrigation canal leakage. Because canal leakage constitutes a large part of the hydrologic budget, spatially distributing canal leakage to the groundwater system is important to any management strategy. Surface geophysical data collected along selected reaches of irrigation canals has allowed for the spatial distribution of leakage on a relative basis; however, the actual magnitude of leakage remains poorly defined. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NPNRD, established streamflow-gaging stations at upstream and downstream ends from two selected canal reaches to allow a mass-balance approach to be used to calculate daily leakage rates. Water-level and sediment temperature data were collected and simulated at three temperature monitoring sites to allow the use of heat as a tracer to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of canal bed sediment. Canal-leakage rates were estimated by applying Darcy's Law to modeled vertical hydraulic conductivity and either the estimated or measured hydraulic gradient. This approach will improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of canal leakage in varying geologic settings identified in capacitively coupled resistivity surveys. The high-leakage potential study reach of the Tri-State Canal had two streamflow-gaging stations and two temperature monitoring

  14. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  15. A comparison of the ability of K-files and Hedstrom files to shape simulated root canals in resin blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alodeh, M H; Dummer, P M

    1989-09-01

    A total of 50 simulated root canals in clear resin blocks with various degrees and positions of curvature were prepared by either K-files or Hedstrom files. Each file type was used to prepare 25 canals employing an in/out circumferential filing motion. The efficacy of the files was assessed by instrumentation time, deformation and fracture of instruments, and loss of working distance. The shape of the prepared canals was assessed by direct observation and from composite photographic prints produced by superimposing negatives of the canals obtained before and after preparation. Overall, canal shaping with Hedstrom files was quicker and more effective. Both file types prepared straight canals in an appropriate manner but the majority of prepared curved canals were hourglass in shape. In general, K-files created zips which were wider and thus more pronounced than those produced by Hedstrom files. Wide 'danger zones' were also regularly created. The location of the aberrations depended largely on the original shape of the canal and in particular on the position of the beginning of the canal curve. Under the conditions of this study, the manipulation of K-files and Hedstrom files in a simple in/out circumferential filing motion proved an unsatisfactory method of shaping simulated curved root canals in resin blocks. PMID:2637229

  16. Calcite Supersaturation and Precipitation Kinetics in the Lower Colorado River, Ail-American Canal and East Highline Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, D. L.

    1983-06-01

    In situ pH determinations and analysis of major ions in solution indicated that the lower Colorado River is supersaturated with respect to calcite throughout the entire daily cycle, in both winter and summer. Although the ion activity product was 4 to 6 times greater than the calcite solubility product, there was no detectable precipitation. Chemical analyses of water samples taken along 350 km of the river and canals from Parker Dam to the Salton Sea also revealed no evidence of calcium carbonate precipitation despite the inflow of saline and highly supersaturated irrigation return flows. Laboratory kinetic studies indicated that calcite crystal growth rates with Colorado River water are about 30% of the rate for pure Ca-HCO3 waters and about 70% of that for synthetic Colorado River water. Calcite precipitation by crystal growth in the river is limited by the combination of short residence times and unavailability of reactive calcite. Critical supersaturation levels necessary for heterogeneous nucleation do not occur; a high suspended load limits algal photosynthesis and thus prevents large decreases in daytime H2CO3 levels.

  17. In Vitro Comparative Study of the Working Length Determination with Radiovisiography and Conventional Radiography in Dilacerated Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare digital and conventional radiography in determining the working length of dilacerated canals.Methods: Thirty nine human extracted single-rooted teeth with root curvature more than 35 degrees were included in this study. After access preparation, a file was inserted into the canal and advanced until the file tip was visualized at the foramen. With measurement of the file length using a millimeter ruler, true canal length was determined for each canal. Then, teeth were mounted in acrylic blocks and canal length was estimated by using on-screen digital radiography with both 3- and 6-clicks measurement and from conventional radiography by conforming a preserved file on the image of the root canal.Results: There were no significant differences in measurement accuracy between the true canal length and conventional radiographic length, but there were significant difference between both digital radiographic techniques with true canal length. There was no significant correlation between root curvature and canal length estimation error of studied methods.Conclusion: In dilacerated canals, the accuracy of determination of working length by using conventional radiography is higher than digital radiography

  18. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study of Root and Canal Morphology of Maxillary first Molar in an Iranian Population

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    Faramarzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The success of endodontic treatment depends on detection of all root canals so that they could be cleaned, shaped and obturated appropriately. To achieve this, it is essential to know root canals complexities such as the number of canals and types of each root canal, which are genetically determined. Besides, the highest failure rates occur in maxillary first molars. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first molars in an Iranian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods In this study, images of 156 extracted maxillary first molars placed in the waxed blocks were produced using CBCT. Two professional investigators checked images by NNT software in New Tom 3G system. Axial view and cross section of 1 mm thickness were used. The number of roots, canals, each roots canal, MB1-MB2 orifice distances and canal types of the Vertucci classification were recorded. Finally, data was analyzed using SPSS16 software. Results We found 100% of cases with three separated roots, from which 69.23% had four canals including MB2 and 30.77% with three canals. 71.3% of mesiobuccal roots were two canals of type two Vertucci and 28.7% type 4 with the mean distance value of 2.55 ± 0.57 mm between MB1 and MB2 orifice. Conclusions Most extracted maxillary first molars were three rooted and four canals. CBCT has relatively high reproducibility and accuracy of distinguishing MB2 canal.

  19. Post-embryonic development of canal and superficial neuromasts and the generation of two cranial lateral line phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Emily A; Bird, Nathan C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-10-01

    The relatively simple structural organization of the cranial lateral line system of bony fishes provides a valuable context in which to explore the ways in which variation in post-embryonic development results in functionally distinct phenotypes, thus providing a link between development, evolution, and behavior. Vital fluorescent staining, histology, and scanning electron microscopy were used to describe the distribution, morphology, and ontogeny of the canal and superficial neuromasts on the head of two Lake Malawi cichlids with contrasting lateral line canal phenotypes (Tramitichromis sp. [narrow-simple, well-ossified canals with small pores] and Aulonocara stuartgranti [widened, more weakly ossified canals with large pores]). This work showed that: 1) the patterning (number, distribution) of canal neuromasts, and the process of canal morphogenesis typical of bony fishes was the same in the two species, 2) two sub-populations of neuromasts (presumptive canal neuromasts and superficial neuromasts) are already distinguishable in small larvae and demonstrate distinctive ontogenetic trajectories in both species, 3) canal neuromasts differ with respect to ontogenetic trends in size and proportions between canals and between species, 4) the size, shape, configuration, physiological orientation, and overall rate of proliferation varies among the nine series of superficial neuromasts, which are found in both species, and 5) in Aulonocara, in particular, a consistent number of canal neuromasts accompanied by variability in the formation of canal pores during canal morphogenesis demonstrates independence of early and late phases of lateral line development. This work provides a new perspective on the contributions of post-embryonic phases of lateral line development and to the generation of distinct phenotypes in the lateral line system of bony fishes. J. Morphol. 277:1273-1291, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27519545

  20. Shaping ability of Mity Roto 360 degrees and Naviflex rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated root canals. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Dummer, P M

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the shaping ability of Mity Roto 360 degrees and Naviflex rotary nickel-titanium instruments in simulated canals. Forty simulated root canals made up of four different shapes in terms of angle and position of curvature were prepared by both sets of instruments using a stepdown approach. This study describes the efficacy of the instruments in terms of prevalence of canal aberrations, the amount and direction of canal transportation, and thus the overall postoperative shape. Pre- and postoperative images of the canals were taken using a videocamera attached to a computer with image analysis software. The pre- and postoperative views were superimposed to highlight the amount and position of material removed during preparation. Neither Mity Roto 360 degrees nor Naviflex instruments created any zips or elbows. Ledges were produced in 20 (50%) canals prepared with Mity instruments and in 29 (72%) canals prepared with Naviflex instruments. Statistically significant differences (p canal shapes occurred in relation to the incidence of ledges with 40 degrees canals (35) associated with more aberrations than 20 degrees canals (14); the position of the beginning of the curve had no effect. The distance of ledges from the end point of preparation was also affected significantly (p canal shape. Neither instrument created any perforations or danger zones. At specific positions along the canal length, canal shape had a significant influence on total width and the amount of material removed from the inner and outer aspects of the canal curve. The direction of canal transportation at the end point of preparation was most frequently toward the outer aspect of the curve in canals prepared with Naviflex instruments, whereas the Mity instruments produced a more balanced preparation. At the apex and beginning of the curve, transportation with both instruments was generally toward the outer aspect of the curve. Overall, mean absolute transportation

  1. Influence of the endodontic irrigation needle and root canal enlargement on endodontic cleaning efficacy

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    Livia Etchebehere de Loiola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: The irrigation of root canals aims to their cleaning and disinfection, improving endodontic treatment success. Objective: To investigate the influence of the diameter and type of irrigation needle and the root canal enlargement on the mechanical efficacy of endodontic irrigation. Material and methods: Twelve human single-rooted mandibular incisors were used. During some instrumentation stages (enlargement by #20, #30, and #40 K file, root canals were filled with radiographic contrast solution mixed to propyleneglycol and zinc oxide. Needles with different diameters and designs were employed: G1 – 23G and lateral opening; G2 – 22G and apical opening; G3 – 30G and lateral opening; G4 – 30G and apical opening. The needles were inserted up to resistance, with 1 mm step-back to avoid root canal obliteration. The irrigation was performed with 2 mL of distilled water. Before and after irrigation/aspiration, teeth were radiographed at bucco-lingual and mesiodistal direction, using a digital radiographic system. Then, root canal areas, before (filled by contrast solution and after irrigation (remnant of contrast solution, were submitted to image subtraction with Adobe Photoshop CS4 software. Subsequently, the areas were measured by Image Tool 3.0 software, allowing the obtaining of the cleaning percentage for each modality. Data were analysed byusing Anova and Tukey’s test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: For all root canal enlargements, 30G needles (G3 e G4 presented a better cleaning efficacy. In all groups, higher cleaning efficacy percentage was observed at #30 and #40 K file enlargement. Conclusion: Regardless their design, thinner needles were more effective; a better cleaning efficacy occurred in more enlarged root canals.

  2. Up-regulation of gelatinases and tissue type plasminogen activator by root canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2008-03-01

    Histologic investigations have demonstrated that root canal sealers can induce mild to severe inflammatory alternations. However, there is little information on the precise mechanisms about root canal sealer-induced inflammatory reaction. The proteolysis of extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and plasminogen activators (PAs) seems to be a key initiating event for the progression of the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epoxy resin-based root canal sealer AH26 and zinc oxide-eugenol-based root canal sealer Canals and one paste sealer N2 on the expression of MMPs and PAs in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS cells. The levels of gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activities were measured by gelatin and casein zymography. The results showed that AH26, Canals, and N2 were cytotoxic to U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner (P inflammation.

  3. Mapping of Escherichia coli Sources Connected to Waterways in the Ruamahanga Catchment, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, John R; Serezat, Dimitri; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle E; Muirhead, Richard W

    2016-02-16

    Rivers and streams in New Zealand are natural with free access and used by many people for swimming and fishing. However, pastoral farming with free grazing animals is a common land use in New Zealand and faecal microorganisms from them often end up in waterways. These microorganisms can seriously affect human and animal health if ingested. This paper describes spatial modeling using GIS of Escherichia coli sources in a large catchment (350 000 ha), the Ruamahanga. By examining the pathway of water over and through soils, it is possible to determine whether E. coli sources are connected to waterways or not. The map of E. coli sources connected to waterways provides useful context to those setting water quality limits. This approach avoids the complexity of modeling the fate and transport of E. coli in waterways, yet still permits the assessment of catchment-wide mitigation and best management practice. Fencing of waterways would minimize E. coli sources directly defecated to water and would reduce total E. coli sources by approximately 35%. Introduction of dung beetles would minimize sources connected to waterways by overland flow and would reduce total E. coli sources by approximately 35%. Construction of dairy effluent ponds would minimize sources connected to waterways through high bypass flow in soils and would reduce total E. coli sources by approximately 25%. PMID:26771227

  4. Ex Vivo Evaluation of the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of the Mandibular First Molar Using CBCT Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Farhad-Mollashahi; Eshagh Ali Saberi; Mahdi Niknami; Elnaz Mousavi; Hossein Rasuli

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aims to evaluate the root canal system and its curvature and the relationship between the root concavity and the dentin thickness of danger zone in the mandibular first molar using the cone beam CT method. Materials and Methods: A sum of 101 fresh extracted mandibular first molar were gathered and scanned by CBCT (planmeca romexis 3D) machine. The root canal configuration was evaluated according to Vertucci’s classification. Then, the canal curvature was evaluated a...

  5. Radiography of the mandible prior to endosseous implant treatment. Localization of the mandibular canal and assessment of trabecular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandibular autopsy specimens were examined with different radiographic techniques in order to evaluate the visibility of the mandibular canal and the measurement accuracy of distances related to the mandibular canal. Hypocycloidal, spiral and computed tomography (CT) were superior to periapical and panoramic radiography in visualizing the mandibular canal. The tomographic techniques were more accurate when measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal were performed. No difference in measurement accuracy was found between the tomographic techniques. Concerning visibility of the mandibular canal, interobserver agreement was lowest for periapical radiography and highest for CT. Intraobserver agreement was moderate or good for all techniques. A high interobserver variation was found for measurability of distances related to the mandibular canal. The trabecular bone tissue in mandibular autopsy specimens was studied concerning different characteristics. A classification system to be used prior to implant treatment, based on the trabecular pattern in periapical radiographs, was proposed. 74 refs

  6. Radiography of the mandible prior to endosseous implant treatment. Localization of the mandibular canal and assessment of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, C.

    1996-03-01

    Mandibular autopsy specimens were examined with different radiographic techniques in order to evaluate the visibility of the mandibular canal and the measurement accuracy of distances related to the mandibular canal. Hypocycloidal, spiral and computed tomography (CT) were superior to periapical and panoramic radiography in visualizing the mandibular canal. The tomographic techniques were more accurate when measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal were performed. No difference in measurement accuracy was found between the tomographic techniques. Concerning visibility of the mandibular canal, interobserver agreement was lowest for periapical radiography and highest for CT. Intraobserver agreement was moderate or good for all techniques. A high interobserver variation was found for measurability of distances related to the mandibular canal. The trabecular bone tissue in mandibular autopsy specimens was studied concerning different characteristics. A classification system to be used prior to implant treatment, based on the trabecular pattern in periapical radiographs, was proposed. 74 refs.

  7. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper p...

  8. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  9. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  10. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  11. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

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    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  12. Root and canal symmetry in the mandibular anterior teeth of patients attending a dental clinic: CBCT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven KAYAOGLU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the number of roots/root canals in the mandibular anterior teeth of a Turkish population, to assess the relationship between gender or age and the frequency of two canals in a single root, and to determine the symmetry in root/root canal numbers between contralateral sides among patients. Cone-beam computed tomography images (n = 1128; 6253 teeth taken at the Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry of Gazi University were examined by three observers and a supervisor, all of whom were blinded to patient gender and age. Axial, sagittal, and cross-sectional slices with a thickness of 1 mm were used. Numbers of roots and canals for each type of tooth were recorded. Most teeth had a single root and single root canal. Roots with two canals were more frequent in the incisors (14.9%, 17.2%, and 6.1% of the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Teeth with two roots were more frequent in the canines (3.1%vs. 0% or 0.1%. Females more often had canines with double root canals (p < 0.001. When at least one tooth had two root canals, bilateral symmetry between contralateral teeth was found in 45.0%, 29.0%, and 28.0% of cases for central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Patients older than 56 years had fewer teeth with double root canals (p ≤ 0.001. A small proportion of the mandibular anterior teeth had two roots or root canals. Double root canals were mostly unilateral. Age and gender were associated with the number of root canals.

  13. A comparison of Flex-R files and K-type files for enlargement of severely curved molar root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepic, A O; Pantera, E A; Neaverth, E J; Anderson, R W

    1989-06-01

    A double exposure radiographic technique is introduced and used to evaluate the magnitude of apical canal transportation that occurs during preparation procedures. The balanced force technique and a step-back method for cleaning and shaping root canals were evaluated in mesiobuccal root canals from 80 extracted human molar teeth with curvatures ranging from 30 to 73 degrees. Pre- and posttreatment file positions were examined from clinical and proximal radiographic views by computer digitization. Statistical analysis indicated significantly less apical transportation with the use of the balanced force technique when compared with a step-back technique in canals exhibiting both more and less than 45 degrees of curvature. PMID:2592877

  14. Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength

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    Marília Pivetta RIPPE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods: eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments, the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC and the use of mechanical cycling (MC as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results: The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03 and post type (p<0.0001 affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29 did not. Conclusion: The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario.

  15. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejaim, Yuri; de Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; de Oliveira Santos, Christiano

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Materials and Methods Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. Results In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. Conclusion CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region. PMID:27672611

  16. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejaim, Yuri; de Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; de Oliveira Santos, Christiano

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Materials and Methods Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. Results In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. Conclusion CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region.

  17. ANALYSIS OF REMOTE SENSING ARCHAEOLOGY ON TRAFFIC FUNCTION TRANSFORMATION OF TONGJI GRAND CANAL IN SUI AND TANG DYNASTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-yuan; HE Hui; ZHOU Ying-qiu; GAO Chao; HAN Shuang-wang

    2006-01-01

    In China, most directions of river flowing are from west to east. During historic period, since the water traffic played an important role, it was very important to form a cross-horizontal net of water carriage route. Canals should be dug so as to make up the lack of north-south river. Tongji Grand Canal, dug in the first year of Daye (605 A.D.) in the Sui Dynasty, was the important component of north-south system of Grand Canals in China. It promoted economic and social development of the Sui, Tang and Song dynasties (605 A.D.-1279 A.D.). As Tongji Canal (i.e.Tongji Grand Canal) flowed across the Huaibei Plain, which is aggraded by abundant mud and sand deposit resulted from the Huanghe (Yellow) River flooding, many traces (such as old channel) and human culture heritages were buried under mud-sand. Tongji Canal was silted up, and disappeared in the Jin Dynasty (1115 A.D.-1234 A.D.). From then on, there were many different stories about the flowing route of the canal in historical literature. Based on space-bone and air-bone remote sensing imagery, we attempt to search the old channel of Tongji Canal, and supplement historical record. The paper discusses transformation process of Tongji Canal's traffic function, and resumptively summarizes the reasons of the transformation, which results from synthetic function of physical geographical, political, economic, and social conditions.

  18. Nd:YAG Lasers Treating of Carious Lesion and Root Canal In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danqing Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a transmissible bacterial disease process, with cavities at the end, and caused by acids from bacterial metabolism. The essence of dental treatment is to clean and disinfect bacterial contamination from the tooth. In this work, we tried to demonstrate the cleaning and disinfecting effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on dental carious lesion and root canal in vitro. Acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG lasers were employed to treat caries lesion and the root canal, respectively. Results showed that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation could rapidly clean decayed material and bacterial contamination from dental carious lesion and the narrow tail end of root canal with minimally invasive in vitro, respectively. It was concluded that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous laser irradiation may be a rapid and effective alternative caries treatment, and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation may be an effective method for canal cleaning and disinfecting during root canal therapy.

  19. Dealing with salt intrusion and water shortage in the Seine Scheldt west connection

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, R; Lebbe, L.; Holland, G.; De Vleeschauwer, P.; Van Crombrugge, W.; Sas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The planned Seine Scheldt West canal will provide a viable inland waterway connection of the Port of Zeebruges with the Seine-Scheldt liaison and the (Western) European waterway network. An extensive feasibility study was carried out, showing that from cost-benefit and technical point of view, a connection along the existing Derivation canal of the Lys is the most feasible route. The Lys itself, the most important affluent of the Scheldt, is the backbone of the Seine Scheldt liaison in the Sc...

  20. ALIMENTARY CANAL ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF THE WORKER TERMITE NEOTERMES BOSEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEKSONO EKOPURANTO HARIPRABOWO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As social insects, termites live in a colony that consist of reproductive (drone and queen, and non-reproductive (soldiers and workers castes. Workers obtain their food directly from wood, humus, and other substances that contain cellulose. The objective of this study was to examine the alimentary canal of the Neotermes bosei workers. Observations of gut transverse section were carried out through the length, perimeter, and area of each alimentary canal region. The results showed that total length of N. bosei alimentary canal was 13.71+1.28 mm. The canal was divided into fore-, mid-, and hindgut which were 24, 28, and 48%, respectively of the gut total length. Two types of alimentary canal epithelial cells were found, i.e. the squamous and transitional cells. Areas covered with thick muscular tissues were crop, proventriculus, and rectum. Proventriculus was characterized with six large dentitions. There was no gastric caeca in N. bosei midgut, which commonly occurred in chewing insect. Secretory cells .wer e observed at proventriculus and ventriculus regions. Cardiac valve was found at the anterior end of ventriculus. Area with the largest outer perimeter was the rectum pouch. Enteric valve had three internal folds.

  1. Otoscopic, cytological, and microbiological examination of the equine external ear canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Sandra J; Frank, Linda A; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Donnell, Robert L; Morandi, Federica

    2006-06-01

    Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well as the need for chemical restraint. In this study, the proximal external ear canal was examined in live horses using a handheld otoscope and in cadaver heads using video otoscopy. Visualization of the proximal ear canal of the sedated horse could be done with a handheld otoscope, but more sedation or general anaesthesia and a video otoscope would be required to adequately visualize the tympanic membrane in the live horse. The proximal ear canals of 18 horses were examined cytologically and cultured aerobically. In three horses, both ears were sampled. No cells or organisms were seen on cytological examination of 11/21 ears. Nine of the 21 ears were sterile when cultured. Ten of the 21 ears had mixed growth with low numbers of organisms (Corynebacterium sp. being most common). Two of the 21 ears had heavy growth of a single organism (Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus intermedius, respectively). Equine cadaver heads were examined in cross-section by computed tomography (CT) imaging and histopathology in order to further understand the anatomy of the equine external ear canal. Equine practitioners should be aware that otic examination is possible and may provide important diagnostic information.

  2. Vascular anomalies, sutures and small canals of the temporal bone on axial CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Halle, E. Grube Str. 40, 06097 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Kunkel, Petra [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Leipzig (Germany); Schul, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Subtle bony structures, small canals and fine sutures cause sometimes problems in the analysis of CTs of the temporal bone. The aim of this study was: to analyze the visibility of subtle structures and to estimate the incidence of vascular anomalies. Patients and method: We retrospectively analyzed axial scans of 223 high-resolution CTs of the temporal bone obtained as single slice or spiral CT with 1 mm slice thickness. All CTs had clinical indications. Two experienced radiologists studied CTs regarding the visibility of the fine sutures, fissures and small canals and the occurrence of vascular anomalies. Results: The following structures were seen commonly: sphenosquamosal suture (76%), arcuate artery canal (93%), vestibular aqueduct (89%), mastoid emissary vein (82%), singular canal (56%). Not so commonly were observed: tympanosquamosal suture (31%), mastoid canaliculus (28%), lateral sigmoid sinus (28%), petrotympanic fissure (24%), tympanomastoid suture (10%). Seldom we identified: the inferior tympanic canaliculus (6%), high jugular bulb (6%), anterior sigmoid sinus (5%), dehiscent internal carotid artery canal (2%), persistent petrosquamosal sinus (1%), dehiscent jugular bulb (1%). Persistent stapedial artery, aberrant internal carotid artery, dehiscent jugular bulb, high jugular bulb with diverticulum, anterior and dehiscent sigmoid sinus were detected in below 1% of the analyzed temporal bones. The frequency of asymmetry of the jugular foramen, which varied between 3% and 42%, depended on different criterions of size. Conclusion: A profound knowledge of normal anatomy and anomalies of the temporal bone avoids misinterpretation as pathological lesions and iatrogenic bleedings.

  3. Frequency of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and root canals with treatment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the frequency of E. faecalis in the saliva and root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis due to endodontic treatment failure in the same patient. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Operative Dentistry Department, AFID, while laboratory processing was done at AFIP, Rawalpindi. Study duration was one year. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients, both males and females with failed endodontic treatment were selected. Saliva and root canal samples were collected from each patient, inoculated on MacKonkey agar plate and incubated at 35-37 degree C for 48 hrs. E. faecalis colonies were identified by colony morphology, gramstain, catalase, bile asculin test, arabinose fermentation and growth in 6% NaCl nutrient broth. Results: The frequency of E. faecalis in saliva was 34% and in root canal it was 58%. Frequency between the presence of E. faecalis in root canals and saliva was found to be statistically different (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of E. faecalis in root canal was not associated with their presence in saliva. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  5. External auditory canal and middle ear cholesteatoma and osteonecrosis in bisphosphonate-treated osteoporosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, A-L; Vestergaard, P; Eiken, P

    2014-01-01

    reported in the world literature. Our aim was to describe the incidence of external auditory canal and middle ear diseases in Danish patients exposed to BPs in the treatment of osteoporosis. METHODS: This register-based nationwide cohort study was conducted on the Danish population of approximately 5......UNLABELLED: Long-term treatment with bisphosphonates against osteoporosis may cause atypical femur fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Eight cases of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal area are published. Based on Danish national registers, we report a time...

  6. A comparison of stainless steel and nickel-titanium K-files in curved root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A W; Cheung, G S

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of hand instrumentation using traditional stainless steel K-files and nickel-titanium K-files on the final shape of curved root canals. A total of 24 moderately curved canals in the mesial roots in extracted human mandibular first molars were randomly divided into two groups. These were instrumented manually using either stainless steel or nickel-titanium, K-files with the stepdown technique. The cross-sectional shape of each canal at three different horizontal levels were captured, before and after instrumentation, into a computer for comparison using image analyser software. Three parameters at each level were evaluated: (i) amount of dentine removed; (ii) least remaining dentine thicknesses on mesial and furcal aspects; and (iii) the amount and direction of canal transportation. The results showed that the two file types removed similar amounts of dentine at all three levels examined. The nickel-titanium files left a thicker layer of dentine on both the mesial and furcal aspects than stainless steel files. However, the difference was not significant (pooled T-test, P > 0.05). Both types of files transported the centre of the canals but the nickel-titanium instrument seemed to be safer because of the reduced amount of transportation towards the danger areas. PMID:10332236

  7. Canal mandibular accesorio: análisis de su prevalencia y aspecto imagenológico Accessory mandibular canal: analysis of prevalence and imaging appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Suazo Galdames

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La presencia de canales accesorios en la mandíbula ha sido reportada en la literatura, siendo cuestionado el carácter de variación anatómica de su presentación. El reconocimiento de estas formaciones tiene gran importancia en la práctica de la implantología. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia del canal mandibular accesorio y establecer su trayecto y relación con elementos anatómicos circundantes, en mandíbulas secas de individuos adultos pertenecientes al museo de cráneos de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo, mediante imágenes tomografías computarizadas. Material y método: Se analizaron 294 mandíbulas de sexo y edad conocidos, pertenecientes a 195 hombres y 99 mujeres, de entre 18 y 100 años de edad, las cuales fueron inspeccionadas visualmente y con ayuda de un indicador metálico, el cual se mantuvo para obtener sus imágenes en tomografía axial computarizada, examinándose su proyección panorámica y en cortes coronales. Resultados: La prevalencia del canal mandibular accesorio fue de 1,7% (5/294, todos ellos se extendieron paralelos al canal principal, proyectándose anteriormente al foramen mentoniano, con una corticalización parcial. Discusiones: El canal mandibular accesorio presenta una baja prevalencia en la muestra analizada, proponemos que su presencia está asociada a una proyección independiente de los ramos incisivos del nervio alveolar inferior, cuya evaluación es necesaria para evitar su compromiso en los procedimientos implantológicos mandibulares.Introduction: The presence of accessory canals in the mandible has been reported in the literature, still challenge the view that anatomical variation of submission. The recognition of these formations is of great importance in implantology practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of accessory mandibular canal and set their course and relationship to surrounding anatomic elements in dry

  8. Differences in cytotoxicity between 5% tetracycline hydrochloride and 15% EDTA as root canal irrigant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Eka Juniarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available 5% tetracycline hydrochloride and 15% EDTA as a root canal irrigant have been proven to be able to remove smear layer, open dentinal tubules and have antimicrobial activity. An effective root canal irrigation solution must be able to dissolve organic and anorganic debris, lubricate endodontic instruments, disinfect microorganism and non toxic. The purpose of this laboratory experimental study was to determine cytotoxicity differences between 5% tetracycline hydrochloride and 15% EDTA. 21 samples were used and classified into 3 groups: control, 5% tetracycline hydrochloride and 15% EDTA groups. Cytotoxicity test was done using BHK21 cells. The data was analyzed using Bird and Forrester formula. It concluded that 5% tetracycline hydrochloride more toxic than 15% EDTA as a root canal irrigant.

  9. Mandibular second molar with 3 mesial canals and a radix paramolaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ragavendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular first molar commonly has two roots, the mesial and the distal root. Surprisingly in some mandibular first molar has an unusual extra third root in between mesial and distal root. This extra root is the most commonly seen in lingual side and is called as radix entomolaris. If this extra root is seen on the buccal side, it is termed as radix paramolaris (RP, which is a very rare phenomenon. Recently, various case report studies has shown the presence of third canal in the mesial and distal roots of mandibular molars. They are named as middle mesial and middle distal canal, respectively. Here, we present a case report of mandibular second molar showing three canals in the mesial root and a RP.

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact - Mckay Bypass Canal Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1262) to extend the McKay Bypass Canal on the east side of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. The McKay Bypass Canal Extension (Extension) is needed to route water from the existing canal around the Walnut Creek drainage, thus preventing potential co-mingling of Broomfield city water (collected from the Coal Creek drainage) with Site runoff water. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the Proposed Action (using a buried pipeline for the extension), and the alternatives of taking no action, using an open ditch for the extension, and using an aboveground pipeline for the extension. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from July 22 to August 6, 1998. Written comments regarding the EA were received from the City of Broomfield and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

  11. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  12. Viability and antibacterial efficacy of four root canal disinfection techniques evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Mathew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several disinfection techniques have been recently introduced with the main objective of improving root canal disinfection in the inaccessible areas of the root canal system. This in vitro study was done to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and viability of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms using conventional irrigation, EndoActivator (Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, USA, diode laser irradiation and photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS. Materials and Methods: Root canals of 130 single rooted mandibular premolars, standardized to a uniform length of 20 mm were instrumented until finishing file, F1 (Universal Protaper Rotary System, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, USA. After smear layer removal and sterilization, five teeth were randomly selected to assure sterility before bacterial inoculation. The remaining 125 samples were contaminated with E. faecalis suspension, incubated for 21 days and divided into five groups (n = 25. In Group 1; untreated group (positive control, the root canals were not subjected to any disinfection procedure. Sampling was performed within the canals and the colony-forming unit count was evaluated for 20 samples. Five samples were selected to visualize the pattern of colonization at Level 1 (4 mm from the apex and Level 2 (1 mm from the apex by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Samples in Groups 2-5 namely conventional needle irrigation, EndoActivator, diode laser and PIPS were subjected to their respective disinfection procedures. Postdisinfection sample evaluation criteria was followed for all groups as same as that for Group 1. Results: Diode laser displayed the highest antibacterial efficacy and least viable bacteria than the other three disinfection techniques. Conclusion: Diode laser group showed better antibacterial efficacy and least viable bacteria when compared to conventional needle irrigation, PIPS and EndoActivator groups in minimally instrumented, experimentally infected root canals.

  13. The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, C; Kamburoğlu, K; Ozen, T; Balcioglu, H A; Kurt, B; Kutoglu, T; Ozan, H

    2010-01-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve is the one of the large branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It is vulnerable during surgical procedures of the mandible. Despite its importance, no anatomical and histological examination has been conducted to provide a detailed cross-sectional morphology of the mandibular canal according to dental status. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the position of the mandibular canal through direct measurement and to determine the branches of the inferior alveolar nerve through histologic examination. The area between the anterior margin of the third molar and the anterior margin of the second premolar of dentulous, partially dentulous, and edentulous hemimandible specimens (n = 49) from 26 human cadavers was serially sectioned into seven segments, and specific distances were measured using digital calipers. Following this, 5-microm cross-sections were prepared along the mandibular canal and mental foramen, and examined by fluorescence microscopy. The mandibular canal was located at a mean distance of 10.52 mm above the inferior margin of the mandible. The mean maximum diameters of the mandibular canal, inferior alveolar nerve, inferior alveolar artery, and inferior alveolar vein were 2.52, 1.84, 0.42, and 0.58 mm, respectively. This study found that the inferior alveolar nerve often gives rise to several branches at each level (range 0-3). To minimize the risk of injury, knowledge of the small branches of the nerve and of the detailed findings regarding the position of the mandibular canal reported here should be considered when planning mandibular surgery, especially during implant placement. PMID:19918867

  14. Anatomical and Morphological Characterization of the Nasopalatine Canal: A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodricks, D; Gupta, A; Phulambrikar, T; Singh, S K; Sharma, B K; Agrawal, P

    2016-04-01

    The anterior maxilla, also called pre-maxilla, is an area frequently requiring surgical interventions. Rehabilitation of this area remains a complex restorative challenge. The most prominent anatomical structure within the anterior maxilla is the Nasopalatine Canal. Thorough knowledge about this anatomical structure plays an important role in the successful outcomes of surgical procedures. This retrospective study was done to evaluate the anatomy and morphology of the Nasopalatine Canal using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study included 125 subjects aged between 15 and 78 years who were divided into the following 5 groups: i) 15-30 years, ii) 30-45 years, iii) 45-60 years, iv) 60-75 years, v) ≥75 years in the Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India from January 2012 to January 2015. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed using a standard exposure and patient positioning protocol. The data of the CBCT images were sliced in three dimensions. Image planes on the three axes (X, Y, and Z) were sequentially analyzed for the location, morphology and dimensions of the Nasopalatine Canal. The correlation of age and gender with all the variables were evaluated. ANOVA and Z-test was used. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Males and females showed significant differences in the length of the canal and anterior bone width in the sagittal sections. Inverted L was identified as a new dimension to the morphological shape of Nasopalatine Canal in central Madhya Pradesh population. The present study highlighted important variability observed in the anatomy and morphology of the Nasopalatine Canal. PMID:27277370

  15. Rigidity and retention of carbon fibre versus stainless steel root canal posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purton, D G; Love, R M

    1996-07-01

    Two of the main requirements of a root canal post are that it is rigid so as to resist flexing under functional load, and that it is well retained in the root. This study compared these properties in two different 1-mm diameter root canal posts--smooth carbon fibre posts (Endopost) and serrated stainless steel posts (Parapost). Ten posts of each type were tested for rigidity in a three-point bend test. Ten posts of each type were cemented with resin cement into the roots of endodontically treated, extracted teeth. The tensile force required to remove the posts was recorded. The Paraposts proved to be significantly more rigid under load (P canals.

  16. Chlorhexidine as a root canal irrigant: Antimicrobial and scanning electron microscopic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Selection of irrigant is very important for longterm success of root canal therapy. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX against five selected microorganisms and to evaluate its efficacy in root canal cleaning. Methods. In this study, by agar diffusion test, were evaluated antimicrobial effects of three root canal irrigants: 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX. The microorganisms tested in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. A scanning electron microscope was used to evaluate root canal cleaning ability of 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 15% EDTA. Twelve extracted single-root human teeth were divided into four groups depending on the irrigant used during instrumentation. Mechanical preparation was performed with Step back technique and K files. Data were analyzed statistically by Student’s t-test. Results 5.25% NaOCl was the most effective against all tested microorganisms. 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed antimicrobial effects against all tested microorganisms but zones of inhibition were smaller. The best results in root canal walls cleaning were obtained in the group where the irrigant was 15% EDTA (score 2.33. In 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX groups, there was more smear layer (score 4 and 5. Conclusion. 2% chlorhexidine digluconate showed strong antimicrobial effect on the tested microorganisms, but was not effective in cleaning root canal walls.

  17. Genetics and geometry of canalization and developmental stability in Drosophila subobscura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriarte Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many properties of organisms show great robustness against genetic and environmental perturbations. The terms canalization and developmental stability were originally proposed to describe the ability of an organism to resist perturbations and to produce a predictable target phenotype regardless of random developmental noise. However, the extent to which canalization and developmental stability are controlled by the same set of genes and share underlying regulatory mechanisms is largely unresolved. Results We have analyzed the effects of clinal genetic variation (inversion polymorphism on wing asymmetry by applying the methods of geometric morphometrics in the context of quantitative genetics using isochromosomal lines of Drosophila subobscura. For the analysis of overall size, developmental stability was positively correlated with levels of heterozygosity and development at the optimal temperature. For analyses of shape, the overall comparisons by matrix correlations indicate that inter- and intraindividual variation levels were poorly correlated, a result also supported when comparing the vectors describing patterns of variation of landmark position. The lack of similarity was basically due to the discrepancy between the genetic and environmental components of the interindividual variation. Finally, the analyses have also underscored the presence of genetic variation for directional asymmetry. Conclusions The results strongly support the hypothesis that environmental canalization and developmental stability share underlying regulatory mechanisms, but environmental and genetic canalization are not functionally the same. A likely explanation for this lack of association is that natural wing shape variation in Drosophila populations is loosely related to individual fitness.

  18. High cervical and lumbar canal stenosis of varied etiology : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stenosis without any significant spondylotic changes frequently occurs at C3 vertebra or below, and typically extends to C6-C7. However, high cervical focal canal stenosis is unusual. A case of cervical canal segmental stenosis at C2-3 level in addition to a developmental stenosis of the lumbar region, in a 45 year old male, has been presented in this article. The dynamics of the spinal canal in relation to the likely pathology of such conditions are reviewed. We speculate that focal segmental stenosis in the high cervical region may be due to a possible premature fusion of the neurocentral synchondrosis of the cartilage, or due to an abnormal rotary biomechanics which can result in facetal hypertrophy.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage for Different Root Canal Sealers and Irrigation Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Tülin Ertan; Yasar Tunca

    2010-01-01

     Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the sealing ability of a root-canal sealer using different endodontic irrigants and to measure the microleakage using a fluid transport model. Material and Methods: 170 maxillary and mandibular anterior human teeth with single bilnded were selected for this study. The root canals were instrumented using the crown-down technique with HEROShaper and were irrigated with 5.25 % NaOCl. The smear layer was removed by washing in 10 ml of 17% EDTA. T...

  20. Ectopic external auditory canal and ossicular formation in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supakul, Nucharin [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Kralik, Stephen F. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Children' s Hospital, MRI Department, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Ear abnormalities in oculo-auricular-vertebral spectrum commonly present with varying degrees of external and middle ear atresias, usually in the expected locations of the temporal bone and associated soft tissues, without ectopia of the external auditory canal. We present the unique imaging of a 4-year-old girl with right hemifacial microsomia and ectopic location of an atretic external auditory canal, terminating in a hypoplastic temporomandibular joint containing bony structures with the appearance of auditory ossicles. This finding suggests an early embryological dysfunction involving Meckel's cartilage of the first branchial arch. (orig.)

  1. Hypoglossal canal size in living hominoids and the evolution of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, William L; Pokempner, Amy A; Kay, Richard F; Cartmill, Matt

    2003-08-01

    The relative size of the hypoglossal canal has been proposed as a useful diagnostic tool for the identification of human-like speech capabilities in the hominid fossil record. Relatively large hypoglossal canals (standardized to oral cavity size) were observed in humans and assumed to correspond to relatively large hypoglossal nerves, the cranial nerve that controls motor function of the tongue. It was suggested that the human pattern of tongue motor innervation and associated speech potential are very different from those of African apes and australopithecines; the modern human condition apparently appeared by the time of Middle Pleistocene Homo. A broader interspecific analysis of hypoglossal canal size in primates conducted in 1999 has rejected this diagnostic and inferences based upon it. In an attempt to resolve these differences of opinion, which we believe are based in part on biased size-adjustments and/or unwarranted assumptions, a new data set was collected and analyzed from 298 extant hominoid skulls, including orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, siamang, gibbons, and modern humans. Data on the absolute size of the hypoglossal nerve itself were also gathered from a small sample of humans and chimpanzee cadavers. A scale-free index of relative hypoglossal canal size (RHCS) was computed as 100 x (hypoglossal canal area(0.5)/oral cavity volume(0.333)). No significant sexual dimorphism in RHCS was discovered in any species of living hominoid, but there are significant interspecific differences in both absolute and relative sizes of the hypoglossal canal. In absolute terms, humans possess significantly larger canals than any other species except gorillas, but there is considerable overlap with chimpanzees. Humans are also characterized by large values of RHCS, but gibbons possess an even larger average mean for this index; siamang and bonobos overlap appreciably with humans in RHCS. The value of RHCS in Australopithecus afarensis is well within both

  2. Cutaneous Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ke Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (cNEC is rarely seen in the external ear. In this paper, we newly describe a patient with cNEC in his right external auditory canal, followed by a further discussion on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatments of cNEC of the external ear. A review of the literature showed that cNEC of the external auditory canal generally presents as asymptomatic and that pathology yields the most confirmative diagnosis. A wide resection with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is recommended. The overall prognosis of this condition is poor.

  3. Innovative 'Artificial Mussels' technology for assessing spatial and temporal distribution of metals in Goulburn-Murray catchments waterways, Victoria, Australia: effects of climate variability (dry vs. wet years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    The "Artificial mussel" (AM), a novel passive sampling technology, was used for the first time in Australia in freshwater to monitor and assess the risk of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn). AMs were deployed at 10 sites within the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments, Victoria, Australia during a dry year (2009-2010) and a wet year (2010-2011). Our results showed that the AMs accumulated all the five metals. Cd, Pb, Hg were detected during the wet year but below detection limits during the dry year. At some sites close to orchards, vine yards and farming areas, elevated levels of Cu were clearly evident during the dry year, while elevated levels of Zn were found during the wet year; the Cu indicates localized inputs from the agricultural application of copper fungicide. The impacts from old mines were significantly less compared 'hot spots'. Our study demonstrated that climate variability (dry, wet years) can influence the metal inputs to waterways via different transport pathways. Using the AMs, we were able to identify various 'hot spots' of heavy metals, which may pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (sub-lethal effects to fish) and public (via food chain metal bioaccumulation and biomagnification) in the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments. The State Protection Policy exempted artificial channels and drains from protection of beneficial use (including protection of aquatic ecosystems) and majority of sites ('hot spots') were located within artificial irrigation channels. PMID:23070068

  4. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. 334.1190 Section 334.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a)...

  5. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Canines in Indian Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the root canal anatomy of single-rooted permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in an Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methodology. A total of 250 permanent maxillary canines and 250 permanent mandibular canines were selected and scanned using CBCT. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the pattern of the root canals, anatomic length of the crown and the root, the presence of accessory canals, the shape of the access cavity, the position of the apical foramina, root diameter, and dentin thickness of the root. Results. Majority of the teeth had a Type I canal configuration in both maxillary canines (81.6% and mandibular canines (79.6%. In maxillary canine the other canal patterns found were Type III (11.6%, Type II (2.8%, Type V (2%, Type XIX (1.2%, and Type IV (0.8%. In mandibular canines the various other canal patterns found were Type III (13.6%, Type II (3.2%, Type V (2%, and Type XIX (1.6%. Apical foramina were laterally positioned in the majority of the teeth, 70.4% and 65.6% in maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. 12% of the maxillary canines and 12.8% of the mandibular canines had accessory canals. Conclusion. The root canal anatomy of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines varied widely in an Indian population.

  6. Effect of filling technique and root canal area on the percentage of gutta-percha in laterally compacted root fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, E. M.; Wu, M-K.; van der Sluis, L. W.; Leonardo, R. T.; Bonetti-Filho, I.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    P>Aim To determine the influence of filling technique and root canal area on the percentage of gutta-percha (PGP) in laterally compacted root fillings. Methodology Sixty extracted canine teeth were accessed and the root canals instrumented to the same size. They were then divided in three groups and

  7. Centering and transportation: in vitro evaluation of continuous and reciprocating systems in curved root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navós, Beatriz Vilas; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Mestieri, Leticia Boldrin; Böttcher, Daiana Elizabeth; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Grecca, Fabiana Soares

    2016-01-01

    Context: One of the goals of endodontic therapy is the shaping and cleaning of the root canal system. In recent years, there has been multiple systems instrumentation, and changes in their dynamics are central to maintain the original shape of the canal after preparation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate centering and transportation in curved root canals after using ProTaper® and MTwo® in continuous rotation, Reciproc® in reciprocating motion, and a step-down manual instrumentation technique. Settings and Design: Mesiobuccal roots of human extracted the first and second maxillary molars were selected and the canals (n = 60) were divided into four groups according to the preparation techniques: PT-ProTaper®; MT-MTwo®; RE-Reciproc®; MI-manual instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: The final apical diameter was standardized to a size 25. Centering and transportation were evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography and Adobe Photoshop 8.0 software. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. Results: Results of transportation showed no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between groups, and significantly, difference (P < 0.05) between ProTaper® and Reciproc® was found when evaluating centering ability in the apical third. Conclusions: We concluded that there were no differences in transportation between the evaluated systems for the preparation of curved root canals with an apical instrumentation diameter of #25. For centering ability, in the apical third, ProTaper® presented worst behavior when compared to Reciproc®. PMID:27656071

  8. Evaluation of the Number of Canals in Mandibular Canines Using Radiographic and Clearing Methods in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Tajik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of knowledge about root canal anatomy can cause mistakes in diagnosis, treatment planning and failure of treatment. Mandibular canine is usually single-rooted it may have two roots or more root canals. The purpose of this study was evaluating the number of root and root-canals of mandibular canine using digital radiography with different angles and comparing it with clearing method.Materials & Methods: This study was a diagnostic test. Two hundred human mandibular canine teeth were studied. Digital radiography of the teeth from mesiodistal, bacculingual and 200 mesial views were prepared. Radiographic evaluation was down by two observers (An oral radiologist and an endodontist separately. Then dental clearing was performed. Data analysis was done using SPSS.Ver.17 software and statistical tests of MC Nemar. P0.001. Findings of digital radiography in mesiodistal view showed that 180 teeth (90% were single-canal and 20 teeth (10% had two canals, which were not different from those of clearing method (P=0.25. In 200 mesial view, 192 teeth (96% were single-canal and 8 teeth (4% had two canals, which were different from those of clearing method (P=0.012.Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence of anatomical variations in mandibular canine in this in vitro study, due to the lack of significant difference of radiographic mesiodistal views compared to that of clearing technique, CBCT modality is recommended for obtaining fast and complete diagnosis of unusual root canal.

  9. Laser induced explosive vapor and cavitation resulting in effective irrigation of the root canal. Part 2: evaluation of the efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.G. de Moor; J. Blanken; M. Meire; R. Verdaasdonk

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Limited information exists regarding the efficacy of laser activated irrigation (LAI) on removal of root canal debris. This study compares the efficacy of LAI for removal of debris in root canals as compared to conventional irrigation (CI) and passive ultrasonic irrigation

  10. Laser Induced Explosive Vapor and Cavitation Resulting in Effective Irrigation of the Root Canal. Part 2 : Evaluation of the Efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Moor, Roeland Jozef Gentil; Blanken, Jan; Meire, Maarten; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Limited information exists regarding the efficacy of laser activated irrigation (LAI) on removal of root canal debris. This study compares the efficacy of LAI for removal of debris in root canals as compared to conventional irrigation (CI) and passive ultrasonic irrigation

  11. Outcome of root canal treatment in dogs determined by periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.G. de Paula-Silva; B. Hassan; L.A.B. da Silva; M.R. Leonardo; M.K. Wu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the favorable outcome of root canal treatment determined by periapical radiographs (PRs) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. Ninety-six roots of dogs' teeth were used to form four groups (n= 24). In group 1, root canal treatments were performed in

  12. The ability of cone-beam computed tomography to detect simulated buccal and lingual recesses in root canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.H. Liang; M. Yuan; G. Li; H. Shemesh; P.R. Wesselink; M.K. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Aim  To compare the ability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiographs (PR) to detect simulated tissue-occupied recesses in root canals. Methodology  A standard canal was created in 30 extracted mandibular premolar roots. Each root was longitudinally split into buccal

  13. Relations between well-field pumping and induced canal leakage in east-central Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Katherine; Antolino, Dominick; Turtora, Michael; Adam Foster,

    2015-08-26

    An extensive canal and water management system exists in south Florida to prevent flooding, replenish groundwater, and impede saltwater intrusion. The unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which underlies southeast Florida and provides water for millions of residents, interacts with the canal system. The Biscayne aquifer is composed of a highly transmissive karst limestone; therefore, canal stage and flow may be affected by production well pumping, especially in locations where production wells and canals are in proximity.

  14. Relations between well-field pumping and induced canal leakage in east-central Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Katherine; Antolino, Dominick; Turtora, Michael; Adam Foster

    2015-01-01

    An extensive canal and water management system exists in south Florida to prevent flooding, replenish groundwater, and impede saltwater intrusion. The unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which underlies southeast Florida and provides water for millions of residents, interacts with the canal system. The Biscayne aquifer is composed of a highly transmissive karst limestone; therefore, canal stage and flow may be affected by production well pumping, especially in locations where production wells and canals are in proximity.

  15. RETRATAMENTO ENDODÔNTICO: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO ENTRE TÉCNICA MANUAL, ULTRA-SOM E CANAL FINDER ENDODONTIC RETREATMENT: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MANUAL TECHNIQUE, ULTRASONIC SCALER, AND CANAL FINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Monteiro BRAMANTE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentações manual, ultra-sônica e com Canal Finder foram utilizadas para retratamento de 30 dentes com canais obturados com guta-percha e óxido de zinco e eugenol. Avaliaram-se: 1. tempo gasto para a penetração inicial até o ápice; 2. tempo para completar a limpeza; 3. extrusão de material e 4. limpeza dos canais. O Canal Finder foi a técnica que propiciou melhor limpeza, seguida da manual e da ultra-sônica. A parede palatina do canal foi constantemente mais limpa do que a vestibular. Quanto à extrusão, a técnica de ultra-som foi a que propiciou mais extravasamento de material obturador.Endodontic retreatment of 30 teeth filled with guta percha and zinc oxide-eugenol was carried out using manual instrumentation, ultrasonic scaler, and the Canal Finder System. The following variables were evaluated: time spent to reach the apex; time spent to complete cleaning of the canal; apical extrusion of material; and cleanliness of the canals. Results showed the Canal Finder System as providing the highest level of cleanliness of the canal system; lingual walls were constantly cleaner than buccal walls; ultrasonic technique presented a greater degree of apical extrusion of filling material.

  16. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were...

  17. Radiographic Evaluation of Root and Canal Morphologies of Third Molar Teeth in Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi; Shahriari; Shokri; Vossoghi; Yaghoobi

    2013-01-01

    Background Root and canal morphology of teeth has a significant role in endodontic treatment success. Third molars have strategic roles after losing first and second molars. Objectives This study investigated the morphology of permanent third molar using radiography in Dentistry University of Hamadan during 2011. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 352 extracted molar...

  18. Novel scenarios for sustainable waterway sediments management deduced from a decision-support tool

    OpenAIRE

    Lemiere, Bruno; Michel, Pascale; Alary, Claire; Haouche, Laurence; Brequel, Hervé; Jacob, Jérome; Gineys, Nathalie; Laboudigue, Agnès; Laboudigue, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    International audience Introduction: Sediments accumulating in waterways represent a triple threat: for fluvial navigation, for flooding hazards, and for their pollutant contents. Waterways dredging releases millions of m3 of sediments, from which a large part is contaminated or even polluted enough to be considered as hazardous waste. Temporary or final storage on land is no longer a sustainable option. Methods: The GeDSeT decision support tool (DST) aims to provide sediment management op...

  19. A clinical and radiographic study of four different root canal fillings in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa O Al-Ostwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful treatment of infected primary teeth aims to preserve the child′s health. However, the complex morphology of primary root canals and the desire for shorter therapy sessions put the necessity to search for the ideal root canal paste. Aims: To evaluate pulpectomy of nonvital primary molars using four different root canal filling pastes zinc oxide and propolis (ZOP as a new paste, endoflas-chlorophenol-free as a new paste free of chlorophenol, metapex paste, and zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE paste as a control paste. Materials and Methods: Pulpectomy of 64 nonvital primary molars were accomplished in 39 children aged 3-9 years. Teeth were randomly divided into four equal groups of 16 molars according to the type of root canal filling. Pulpectomy was performed in one stage using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigation and stainless-steel crown for final restoration. Clinical and radiographic results were evaluated double-blindly for two periods of 6, 12 months. Data were analyzed using Chi-square/Fisher′s exact test, and P-value was set as 0.05. Results: The four pastes achieved convergent clinical and radiographic success within the two observation periods (P > 0.05. ZOE paste was the slowest in its resorption. Conclusions: ZOP is a promising paste with its natural antibacterial component (propolis. ZOE paste had convergent efficacy to the other pastes.

  20. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24% while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy.

  1. Cupula displacement, hair bundle deflection, and physiological responses in the transparent semicircular canal of young eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, A; Thurm, U

    1989-03-01

    The transparent labyrinth of young eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) was used in toto for studying the configuration of cupula displacement, deflection of the hair bundle, and correlated changes in transepithelial voltage (delta TEV) and nerve activity (delta NA) in the semicircular canal. Microcapillaries were introduced into the canal through holes produced by a microthermocauter. Mechanical stimulation was applied either by injection of fluid into the ampulla or by electromagnetically displacing ferrofluid as a piston within the canal. Motion of individual kinocilia, stained cupulae or the ferrofluid piston was analysed by double-exposed microphotographs, photodiodes, or a video-system. The three-dimensional cupula displacement configuration was found to be piston- to diaphragm-like. Hair bundles at different sites on the crista exhibit differences in amplitude and time course of deflection. The transfer factor between shifts of the canal fluid and the tips of the kinocilia is 0.4-0.6. Displacements in opposite directions induce delta TEV and delta NA of opposite sign. Various tests confirmed delta TEV to reflect receptor potential responses. Nerve activity adapts to a tonic response with a time constant of 6.4 s. No similar adaptation occurred in delta TEV. Stimulus-response curves of TEV- and NA-responses are similar and sigmoid in shape with saturation at ciliary deflections of roughly +6 degrees and -3 degrees.

  2. Child Development in the Context of Adversity: Experiential Canalization of Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of poverty-related adversity on child development, drawing upon psychobiological principles of experiential canalization and the biological embedding of experience. They integrate findings from research on stress physiology, neurocognitive function, and self-regulation to consider adaptive processes in response to…

  3. How a clogged canal affects ecological and human health in a tropical urban wetland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal city of San Juan, Puerto Rico is a tropical urban ecosystem woven among a series of interconnected bays, lagoons, drains, canals, and mangroves. As the city has expanded, infilling and urban development by the region’s poorest residents has choked an important c...

  4. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio, E-mail: caciomn@usp.br [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Palo, Renato Miotto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (ICT/UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Pinto, Larissa Fernanda; Daltoe, Gisele; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi [Universidade Ibirapuera (UNIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  5. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  6. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Resin-Based Root Canal Sealer: 10-Year Recall Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Zmener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This retrospective clinical and radiographical study evaluated the 10-year outcome of one-visit endodontic treatment with gutta-percha and a methacrylate resin-based sealer. Methods. From an initial sample size of 180 patients, 89 patients with 175 root canals responded to a recall. Treatment outcome was based on predetermined clinical and radiographic criteria. Results. Root canals had been adequately filled to the working length in 80 teeth (89.88%, short in 6 instances (6.74%, while 3 (3.37% with extrusion immediate postoperatively, showed no sealer in periradicular tissues. The difference in the outcomes of treatments with respect to age, gender, preoperative pulp or periapical status, the size of periapical lesions and the type of permanent restorations were not statistically significantly different (>0.05. Overall, 7 (7.86% cases were considered clinically and radiographically a failure. A life table analysis showed a cumulative probability of success of 92.13% after 10 years with a 95% confidence interval of 83.0 to 94.0. Conclusions. The results of this retrospective clinical and radiographical study suggest that the tested methacrylate-resin based sealer used with gutta-percha performed similarly to other root canal sealers over a period 10 years. Clinical Implications. Considering the success rate after 10 years of this methacrylate resin-based sealer can be recommended as an alternative to other commonly used root canal sealers.

  7. Turning semicircular canal function on its head: dinosaurs and a novel vestibular analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A Georgi

    Full Text Available Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function.

  8. Numerical modeling of the 1964 Alaska tsunami in western Passage Canal and Whittier, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Nicolsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the wave dynamics in Passage Canal, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 megathrust earthquake is presented. During the earthquake, several types of waves were identified at the city of Whittier, located at the head of Passage Canal. The first wave is thought to have been a seiche, while the other two waves were probably triggered by submarine landslides. We model the seiche wave, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami in Passage Canal and compute inundation by each type of wave during the 1964 event. Modeled results are compared with eyewitness reports and an observed inundation line. Results of the numerical experiments let us identify where the submarine landslides might have occurred during the 1964 event. We identify regions at the head and along the northern shore of Passage Canal, where landslides triggered a wave that caused most of the damage in Whittier. An explanation of the fact that the 1964 tectonic tsunami in Whittier was unnoticed is presented as well. The simulated inundation by the seiche, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami can help to mitigate tsunami hazards and prepare Whittier for a potential tsunami.

  9. Comparison of Endoflas and Zinc oxide Eugenol as root canal filling materials in primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Rewal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide eugenol has long been the material of choice of pediatric dentists worldwide, although it fails to meet the ideal requirements of root canal filling material for primary teeth. Endoflas, a mixture of zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide, and iodoform, can be considered to be an effective root canal filling material in primary teeth as compared with zinc oxide eugenol. This study was carried out to compare zinc oxide eugenol with endoflas for pulpectomy in primary dentition. Aim: The objective of the study was to compare clinically and radiographically success rates of zinc oxide eugenol with endoflas for the root canal filling of primary teeth at 3, 6, and 9 months. Design: Fifty primary molars were included in the study with 26 teeth in Group I (Endoflas and 24 in Group II (zinc oxide eugenol. A single visit pulpectomy was carried out. Results: The overall success rate of zinc oxide eugenol was 83% whereas 100% success was found in the case of endoflas. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test. The difference in the success rate between the two was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Endoflas has shown to have better results than zinc oxide eugenol. It should therefore be the material of choice for root canal treatment in deciduous dentition.

  10. Analysis of Deformation of the Human Ear and Canal Caused by Mandibular Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Many hearing aid users experience physical discomfort when wearing their device. The main contributor to this problem is believed to be deformation of the ear and ear canal caused by movement of the mandible. Physical discomfort results from added pressure on soft tissue areas in the ear. Identif......Many hearing aid users experience physical discomfort when wearing their device. The main contributor to this problem is believed to be deformation of the ear and ear canal caused by movement of the mandible. Physical discomfort results from added pressure on soft tissue areas in the ear....... Identifying features that can predict potential deformation is therefore important for identifying problematic cases in advance. A study on the physical deformation of the human ear and canal due to movement of the mandible is presented. The study is based on laser scannings of 30 pairs of ear impressions...... for significance of the deformations for each deformation field reveals that all subjects have significant deformation at Tragus and in the canal. Furthermore, a relation between the magnitude of the deformation and the gender of the subject is demonstrated. The results are successfully validated by comparing...

  11. 76 FR 14804 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  12. 77 FR 6012 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  13. 76 FR 79065 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  14. 76 FR 45420 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY:...

  15. Comparison of different retreatment techniques and root canal sealers: a scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Simsek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two retreatment techniques, in terms of the operating time and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results, in removing three different root canal sealers from root canals that were previously filled with gutta-percha. Sixty extracted single-rooted human premolars were divided into three groups and filled with iRoot SP, MM Seal, and AH Plus sealers, along with gutta-percha, through a lateral compaction technique. Root canal fillings of the samples were removed by ESI ultrasonic tips or R-Endo files. The time to reach the working length was recorded. Longitudinally sectioned samples were examined under SEM magnification. Each picture was evaluated in terms of the residual debris. Data were statistically analyzed with the Kruskall-Wallis test. No statistically significant differences were found in terms of operating time (p>0.05. Significant differences in the number of debris-free dentinal tubules were found among the root canal thirds, but this finding was not influenced by the experimental group (p < 0.05. Resin sealer tags were observed inside the dentinal tubules in the MM Seal group. Under the conditions of this study, it may be established that there was no difference among the sealers and retreatment techniques.

  16. On the waterfront: water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a south India canal irrigation system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests

  17. 33 CFR 207.441 - St. Marys Falls Canal and Locks, Mich.; security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to embark or debark at St. Marys Falls Canal except in emergency when medical attention is required... material. Cleaning and gas freeing of tanks on all hazardous material cargo vessels (as defined in 49 CFR... time from any one ship. (2) Personnel—(i) Embarking. Personnel, including technicians, repairmen,...

  18. Statistical Analysis of Ship Collisions with Bridges in China Waterway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Tong-yu; NIE Wu; LIU Ying-jie; WANG Li-ping

    2002-01-01

    Having carried out investigations on ship collision accidents with bridges in waterway in China, a database of ship collision with bridge (SCB) is developed in this paper. It includes detailed information about more than 200 accidents near ship's waterways in the last four decades, in which ships collided with the bridges. Based on the information a statistical analysis is presented tentatively. The increase in frequency of ship collision with bridges appears, and the accident quantity of the barge system is more than that of single ship. The main reason of all the factors for ship collision with bridge is the human errors, which takes up 70%. The quantity of the accidents happened during flooding period shows over 3~6 times compared with the period from March to June in a year. The probability follows the normal distribution according to statistical analysis. Visibility, span between piers also have an effect on the frequency of the accidents.

  19. Cleaning and decompression of inferior alveolar canal to treat dysesthesia and paresthesia following endodontic treatment of a third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Rudy; Cucchi, Alessandro; Cappellina, Luca; Ghensi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic overfilling involving the mandibular canal may cause an injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). We report a case of disabling dysesthesia and paresthesia of a 70-year-old man after endodontic treatment of his mandibular left third molar that caused leakage of root canal filling material into the mandibular canal. After radiographic evaluation, extraction of the third molar and distal osteotomy, a surgical exploration was performed and followed by removal of the material and decompression of the IAN. The patient reported an improvement in sensation and immediate disappearance of dysesthesia already from the first postoperative day. PMID:25099006

  20. Cleaning and decompression of inferior alveolar canal to treat dysesthesia and paresthesia following endodontic treatment of a third molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Scala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic overfilling involving the mandibular canal may cause an injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN. We report a case of disabling dysesthesia and paresthesia of a 70-year-old man after endodontic treatment of his mandibular left third molar that caused leakage of root canal filling material into the mandibular canal. After radiographic evaluation, extraction of the third molar and distal osteotomy, a surgical exploration was performed and followed by removal of the material and decompression of the IAN. The patient reported an improvement in sensation and immediate disappearance of dysesthesia already from the first postoperative day.

  1. Visual and quantitative assessment of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipola, Petri; Vanninen, Ritva; Manninen, Hannu (Univ. of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Clinical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland)), email: petri.sipola@kuh.fi; Leinonen, Ville (Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland)); Niemelaeinen, Riikka (Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Clinical Imaging Centre, Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Aalto, Timo (Kyyhkylae Rehabilitation Center and Hospital, Mikkeli (Finland)); Airaksinen, Olavi (Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine and Univ. of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Kuopio (Finland)); Battie, Michele C. (Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

    2011-11-15

    Background. Lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis is a common etiology of lumbar radicular symptoms. Quantitative measurements have commonly demonstrated better repeatability than visual assessments. We are not aware of any studies examining the repeatability of quantitative assessment of the lateral canal. Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of visual assessments and newly developed quantitative measurements of lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods. Twenty-eight patients with lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis or prior spinal surgery with recurrent symptoms were imaged with MRI. A radiologist, a neurosurgeon and a spine research trainee graded visually and quantitatively subarticular (n = 188) and foraminal zones (n = 260) of the lateral spinal canal. Quantitative measurements included the minimal subarticular width and the cross-sectional area of the foramen. Results. The repeatability of visual assessment at the subarticular zone and foraminal zones between raters varied from 0.45-0.59 and 0.42-0.53, respectively. Similarly, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the quantitative measurements varied from 0.67-0.71 and 0.66-0.76, respectively. The intra-rater repeatability for the visual assessments of the subarticular and foraminal zones was 0.70 and 0.62, respectively, while the corresponding intraclass correlation coefficients for quantitative measurements were 0.83 and 0.81, respectively. Conclusion. Inter-rater repeatability of visual assessments of lateral stenosis is moderate, whereas quantitative measurements of both subarticular width and the cross-sectional area of the foramen have substantial reproducibility and may be particularly useful for longitudinal studies and research purposes. The clinical value of these parameters requires further study

  2. Hand and ultrasonic instrumentation for orthograde root canal treatment of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treatment is a frequently performed dental procedure and is carried out on teeth in which irreversible pulpitis has led to necrosis of the dental pulp. Removal of the necrotic tissue remnants and cleaning and shaping of the root canal are important phases of root canal treatment. Treatment options include the use of hand and rotary instruments and methods using ultrasonic or sonic equipment. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials were to determine the relative clinical effectiveness of hand instrumentation versus ultrasonic instrumentation alone or in conjunction with hand instrumentation for orthograde root canal treatment of permanent teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The search strategy retrieved 226 references from the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (7, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (12, MEDLINE (192, EMBASE (8 and LILACS (7. No language restriction was applied. The last electronic search was conducted on December 13th, 2007. Screening of eligible studies was conducted in duplicate and independently. RESULTS: Results were to be expressed as fixed-effect or random-effects models using mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confdence intervals. Heterogeneity was to be investigated including both clinical and methodological factors. No eligible randomized controlled trials were identifed. CONCLUSIONS: This review illustrates the current lack of published or ongoing randomized controlled trials and the unavailability of high-level evidence based on clinically relevant outcomes referring to the effectiveness of ultrasonic instrumentation used alone or as an adjunct to hand instrumentation for orthograde root canal treatment. In the absence of reliable research-based evidence, clinicians should base their decisions on clinical experience, individual circumstances and in conjunction with patients

  3. In vitro antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers and calcium hydroxide paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro L Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of different root canal sealers and calcium hydroxide (CH paste. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of two sealers (Fill Canal® and Sealer 26® , one CH cement (Hydro C® , and a CH paste. The agar diffusion test was performed in Petri dishes inoculated with the following microorganisms: Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis. The diameters of the zones of microbial growth inhibition were measured after 24 h. The tests were performed in triplicate. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey′s test at 5% significance level. Results: Fill Canal® exhibited the largest mean zone of microbial growth inhibition against the Candida species and differed significantly from the other groups (P < 0.001. When inhibition was observed against S. mitis and S. oralis, the CH paste presented a larger mean zone of microbial growth inhibition than those of the other materials (P < 0.05. Regarding the inhibition of S. mutans, a statistically significant difference was observed only between the CH paste and Hydro C® (P < 0.05; the paste produced the largest mean zone of microbial growth inhibition against this microorganism. Regarding the inhibition of S. salivarius, Fill Canal® presented smaller mean zone of microbial growth inhibition than Sealer 26® and CH paste (P < 0.05. Conclusion: All the materials presented zones of microbial growth inhibition against all the test bacteria. Fill Canal® presented the largest mean zone of inhibition against the Candida species. For the Streptococcus cultures, none of the sealers presented inhibition superior to that of the CH paste.

  4. Stretching morphogenesis of the roof plate and formation of the central canal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kondrychyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurulation is driven by apical constriction of actomyosin cytoskeleton resulting in conversion of the primitive lumen into the central canal in a mechanism driven by F-actin constriction, cell overcrowding and buildup of axonal tracts. The roof plate of the neural tube acts as the dorsal morphogenetic center and boundary preventing midline crossing by neural cells and axons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The roof plate zebrafish transgenics expressing cytosolic GFP were used to study and describe development of this structure in vivo for a first time ever. The conversion of the primitive lumen into the central canal causes significant morphogenetic changes of neuroepithelial cells in the dorsal neural tube. We demonstrated that the roof plate cells stretch along the D-V axis in parallel with conversion of the primitive lumen into central canal and its ventral displacement. Importantly, the stretching of the roof plate is well-coordinated along the whole spinal cord and the roof plate cells extend 3× in length to cover 2/3 of the neural tube diameter. This process involves the visco-elastic extension of the roof place cytoskeleton and depends on activity of Zic6 and the Rho-associated kinase (Rock. In contrast, stretching of the floor plate is much less extensive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extension of the roof plate requires its attachment to the apical complex of proteins at the surface of the central canal, which depends on activity of Zic6 and Rock. The D-V extension of the roof plate may change a range and distribution of morphogens it produces. The resistance of the roof plate cytoskeleton attenuates ventral displacement of the central canal in illustration of the novel mechanical role of the roof plate during development of the body axis.

  5. Residual activity of cetrimide and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis-infected root canals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen Mara Ferrer-Luque; Mara Teresa Arias-Moliz; Matilde Ruz-Linares; Mara Elena Martnez Garca; Pilar Baca

    2014-01-01

    Effective final irrigation regimen is an important step in order to achieve better disinfection and ensure residual antimicrobial effects after root canal preparation. The aim of this study was to compare the residual antimicrobial activity of 0.2%cetrimide, and 0.2%and 2%chlorhexidine in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on uniradicular roots for 4 weeks. After root canal preparation, root canals were irrigated with 17%ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to remove the smear layer. The roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n526) according to the final irrigating solution:Group I, 5 mL 0.2%cetrimide;Group II, 5 mL 0.2%chlorhexidine;and Group III, 5 mL 2%chlorhexidine. Samples were collected for 50 days to denote the presence of bacterial growth. The proportion of ungrown specimens over 50 days was evaluated using the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Differences among groups were tested using the log-rank test and the level of statistical significance was set at P,0.05. The highest survival value was found with 2%chlorhexidine, showing statistically significant differences from the other two groups. At 50 days, E. faecalis growth was detected in 69.23%specimens in Groups I and II, and in 34.61%specimens of Group III. There were no significant differences between 0.2%cetrimide and 0.2%chlorhexidine. Final irrigation with 2%chlorhexidine showed greater residual activity than 0.2%chlorhexidine and 0.2%cetrimide in root canals infected with E. faecalis.

  6. Dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria, bacterial pathogen genes, and organic wastewater contaminants in the Little Calumet River: Portage Burns Waterway, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on the co-occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), bacterial pathogens, and organic wastewater-associated chemicals (OWCs) within Great Lakes tributaries. Fifteen watershed sites and one beach site adjacent to the Little Calumet River–Portage Burns Waterway (LCRPBW) on Lake Michigan were tested on four dates for pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, chloride, color, ammonia- and nitrate-nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, sulfate, turbidity, and atrazine; for concentrations of FIB; and for genes indicating the presence of human-pathogenic enterococci (ENT) and of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (EC) from various animal sources. Nineteen samples were also tested for 60 OWCs. Half of the watershed samples met EC recreational water quality standards; none met ENT standards. Human-wastewater-associated OWC detections were correlated with human-influence indicators such as population/km2, chloride concentrations, and the presence of WWTP effluents, but EC and ENT concentrations were not. Bacterial pathogen genes indicated rural human and several potential animal sources. OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern (musk fragrances AHTN and HHCB, alkylphenols, carbamazepine) and 3 bacterial pathogen genes were detected at the mouth of the LCRPBW, but no such OWCs and only 1 pathogen gene were detected at the beach. The LCRPBW has significant potential to deliver FIB, potential bacterial pathogens, and OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern to the nearshore of Lake Michigan, under conditions enhancing nearshore transport of the river plume. Nearshore mixing of lake and river water, and the lack of relationship between OWCs and FIB or pathogen genes, pose numerous challenges for watershed and nearshore assessment and remediation.

  7. Centering Ability and Influence of Experience When Using WaveOne Single-File Technique in Simulated Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Goldberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. WaveOne is a single endodontic instrument that reciprocates with a dedicated motor to shape root canal systems. The present study assessed the centering ability of this simplified protocol along with the effect of experience in simulated plastic canals. Methods. One experienced operator shaped two groups of simulated canals. Groups 1 and 3 each comprised 30 blinded L-shaped canals or S-shaped canals, respectively. Photographs were taken before and after shaping and digitally assessed centering after superimposition of the pictures. Time of shaping, number of passes, canal aberrations, and instrument degradation were recorded. In group 2 shaping was done on 30 blinded L-shaped canals by 30 different students with no prior experience with WaveOne. Results. All three groups yielded satisfactory, reproducible shaping. Centering ratios were low and homogeneous in all groups, with no significant differences between the experienced operator and the students. Apical transportation values were very low (≤0.138 mm with no instances of blockage or separation. The average shaping time was short (43 to 101,6 sec. Conclusions. Within the limits of the study, the WaveOne instrument had excellent centering ability with a low risk of fracture or blockage and a short shaping time, regardless of the operator’s level of experience.

  8. Masses and disease entities of the external auditory canal: Radiological and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.D., E-mail: richard.white3@nhs.net [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Ananthakrishnan, G. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); McKean, S.A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Brunton, J.N. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Hussain, S.S.M. [Department of Otolaryngology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Sudarshan, T.A. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    A wide spectrum of disease entities can affect the external auditory canal (EAC). This review describes the normal anatomy of the EAC. Congenital abnormalities, infections, neoplasms, and miscellaneous conditions, such as cholesteatoma and acquired stenosis, are shown with reference to clinical relevance and management. Cases have been histologically confirmed, where relevant. The EAC is frequently imaged - for example, on cross-sectional imaging of the brain - and this review should stimulate radiologists to include it as an important area for review.

  9. Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Eiko MAEKAWA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO and ginger (GIN extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH, chlorhexidine (CLX gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success.

  10. 33 CFR 207.640 - Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel Barge Lock and Approach Canals; use, administration, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unless provided with suitable buffers and fenders. (14) Tows. Tows shall be made up outside the canal... existing Federal laws, rules and regulations affecting navigable waters of the United States will govern...

  11. 33 CFR 207.590 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collision between vessels in the restricted section of the canal. (m) Black Rock Lock. All vessels and boats... of the former's order of arrival. (5) All vessels and boats shall be maneuvered with great care so...

  12. Age-related differential gene and protein expression in postnatal cartilage canal and osteochondral junction chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja; Semevolos, Stacy; Kinsley, Marc; Riddick, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin, Indian hedgehog (Ihh)/Parathyroid-related peptide (PTHrP) and retinoid signaling pathways regulate cartilage differentiation, growth, and function during development and play a key role in endochondral ossification. The objective of this study was to elucidate the gene and protein expression of signaling molecules of these regulatory pathways in chondrocytes surrounding cartilage canals and the osteochondral junction during neonatal and pre-adolescent development. This study revealed cell-specific and age-related differences in gene and protein expression of signaling molecules of these regulatory pathways. A trend for higher gene expression of PTHrP along the cartilage canals and Ihh along the osteochondral junction suggests the presence of paracrine feedback in articular-epiphyseal cartilage. Differential expression of canonical (β-catenin, Wnt-4, Lrp4, Lrp6) and noncanonical Wnt signaling (Wnt-5b, Wnt-11) and their inhibitors (Dkk1, Axin1, sFRP3, sFRP5, Wif-1) surrounding the cartilage canals and osteochondral junction provides evidence of the complex interactions occurring during endochondral ossification. PMID:25479004

  13. Difficulties in controlling root canal infection and a new concept of three-dimensional root canal preparation%根管感染控制的难点和三维根管预备现代理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌均棨

    2013-01-01

    根管预备是根管治疗术成功与否的关键步骤.由于根管解剖结构的复杂性和根管感染的特殊性,现有根管预备器械和技术难以达到理想的根管成形及清理效果.笔者就根管治疗中感染控制的难点、三维根管预备现代理念及其质量控制与评估作一述评.%Successful endodontic treatment depends on the effectiveness of the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system.Due to the complexity of the structure of root canal system and the particularity of root canal infections,the equipment and technology currently available for root canal preparation hinder the ability to adequately clean and shape the root canal system.In this review,we summarized the difficulties in the control of root canal infection,the new concept of three-dimensional root canal preparation,and its quality control and assessment.

  14. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Pasternak-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. RESULTS: There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. CONCLUSION: The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the canal curvature modifications after instrumentation with One Shape rotary and Wave One reciprocating files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Dhingra

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Analysis: It was done with mean, standard deviation, one-way ANOVA, (P < 0.05 t-test and Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: Mean was more for Wave One compared with One Shape. One-way ANOVA and t-test showed a significant difference between One Shape and Wave One at 5% level of significance (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Canals prepared with Wave One file preserved canal shape, respected the anatomical shape of J-shaped canal and produced a continuously tapered funnel.

  16. Canals - CANALS_HISTORIC_STRUCTURES_IN: Historic Canal Structures in Indiana (Bernardin-Lochmueller & Associates, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data depicts the locations of historic structures associated with the Wabash-Erie, Central, and Whitewater Canals constructed in Indiana in from 1830-1870. Canal...

  17. SNP diversity of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in a South East Queensland waterway, Australia, and associated antibiotic resistance gene profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huygens Flavia

    2011-09-01

    E. faecium genotypes is highly diverse in the Coomera River. The SNP genotyping method is rapid and robust and can be applied to study the diversity of E. faecalis and E. faecium in waterways. It can also be used to test for human-related and human-specific enterococci in water. The resolving power can be increased by including antibiotic-resistant profiles which can be used as a possible source tracking tool. This warrants further investigation.

  18. Navigated Waterways of Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [navigated_waterways_LOSCO_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line dataset of navigated waterways fitting the LOSCO definition: it has been traveled by vessels transporting 10,000 gallons of oil or fuel as determined...

  19. Ear canal cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J J

    1992-06-01

    Although cholesteatomas are more commonly found in the middle ear and the mastoid, the disease can occur in the external ear canal. All cases of ear canal cholesteatoma treated by the author were reviewed. There were nine ears in seven patients, who had an average age of 62 years. The lesions ranged in size from a few millimeters to extensive mastoid destruction. Smaller lesions can be managed by frequent cleaning as an office procedure. Larger lesions require surgery, either canaloplasty or mastoidectomy. The otolaryngologist should suspect this disease in the elderly. Microscopic examination of the ear with meticulous cleaning of all wax, especially in elderly patients, is most useful in detecting early disease. Frequent applications of mineral oil to the canal should be used in the management of the disease and to prevent recurrence. PMID:1376388

  20. Freshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, Western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Frans, Lonna M.; Noble, Marlene; Kendall, Carol; Josberger, Edward G.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2006-01-01

    Hood Canal is a long (110 kilometers), deep (175 meters) and narrow (2 to 4 kilometers wide) fjord of Puget Sound in western Washington. The stratification of a less dense, fresh upper layer of the water column causes the cold, saltier lower layer of the water column to be isolated from the atmosphere in the late summer and autumn, which limits reaeration of the lower layer. In the upper layer of Hood Canal, the production of organic matter that settles and consumes dissolved oxygen in the lower layer appears to be limited by the load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN): nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Freshwater and saline loads of DIN to Hood Canal were estimated from available historical data. The freshwater load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal, which could be taken up by phytoplankton, came mostly from surface and ground water from subbasins, which accounts for 92 percent of total load of DIN to the upper layer of Hood Canal. Although DIN in rain falling on land surfaces amounts to about one-half of the DIN entering Hood Canal from subbasins, rain falling directly on the surface of marine waters contributed only 4 percent of the load to the upper layer. Point-source discharges and subsurface flow from shallow shoreline septic systems contributed less than 4 percent of the DIN load to the upper layer. DIN in saline water flowing over the sill into Hood Canal from Admiralty Inlet was at least 17 times the total load to the upper layer of Hood Canal. In September and October 2004, field data were collected to estimate DIN loads to Lynch Cove - the most inland marine waters of Hood Canal that routinely contain low dissolved-oxygen waters. Based on measured streamflow and DIN concentrations, surface discharge was estimated to have contributed about one-fourth of DIN loads to the upper layer of Lynch Cove. Ground-water flow from subbasins was estimated to have contributed about one-half of total DIN loads to the upper layer. In autumn 2004, the relative

  1. Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Hyun Min; Lee, Young Suk; Lee, Jee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous

  2. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  3. Load carrying capacity of large mortise and tenon joints in wooden mitre gates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Otterloo, J.; Ravenshorst, G.J.P.; De Vries, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wooden mitre gates are used for centuries in waterways and canals. For newly built as well as the renewal of such gates, a number of wood species is used, ranging from oak to dense tropical hardwoods. As mitre gates have high loads to withstand, their strength verification has become more and more i

  4. Love canal questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 3-month monitoring study of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, N.Y., after the federal government pronounced that a potential health risk existed due to chemical waste dumps. In 1982 the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) decided that the area was habitable, subject to implementation of effective safeguards against leakage from the canal and to cleaning up of the contaminants. Now, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has announced that, with the information available, it is not possible to demonstrate with certainty that unsafe levels do not exist within the so-called “emergency declaration area” (EDA).

  5. Reply to Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Atike; Meriç, Engin; Avşar, Niyazi

    2012-06-01

    In their discussion of our 2011 paper dealing with possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the "late" Quaternary, based on data from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) essentially reject the idea of any links whatsoever, be they between the Marmara Sea and the lakes İznik and Sapanca, or further to the Black Sea via the valley of the Sakarya River. The evidence they provide in support of their view, however, is essentially circumstantial, in part conjectural, and also inconclusive considering the findings in favour of linkage between the Marmara Sea and the lakes at the very least, while the proposed connection with the Sakarya River valley remains speculative because of the lack of unambiguous data. On the other hand, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) do raise valid points of concern which deserve careful future investigation, the most important being the possibility of sample contamination from dumped marine sediment used for construction purposes along some parts of the shore of Lake İznik. We agree that a concerted multidisciplinary effort is required to address the many unresolved issues in connection with the potential waterways proposed by us and others before us.

  6. Internal auditory canal meningocele-perilabyrinthine/translabyrinthine fistula: Case report and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Carl M; Peterson, Ryan B; Hudgins, Patricia A; Vivas, Esther X

    2016-08-01

    The case of a 17-year-old patient with progressive unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and temporal bone malformations concerning for internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula is presented with associated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. As the second reported case of an unruptured internal auditory canal meningocele with translabyrinthine/perilabyrinthine fistula, the case presents several clinically relevant points for otologists, neurotologists, and neuroradiologists. Although rare, it is an additional entity to consider as a cause of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and may pose a risk for developing meningitis and possible "gushing" of cerebrospinal fluid should surgical intervention be attempted. Laryngoscope, 126:1931-1934, 2016. PMID:26651061

  7. Evaluation of Chlorine Dioxide Irrigation Solution on the Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Root Canal Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Khandewal, Deepika; Karthikeyan, Saravana; Somayaji, Krishnaraj; Foschi, Federico

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorine dioxide and various other more common irrigation solutions on the microhardness and surface roughness of root canal dentin. Fifty human maxillary central incisors were sectioned longitudinally and treated for 1 minute with 5 ml of the following aqueous solutions (v/v%): Group 1: 13.8% chlorine dioxide, Group 2: 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Group 3: 7% maleic acid, Group 4: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (5 ml/min), Group 5: Saline (control). Specimens were subjected to microhardness and surface roughness testing. Chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite reduced the microhardness more than other test agents. The highest surface roughness was produced with maleic acid. Chlorine dioxide should be used cautiously during chemomechanical preparation of the root canal system in order to prevent untoward damage to the teeth. PMID:26767238

  8. Surgical Procedures for External Auditory Canal Carcinoma and the Preservation of Postoperative Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hoshikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the external auditory canal (EAC is an unusual head and neck malignancy. The pathophysiology of these tumors is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. Early-stage carcinoma of the EAC can be generally cured by surgical treatment, and reconstruction of the EAC with a tympanoplasty can help to retain hearing, thus improving the patients’ quality of life. In this study, we present two cases of early-stage carcinoma of the EAC treated by canal reconstruction using skin grafts after lateral temporal bone resection. A rolled-up skin graft with a temporal muscle flap was useful for keeping the form and maintaining the postoperative hearing. An adequate size of the skin graft and blood supply to the graft bed are important for achieving a successful operation.

  9. Canalization and developmental instability of the fetal skull in a mouse model of maternal nutritional stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Paula N.; Lotto, Federico P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional imbalance is one of the main sources of stress in both extant and extinct human populations. Restricted availability of nutrients is thought to disrupt the buffering mechanisms that contribute to developmental stability and canalization, resulting in increased levels of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and phenotypic variance among individuals. However, the literature is contradictory in this regard. This study assesses the effect of prenatal nutritional stress on FA and among-individua...

  10. Development of K+ and Na+ conductances in rodent postnatal semicircular canal type I hair cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gang Q.; Meredith, Frances L.; Rennie, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The rodent vestibular system is immature at birth. During the first postnatal week, vestibular type I and type II hair cells start to acquire their characteristic morphology and afferent innervation. We have studied postnatal changes in the membrane properties of type I hair cells acutely isolated from the semicircular canals (SCC) of gerbils and rats using whole cell patch clamp and report for the first time developmental changes in ionic conductances in these cells. At postnatal day (P) 5 i...

  11. Dentinal crack formation during root canal preparations by the twisted file adaptive, Reciproc and WaveOne instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Gergi, Richard M.; Osta, Nada E.; Naaman, Alfred S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the frequency of dentinal microcracks after root canal shaping with 2 reciprocating (Reciproc and WaveOne) and 1 combined continuous reciprocating motion twisted files adaptive (TFA) rotary system. Materials and Methods: Ninety molars were chosen and divided into three groups of 30 each. Root canal preparation was achieved by using Reciproc R25, Primary WaveOne and TFA systems. All the roots were horizontally sectioned at 15, 9, and 3 mm from the apex. T...

  12. Measurement and modeling of temperature distribution for Er:YAG laser root canal sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Keller, Ulrich

    1999-02-01

    Based on the bactericidal effect of subablative irradiation the Er:YAG laser can be used for root canal sterilization in endodontics. For this, an optical fiber will be inserted into the root canal down to a depth of about 1 mm in front of the apex, and then removed while activating the laser. In order to avoid heat accumulation which could be harmful to the desmodont or periodont, repetition rate and fiber withdrawal velocity must be kept within certain limits. These limits were determined by calculations based on a 1-dim, cylindrical model and related temperature measurements on half cutted teeth. The calculations agree well to the control measurements and are used to derive a complete set of application parameters in dependence on the expected root thickness.

  13. The use of plastic models for teaching root canal cleansing and shaping

    OpenAIRE

    Eftekhar B

    2004-01-01

    The use of root canal models in endodontics education is of high importance. So, in this article"na new method is presented that the students can produce these models with simple and low cost"ninstruments."nThese plastic models are made of polyester which is low cost, available and has the approximate cutting"nproperties of dentin. The best molds were disposable syringes due to their low cost, availability and"nproducing smooth surfaces on polyester models. A spreader...

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage for Different Root Canal Sealers and Irrigation Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Ertan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available  Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the sealing ability of a root-canal sealer using different endodontic irrigants and to measure the microleakage using a fluid transport model. Material and Methods: 170 maxillary and mandibular anterior human teeth with single bilnded were selected for this study. The root canals were instrumented using the crown-down technique with HEROShaper and were irrigated with 5.25 % NaOCl. The smear layer was removed by washing in 10 ml of 17% EDTA. The specimens randomly divided into 16 groups (root-canal sealings; Sealite- Ultra, Diaket, AH-Plus, Ketac-Endo and irrigation solutions; NaOCl, 2 % CHX, 1% CHX  gel+NaOCl, 1% CHX gel+SS of ten teeth and two control groups of five teeth and obturated by lateral condensation. In order to measure the microleakage, a fluid transport model was used and leakage value for each group was calculated and recorded. Four specimens from each group were used for SEM examinations (scanning electron microscopy. Results: The best results are taken when Ketac-Endo with 2% CHX solution used. The results proved that there is no significant difference between root-canal sealers. As for irrigant solutions, NaOCl solution caused more microleakage than 1% CHX Gel+SS and 1% CHX Gel+NaOCl solutions and the results are statistically significant. Conclusion: The study shows that the best irrigant solutions for all rootcanal sealers are 1% CHX+SS and 1% CHX+NaOCl.

  15. An Update on the Management of Endodontic Biofilms Using Root Canal Irrigants and Medicaments

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biofilm is defined as a sessile multicellular microbial community characterized by cells that are firmly attached to a surface and enmeshed in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms play a very important role in pulp and periradicular pathosis. The aim of this article was to review the role of endodontic biofilms and the effects of root canal irrigants, medicaments as well as lasers on biofilms A Medline search was performed on the English articles pu...

  16. STUDY OF VARIATION OF THE DIAMETER OF THE SPINAL CANAL AND THE FORAMINA IN SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enguer Beraldo Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To define and quantify the degree of change of the spinal canal diameter in patients with degenerative and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Methods: We studied CT scans of 54 patients. Of this total, 37 (29 women and 8 men had degenerative type and 17 (7 women and 10 men had spondylolytic type. Results: In the degenerative spondylolisthesis group, the average diameter of the spinal canal at the injured vertebra level was 17.35 mm and 17.64 mm for the upper vertebra level. The average diameter of the foramen at the level of the affected vertebra was 14.61 mm to left side and 15.00 mm to the right side. The average diameter of the foramen at the upper vertebra level was 16.82 mm to the left side and 16.51 mm to the right side. In the spondylolytic group, the average diameter of the spinal canal at the level of the affected vertebra was 23.25 mm and at the upper vertebra level was 18.66 mm. The average diameter of the foramen at the level of the affected vertebra was 11.98 mm to the left side and 12.34 mm to the right side. The average diameter of the foramen at the level of the upper vertebra was 16.97 mm to the left side and 15.58 mm to the right side. Conclusion: The diameter of the spinal canal in the sagittal plane showed no statistically significant increase in the spondylolytic spondylolisthesis group, in contrast to what is found in the degenerative spondylolisthesis group. It was also observed a reduction in vertebral foramina of the injured level in both groups.

  17. Water used to visualize and remove hidden foreign bodies from the external ear canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, T J; Saarento, R

    1992-02-01

    Small foreign bodies lodged anteriorly in the tympanic sulcus are usually not visible, due to the curve of the external ear canal. Such objects can be seen with the aid of an otomicroscope and micromirror or with an endoscope, and removed by irrigation. If irrigation fails, epithelial migration on the tympanic membrane may remove lodged foreign bodies, although this may take months. Our new method, which uses water to locate small objects lodged in the tympanic sulcus, includes irrigation of the ear, adjustment of the water level to the middle curve of the external ear canal, and use of the water surface as a concave lens, making the tympanic sulcus visible. With otomicroscopy a curved ear probe can then be used to remove lodged foreign bodies from behind the curve.

  18. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 100. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th1, Th2 levels and round at Th3-Th10 and large oval at Th11, Th12. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author)

  19. Ex Vivo Evaluation of the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of the Mandibular First Molar Using CBCT Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Farhad-Mollashahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the root canal system and its curvature and the relationship between the root concavity and the dentin thickness of danger zone in the mandibular first molar using the cone beam CT method. Materials and Methods: A sum of 101 fresh extracted mandibular first molar were gathered and scanned by CBCT (planmeca romexis 3D machine. The root canal configuration was evaluated according to Vertucci’s classification. Then, the canal curvature was evaluated according to schneider's method in clinical and proximal views. Finally, the relationship between the root concavity and the dentin thickness of danger zone was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The most common canal configuration of the mesial roots was vertucci type IV (49.5%, followed by type II (46.5%. Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I in 50.5% and type II in 29.7%. The average angles in proximal dimension for MB, ML, DB and DL canals were 18.80, 18.77, 8.22 and 16.86, respectively. These values in clinical dimension were 22.50, 21.90, 13.83 and 12.04, respectively. No meaningful relationship was found between the dentin thickness and the root concavity of danger zone. Conclusion: The clinician's awareness of the anatomy of the root canal system and the canal curvatures and the internal and external anatomy of the root is helpful and necessary in diagnosis and treatment of the endodontic cases.

  20. Diode Laser and Calcium Hydroxide for Elimination of Enterococcus Faecalis in Root Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Naghavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ultimate goal of endodontic treatment is to eliminate the bacterial infection in the root canal system. While mechanical debridement combined with chemical irrigation removes the bulk of microorganisms, residual bacteria are readily detectable in approximately one-half of teeth just prior to obturation. Laser light can be used to destroy bacteria. This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the effect of diode laser and calcium hydroxide on mono-infected dental canals.Methods: Fifty five single-rooted human premolars were prepared and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. After three weeks of incubation, the samples were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 and two control groups (n = 5. In the first and second groups, the teeth were rinsed for 5 min with either sterile saline or 5.25% NaOCl and irradiated with a 810-nm diode laser at 1.5 W output for 5 × 4s. In the third group, the teeth were rinsed with 5.25% NaOCl and then Ca(OH2 paste was inserted in the canals for 1 week. Intracanal bacterial sampling was done and the samples were plated to determine the CFU count. Results: 5.25% NaOCl plus laser was as effective as calcium hydroxide and significantly more effective than sterile saline (P>0.05 in elimination of E. faecalis. Complete elimination of E. faecalis was seen only for the one week calcium hydroxide treatment. Conclusion: Combination therapy with NaOCl irrigation and diode laser irradiation can be recommended as an effective treatment option for elimination of E. faecalis from the root canal system.

  1. Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marques-Pita

    Full Text Available We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level, which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level. This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks, identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought, the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.

  2. Pre-operative assessment of relationship between inferior dental nerve canal and mandibular impacted third molar in Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shujaat

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Our sample population most commonly exhibited horizontally angulated class I position B impactions of the mandible. The position of the ID canal significantly influenced the type of impaction and bone contact.

  3. Comparative evaluation of surgical alternatives in the treatment of acute cervical myelopathy and in the decompression of cervical spinal canal

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor Czigléczki; Zoltán Papp; Csaba Padányi; Péter Banczerowski

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of cervical myelopathy are caused by the compression of the cervical spinal cord in the narrowed spinal canal. Several techniques including less invasive and minimally invasive methods have been developed with the aim of decompressing the cervical spinal canal, preserving posterior motion segments and paraspinal muscles as much as possible, reducing iatrogenic consequences and promoting faster recoveries of patients. The purpose of this article is to summarize these procedures and ev...

  4. Monitoring of phenolic compounds and surfactants in water of Ganga Canal, Haridwar (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Richa; Singh, Prashant; Mohan, Manindra; Singh, Rakesh; Aswal, Ravinder Singh

    2013-12-01

    The Ganga Canal emerging out from Ganga River has great ritual importance among pilgrims and tourists at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. The Canal is being polluted due to mass bathing, washing, disposal of sewage, industrial waste and these human activities are deteriorating its water quality. To determine the impact of these activities, Ganga Canal water quality at five sites between Haridwar and Roorkee namely Pantdweep, Har Ki Pauri, Singhdwar, Piran Kaliyar and Old Bridge, Roorkee has been analyzed for organic pollutants phenolic compounds and surfactants, which have rarely been assessed and reported so far. The results of analysis show that phenolic compounds are not present in water samples of selected five sites during bi-monthly monitoring from January 2012 to November 2012. The Har Ki Pauri, Singhdwar, Piran Kaliyar and Old Bridge, Roorkee sites have been detected with surfactant concentrations (1.18, 1.63, 3.2 and 2.5 mg/l) more than permissible limit (1.00 mg/l). Also at most of the sites, surfactants' concentration crossed the desirable limit of BIS during the period of analysis. This distribution of surfactants in water has potential risk for skin diseases and cancer and requires regular monitoring with appropriate measures.

  5. Differentiations of 5-HT and GAS cells in the digestive canals of Rana chensinensis tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xin-Yi; LI, Qian; ZHANG, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 5-nydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and gastrin (GAS) cells in the digestive canals of Rana chensinensis tadpoles at different developmental stages were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the 5-HT cells were only detected in the duodenum before metamorphosis began, and were extensively distributed in the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and rectum thereafter, with the highest counts found in the duodenum and rectum when metamorphosis was completed. The GAS cells were only distributed in the stomach and duodenum, and only rarely detected in the duodenum before metamorphosis began, but increased in the stomach during metamorphosis and showed zonal distribution in the gastric mucosa when metamorphosis was completed. Metamorphosis is a critical period for amphibians, during which structural and functional physiological adaptations are required to transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments. During metamorphosis, the differentiations of 5-HT cells in the gastrointestinal canals of tadpoles could facilitate mucus secretion regulation, improve digestive canal lubrication, and help watershortage food digestion in terrestrial environments. Conversely, GAS cell differentiations during metamorphosis might contribute to the digestive and absorptive function transition from herbivore to omnivore. PMID:25017753

  6. Characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: report of nine cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Shinji; Satoh, Koichi; Matsubara, Shunji; Satomi, Junichiro; Hanaoka, Mami; Nagahiro, Shinji [University of Tokushima, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    We report the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the hypoglossal canal in nine patients with this relatively rare vascular disorder. Of 248 patients with intracranial DAVFs managed at our institution, nine patients (3.6%; four men, five women; mean age 62 years) were diagnosed with hypoglossal canal DAVF. We investigated patient characteristics with respect to clinical symptoms, neuroradiological findings, efficacy and complications related to endovascular treatment. Seven patients had experienced head injury. All patients presented with pulsatile tinnitus. One patient displayed ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy before treatment. MR angiography showed a 'magic wand' appearance between the affected hypoglossal canal and the internal jugular vein in four patients. Angiography demonstrated an AV fistula on the medial aspect of the superior jugular bulb, mostly arising from the bilateral occipital, ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries with drainage to the internal jugular vein via the anterior condylar vein. Contralateral carotid injection accurately clarified the shunting point. Five patients underwent endovascular treatment: transarterial embolization (TAE; n=2), transvenous embolization (TVE; n=2), and TAE/TVE (n=1). Complete shunt obliteration was achieved in four patients and shunt reduction in one. The remaining four patients were treated conservatively and the shunt had disappeared at follow-up. Postoperative hypoglossal nerve palsy occurred in one patient after TVE, possibly due to coil overpacking. The incidence of hypoglossal canal DAVF was not very low in our series. Contralateral carotid injection is an essential examination to provide an accurate diagnosis. TVE should be considered when access is available, although TAE is also appropriate for shunt reduction. (orig.)

  7. Shaping Ability of Reciproc, UnicOne, and Protaper Universal in Simulated Root Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the shaping effects, preservation of the original curvature, and transportation of the apical foramen of Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany, UnicOne (Medin, Nové Město na Moravě, Czech Republic, and Protaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland in simulated root canals. Thirty resin blocks with simulated curved root canals were distributed into three groups (n=10, and prepared using Reciproc (RCp, UnicOne (UnO and the Protaper Universal (PTu. Standardized photographs were taken before and after the instrumentation, after which they were superimposed. Measurements were taken of the quantity of resin removed from the inner and outer walls of the curvature at 6 levels, the curvature angles before and after instrumentation, and the transportation of the apical foramen. RCp obtained the highest values for amount of resin removed from the inner wall while UnO demonstrated similar shaping on both the inner and outer walls. PTu produced the greatest transportation of foramen when compared to the reciprocating instruments. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the change in angle (P>0.05. All the instruments were capable of maintaining the original curvature of the root canal; however, the UnO, which used reciprocating movement, produced more conservative shapes with lower foramen transportation.

  8. The effect of body position and axial load on spinal canal morphology: an MRI study of central spinal stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus; Jensen, Tue Secher; Pope, Malcolm;

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A method comparison study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of body position and axial load of the lumbar spine on disc height, lumbar lordosis, and dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: The effects of flexion and extension on spinal canal diameters...... or not. Extensionwas the dominant cause rather than compression in reducing DCSA. Axial load was not considered to have a clinically relevant effect on spinal canal diameters....

  9. The effect of electropolishing on torque and force during simulated root canal preparation with ProTaper shaping files

    OpenAIRE

    Boessler, C; Paqué, F; Peters, O A

    2009-01-01

    Surface modifications of nickel-titanium instruments such as electropolishing may reduce fracture incidence but could potentially alter the instruments' mechanical properties. We studied the impact of two surface types, machined and electropolished, of ProTaper shaping files on torque and force during simulated root canal preparation. Pilot holes of 0.5-mm diameter were drilled perpendicularly through 3-mm thick human dentin discs and served as standardized simulated root canals (SSRCs). A to...

  10. Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

  11. An experimental study on the frog semicircular canal--functions of cupula and vestibular ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Harada, Y

    1985-02-01

    An isolated frog posterior semicircular canal was stimulated either by mechanical or thermal endolymphatic flow. Ampullofugal stimulation induced action potentials from the posterior ampullary nerve. These potentials adapted in six to eight seconds. While mechanical endolymphatic flow was induced, the cupula maintained its shift position without swinging back to the neutral point. This indicates that adaptation is mainly of sensorineural origin. When the canal was stimulated by a piece of frozen Ringer's solution, an increase in spike discharge was observed. The responses from the vestibular nerve trunk were compared to those from the posterior ampullary nerve. The time course of the response was shorter and the maximum spike count was smaller in the recordings from the vestibular nerve trunk.

  12. Vestibular implantation and longitudinal electrical stimulation of the semicircular canal afferents in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James O; Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Jameyson, Elyse; Phillips, Christopher M; Nowack, Amy L; Golub, Justin S; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Animal experiments and limited data in humans suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organs could be used to treat loss of vestibular function. In this paper we demonstrate that canal-specific two-dimensionally (2D) measured eye velocities are elicited from intermittent brief 2 s biphasic pulse electrical stimulation in four human subjects implanted with a vestibular prosthesis. The 2D measured direction of the slow phase eye movements changed with the canal stimulated. Increasing pulse current over a 0-400 μA range typically produced a monotonic increase in slow phase eye velocity. The responses decremented or in some cases fluctuated over time in most implanted canals but could be partially restored by changing the return path of the stimulation current. Implantation of the device in Meniere's patients produced hearing and vestibular loss in the implanted ear. Electrical stimulation was well tolerated, producing no sensation of pain, nausea, or auditory percept with stimulation that elicited robust eye movements. There were changes in slow phase eye velocity with current and over time, and changes in electrically evoked compound action potentials produced by stimulation and recorded with the implanted device. Perceived rotation in subjects was consistent with the slow phase eye movements in direction and scaled with stimulation current in magnitude. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organ in human subjects provided controlled vestibular inputs over time, but in Meniere's patients this apparently came at the cost of hearing and vestibular function in the implanted ear.

  13. The use of plastic models for teaching root canal cleansing and shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar B

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of root canal models in endodontics education is of high importance. So, in this article"na new method is presented that the students can produce these models with simple and low cost"ninstruments."nThese plastic models are made of polyester which is low cost, available and has the approximate cutting"nproperties of dentin. The best molds were disposable syringes due to their low cost, availability and"nproducing smooth surfaces on polyester models. A spreader with desired curve and tapering is used for"nproducing canals. Rockwell A hardness coefficient of polyester is "33", which is near dentin "31" and"nforeign made models "35.5". Since these polyester models can tolerate up to 280°C and have acceptable"nresistance to chloroform, all root canal therapy techniques such as vertical condensation and retreatments"nare practicable. Their transparency encourage the students to work on them. As a result, the use of these"nmodels is recommended for endodontics training.

  14. Anatomy of Mandibular Vital Structures. Part I: Mandibular Canal and Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle in Relation with Dental Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom-Lay Wang

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is critical to determine the location and configuration of the mandibular canal and related vital structures during the implant treatment. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature concerning the mandibular canal and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle anatomical variations related to the implant surgery.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through the search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular canal, inferior alveolar nerve, and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1973 to November 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, prosthetic and periodontal journals and books were performed.Results: In total, 46 literature sources were obtained and morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to implant treatment in posterior mandible were presented as two entities: intraosseous mandibular canal and associated inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle.Conclusions: A review of morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to mandibular canal and mandibular vital structures are very important especially in implant therapy since inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle exists in different locations and possesses many variations. Individual, gender, age, race, assessing technique used and degree of edentulous alveolar bone atrophy largely influence these variations. It suggests that osteotomies in implant dentistry should not be developed in the posterior mandible until the position of the mandibular canal is established.

  15. Ex vivo evaluation of coronal and apical microbial leakage of root canal - Filled with gutta-percha or Resilon/Epiphany root canal filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This ex vivo study compared coronal and apical microleakage of root canals filled with Resilon/Epiphany (RE or gutta-percha/Grossman sealer (GP, using either lateral condensation (LC or System B (SB technique. Materials and Methods: Specimens in eight experimental groups were obturated using the following materials and techniques: Groups 1 and 3 - GP and LC; groups 2 and 4 - GP and SB; groups 5 and 7 - RE and LC; groups 6 and 8 - RE and SB. Apical and coronal leakages were tested using bacterial methods. For coronal analysis, the number of days required for complete contamination of the root canals was recorded according to observation of the brain heart infusion broth turbidity for 15 weeks. For apical analysis, the teeth were cleaved and the leakage was measured at 30 days. Data were collected for each sample and analyzed statistically with the Chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results: Leakage was found in all groups. The difference between filling materials, obturation techniques, and median time of leakage was not statistically significant for coronal ( P=0.847 and apical ( P=0.5789 leakages. Conclusion: There were no differences between the different filling materials (gutta-percha/Grossman sealer and Resilon/Epiphany and obturation techniques (lateral condensation and system B technique in coronal or apical leakages.

  16. System B, Endo-Twinn and E-Fill. True temperatures inside the canal

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    Enzo Cumbo

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Time is one the most important parameters to consider using these systems. Temperatures reached from the System B and Endo-Twinn after 25 seconds; however, seem to be sufficient to ensure an optimal adaptation of the gutta-percha in the anatomical complexity of root canals. The temperatures obtained from the E-Fill, only after 10 seconds, instead seems to be insufficient to assure the rheological characteristics of gutta-percha.

  17. In vitro evaluation of the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts and their antimicrobial action

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    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated both the antimicrobial activity and the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts used in irrigation solutions. The antimicrobial activities of the aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebintifolius Raddi and the quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium Roem & Schult hydroalcoholic extracts, of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and of 0.12% chlorhexidine (positive control against Enterococcus faecalis were tested with the agar well diffusion method. The level of root canal cleanliness was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Twenty one single-rooted human teeth were divided into three groups according to the irrigation solution applied: 1 50% aroeira-da-praia; 2 50% quixabeira and 3 a combination of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA. All solutions tested demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. The SEM analysis revealed that higher and lower degrees of surface cleaning were observed, in the three groups, respectively for the coronal and apical thirds, in that quixabeira showed the greatest efficiency in removing the smear layer in the apical third. All the agents tested presented antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis. None, however, was able to completely remove the smear layer of the dentinal surface in the different thirds of the root canal. The results suggest that the analyzed plant extracts may represent a new therapeutic option in the list of alternative agents available for endodontic treatment.

  18. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of IKI and NaOCl Irrigants in Infected Root Canals: An In Vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Khayat, Akbar; Motamedifar, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Effective debridement of the root canal system with chemical irrigants prior to obturation is the key to long-term success of endodontic therapy. The purpose of this study is to compare the antibacterial activity of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% iodine potassium iodide (IKI) solutions as intracanal disinfectant in infected root canals during one-visit endodontic treatment procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty single-rooted teeth with necrotic pulps in 27 patients were...

  19. Retention of Root Canal Posts: Effect of Cement Film Thickness, Luting Cement, and Post Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, A R; Flury, S; Peutzfeldt, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention of pretreated posts luted with resin cement. Thus, retention of the posts was influenced by the type of luting cement, by the cement film thickness, and by the post pretreatment. PMID:25764045

  20. Study of water flow velocities in irrigation canals in Iraq and their mathematical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araoz, Joaquin

    1962-01-01

    Water velocity is an important physical factor in the conditioning of streams and canals as habitats for the intermediate snail host of bilharziasis. Ecologists in most of the bilharziasis endemic areas have studied the resistance of these molluscs to the disturbing action of water motion. However, the complex nature of water flow through natural and man-made courses makes it very difficult to determine accurately the limiting range of water velocity that allows the settlement and development of snail colonies in a watercourse, and results are therefore still inconclusive. This paper describes the procedure employed in and the results obtained from a study designed to elucidate the water flow phenomenon through analysis of the relative variations of water velocity at any point of the cross-section of the canal. From this study it was possible to derive a simplified method for measuring the rate of water flow in earth canals that may be of wide application in snail control by the use of molluscicides. PMID:13884110

  1. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: diagnosis and treatment of 37 patients

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    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, the most frequent cause of vertigo is associated with high morbidity in the elderly population. The most common form is linked to debris in the posterior semicircular canal. However, there has been an increasing number of reported BPPV cases involving the horizontal canals. The purpose of this article is to highlight the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment in 37 patients with horizontal canal BPPV; twenty-six with geotropic nystagmus, and eleven with the apogeotropic form. Treatment consisted of the Gufoni manoeuver in eighteen patients (48.6%, the barbecue 360° maneuver in twelve patients (32.4%, both manoeuvers in four patients (10.8%, both manoeuvers plus head shaking in one patient (2.7%, and the Gufoni maneuver plus head shaking in two patients. Cupulolithiasis patients were asked to sleep in a forced prolonged position. We obtained a complete resolution of vertigo and nystagmus in 30 patients (81.0% on the initial visit.

  2. Discharge measurement with salt dilution method in irrigation canals: direct sampling and geophysical controls

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    C. Comina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An important starting point for designing management improvements, particularly in irrigation areas, is to record the baseline state of the water resources, including the amount of discharge from canals. In this respect discharge measurements by means of the salt dilution method is a traditional and well-documented technique. However, this methodology can be strongly influenced by the natural streaming characteristics of the canal (e.g. laminar vs. turbulent flow and accurate precautions must be considered in the choice of both the measuring section and the length of the measuring reach of the canal which can affect the plume shape. The knowledge of plume distribution in the measuring cross-section is of primary importance for a correct location of sampling points aimed in obtaining a reliable measurement. To obtain this, geophysical imaging of an NaCl plume from a slug-injection salt dilution test has been performed within this paper by means of cross-flow fast electric resistivity tomography (FERT in a real case history. Direct sampling of the same plume has been also performed with a multisampling optimization technique to obtain an average value over the measuring section by means of contemporarily sampling water in nine points. Results show that a correct visualization of the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the correct location of sampling points.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of New Chlorhexidine-Containing Nanoparticles for Root Canal Disinfection

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    Ridwan Haseeb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Root canal system disinfection is limited due to anatomical complexities. Better delivery systems of antimicrobial agents are needed to ensure efficient bacteria eradication. The purpose of this study was to design chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles that could steadily release the drug. The drug chlorhexidine was encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol–block–poly(l-lactide (PEG–b–PLA to synthesize bilayer nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency was determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and particle characterization was performed through microscopy studies of particle morphology and size. Their antimicrobial effect was assessed over the endodontic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The nanoparticles ranged in size from 300–500 nm, which is considered small enough for penetration inside small dentin tubules. The nanoparticles were dispersed in a hydrogel matrix carrier system composed of 1% hydroxyethyl cellulose, and this hydrogel system was observed to have enhanced bacterial inhibition over longer periods of time. Chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles demonstrate potential as a drug carrier for root canal procedures. Their size and rate of release may allow for sustained inhibition of bacteria in the root canal system.

  4. Bilateral osteoma of the internal auditory canal: Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteomas of the external auditory canal tend to be rather common; those of the internal auditory canal (IAC) are much rarer, though, with less than twenty cases reported in literature up to this very day. Bilateral IAC osteomas, as in this case, are extremely unusual. These benign bone tumors grow very slowly and this implies that the patient is very often asymptomatic. The diagnosis is generally made relatively late and it is, in many cases, absolutely incidental, with Computed Thomography (CT) scans of the temporal bones performed for other reasons. The manuscript describe the case of a patient complaining with progressive bilateral hearing impairment, worsening in the course of many years; we would like to point out the benefits brought by CT in the diagnosis and therapeutic choice, which is, still today, not yet subject to unanimous consensus. - Highlights: • CT imaging is essential technique for diagnosis of osteoma. • CT allows both a better definition of bone structures and MPR specific measurement. • This patient is the fourth case of bilateral internal auditory canal osteomas

  5. New specimens of Yanornis indicate a piscivorous diet and modern alimentary canal.

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    Xiaoting Zheng

    Full Text Available A crop adapted for an herbivorous diet of seeds has previously been documented in the Early Cretaceous birds Sapeornis and Hongshanornis. Here we report on several specimens of Yanornis that preserve a crop containing fish. One specimen preserves two whole fish in the oesophagus, indicating that Early Cretaceous birds shared trophic specializations with Neornithes for the increased energetic demands of flight--namely the storing of food for later consumption when the stomach is full. Whole fish also indicate that despite their presence, teeth were not used to orally process food, suggesting the hypertrophied dentition in this taxon were utilized in prey capture. The presence of macerated fish bones in the crop of other specimens indicates the highly efficient advanced muscular system of peristalsis responsible for moving ingested items between different segments of the alimentary canal was also in place. Despite the fact many features of the modern avian alimentary canal are inferred to compensate for the absence of teeth in birds (expandable oesophagus, grinding gizzard, the derived alimentary canal was apparently present in toothed Cretaceous birds. Although Yanornis was considered to have switched their diet from piscivorous to herbivorous, based on position and morphology we reinterpret the gastroliths reported in one specimen as sand impacted in the intestines, and reconstruct the taxon as primarily piscivorous. This is a novel interpretation for fossilized gastroliths, and the first documentation of this condition in the fossil record.

  6. Defective anterior wall of inguinal canal and its role in the pathophysiology of direct inguinal hernias

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    Abdolvahabi SA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Regrding pathophysiology of direct inguinal hernias the following are pointed our:1-Absence of contribution of fascia of transverses abdominis muscle along with fascia transversalis in making posterior wall of the inguinal canal causing defect point in Hesselbachs triangle.2- Defects in protectin mechanisms of the inguinal canal such as: I shutter like effect of the arch of internal oblique and transverses abdominis muscles. ii Sphincter like effect of fascia of oblique muscle (anterior wall of canl.During several years of observation and practice in the field of surgical repair of hernias, a new phenomenon was observed regarding the etiology of direct hernias.Evaluation of superficial ring and Ant. Wall of inguinal canal in 25 patients showed that the ant. Wall was not perfect and the defect was seen as a spectrum of moderate defect to complete absence of the wall. This phenomenon may be a newly observed mechanism in pathology of direct inguinal hernia that might help the operative repair. Taking this into account, i.e. repair of this defect, might help the classic herniorrhaphy techniques

  7. Radiographic evaluation of apical deviation of curved root canals after the use of manual and rotary instrumentation

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    Lais Bittencourt PIRES

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of root canal is notable because it is responsible for the cleaning and disinfection of the canal system and for the modeling that will allow adequate accommodation of filling material, favoring the endodontic sealing. Objective: The objective of this research was to study the occurrence of the apical deviation ofcurved root canals instrumented with a manual technique and tworotary systems (Profile and Race. Material and methods: Thirty mesiovestibular canals of inferior molars were used; they were divided into three groups and instrumented with the mixed technique defended by Holland et al. (1991, with the Profile system and with the Race system. For the evaluation of apical deviation the radiographic platform method developed by Sydney et al. (1991 was used, which allows to obtain overlapped images of the first and the last instrument used in the root canal preparation in the same x-ray. Results: The analysis of the results showed that there is no statistically significant difference among the three groups in their relation to the amount of deviated canals; however, when the quality of the deviation is evaluated, there is a significant difference only between group 1 (manual technique and group 2 (Profile system. Conclusion: When the deviation occurred, it was ignificantlysmaller in the group instrumented with the Profile system.

  8. Duplication of the External Auditory Canal: Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

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    John K. Goudakos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic process, surgical treatment, and outcome of 2 patients with first branchial cleft anomaly. The first case was an 8-year-old girl presented with an elastic lesion located in the left infra-auricular area, in close relation with the lobule, duplicating the external auditory canal. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion, appearing as a rather well-circumscribed mass within the left parotid gland and duplicating the ear canal. A superficial parotidectomy was subsequently performed, with total excision of the cyst. The second patient was a 15-year-old girl presented with a congenital fistula of the right lateral neck. At superficial parotidectomy, a total excision of the fistula was performed. During the operation the tract was recorded to lay between the branches of the facial nerve, extending with a blind ending canal parallel to the external acoustic meatus. Conclusively, first branchial cleft anomalies are rare malformations with cervical, parotid, or auricular clinical manifestations. Diagnosis of first branchial cleft lesions is achieved mainly through careful physical examination. Complete surgical excision with wide exposure of the lesion is essential in order to achieve permanent cure and avoid recurrence.

  9. The presence of aliphatic and aromatic amines in reservoir and canal water as precursors to disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatthalung, Warangkana Na; Musikavong, Charongpun; Suttinun, Oramas

    2016-09-18

    This research aimed at determining the dimethylamine (DMA), diethylamine (DEA), dibutylamine (DBA), and aromatic aniline (AN) in reservoir and canal water in the U-Tapao River Basin, Songkhla, Thailand. The trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA-FP) of the reservoir and canal water were analyzed. Water samples from two reservoirs and raw water from water treatment plants at upstream, midstream, and downstream locations of the canal were collected twice. The analysis of the DMA, DEA, DBA, and AN were conducted using gas chromatography and spectrofluorometry techniques. The DMA, DEA, and DBA levels in the reservoir and canal waters ranged from not detectable (ND) to 10 µg/L and from ND to 21.2 µg/L, respectively. AN was detected from 123 to 129 ng/L and from 112 to 177 ng/L in the reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The DMA, DEA, DBA, and AN exhibited two fluorescent peaks at 230nmEx/345nmEm and 280 nmEx/355nmEm. These two peaks corresponded to the peak positions of tryptophan. Detection limits of DMA, DEA, and DBA for fluorescent analysis were 500 μg/L whereas that of AN and tryptophan were 10 and 0.5 μg/L, respectively. The NDMA-FP measured in all the water samples was lower than the detection limit of 237 ng/L. THMFP ranged from 175 to 248 μg/L and 214 to 429 μg/L was detected in the reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The THMFP/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the reservoir and canal waters were comparable within the ranges of 73 to 131 µg THMFP/mg DOC. PMID:27314493

  10. Primary mandibular first molar with single root and single canal: a case report of a rare morphology.

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    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single rooted primary mandibular first molar is a rare developmental anomaly. Literatures reveal that failure of invagination of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath leads to this unusual root form. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and anatomical variations of primary teeth can help a pediatric dentist in successful root canal treatment. Hereby, we describe two cases of primary mandibular first molars with an unusual morphology as a single root called pyramidal molar.

  11. Pleomorphic adenoma presenting with conductive hearing loss in the ear canal: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Ayako; Tokumaru, Takao; Kitamura, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pleomorphic adenoma accounts for 65 percent of all salivary gland tumors. It has been identified in several anatomical regions, but pleomorphic adenoma arising in the ear canal, first described in 1951, is extremely rare. Case presentation A 40-year-old Japanese man’s left ear canal was obstructed by a pleomorphic adenoma that caused mild conductive hearing loss. The tumor was resected and he remains disease-free two years after surgery. Conclusions Pleomorphic adenoma usually ar...

  12. Three-dimensional observations of the incisive canal and the surrounding bone using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape of the anterior region of the maxilla is critical when planning implant treatment. The purpose of the present study was to assess the typical morphology of the incisive canal and surrounding bone. In total, 70 maxillae of Japanese dry skulls were used after being divided into dentate and edentulous groups. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxilla were acquired by using standardized methods. Using the anterior nasal spine as a reference point, the change in position was measured and analyzed statistically. Also, three-dimensional (3-D) images of the incisive canal were classified into five subsets: cylinder, groove, penetration, bifurcation at the superior portion, and bifurcation at the inferior portion. The quantity of alveolar bone in the incisor region was greatly reduced from the alveolar ridge and labial surface. Moreover, the vertical position of the incisive foramen was significantly (P<0.05) superior in the edentulous groups. Regarding the classification of maxillae by the 3-D shape of the incisive canal, many canals were cylindrical. Horizontal bone reduction from the labial side and vertical bone reduction from the alveolar crest were conspicuous; thus, the angle of the anterior alveolar bone changed after the loss of teeth. The incisive canal diameter in the edentulous group was larger than in the dentate group. The nondestructive assessment of the incisive canals and surrounding bone with CBCT showed two typical shapes for the presence or absence of the incisors. These findings indicate the importance of image diagnosis before esthetic restoration. (author)

  13. The operational efficiency of waterway transport of forest chips on Finland's Lake Saimaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K.; Ranta, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Mikkeli (Finland); Vaatainen, K.; Asikainen, A. [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi

    2012-11-01

    New and cost-efficient methods for use in supply chains for energy wood should be found, to reach the targets of the renewable energy utilisation set by the European Union. The long-distance waterway transportation of forest fuels should be thoroughly investigated, especially in areas where the transport distance is long and waterways could provide a feasible method of conveying forest fuel. In comparison to transport of forest chips by truck, barge-based waterway transport shows a competitive advantage due to the larger loads and higher bulk density of chips it allows. The cost-efficiency of waterway transportation operations related to forest chips in Finland's Lake Saimaa region was studied using practical demonstrations and discrete-event simulation. The varying demand for fuel wood in three separate bio-power plants on the Saimaa lakeside (near the cities of Varkaus, Mikkeli, and Savonlinna) was addressed in several barge transportation scenarios. Finally, the economy of barge transportation was compared to the economy of truck transportation as a function of transportation distance and in terms of the annual performance of the transportation methods examined. The waterway supply chain of forest chips was cost-competitive to road transport by truck after 100-150 km. According to the simulation study, the most economical waterway transport options were based on fixed barge system and shift-independent harbor logistics where loading and unloading of barges were carried-out with a wheeled loader and a belt conveyor. Total supply chain costs including the best waterway logistics from road side storage to power plant ranged from 10.75 euros to 11.64 euros/MWh in distances of 100-150 km by waterways. The energy-density of forest chips in the barge load was found to be, on average, 25% higher than that in truck hauling, because of the better compaction of chips. Waterway transport is a viable option for long-distance transportation of forest chips in Eastern

  14. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION OF ENDOLYMPH AND CUPULA IN THE LATERAL SEMICIRCULAR CANAL OF INNER EAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Cai-qin; HUA Cheng; YANG Lin; DAI Pei-dong; ZHANG Tian-yu; WANG Ke-qiang

    2011-01-01

    The semicircular canals,composed of lateral,anterior and posterior canals in the inner ear,are the sensors of equilibrium during head rotation movements in the three-dimensional space.Semicircular canals are filled with endolymph confined by the cupula.The study of the relationship between endolymph flow and cupular deformation is important in revealing the semicircular canals biomechanical behavior.To date,there are few studies focusing on the transient endolymph flow and cupular deformation in response to a head rotation motion.The lateral semicircular canal is mainly responsible for the sense of the horizontal rotation movement.In order to figure out the intricate dynamics in the lateral semicircular canal during the head rotation motion,the time evolutions of both endolymph flow and cupular deformation are analyzed in this article by using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model.It is shown that the cupular deformation provides cues for understanding the physiology of sensing the head rotation.

  15. Microbiological evaluation of infected root canals and their correlation with pain

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    Nadine Luísa Soares de Lima Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the endodontic microbiota of human teeth without pulp vitality presenting radiographically visible periapical lesions and its correlation with pre- and postoperative pain symptomatology. Material and methods: Sixteen young adult patients, both genders, aging from 18 to 45 years, presenting 21 single-rooted teeth with pulp necrosis and needing endodontic treatment were selected in the multidisciplinary clinic at the University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR. After crown surgical access, the ��������������root canals were embedded with 0.9% saline solution and the material from root canals was collected ���������������������������������������������� withhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhsterile paper point. The paper points were placed into Stuart transport medium and sent to the microbiology laboratory of the University of Fortaleza. Isolation and identification of bacteria were made by culture technique. The cleaning and shaping of root canals was performed by ��������������� ����� ���������������������������� crown-down technique..............................Intra-canal medication comprised calcium hydroxide mixed with chlorhexidine and after 14 days the canals were filled. Patients were asked about the occurrence of pain before treatment and 24 hours after cleaning and shaping procedures. Results: The most prevalent microbial group was Streptococcus sp. followed by Fusobacterium nucleatum, although Gram-positive cocci, non-sporulating Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative bacilli, pigmented Gram-negative bacilli, Veillonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp. were also frequently isolated. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that Fusobacterium

  16. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Andres; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Lambrechts, Paul [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Brizuela, Claudia; Cabrera, Carolina; Concha, Guillermo; Pedemonte, Maria Eugenia [Universidad de los Andes, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-15

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning.

  17. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning

  18. Phytotoxic effects of bottom sediments from Ignalina NPP wastewater canals and cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper impact of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) waste upon phytotoxicity of sediments from Lake Drukshiai was recognized. Samples of bottom sediments were collected from various wastewater canals of INPP, from the canal of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), small lake and rivulet, which are on the route of that wastes into Drukshiai. In 1995, 132 sites of Drukshiai were observed in order to assess the phytotoxicity of its bottom sediments. The research was carried out in July of 1993-2000. Number of somatic mutations (pink, colourless and morphological) and nonviable stamen hairs (the quantity of whose indicates lethality, when hair contains less than 12 cells) in Tradescantia (clone 02) stamen hair (SH) system was counted. Genotoxic effect of bottom sediments on Tradescantia was estimated according to Sparrow et al. (1972) and Marciulioniene et al. (1996). Genotoxic effects were considered weak if amount of somatic mutations not exceeded 1%, there were no non-viable stamen hairs, and medium effect was when the number of somatic mutations was between 1.0-4.0% and non-viable stamen hairs did not reach 40,0%. As well as strong effect was when numbers of somatic mutations and non-viable stamen hairs exceeding 4.0% and 40.0%, respectively. L. sativum is a rather sensitive, widely applied biotest because of its simplicity, cheapness and short duration. This test based on Magone (1989) method and lasted for 48 hours, after which time the seeds germination and root length of seedlings was measured. Tested bottom sediments causing percent inhibitions of 100-60%, 61-40%, 41-20%, and 20-0% were classified as highly toxic, moderately toxic, slightly toxic and non-toxic, respectively. Estimations in both cases were run in triplicates. The data were estimated using the analysis of variance with significance defined at α = 0,05. It was established that in accordance with the phytotoxic impact, the wastes discharged by INPP into Drukshiai in 1993-2000 are attributed

  19. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  20. Classification of root canal microorganisms using electronic-nose and discriminant analysis

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    Özbilge Hatice

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root canal treatment is a debridement process which disrupts and removes entire microorganisms from the root canal system. Identification of microorganisms may help clinicians decide on treatment alternatives such as using different irrigants, intracanal medicaments and antibiotics. However, the difficulty in cultivation and the complexity in isolation of predominant anaerobic microorganisms make clinicians resort to empirical medical treatments. For this reason, identification of microorganisms is not a routinely used procedure in root canal treatment. In this study, we aimed at classifying 7 different standard microorganism strains which are frequently seen in root canal infections, using odor data collected using an electronic nose instrument. Method Our microorganism odor data set consisted of 5 repeated samples from 7 different classes at 4 concentration levels. For each concentration, 35 samples were classified using 3 different discriminant analysis methods. In order to determine an optimal setting for using electronic-nose in such an application, we have tried 3 different approaches in evaluating sensor responses. Moreover, we have used 3 different sensor baseline values in normalizing sensor responses. Since the number of sensors is relatively large compared to sample size, we have also investigated the influence of two different dimension reduction methods on classification performance. Results We have found that quadratic type dicriminant analysis outperforms other varieties of this method. We have also observed that classification performance decreases as the concentration decreases. Among different baseline values used for pre-processing the sensor responses, the model where the minimum values of sensor readings in the sample were accepted as the baseline yields better classification performance. Corresponding to this optimal choice of baseline value, we have noted that among different sensor response model and

  1. Root canal retained restorations: 1. General considerations and custom-made cast posts and cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, D H; Dummer, P M

    1990-06-01

    The first article in this series reviews general considerations relating to the use of root canal retained restorations. The authors discuss factors affecting retention, the arguments for cast versus wrought posts, reinforcement of the tooth, and treatment planning. Clinical procedures for constructing custom-made cast posts and cores, using direct and indirect techniques, are also described. The three subsequent articles will deal with threaded and unthreaded prefabricated post-and-core systems, and root-face attachments for the retention of complete and partial overdentures. PMID:2079151

  2. H10856: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Charleston Harbor, South Carolina and Adjoining Waterways, South Carolina, 1998-12-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. H10857: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Charleston Harbor, South Carolina and Adjoining Waterways, South Carolina, 1999-02-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. H10863: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Charleston Harbor, South Carolina and Adjoining Waterways, South Carolina, 1999-07-15

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. H10858: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Charleston Harbor, South Carolina and Adjoining Waterways, South Carolina, 1999-06-04

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H10744: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Charleston Harbor, South Carolina and Adjoining Waterways, South Carolina, 1997-08-13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. H10784: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Charleston Harbor, South Carolina and Adjoining Waterways, South Carolina, 1998-06-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. Facilitating Trade through Competitive, Low-Carbon Transport : The Case for Vietnam’s Inland and Coastal Waterways

    OpenAIRE

    Blancas, Luis C.; El-Hifnawi, M. Baher

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, sustained high rates of growth in gross domestic product (GDP) averaging 7.2 percent per year over the past 20 years have resulted in higher demand for freight transport. As Vietnam looks to continue on a path of sustained economic growth, it faces the challenge of better aligning demand and supply of logistics services and improving the overall efficiency of its freight transport system. Given the existence of capacity constraints in the country's road network and the increasingl...

  9. Alternatives to Dam Building: Deindustrialization and the Redevelopment of Waterways in the Northeast During the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J. S.; Pompeii, B. J.; Nicoletti, C.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Northeast United States contains more dams than any other region in the country but it lacks structures on the scale of the Hoover or Bonneville dams in the American West. This work addresses why the Northeast lacks such large dams and how the pattern of small dams within the region shaped its social development. During the twentieth century, changing social and economic conditions rendered the initial purposes of many dams in the region moot, but these structures continued to influence hydrologic conditions and the provision of ecosystem services to an expanding population. The continued existence of many of these dams resulted from a worldview unable to conceive of dam removal as it did to the economic or environmental services provided by the structure. Documenting the process by which society developed alternatives to dam building in this region can contextualize the origins and contingent character of ideas about dam removal. The overarching theme in this process is the deindustrialization of the Northeast, which pitted the interests of industrial cities undergoing economic reorganization, emerging suburban communities, and growing service industries in the region. This paper considers changing attitudes toward dams as part of a four step process: (1) although the mill dams of the industrial revolution remained after electrification rendered manufacturers independent of direct water power in the early twentieth century, deindustrialization reshaped the political and legal responses to flooding by stregnthening the political and economic position of service industries and suburban residential interests; (2) the most tangible response to this development was proposed federal investment in dam building in the region between the 1930s and the 1950s; (3) political conflicts between local interests and federal proposals for dam construction slowed down the dam building process and enabled people to consider alternative strategies for flood control and power

  10. Chemical concentrations and instantaneous loads, Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Sissel, Stephen K.

    2015-12-23

    In November 2013, U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging equipment was installed at a historical water-quality station on the Duwamish River, Washington, within the tidal influence at river kilometer 16.7 (U.S. Geological Survey site 12113390; Duwamish River at Golf Course at Tukwila, WA). Publicly available, real-time continuous data includes river streamflow, stream velocity, and turbidity. Between November 2013 and March 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected representative samples of water, suspended sediment, or bed sediment from the streamgaging station during 28 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including metals, dioxins/furans, semivolatile compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, butytins, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclors and the 209 PCB congeners, volatile organic compounds, hexavalent chromium, and total and dissolved organic carbon. Metals, PCB congeners, and dioxins/furans were frequently detected in unfiltered-water samples, and concentrations typically increased with increasing suspended-sediment concentrations. Chemical concentrations in suspendedsediment samples were variable between sampling periods. The highest concentrations of many chemicals in suspended sediment were measured during summer and early autumn storm periods.

  11. Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant, Italy: Decontamination and Rearranging of Reactor Canal and Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garigliano nuclear power plant was a 506 MW(th), first generation, dual cycle BWR. It started operation in 1964 and finally shut down in 1978, following the discovery of serious damage to a secondary steam generator. This section describes decontamination activities carried out in 1991–1993 in preparation for safe enclosure of Garigliano reactor building.1 Activities were carried out after completion of spent fuel transport off-site (1985–1987). A schematic of the spent fuel pool and adjacent areas is provided. Decontamination activities included the following: (a) Agitation and resuspension of pool sediments using water jets and water filtration. (b) Lowering of water level and parallel decontamination of pool walls with high pressure water jets of approximately 700 kg/cm2. (c) Removal, decontamination and interim storage on gangways of equipment located on the pool south-east wall. (d) Removal, decontamination and storage of the fuel transport container platform. (e) Removal of four fuel racks to their pool wall bearings, decontamination and transfer to the fresh fuel room. (f) Decontamination of the vessel head platform, removal from the reactor canal, brushing and coating to allow preservation and fixing of loose contamination. Eventually, this component was placed back in the reactor canal. (g) Construction in the reactor canal of an interim structure supporting fuel racks. At the completion of the work, this structure was dismounted, decontaminated and removed. (h) Removal of fuel racks (five at a time) to their pool wall bearings, decontamination and interim storage in the reactor canal. (i) Gradual lowering of the pool water level to some 50 cm from the pool floor and parallel decontamination of fixed structures and walls. (j) Discovery by visual inspection and radiological checks, of activated components on the floor of the pool. Retrieval of all this material, segmentation as needed, temporary storage in containers and later transfer to the high

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment, soil, and plants of the Aojiang River waterway in Wenzhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianwang; Shang, Xu; Zhao, Zhixu; Tanguay, Robert L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang

    2009-01-01

    The town of Shuitou was renowned as the leather capital of China because of its large-scale tanning industry, but the industry’s lack of pollution controls has caused severe damage to the local water system. This study determined 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, sediment, soil, and plant samples collected from Aojiang River and its estuary. The total PAHs ranged from 910 to 1520 ng/L in water samples. The total PAH in sediments were moderate to low in comparison w...

  13. Present and future in the use of micro-CT scanner 3D analysis for the study of dental and root canal morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M. Grande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present article is to illustrate and analyze the applications and the potential of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT in the analysis of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. The authors performed a micro-CT analysis of the following different teeth: maxillary first molars with a second canal in the mesiobuccal (MB root, mandibular first molars with complex anatomy in the mesial root, premolars with single and double roots and with complicated apical anatomy. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072, SkyScan bvba, Aartselaar, Belgium. A specific software ResolveRT Amira (Visage Imaging was used for the 3D analysis and imaging. The authors obtained three-dimensional images from 15 teeth. It was possible to precisely visualize and analyze external and internal anatomy of teeth, showing the finest details. Among the 5 upper molars analyzed, in three cases, the MB canals joined into one canal, while in the other two molars the two mesial canals were separate. Among the lower molars two of the five samples exhibited a single canal in the mesial root, which had a broad, flat appearance in a mesiodistal dimension. In the five premolar teeth, the canals were independent; however, the apical delta and ramifications of the root canals were quite complex. Micro-CT offers a simple and reproducible technique for 3D noninvasive assessment of the anatomy of root canal systems.

  14. Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Assessment of Canal Centering Ability and Transportation after Preparation with Twisted File and Bio RaCe Instrumentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiamars Honardar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of rotary Nickel-Titanium (NiTi instruments for endodontic preparation has introduced a new era in endodontic practice, but this issue has undergone dramatic modifications in order to achieve improved shaping abilities. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT has made it possible to accurately evaluate geometrical changes following canal preparation. This study was carried out to compare canal centering ability and transportation of Twisted File and BioRaCe rotary systems by means of cone-beam computed tomography.Thirty root canals from freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary teeth were selected. Teeth were mounted and scanned before and after preparation by CBCT at different apical levels. Specimens were divided into 2 groups of 15. In the first group Twisted File and in the second, BioRaCe was used for canal preparation. Canal transportation and centering ability after preparation were assessed by NNT Viewer and Photoshop CS4 software. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test and two-way ANOVA.All samples showed deviations from the original axes of the canals. No significant differences were detected between the two rotary NiTi instruments for canal centering ability in all sections. Regarding canal transportation however, a significant difference was seen in the BioRaCe group at 7.5mm from the apex.Under the conditions of this in vitro study, Twisted File and BioRaCe rotary NiTi files retained original canal geometry.

  15. Gruber, Gradenigo, Dorello, and Vail: key personalities in the historical evolution and modern-day understanding of Dorello's canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Renuka K; Reddy, Rohit K; Jyung, Robert W; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2016-01-01

    A century ago an ambitious young anatomist in Rome, Primo Dorello, who sought to understand the cause of abducent nerve palsy that often occurred in patients with severe middle ear infections, conducted intricate studies on the intracranial course of the nerve. In his findings, he identified that the abducent nerve passes through a narrow sinus near the apex of the petrous bone, which formed an osteofibrous canal. Dorello suggested that in this enclosed region the abducent nerve may be particularly vulnerable to compression due to the vascular edema accompanying the infection. Although his work was widely appreciated, it was not well received by all. Interestingly, Giuseppe Gradenigo, one of the most prominent Italian otologists of the early 20th century, who was known for his work on a triad of symptoms (Gradenigo's syndrome) that accompanies petrous apicitis, a result of severe middle ear infections, was obstinate in his criticism of Dorello's findings. Thus a scientific duel began, with a series of correspondence between these two academics-one who was relatively new to the otological community (Dorello) and one who was well reputed in that community (Gradenigo). The disagreement ultimately ebbed in 1909, when Dorello published a report in response to Gradenigo's criticisms and convinced Gradenigo to change his views. Today Dorello's canal is widely recognized as a key landmark in skull base surgery of the petroclival region and holds clinical significance due to its relation to the abducent nerve and surrounding vascular structures. Yet, although academics such as Dorello and Gradenigo are recognized for their work on the canal, it is important not to forget the others throughout history who have contributed to the modern-day understanding of this anatomical structure. In fact, although the level of anatomical detail found in Dorello's work was previously unmatched, the first description of the canal was made by the experienced Austrian anatomist Wenzel Leopold

  16. Potential Cascadia Tsunami Deposits From a Tidal Marsh at Hood Canal, Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison-Laney, C.

    2015-12-01

    Two candidate Cascadia tsunami deposits are found in tidal marsh sediments near Lynch Cove, at the head of Hood Canal. The deposits are suggestive of tsunami deposits in their tabular form, distribution in the marsh, sediment type, and microfossil content. The deposits are traceable in channel bank exposures, dug pits, and sediment cores on the outer edges of the marsh, and thin landward to an inland extent of at least 200 m. The deposits are made up of mud to fine sand, and are similar in appearance and grain size to the broad adjacent tidal flat. The deposits also contain tidal flat diatoms, and are notably different from the diatoms in the marsh sediments below and above the deposits. Radiocarbon ages of plant fossils show that the younger deposit (Layer A) postdates A.D. 1680, and may therefore represent the A.D. 1700 Cascadia tsunami. The older deposit (Layer B) has a two sigma age of A.D. 1170-1220, which overlaps in time with coseismic subsidence at the mouth of the Columbia River (subsidence of Soil W, A.D. 1000-1190), and with adjusted age estimates for deep-sea turbidites (turbidite T3, A.D. 960-1180). It is unknown whether Cascadia subduction zone tsunamis have left a geological record in Puget Sound. A recent unpublished simulation by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, of a Cascadia tsunami propagating into Puget Sound predicts maximum water levels of over 4 m for some high water "hot spots" at the heads of narrow waterways. The marsh near Lynch Cove is a simulation "hot spot" with predicted water levels over 3 m. Narrow, wave-amplifying waterways, together with an available sediment supply, and predicted high water levels suggest that Cascadia tsunamis could leave behind a geologic record in Puget Sound, given conditions favorable for deposit preservation. Alternatively, one or both of the deposits may represent tsunamis generated by slides or fault displacement in Hood Canal.

  17. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Results: Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Conclusion: Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics. PMID:27656060

  18. 中国古代的城市水系%Urban Canal Systems in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆洲

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to study the urban canal system in ancient China in several important aspects, e. g. the waterways influence on site selection of cities, the planning and construction of urban canal systems, the types of the layouts and the features of ancient water cities, etc. Ten major functions of urban canal systems are summarized, including water supply, waterborne transportation, irrigation and aquaculture, military defense, draining of floods and waste water, flood storage and mitigation, fire fighting, ship sheltering, landscaping and recreations, as well as environment tempering. The paper provides rich examples to demonstrate the significant role that urban canal systems play in stabilizing urban sites, promoting industry and commerce development, and improving living environment. By citing typical cases both at home and abroad, the author shows his disapproval of the destruction of urban canal systems in the course of modern urbanization, and emphasizes that urban canal system is one of the most important embodiments of a city. It is concluded that the existing urban canal systems should be well conserved so as to present unique urban outlooks characterized by both tradition and modernity.%文中研究了中国古代城市水系各个方面的问题,包括城市选址与江湖水系的关系,城市水系的规划建设,城市水系的类型,古城的奇葩--水城.特别指出了城市水系的十大功用:供水、交通运输、溉田灌圃和水产养殖、军事防御、排水排洪、调蓄洪水、防火、躲避风浪、造园绿化和水上娱乐、改善城市环境.文中还指出,城市水系在促进城市的繁荣发展上有稳定城址、促进工业发展、提供较高质量的生活居住环境的重要功用.并指出,城市水系在形成城市特色方面的重大贡献.文中批评了现代城市建设对水系的破坏,指出只有加强城市水系建设、管理和保护,才能体现名城的特色,建设兼有传统和现代特色的现代化城市.

  19. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

  20. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1995-03-01

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author).

  1. Locality-dependent descending reflex motor activity in the anal canal-cholinergic and nitrergic contributions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radomir RADOMIROV; Christina IVANCHEVA; Dimitar ITZEV; Polina PETKOVA-KIROVA

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Since the distal part of the intestine is targeted by a wide range of pathogens, the motility of the recto-anal region has been the object of many experimental and clinical observations. In this study, we investigated descending motor responses in the anal canal as a measure of the activation of autonomic reflex pathways underlying evacuatory recto-anal activity. Methods: The partitioned organ bath method was used to register motor responses of the anal canal as induced by balloon distension of the rectum in isolated rat recto-anal preparations. Results: Distension-induced descending responses of the anal canal comprised contractions (with distension at a distance of 15 mm), initial contractions and secondary relaxations (at 10 mm) and short contractions followed by deep relaxations (at 3-5 mm). Decreas-ing the distance between the distension stimulus and the anal canal resulted in a decreased contraction response and increased relaxation. Tetrodotoxin (0.1 μmol/L) inhibited these responses. Atropine (0.3 μmol/L) decreased contraction and did not change the relaxation response. N~G-nitro-L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) enhanced contraction in both the absence and presence of atropine. L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) inhibited contraction and extended relaxation in atropine-pretreated preparations. The actions of N~G-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine were more pronounced in the aboral direction. ChAT-positive nerve fibers were observed in myenteric ganglia of the rectum and the anal canal. The density of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons was higher in the anal canal region. Conclusion: Our results suggest that locality-dependent activation of the descending reflex neuromuscular communications underlie evacuatory activity in the recto-anal region. This activation response involves long excitatory cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways along the rectum and short inhibitory nitrergic pathways located predominantly in the anal canal region.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  3. Pressure changes in spinal canal and evaluation of spinal cord injuries in spinal section subjected to impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe pressure changes in the spinal canal of the vertebrarium subjected to impact. From the point of view of impact, pressure changes and spinal cord injuries, the relationship between the type of spinal fracture and the severity of spinal cord injuries were analyzed and some experimental data were provided for early evaluation of severity of spinal cord injuries.   Methods: An experimental model of spinal burst fracture was made with Type BIM-I bio-impact machine and techniques of high velocity vertical loading in static pattern and stress shielding were adopted. Vertebral sections T10-L4 taken from fresh cadavers were impacted and pressure changes in the spinal canal were observed. The types and severity of spinal fracture were studied with gross and radiography examination.   Results: Great positive pressure wave (wave A) in the spinal canal of the 4 vertebral specimens with burst fracture was recorded. The peak value of pressure was correlated with the severity of posterior column injuries. Generally, the peak value of pressure was low in the samples with posterior column injuries, but high in the samples without injuries. The predominant features of fractures were burst fractures of vertebral body and severe destruction of the skeletal and fiber structure of the spinal canal. Positive and negative pressure waves (wave B) were recorded in 2 vertebral samples in which no significant abnormal changes were found by radiography examination, however, a little liquid effusion in the vertebral body was found by gross examination.   Conclusions: The type of pressure wave in the spinal canal is related to the deformation or the destruction of the spinal canal structure. The peak value of the pressure is non-linearly related to the obstruction in the spinal canal, but related to posterior column injuries.

  4. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

  5. Relationship of central incisor implant placement to the ridge configuration anterior to the nasopalatine canal in dentate and partially edentulous individuals: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xueting; Hu, WenJie; Meng, Huanxin

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the ridge contour anterior to the nasopalatine canal, and the difference between the incidences of the nasopalatine canal perforation in dentate and partially edentulous patients by cone-beam computed tomography. Methods. Cone-beam computed tomography scan images from 72 patients were selected from database and divided into dentate and partially edentulous groups. The configuration of the ridge anterior to the canal including palatal conc...

  6. Comparison of radiographic density and compaction index of root canal obturation using nickel titanium or stainless-steel spreaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both nickel titanium and stainless-steel spreaders are available. The obvious advantage of nickel titanium spreader over stainless steel spreaders is greater penetration in curved canals. Objective: To compare the radiographic density and compaction index of root canal obturation using nickel-titanium or stainless-steel spreaders in curved canals. Methods: In this experimental study the primary weight of 30 acrylic blocks with 45o degrees of apical curvature were measured by a scale (W1. After canals were prepared by step back master apical up to file #30 all blocks were weighed again (W2 and randomly divided in two groups of 15each. All canals were obturated by Cold lateral compaction technique (with nickel-titanium in one group and stainless-steel finger spreaders in another group. After all blocks were reweighed (W3, compaction index (W3-W2/W1-W2 was calculated. One radiograph was taken for each sample. Apical density of the apical third of each canal was measured by digital transmission densitometer. Data were analyzed statistically using T-test. Findings: Mean compaction index for nickel-titanium group was 7.67±2.38 and for stainless-steel group was 9.14±4.06. There was no significant difference between two groups. Mean radiographic density of obturation was 2.05±0.14 in nickel-titanium group and was 2.07±0.21 in stainless-steel group. There was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that nickel-titanium spreaders are not superior than stainless-steel spreaders in obturating curved canal.

  7. The significance of a hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Sang Yoo; Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of the hypoplastic canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and the relationship between the hypoplastic bony canal and aplasia or hypoplasia of the cochlear nerve. A retrospective review of high resolution temporal CT(HRCT) and MRI findings was conducted. The narrow bony canal of the cochlear nerve and the relative size of the internal auditory canal were correlated with the cochlear nerve deficiency on MRI. The comparative size of the component nerves (facial, cochlear, superior vestibular, inferior vestibular nerve), and the relative size of the internal auditory canal and the bony canal of the cochlear nerve were measured. The clinical history and the results of the clinical examination were reviewed for each patient. High resolution MRI showed aplasia of the common vestibulocochlear nerve in one patient and a deficiency of the cochlear nerve in 9 patients. These abnormalities occurred in association with a prominent narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and a stenosis of the internal auditory canal, which was observed on temporal bone CT in 9 patients with congenital SNHL. Three patients had normal IAC, despite the presence of a hypoplastic cochlear nerve on the side on which they had SNHL. In one patient, the narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and internal auditory canal were not found to be associated with acquired SNHL. The hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve might be more highly indicative of congenital cochlear nerve deficiency than that of the narrow internal auditory canal, and the position of the crista falciformis should also be carefully.

  8. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  9. Control-structure ratings on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lockport, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Timothy D.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Hortness, Jon E.; Duncker, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago regulate flows through control structures along the Lake Michigan lakefront and the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) for Lake Michigan diversion accounting, flood control, sanitary, and navigation purposes. This report documents the measurement and computation of flow through the Lockport Controlling Works (LCW) and the Lockport Powerhouse. This analysis aided in evaluation of the ratings at both structures, and the development of new ratings at the controlling works. The LCW structure consists of seven 30-feet (ft) wide sluice gates and is used to divert water from the CSSC and into the Des Plaines River. The flow regimes for the sluice gate included both free and submerged weir. Forty and 491 flow values from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations were used to develop equations describing free- and submerged-weir flow, respectively, through the sluice gates. The equations were developed for canal headwater elevations ranging from -7.0 to -10.5 ft Chicago City Datum (CCD), and tailwater (Des Plaines River at Lockport) to headwater (CSSC-LCW-Base) ratios ranging from 0.31 to 0.66. The Lockport Powerhouse structure consists of nine 9-ft wide by 14-ft high sluice gates and two 10-ft diameter turbines. Both tailwater and no-tailwater effect flow regimes occurred during nine measurements. Also, the canal headwater elevations ranged from -2.74 to -8.45 ft CCD, and the gates were configured six different ways during the measurements.

  10. Plain radiography and tomography of the internal auditory canal for the diagnosis of acoustic neuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyhtinen, J. (Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Laitinen, J. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Jokinen, K. (Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Otolaryngology)

    1989-08-01

    In the series of 50 acoustic neurinomas (AN) the internal auditory canal (IAC) diameter and the diameter difference between the tumor and non-tumor side are compared with the size of the AN. No correlation is found. About 50% of the AN cases had normal ipsilateral IAC in plain and tomographic radiographies. A pathological IAC finding strongly favours AN, but the border between a normal and pathological finding is not an exact one. A normal plain and tomographic radiography does not exclude AN and further investigations cannot be avoided. Our conclusion is that plain radiograms and tomograms have no place in the modern diagnosis of AN. (orig.).

  11. Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini Mahajan; Ila Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transf...

  12. An Analysis of Visibility and Anatomic Variations of Mandibular Canal in Digital Panoramic Radiographs of Dentulous and Edentulous Patients in Northern Iran Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nemati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Insufficient information about the anatomical positions and structure of mandibular canal provokes unwanted damage to this important structure of mandible. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the visibility and anatomical variations of mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiographs of dentulous and edentulous patients in a sample of Iranian population. Materials and Method: In this retrospective-analytical research, 249 digital panoramic radiographs in dentulous group and 126 in edentulous group were studied by an expert oral and maxillofacial radiologist. In both groups, the visibility of canal borders in anterior, middle, and posterior areas were examined. In dentulous group, the distance between the canal and apex of the first and second molars were measured. Canal-to-alveolar crest distance and lower mandibular border was measured in three different points for both groups. Finally, the upper-lower positions of canals were deter-mined. Results: In both groups, most visibility occurred in 1/3 of posterior and the least visibility was detected in 1/3 of anteri-or, with the intermediate being the most visible part (Type 2. There was no significant difference between the left and right sides in all cases. In dentulous group, no correlation was found between the visibility, age, and gender (p> 0.05; however, canal position was related to gender (p= 0.03 and p= 0.04 in right and left sides, respectively. High position was more frequent in females and intermediate position was more common in males. In edentulous group, no correla-tion was found between age, gender, and canal position (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The most visibility of mandibular canal was in its third posterior and the least was in its third anterior part. Although the middle position of canal was more frequently visible than the high position in this study, it does not refute the possibility of damaging the mandibular canal in critical surgeries.

  13. Examination of the cupula and stereocilia of the horizontal semicircular canal in the toadfish Opsanus tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, R B; Reeves, A P; Steinacker, A; Highstein, S M

    1998-12-01

    We imaged the horizontal semicircular canal (HSCC) crista and cupula of toadfish, Opsanus tau, by using a) confocal light microscopy of isolated vital HSCC; b) serial sections of fixed, trichrome-stained HSCC; and c) scanning electron microscopy of fixed HSCCs. HSCC were dissections which included an ampulla and an attached canal tube (long and slender canal portion), and, in some cases, a small portion of the utricular wall. Cupulae were seen as multipartite mucus connective tissue shells rising from the crista and extending toward the ampullary roof. They were composed of several refractile bands traversing the cupulae perpendicular to longitudinal fibers extending from the cupular base to its apex. Alcian green-stained cupulae showed an asymmetric alcianphilic, dark, X-shaped structure, indicating that the pillar is rich in mucin and carbohydrate, an interpretation supported by images of trichrome-stained sections. The cupular antrum is devoid of prominent refractile fibers. No tubes or channels were observed in the cupula or antrum of vital preparations. Cupular shell fibers cover the surface of the crista, are roughly parallel, and are associated with a translucent material having a refractive index greater than the surrounding endolymph. Stereocilia were thin, 100-microm-long structures, with little longitudinal curvature, which end with no end bulb. No strands extend from stereocilia to the roof or other portions of the cupular antrum. Gross movements of stereocilia were not seen in mechanically quiescent preparations. Within the cupular antrum, stereocilia were parallel to connective tissue fibers, all embedded in an isotropic gel. This fiber-reinforced gel and cupular matrix are sensitive to N-acetlyneuraminidase and beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and minimally sensitive to beta-N-acetyl hexosaminidase. Connective tissue fibers may serve to stiffen the gel, whose matrix would restrict lateral motion of embedded fibers and stereocilia thereby providing

  14. Metachronous Anal Canal and Prostate Cancers with Simultaneous Definitive Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Miles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal canal cancer is rare, accounting for only 1.3% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Prostate cancer incidence is much higher and accounts for 27.6% of all malignancies in men. Treatment guidelines for anal cancer involve radiotherapy to the primary site and draining lymphatics while treatment for prostate cancer can also include pelvic radiotherapy. The literature is silent on the optimum course of action when these two malignancies are found synchronously or metachronously. Herein, we report a case of a patient diagnosed with intermediate risk prostate cancer who, prior to definitive therapy for this first malignancy, was also diagnosed with anal canal cancer. We conclude that a simultaneous approach with radiation therapy and chemotherapy with subsequent boost to the prostate is recommended. Screening for synchronous prostate cancer in male anal canal cancer patients is probably indicated and may preclude suboptimal treatment for a second occult primary.

  15. Inhibitory activity of root canal irrigants against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva Fidalgo; Roberta Barcelos; Maristela Barbosa Portela; Rosangela Maria de Araújo Soares; Rogério Gleiser; Fernando Costa e Silva-Filho

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of three root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus. These microorganisms were incubated in the presence of citric acid (6 and 10%), EDTA (17%), and NaOCl (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.25%). Agar diffusion tests were performed and redox indicator resazurin was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the irrigants on the metabolic activity of these microorganisms. The mean diameters of the inh...

  16. Sediment contaminant surveillance in Milford Haven Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D I; Bullimore, B; Galperin, Y; Langston, W J

    2016-01-01

    Sediment contaminants were monitored in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) since 1978 (hydrocarbons) and 1982 (metals), with the aim of providing surveillance of environmental quality in one of the UK's busiest oil and gas ports. This aim is particularly important during and after large-scale investment in liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. However, the methods inevitably have changed over the years, compounding the difficulties of coordinating sampling and analytical programmes. After a review by the MHW Environmental Surveillance Group (MHWESG), sediment hydrocarbon chemistry was investigated in detail in 2010. Natural Resources Wales (NRW) contributed their MHW data for 2007 and 2012, collected to assess the condition of the Special Area of Conservation (SAC) designated under the European Union Habitats Directive. Datasets during 2007-2012 have thus been more comparable. The results showed conclusively that a MHW-wide peak in concentrations of sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and other contaminants occurred in late 2007. This was corroborated by independent annual monitoring at one centrally located station with peaks in early 2008 and 2011. The spatial and temporal patterns of recovery from the 2007 peak, shown by MHW-wide surveys in 2010 and 2012, indicate several probable causes of contaminant trends, as follows: atmospheric deposition, catchment runoff, sediment resuspension from dredging, and construction of two LNG terminals and a power station. Adverse biological effects predictable in 2007 using international sediment quality guidelines were independently tested by data from monitoring schemes of more than a decade duration in MHW (starfish, limpets) and in the wider SAC (grey seals). Although not proving cause and effect, many of these potential biological receptors showed a simultaneous negative response to the elevated 2007 contamination following intense dredging activity in 2006. Wetland bird counts were typically at a peak in

  17. The quality of single cone and laterally compacted gutta-percha fillings in small and curved root canals as evidenced by bidirectional radiographs and fluid transport measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Wu; M.G. Bud; P.R. Wesselink

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the quality of root fillings in small and curved root canals using bidirectional radiographs and fluid transport (FT) measurements. Study design: Root canals in eighty 38°-curved mesial roots of mandibular molars were prepared using a balanced force te

  18. Evaluation Physical Characteristics and Comparison Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammation Potentials of Dental Root Canal Sealers Containing Hinokitiol In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Hua Shih; Dan-Jae Lin; Kuo-Wei Chang; Shih-Min Hsia; Shun-Yao Ko; Shyh-Yuan Lee; Shui-Sang Hsue; Tong-Hong Wang; Yi-Ling Chen; Tzong-Ming Shieh

    2014-01-01

    Hinokitiol displays potent antimicrobial activity. It has been used in toothpaste and oral-care gel to improve the oral lichen planus and reduce halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 3 different dental root canal sealers with hinokitiol (sealers+H) and their physical and biological effects. AH Plus (epoxy amine resin-based, AH), Apexit Plus (calcium-hydroxide-based, AP), and Canals (zinc-oxide-eugenol-based, CA), were used in this study. The original A...

  19. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation upon the microflora of carious cavities and root canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Nekrylov, Valery; Mazo, Leonid

    1995-04-01

    Laser stomatology- a relatively young branch of stomatology -has been developing actively lately. Bactericidal action of laser radiation enables to use it widely for processing carious cavities and root canals in the treatment of caries and its complications. 113 patients were studied by us. The 40 patients had antiseptic procedure of the caries cavity and then the procedure of laser therapy, so micro-organisms were found out in 26% cases. The 63 patients had antiseptic procedure only, so micro-organisms were found out in 70% cases. Control group were consisted of patients, where laser therapy was carried out without antiseptic remedies.

  20. Radiopacity evaluation of root canal sealers containing calcium hydroxide and MTA

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Maria Guerreiro- Tanomaru; Marco Antonio Húngaro Duarte; Marcelo Gonçalves; Mario Tanomaru-Filho

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of root canal sealers containing calcium hydroxide and MTA (Acroseal, Sealer 26, Sealapex, Endo CPM Sealer, Epiphany and Intrafill). Five disc-shaped specimens (10 x 1 mm) were fabricated from each material, according to the ISO 6876/2001 standard. After setting of the materials, radiographs were taken using occlusal film and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 2 to 16 mm in thickness. The dental X-ray unit (GE1000) was set at ...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite associated with intracanal medication for Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl associated with an intracanal medication against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six human single-rooted teeth with single root canals were used. The canals were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days and were then instrumented with 1% NaOCl. The roots were divided into 3 groups (n=12 according to the intracanal medication applied: calcium hydroxide paste, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX gel, and 2% CHX gel associated with calcium hydroxide. The following collections were made from the root canals: a initial sample (IS: 21 days after contamination (control, b S1: after instrumentation, c S2: 14 days after intracanal medication placement; S3: 7 days after intracanal medication removal. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Both 1% NaOCl irrigation and the intracanal medications were effective in eliminating E. faecalis and C. albicans inoculated in root canals.

  2. Difficulty assessment system of root canal treatment and research status of root canal filling materials%根管治疗难度评估系统及根管充填材料的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳勤; 钟晓波

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The choice of root canal filling materials can affect the quality of root canal filling. The quality of root canal filling is an important key factor that affects the long-term results of root canal treatment. OBJECTIVE: To review the difficulty assessment of root canal treatment and research status of root canal filling materials at home and abroad in recent years. METHODS: PubMed and VIP databases (1990/2011) were searched by the first author for papers concerning the risk factors for the difficulty of root canal treatment and the effect of root canal filling materials on the quality of root canal treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Root canal treatment is the most effective method for pulpal and periapical diseases, but its effectiveness is affected by many factors. Therefore, it is necessary to have a difficulty assessment of root canal treatment before treatment. During the treatment, difficult root canal treatment requires advanced therapeutic instruments to lay a good foundation for root canal filling technology. Root canal filling is a key step of the treatment, and the filling result directly influences the effectiveness and the prognosis of root canal treatment. The imprecision of filling can cause microleakage, which can result in the treatment failure due to the root canal reinfection. Therefore, the success or failure of root canal treatment largely depends on the tight filling or not. At present, there is not a kind of root canal material that can completely seal the root canal system. It is needed to further improve the difficulty assessment system of root canal treatment and to study the ideal root canal filling materials in future research.%背景:根管充填材料的选择影响根管充填的质量,根管充填质量是影响根管治疗远期疗效的重要因素.目的:综述目前国内外根管治疗难度评估和根管材料的研究现状.方法:由第一作者检索1990/2011 PubMed 数据及维普中文科技期刊数据库

  3. Adhesion strategy and early bond strengths of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Faria-e-Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of coinitiator solutions and self-adhesive resin cement on the early retention of glass-fiber posts. Cylindrical glass-fiber posts were luted into 40 incisor roots with different adhesion strategies (n = 10: SB2, Single Bond 2 + conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC; AP, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP activator + primer + ARC; APC, SBMP activator + primer + catalyst + ARC; and UNI, self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem. Pull-out bond strength results at 10 min after cementation showed APC > UNI > SB2 = AP (P < 0.05. The adhesion strategy significantly affected early bonding to root canals.

  4. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  5. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  6. Utilizing geophysical methods for asessment and characterization of canal seepage in El Paso's lower valley irrigation delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegon, Amanda Brooke

    El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 (EPCWID No.1) delivers the Rio Grande water for agricultural production and urban uses through numerous networked irrigation canals. Of the nearly 86 billion gallons of water released annually for irrigation uses in Texas, billions are lost due to evaporation and seepage in unlined canals with 56 million gallons of the billions are lost in Franklin Canal annually due to improper lining and sediment variation of the canals. To characterize seepage patterns and identify areas of high seepage, Electrical Resistivity, Ground Truthing via soil sample analysis were used along three, half-mile long sectioned canals during irrigation and non-irrigation seasons. The data lines acquired were processed in EARTHIMAGER 2D to create 2D vertical resistivity inversion profiles to locate potential areas of high seepage/high resistivity. The research results will help El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 to develop management strategies to conserve water and improve the delivery efficiency systems which leads to economic growth in the Rio Grande Basin.

  7. A comparison of mesial molar root canal preparations using two engine-driven instruments and the balanced-force technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, N; Kato, A S; Novo, N F; Hata, G; Uemura, M; Toda, T

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two engine-driven, nickel-titanium instrument systems with hand files in the final shape of slight and moderately curved canals. A total of 72 mesial roots of extracted human mandibular molars were divided into three groups: ProFile .04 taper, Pow-R rotary systems, and Flex-R hand-filing technique. The roots were mounted and cross-sectioned at two different horizontal levels using a modified Bramante technique. Pre- and postinstrumented cross-sectional roots were imaged, recorded, and computer analyzed. Results showed that, at the middle third, in almost all groups, there was a tendency of cutting more toward the mesial side with only one exception: Pow-R cut more to the distal side (danger zone) (p danger zone) when the curvature increased. When the three techniques were compared analyzing each side and considering the two groups of curvature, at the middle third in the moderately curved-canal group, Flex-R cut statistically more than Pow-R toward the lingual side. The other comparisons showed no statistically significant difference. When the techniques were compared in relation with the degree of curvature, in the apical third, ProFile .04 cut statistically more toward the mesial side in the moderately curved canal group than in the slightly curved canal group. The other comparisons showed no statistically significant difference. Canal preparation time was shorter with hand instrumentation (p < .05) in a few instances. PMID:11592493

  8. The Love Canal: Beyond science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    When in 1978, the New York State Department of Health issued the report, ‘Love Canal—Public Health Time Bomb,’ the serious effects of chemical waste contamination in the Love Canal area became an issue of national concern. A few ‘studies’ since then have produced results in concert with those of initial reports that described ‘conditions of acute health effects’ as being linked to hazardous wastes incorporated in landfill in the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls, New York. Now that a ‘blue ribbon’ panel of experts from the medical sciences has reviewed the problems of Love Canal, however, a different view has emerged. The ‘Report of the Governors' Panel to Review Scientific Studies and the Development of Public Policy on Problems Resulting from Hazardous Wastes,’ transmitted in October of this year, identifies the following factors about the health effects at Love Canal:

  9. Photo elastic analysis of stresses in the root canal walls around double taper and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Mahdavi Ezadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims : According to the common application of non-metal prefabricated posts in dentistry and lack of enough information about the stress distribution in the root canal walls by these posts, this study was performed to compare the effect of two simple taper and double taper posts on the stress distribution on root canal walls by photo elastic method .   Materials and Methods: The design of this study was experimental in photoelastic system. The posts, used in this investigation, were double taper and simple taper fiber posts with 0.9 mm diameter and 20 mm length and epoxy resin. First two photo elastic models with tooth dimensions were fabricated and the posts were placed inside the model. Then the core of the each post was fabricated on the model. Each models were loaded in polariscope and the formed fringe order colored ring were photographed.   Results: In 100 N, 90 degree angle loading in cervical and apical fringe order showed 2.50 and 1.39 in simple taper posts and 1.39 and 2.35 in double taper post. In 150 N, 30 degree angle loading in cervical and apical fringe order showed 4 and 2.65 in simple taper posts, and 4 and 2.5 in double taper post.   Conclusion: In the vertical and oblique loads, double taper fiber post showed better stress distribution than that of simple tapered posts.

  10. A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF COLORECTAL AND ANAL CANAL MALIGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Majethia Nikhil; Pankti; Vandana; Felice; Unzer Khan; Rohini; Milind; Alka

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma is considered a calamity for humanity, but it could have a long survival if it is diagnosed early. The epidemiology of this calamity is also interesting and has always been the subject of investigati on in the in the western world. AIMS: 1. To compare the findings in a series of 215 cases studied over a period of 6 years from 2008 to 2013 . 2. T o study the incidence of colorectal carcinoma in a population with resp...

  11. Trait canalization analysis of water quality, temperature, and developmental associations with early life stages of two fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of trait robustness based on environmental fluctuation in ontogenetic life stages are needed to evaluate stability and trait response during critical developmental events. Hardness, alkalinity, acidity, light intensity, and thermal differences were studied for trait canalization variation in morphometric, meristic, ontogenetic processes, and pigment characteristics. Trait canalization was observed with no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in mixed random two-way ANOVA comparisons between various block and treatment effects for hardness, alkalinity or acidity. Thermal block variation differences in six measures, including mandible length, yolk sac length, midpostanal depth, and head width, incubation, and hatching length, varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with declining temperatures. Water quality and thermal attributes exhibited trait canalization and did not increase character state variation in the early life stage morphological expression, which result in stable phenotypic inheritance rather than variable environmental conditions during embryonic and larval development.

  12. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  13. Widening of the spinal canal and dural ectasia in Marfan's syndrome: assessment by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a method for diagnosing dural ectasia (DE) and spinal canal widening (SCW) using CT. We examined 23 patients with Marfan's syndrome (MFS), 17 with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and 29 normal subjects, using six axial slices at the level of the L1-S1 pedicles. Transverse diameters of the vertebral bodies, spinal canal and dural sac were measured and indices were defined to differentiate patients with DE and SCW from normal. Statistical significance was assessed using Student's t -test, χ 2-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. DE and SCW occurred in 69.6 % and 60.9 % of cases of MFS and in 23.5 % and 35.3 % of EDS respectively. In MFS, prevalence was significantly higher than in the control group. DE was significantly more frequent in MFS than in EDS. A strong correlation existed between DE and SCW in MFS and the control group, but not in EDS. Our system enables quantitative assessment of SCW and DE. The latter is particularly important in subjects suspected of having MFS, in whom it is a common and characteristic sign. (orig.)

  14. Morphology and histology of the alimentary canal of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Cimicomoropha: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, J.; Coudron, T.A.; Backus, E.A.; Brandt, S.L.; Wagner, R.M.; Wright, M.K.; Huesing, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microdissection and transverse semithin sections were used to perform a light microscopy survey of the gross morphology and cellular anatomy of the alimentary canal, respectively, of Lygus hesperus Knight, a key pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and other crops. The gross morphology of the alimentary canal showed a relatively unadorned tube compared with other hemipterans, with variably shaped compartments and one small diverticulum. However, the epithelial cell anatomy of the gut was relatively complex, with the midgut having the most diverse structure and cell types. The midgut was typical of the "Lygus-type gut" seen in the older literature, i.e., it consisted of three major regions, the first (descending), second (ascending), and third (descending) ventriculi, with different variants of three major epithelial cell types in each region. Our light microscopy (LM) study suggests that the three cell types are nondifferentiated regenerative cells (which sparsely occurred throughout the midgut but were abundant in the anterior region of the first ventriculus), endocrine cells, and columnar cells. Although the Lygus gut cells strongly resemble those cell types seen in other insects, their identification should be confirmed via transmission electron microscopy to be considered definitive. These cell types differed in the size and opacity of vesicles, geometry of cell surface in the gut lumen, and size, shape, and concentration of brush-border microvilli and location within the gut. Comparison of gut structure in L. hesperus with that of other hemipterans, especially in relation to hemipteran phylogeny and feeding strategies, is discussed.

  15. Development of the otolith organs and semicircular canals in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Yamashita, M.; Larsen, K. A.; Batten, J. S.; Koike, H.; Asashima, M.

    1995-01-01

    The sequence in which the otoliths and semicircular canals and their associated sensory epithelia appear and develop in the newt are described. Three-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections through the otic vesicle of newt embryos from stages 31 through 58 demonstrate the first appearance, relative position and growth of the otoliths. A single otolith is first seen in stage 33 embryos (approximately 9 days old); this splits into separate utricular and saccular otoliths at stage 40 (13 days). The lateral semicircular canal is the first to appear, at stage 41 (14 days). The anterior and posterior canals appear approximately one week later and the vestibular apparatus is essentially fully formed at stage 58 (approximately 5 weeks). The data reported here will serve as ground-based controls for fertilized newt eggs flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 Space Shuttle flight, to investigate the influence of microgravity on the development of the gravity-sensing organs.

  16. Radiopacity evaluation of root canal sealers containing calcium hydroxide and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Maria Guerreiro- Tanomaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of root canal sealers containing calcium hydroxide and MTA (Acroseal, Sealer 26, Sealapex, Endo CPM Sealer, Epiphany and Intrafill. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 x 1 mm were fabricated from each material, according to the ISO 6876/2001 standard. After setting of the materials, radiographs were taken using occlusal film and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 2 to 16 mm in thickness. The dental X-ray unit (GE1000 was set at 50 kVp, 10 mA, 18 pulses/s and distance of 33.5 cm. The radiographs were digitized and the radiopacity compared to that of the aluminum stepwedge using VIXWIN-2000 software (Gendex. The data (mmAl were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at the 5% significance level. Epiphany and Intrafill presented the highest radiopacity values (8.3 mmAl and 7.5 mmAl respectively, p < 0.05 followed by Sealer 26 (6.3 mmAl, Sealapex (6.1 mmAl and Endo CPM Sealer (6 mmAl. Acroseal was the least radiopaque material (4 mmAl, p < 0.05. In conclusion, the calcium hydroxide- and MTA-containing root canal sealers had different radiopacities. However, all materials presented radiopacity values above the minimum recommended by the ISO standard.

  17. Root Canal Treatment of a Maxillary Second Premolar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the root canal morphology and anatomy is essential for thorough shaping and cleaning of the entire root canal system and consequent successful treatment. This report describes a case of maxillary second premolar with two roots and three root canals (two mesial and distal palatal canals). The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with clinical and radiographic examination in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases. PMID:27471538

  18. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpectomies using three root canal filling materials: An in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramar K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Various root canal filling materials are used to preserve a pulpally involved carious primary tooth. But there is no single material so far available to fulfill all the requirements of an ideal root canal filling material for a primary tooth. Hence this study was undertaken to evaluate clinically and radiographically the efficacy of three obturating materials - Calcium hydroxide with Iodoform (METAPEX, Zinc Oxide Eugenol with Iodoform (RC FILL and Zinc Oxide Eugenol and Calcium hydroxide with Iodoform (ENDOFLAS for a period of 9 months. Results show ENDOFLAS gave an overall success rate of 95.1%, METAPEX - 90.5% and RC FILL - 84.7%. In our study, we conclude that ENDOFLAS, a mixture of Zinc Oxide Eugenol and Calcium hydroxide with Iodoform fulfills most of the required properties of an ideal root canal filling for primary teeth.

  19. Evaluation of imaging reformation for root and pulp canal shapes of permanent teeth using a cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Hyun; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To estimate the shape of root and pulp canal using a dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate the accuracy of imaging reformation. CBCT images were obtained with incisors, premolars, and molars as the destination by using PSR 9000N {sup TM} Dental CT system (Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) and i-CAT (Imaging Sciences International, Inc, USA) cone beam CT unit that have different kind of detector and field of view, and compared these with the shape and the size of actual root and root canal. When the measuring value of cone beam computed tomography concerning to each root's bucco-lingual diameter and mesio-distal diameter was compared with the value of the actual root, it reveals an error range -0.49 {approx} +0.63 mm at PSR900N and -0.97 {approx} +1.14 mm at i-CAT (P>0.05). It was possible to identify and measure PSR 9000N {sup T}M Dental CT system to the limit 0.48{+-}0.06 mm (P>0.05) and i-CAT CBCT to the limit 0.86{+-}0.09 mm (P<0.05) on estimating the size and the shape of root canal. Two kinds of CBCT images revealed the useful reproducibility to estimate the shape of root, but there was the difference to estimate the shape of root according to apparatus. The reproducibility of root shape in the image of three-dimensions at PSR 900N is low such as 0.65 mm in a case of minute root canal. CBCT images revealed higher accuracy of the imaging reformation for root and pulp and clinically CBCT is a useful diagnostic tool for the assessment of root and canal. However, these are different qualities of imaging reformation according to CBCT apparatus and limitation of reproducibility for minute root canals.

  20. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Psillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted.

  1. Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal

  2. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

    2011-07-01

    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake. PMID:21516445

  3. Smear layer removal capacity of disinfectant solutions used with and without EDTA for the irrigation of canals: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana Carolina Silveira Cardoso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to carry out a scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis of the cleaning qualities and smear layer removal from root canal walls, instrumented and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl, 2.0% chlorhexidine and saline solutions. Fifty extracted teeth were used in this study. All teeth were radiographed to determine the existence of a single canal. The crowns were cut at the cervical limit and the root canals were instrumented with K-type files up to size 45. During root canal preparation, irrigations were made with the different solutions being evaluated: Group 1: 2.5% NaOCl (10 roots; Group 2: 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA for 2 minute (10 roots; Group 3: 2.0% chlorhexidine (10 roots; Group 4: 2.0% chlorhexidine and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes (10 roots; Group 5: saline solution (5 roots; Group 6: saline solution and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes (5 roots. After instrumentation, the canals were irrigated with each one of the solutions and the roots were cut in the buccolingual direction for SEM analysis, at the cervical, middle and apical thirds, to ascertain the presence or absence of smear layer and debris. SEM analysis was performed by three calibrated examiners and scores were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test at the significance level of p = 5%. Results showed that the use of 17% EDTA decreased the smear layer significantly (p < 0.05 for all evaluated solutions in all thirds. When EDTA was not used, a significantly higher quantity of smear layer on the apical third was observed only in the NaOCl groups. The use of 17% EDTA was significant for debris removal except for the chlorhexidine groups. The following conclusion could be drawn: the use of 17% EDTA was necessary to enhance cleanness of the root canals.

  4. [The application of the lyophilized xenodermoimplants for the plastic correction of the external auditory canal and nasal septum perforation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniv, V F; Popadyuk, V I; Aksenov, V M; Antoniv, T V; Korshunova, I A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC). Atresia of external acoustic meatus is a result of a mechanical or thermal injury but can also develop after a surgical intervention for the removal of foreign bodies, benign and malignant tumours. This condition is frequently associated with the narrowing and obliteration of EAC leading to the marked impairment of hearing despite preservation of the middle ear structures. Plastic correction of the external auditory canal for the purpose of its broadening does not always produce the desired result. To improve the efficiency of such intervention, we made use of the lyophilized xenodermoimplants based on porcine skin. Such preparation were applied in 19 patients; patency of the external auditory canal was restored in 16 cases. PMID:27367342

  5. Spontaneous external auditory canal cholesteatoma in a young male: Imaging findings and differential diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Yashant; Varma, Ravi; Achuthan, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    A cholesteatoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the petrous temporal bone commonly described as “skin in the wrong place.” It typically arises within the middle ear cavity, may drain externally via tympanic membrane (mural type), or may originate in the external auditory canal (EAC). The latter type is rarely encountered and typically affects the elderly. EAC cholesteatoma poses diagnostic challenges because it has numerous differential diagnoses. The present case describes a 19-year-old male who presented with gradually progressive diminution of hearing in a previously naïve right ear since 8 months. A soft tissue attenuation lesion confined to the right EAC with erosion of the canal on computed tomography prompted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesion showed restricted diffusion on MRI. Thus, a diagnosis of spontaneous EAC cholesteatoma was established. The case elucidates the rarity of spontaneous EAC cholesteatoma in a young male. In addition, it describes the role of imaging to detect, delineate the extent, and characterize lesions of petrous temporal bone. The case also discusses common differential diagnoses of EAC cholesteatoma, as well as the importance of diffusion weighted imaging in EAC cholesteatoma similar to its middle ear counterpart.

  6. Spontaneous external auditory canal cholesteatoma in a young male: Imaging findings and differential diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashant Aswani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cholesteatoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the petrous temporal bone commonly described as “skin in the wrong place.” It typically arises within the middle ear cavity, may drain externally via tympanic membrane (mural type, or may originate in the external auditory canal (EAC. The latter type is rarely encountered and typically affects the elderly. EAC cholesteatoma poses diagnostic challenges because it has numerous differential diagnoses. The present case describes a 19-year-old male who presented with gradually progressive diminution of hearing in a previously naïve right ear since 8 months. A soft tissue attenuation lesion confined to the right EAC with erosion of the canal on computed tomography prompted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The lesion showed restricted diffusion on MRI. Thus, a diagnosis of spontaneous EAC cholesteatoma was established. The case elucidates the rarity of spontaneous EAC cholesteatoma in a young male. In addition, it describes the role of imaging to detect, delineate the extent, and characterize lesions of petrous temporal bone. The case also discusses common differential diagnoses of EAC cholesteatoma, as well as the importance of diffusion weighted imaging in EAC cholesteatoma similar to its middle ear counterpart.

  7. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  8. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF6) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF6) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF6) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in

  9. Apical microleakage of different root canal sealers after use of maleic acid and EDTA as final irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür İlke ULUSOY; Yelda NAYIR; Kezban ÇELIK; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and maleic acid (MA) on the sealing ability of various root canal sealers. Eighty root canals were instrumented and irrigated with either EDTA or MA. They were divided into eight experimental groups and obturated as follows: Group 1: MA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 2: EDTA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 3: MA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 4: EDTA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 5: MA + EndoREZ/...

  10. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological

  11. Wnt/β-catenin signaling of cartilage canal and osteochondral junction chondrocytes and full thickness cartilage in early equine osteochondrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, Marc A; Semevolos, Stacy A; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate gene and protein expression of Wnt signaling molecules in chondrocytes of foals having early osteochondrosis (OC) versus normal controls. The hypothesis was that increased expression of components of Wnt signaling pathway in osteochondral junction (OCJ) and cartilage canal (CC) chondrocytes would be found in early OC when compared to controls. Paraffin-embedded osteochondral samples (7 OC, 8 normal) and cDNA from whole cartilage (7 OC, 10 normal) and chondrocytes surrounding cartilage canals and osteochondral junctions captured with laser capture microdissection (4 OC, 6 normal) were obtained from femoropatellar joints of 17 immature horses. Equine-specific Wnt signaling molecule mRNA expression levels were evaluated by two-step real-time qPCR. Spatial tissue protein expression of β-catenin, Wnt-11, Wnt-4, and Dkk-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry. There was significantly decreased Wnt-11 and increased β-catenin, Wnt-5b, Dkk-1, Lrp6, Wif-1, Axin1, and SC-PEP gene expression in early OC cartilage canal chondrocytes compared to controls. There was also significantly increased β-catenin gene expression in early OC osteochondral junction chondrocytes compared to controls. Based on this study, abundant gene expression differences in OC chondrocytes surrounding cartilage canals suggest pathways associated with catabolism and inhibition of chondrocyte maturation are targeted in early OC pathogenesis. PMID:25676127

  12. MicroRNAs and metazoan macroevolution: insights into canalization, complexity, and the Cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin J; Dietrich, Michael R; McPeek, Mark A

    2009-07-01

    One of the most interesting challenges facing paleobiologists is explaining the Cambrian explosion, the dramatic appearance of most metazoan animal phyla in the Early Cambrian, and the subsequent stability of these body plans over the ensuing 530 million years. We propose that because phenotypic variation decreases through geologic time, because microRNAs (miRNAs) increase genic precision, by turning an imprecise number of mRNA transcripts into a more precise number of protein molecules, and because miRNAs are continuously being added to metazoan genomes through geologic time, miRNAs might be instrumental in the canalization of development. Further, miRNAs ultimately allow for natural selection to elaborate morphological complexity, because by reducing gene expression variability, miRNAs increase heritability, allowing selection to change characters more effectively. Hence, miRNAs might play an important role in shaping metazoan macroevolution, and might be part of the solution to the Cambrian conundrum. PMID:19472371

  13. Hydrodynamic detection by cupulae in a lateral line canal: functional relations between physics and physiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Sietse M

    2006-01-01

    In the present review, signal-processing capabilities of the canal lateral line organ imposed by its peripheral architecture are quantified in terms of a limited set of measurable physical parameters. It is demonstrated that cupulae in the lateral line canal organ can only partly be described as can

  14. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Ken

  15. K-file vs ProFiles in cleaning capacity and instrumentation time in primary molar root canals: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Madan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the efficiency of manual K-files and rotary ProFiles in cleaning capacity and instrumentation time in primary molar root canals. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five maxillary and mandibular primary molar root canals were instrumented with ProFiles and K-files in the step-back manner from size #10 to #40. The teeth were decalcified, dehydrated and cleared, and analyzed for the presence of dye remaining on the root canal walls, which served as an evidence of cleaning capacity of both the techniques. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the cleaning capacity of the root canals with ProFiles and K-files, in apical and coronal thirds of the root canal. ProFiles have been found to be more efficient in cleaning the coronal thirds and K-files in cleaning apical thirds of the root canals. Both the techniques were almost equally effective in cleaning the middle thirds of the canals. The time taken during the cleaning of the root canals appeared to be statistically shorter with K-files than profiles.

  16. Forcing functions governing salt transport processes in coastal navigation canals and connectivity to surrounding marshes in South Louisiana using Houma Navigation Canal as a surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how circulation and mixing processes in coastal navigation canals influence the exchange of salt between marshes and coastal ocean, and how those processes are modulated by external physical processes, is critical to anticipating effects of future actions and circumstance. Examples of such circumstances include deepening the channel, placement of locks in the channel, changes in freshwater discharge down the channel, changes in outer continental shelf (OCS) vessel traffic volume, and sea level rise. The study builds on previous BOEM-funded studies by investigating salt flux variability through the Houma Navigation Canal (HNC). It examines how external physical factors, such as buoyancy forcing and mixing from tidal stirring and OCS vessel wakes, influence dispersive and advective fluxes through the HNC and the impact of this salt flux on salinity in nearby marshes. This study quantifies salt transport processes and salinity variability in the HNC and surrounding Terrebonne marshes. Data collected for this study include time-series data of salinity and velocity in the HNC, monthly salinity-depth profiles along the length of the channel, hourly vertical profiles of velocity and salinity over multiple tidal cycles, and salinity time series data at three locations in the surrounding marshes along a transect of increasing distance from the HNC. Two modes of vertical current structure were identified. The first mode, making up 90% of the total flow field variability, strongly resembled a barotropic current structure and was coherent with alongshelf wind stress over the coastal Gulf of Mexico. The second mode was indicative of gravitational circulation and was linked to variability in tidal stirring and the longitudinal salinity gradients along the channel’s length. Diffusive process were dominant drivers of upestuary salt transport, except during periods of minimal tidal stirring when gravitational circulation became more important. Salinity in the

  17. Cone-beam computed tomography study of the root and canal morphology of mandibular permanent anterior teeth in a Chongqing population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengyan, Yang; Keke, Lu; Fei, Wang; Yueheng, Li; Zhi, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the root and canal morphology of permanent mandibular anterior teeth in a Chongqing population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods CBCT images of 1,725 patients in a Chongqing population were selected, and a total of 9,646 mandibular anterior teeth were analyzed. The number of root canals and the canal configurations were investigated. Results In total, 0.3% (11/3,257) of lateral incisors and 0.8% (26/3,014) of canines had double roots, and 3.8% (127/3,375) of central incisors, 10.6% (345/3,257) of lateral incisors, and 4.2% (127/3,014) of canines had multi-root canals. The difference in the incidence of multi-canals in lateral incisors between female and male was statistically significant. The frequency of multi-canals in the different age groups was 5.0% for central incisors for ages 21–30 years, 14.7% for lateral incisors for ages 41–50 years, and 8.1% for canines for ages 41–50 years. Conclusion With the limitations of the current study, we found that a high percentage of mandibular anterior teeth had multiple canals in the studied Chinese Chongqing population. The current data may provide clinicians practicing in Chongqing with a more thorough understanding of root canal morphology. PMID:26730198

  18. Changes in ground-water quality in the Canal Creek Aquifer between 1995 and 2000-2001, West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower

  19. Complicated canal morphology of mandibular first premolar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Vyapaka; Kumar, Janga Ravi; Mandava, Ramesh Babu; Rao, Subramanian Hari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to report an unusual anatomic variation of mandibular first premolar, with one root and three distinct canals, which leave pulp chamber and merge short of apex to exit as two separate apical foramina. The incidence of three canals existing as two apical foramina has only been documented in the literature by a few case reports. To achieve successful endodontic treatment, the clinician has to identify the different canal configurations and treat them properly. PMID:26538977

  20. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  1. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Mauro; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of group 1 were filled with Schilder's technique, canals of group 2 were filled with vertical compaction with apical backfilling. Stereomicroscopic analysis of lateral canal filling revealed lower filling rates in apical canals compared to coronal ones and higher filling rates with "vertical compaction with apical backfilling" compared to Schilder's group. The tested procedure appears to be a reliable technique to obtain standardized lateral canals and to compare filling procedures.

  2. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  3. Analysis of ground vibrations produced by an 80 in3 water gun in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Lemont, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Carolyn Michelle

    Since its completion in 1910, the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) has become a pathway for invasive species (and potentially Asian carp) to reach the Great Lakes. Currently, an electric barrier is used to prevent Asian carp migration through the canal, but the need for a secondary method is necessary, especially when the electric barrier undergoes maintenance. The underwater Asian carp "cannon" (water gun) provides such a method. Analysis of the ground movement produced by an 80 in3 water gun in the CSSC was performed in order to establish any potential for damage to the either the canal or structures built along the canal. Ground movement was collected using 3-component geophones on both the land surface and in boreholes. The peak particle velocities (PPVs) were analyzed to determine if damage would be caused to structures located along the canal. Vector sum velocity ground movement along the canal wall was as high as 0.28 in/s (7.11 mm/s), which is much lower than the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) ground vibration damage threshold of 0.75 in/s (19.1 mm/s), causing no potential for damage to structures along the canal wall. The dominant frequency of ground motion produced by the water gun is primarily above 40 Hz, so the wave energy should attenuate fairly quickly away from the canal wall, with little disturbance to structures further from the wall.

  4. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... published in 77 FR 35903. We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway;...

  5. 78 FR 72817 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Near Moss Lake, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Near Moss Lake, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation. SUMMARY: The... is necessary in order to drive piles for 2 sheave platforms, 2 winch platforms, a walkway, and...

  6. Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF. In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transfers (ETs despite undergoing cervical dilatation in the cycle prior to IVF. Interventions : Operative hysteroscopy using Versapoint for refashioning of the cervical canal. Main Outcome Measures : Ease of ET in the subsequent IVF cycle. Secondary outcome measure was to assess reproductive outcome. Results : Easy and atraumatic ET in the IVF cycle after procedure in 100% patients. PR was 46.5%. Conclusions : Use of Versapoint for refashioning the cervical canal can improve the quality of ET and PR.

  7. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wang,1 Yi Zuo,1 Minghui Zhao,1 Jiaxing Jiang,1 Yi Man,2 Jun Wu,3 Yunjiu Hu,3 Changlei Liu,4 Yubao Li,1 Jidong Li11Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4 were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3 and 5 wt% (PU5 concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1 and AH Plus (positive control against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great

  8. Observation of the anterior loop and mental foramen of the mandibular canal using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kwang Jun; Kim, Kyoung A [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the anteroposterior length and buccal angle of the anterior loop, and the size and location of the mental foramen using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). 100 CBCT images from 87 adults (43 males and 44 females) ranging in age from 20 to 73 years (average 50 years) with edentulous ridge of the mandibular premolar region were obtained. Axial, sagittal, coronal images were reconstructed from Dental and Block Images of CBCT. The anteroposterior length, shape and buccal angle of the anterior loop, and the size and location of the mental foramen were calculated from reconstructed images of axial, sagittal and coronal CBCT. The anteroposterior length and buccal angle of the mental canal was 4.0 {+-} 1.2 mm, 37.8 {+-} 11.6 .deg. C respectively. The loop type with straight course was the most common shape of the mental canal. The location of the mental foramen below the apex of the lower second premolar (78%) was the most common. The maximum size of the mental foramen was 4.6 {+-} 1.0 mm in width and 3.0 {+-} 0.6 mm in height. The inner size of the mental canal was 2.6 {+-} 0.6 mm in width and 2.1 mm {+-} 0.4 mm in height. CBCT is useful to evaluate the anterior loop and mental foramen of the mandibular canal. Safe guideline of 4 mm from the most anterior point of the mental foramen is recommended for implant and surgical treatment.

  9. One-stage neonatal corrective repair for d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Hernandez, Victor; Marx, Gerald R; del Nido, Pedro J

    2007-01-01

    Association of d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal constitutes an uncommon and complex cardiac anomaly usually associated with poor prognosis. We report our experience on one-stage neonatal repair for d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal. Between August 1997 and 2005, four patients (two males and two females) underwent anatomical correction for d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal using an arterial switch procedure and two-patch repair. Mean age and weight at operation were 20 days (range from 3 to 28 days) and 3.2kg (range from 2.7 to 3.5kg), respectively. None of the patients received preoperative palliative procedure. Associated lesions were left outflow tract obstruction in three patients and multiple muscular ventricular septal defects in two patients. All four patients survived the operation. There was one in-hospitality death due to fungal sepsis. One patient required late re-operation for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and left atrio-ventricular valve regurgitation. For a mean follow-up of 67 months (range from 51 to 90 months) all patients are asymptomatic and with no residual defects. Corrective repair of d-transposition of the great arteries and complete atrio-ventricular canal can be successfully achieved in this very challenging population during the neonatal period. PMID:17110123

  10. In Vitro Stereomicroscopic Study of the Incidence and Position of Root Canal Isthmuses in Mandibular First Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabrizizadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Accessibility to all sites of root canal and its mechanical and chemical cleaning is mandatory for successful root canal therapy. The presence of isthmus is a major hindrance to complete root canal accessibility. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative frequency and type of isthmuses in the apical region of mesial root of the first mandibular molar extracted in Yazd. Materials and Methods In this descriptive-laboratory study, 100 mandibular first molar teeth were collected. The mesial roots were excised at the cervical region and three horizontal sections perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the root were secured with 1-, 3-, and 5-mm distances upwards from apex region of the roots. The incised surfaces were stained using India ink and viewed under stereomicroscope with a magnifying power of ×60 and photographed. The obtained images were studied regarding the presence or absence of isthmuses and the various anatomical forms of isthmuses were recorded based on Hsu and Kim taxonomy. Results Isthmus was present in 54% of teeth. The greatest frequency of isthmuses was observed in the 5 mm from the apex. The type V isthmus was the most prevalent isthmuses between all levels of roots. Conclusions The frequency of isthmuses in the mesial root of mandibular first molars was high. The results of clinical and surgical endodontic procedures may be affected by this aspect of root canal anatomy.

  11. Analysis and Calculation of Conveyance Efficiency of an Irrigation Canal System%灌溉渠系水利用系数的分析与计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高传昌; 张世宝; 刘增进

    2001-01-01

    灌溉渠系的布置形式一般可分为串联渠系、等效并联渠系和非等效并联渠系,对这3种灌溉渠系水利用系数进行了理论研究。用实例验证了上述的理论分析。研究成果可应用于实际灌溉工程。%Layout forms of irrigation canal system can be generally classified as three categories: series-wound canal system, equivalent shunt-wound canal system and nonequivalent shunt-wound canal system. The conveyance efficiencies of these three kinds of irrigation canal system were theoretically analyzed. Practical verification showed that theoretical values were dependable.

  12. Late metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Edilson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into the internal auditory canal (IAC and cerebellopontine angle (CPA is presented, which appeared 16 years after primary tumor had been treated by surgery and radiation therapy. The 66-year old patient was considered cured from the primary disease, when she started with a rapidly developing hearing loss and intermittent facial palsy. Magnetic resonance image (MRI displayed an intra- and extracanalicular tumor mass, which radiologically resembled a vestibular schwannoma. Surgery was performed and histopathological studies showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast origin. Metastasis is a rare occurrence within the IAC and CPA. Clinical history of severe facial palsy will rise suspicion of malignant tumor in spite of the radiological findings.

  13. Temperature dependency of cupular mechanics and hair cell frequency selectivity in the fish canal lateral line organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga-Post, JEC; van Netten, SM

    2000-01-01

    The mechanical frequency selectivity of the cupula located in the supraorbital lateral line canal and the frequency selectivity of the hair cells driven by the cupula were measured simultaneously in vivo. Laser interferometry was used to measure cupular mechanics and extracellular receptor potential

  14. Methodical aspects of ultrasonic research of cervical intervertebral disk and spiral canal children of the advanced school age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held ultrasound intervertebral discs (MPD), the spinal canal (PC) with the level of C2-C3 to C7-TH1 67 healthy children in the age groups 13-15 and 16-18 years. In the sagittal and axial projections defined sizes MPD PC dural spaces, radicular channels. Studied echo structure nucleus pulposus, the contours of the fibrous ring

  15. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates. PMID:26837224

  16. Adductor Canal Block With 10 mL Versus 30 mL Local Anesthetics and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J; Hilsted, Karen Lisa;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adductor canal block (ACB) is predominantly a sensory nerve block, but excess volume may spread to the femoral triangle and reduce quadriceps strength. We hypothesized that reducing the local anesthetic volume from 30 to 10 mL may lead to fewer subjects with quadriceps...

  17. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area:...

  18. Application of 17% EDTA Enhances Diffusion of (45)Ca-labeled OH(-) and Ca(2+) in Primary Tooth Root Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Marcos; Cavalcanti Taguchi, Carolina Mayumi; Triches, Thaisa Cezaria; Sartori, Neimar; Pereira Dias, Luis Alberto; de Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Cardoso, Mariane

    2016-01-01

    Proper cleaning of the root canal is key to the success of endodontic treatment as it allows more effective diffusion of medication throughout the dentinal tubules. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing diffusion of hydroxyl (OH(-)) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) throughout the root canal in primary teeth. The canals of 25 primary tooth roots were cleaned with endodontic files and 1% sodium hypochlorite. Three groups (G) were then established: GI, in which final irrigation was performed with 1% sodium hypochlorite; GII, in which 17% EDTA was used; and GIII, in which no irrigation was performed. The roots canals in GI and GII were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste labeled with the radioisotope calcium-45. Diffusion of OH(-) was detected with pH strips and Ca(2+) analyzed by measuring radioactivity in counts per min. Group II differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of OH(-) at 24 hr (p<0.05), but no significant difference among groups was found at the day 7 evaluation; GII also differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of Ca(2+) at 24 hr (p<0.05). These results suggest that application of 17% EDTA in primary tooth enhances diffusion of OH(-) and Ca(2+). PMID:26961333

  19. Induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 gene expression by root canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2005-09-01

    Histological investigations have demonstrated that root canal sealers can induce mild to severe inflammatory alternations. However, there is little information on the precise mechanisms about root canal sealers-induced inflammatory reaction. Dysregulated cytokine productions at local disease sites have been considered to be major contributors to the development of inflammatory diseases. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 released have been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers N2 (zinc-oxide eugenol based) and AH Plus (epoxy resin based) on the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA gene in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS cells. The levels of mRNAs were measured by the semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. The exposure of quiescent U2OS cells to N2 and AH Plus resulted in the induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA gene expression (p eugenol based and epoxy resin based root canal sealers-induced periapical inflammation.

  20. CT in low back and sciatic pain due to lumbar canal osseous changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a consecutive series of 600 patients scanned by CT for various spinal diseases, those with low back and sciatic pain without disc herniation were selected for study. The causes proved to be joint facet degeneration (32 cases), stenosis of the neural foramina (13 cases), stenosis of the spinal canal (13 cases), lateral recess stenosis (6 cases) and spondylolisthesis (6 cases). The predominance of joint fact pathology as the underlying cause of low back and sciatic pain in the absence of disc herniation is confirmed. CT scanning of the soft tissues as well as of the skeletal structures is crucial to the aetiological diagnosis of the condition under study and hence to the proper planning of treatment. (orig.)

  1. CT in low back and sciatic pain due to lumbar canal osseous changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.; Capellini, C.; Canevari, M.A.; Prosetti, D.; Schiavoni, S.

    1986-05-01

    In a consecutive series of 600 patients scanned by CT for various spinal diseases, those with low back and sciatic pain without disc herniation were selected for study. The causes proved to be joint facet degeneration (32 cases), stenosis of the neural foramina (13 cases), stenosis of the spinal canal (13 cases), lateral recess stenosis (6 cases) and spondylolisthesis (6 cases). The predominance of joint fact pathology as the underlying cause of low back and sciatic pain in the absence of disc herniation is confirmed. CT scanning of the soft tissues as well as of the skeletal structures is crucial to the aetiological diagnosis of the condition under study and hence to the proper planning of treatment.

  2. Dosimetric comparison of IMRT rectal and anal canal plans generated using an anterior dose avoidance structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a dosimetric method using an anterior dose avoidance structure (ADAS) during the treatment planning process for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with anal canal and rectal carcinomas. A total of 20 patients were planned on the Elekta/CMS XiO treatment planning system, version 4.5.1 (Maryland Heights MO) with a superposition algorithm. For each patient, 2 plans were created: one employing an ADAS (ADAS plan) and the other replanned without an ADAS (non-ADAS plan). The ADAS was defined to occupy the volume between the inguinal nodes and primary target providing a single organ at risk that is completely outside of the target volume. Each plan used the same beam parameters and was analyzed by comparing target coverage, overall plan dose conformity using a conformity number (CN) equation, bowel dose-volume histograms, and the number of segments, daily treatment duration, and global maximum dose. The ADAS and non-ADAS plans were equivalent in target coverage, mean global maximum dose, and sparing of small bowel in low-dose regions (5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy). The mean difference between the CN value for the non-ADAS plans and ADAS plans was 0.04 ± 0.03 (p < 0.001). The mean difference in the number of segments was 15.7 ± 12.7 (p < 0.001) in favor of ADAS plans. The ADAS plan delivery time was shorter by 2.0 ± 1.5 minutes (p < 0.001) than the non-ADAS one. The ADAS has proven to be a powerful tool when planning rectal and anal canal IMRT cases with critical structures partially contained inside the target volume

  3. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  4. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  5. The effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkworth, J B; Tumasonis, C; Briggs, R G; Narang, A S; Narang, R S; Rej, R; Stein, V; McMartin, D N; Kaminsky, L S

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  6. Effect of Adductor Canal Block Versus Femoral Nerve Block on Quadriceps Strength, Mobilization, and Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Valentiner, Laura Risted Staun;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often associated with severe pain. Different regional anesthetic techniques exist, all with varying degrees of motor blockade. We hypothesized that pain relief provided by the adductor canal block (ACB) could increase functional muscle s...

  7. GROUT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN 105-R DISASSEMBLY BASIN D AND E CANAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, R.; Collins, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2010-06-03

    The 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin Grout Placement Strategy Report (SRNL-TR-2009-00157) identifies various portions of the facility that will undergo an in-situ decommissioning process. The estimated residual radioactive contamination in the 105-R facility is shown in Figure 1. Cementitious grout formulations developed by SRNL are being used to immobilize and isolate the radioactive contamination in existing below grade portions of the 105-R building as shown by the gray-hatched area in Figure 2. A Zero Bleed flowable fill was formulated for both dry placement and for underwater placement. The first major area in the 105-R Disassembly Basin to undergo the grouting process was the D&E Canal and an underlying void space known as the Chase. Grout temperature data was needed to ensure that the grout mix design was on the correct grout curing trajectory to meet the material compressive strength requirement of 50 pounds per square inch. Initial grout temperature measurements were needed to confirm and optimize grout mix design fresh property characteristics; i.e. material strength, and set time. Grout curing temperature is an integrating fresh property characteristic that is used to estimate cementitious material strength in accordance with the Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method, ASTM C 1074. The Maturity Method is used in the construction industry to estimate in-place strength of concrete to allow the start of critical construction activities; e.g. formwork removal, removal of cold weather protection, opening of roadways to traffic, etc. Applying this methodology provides an expeditious means to estimate in-place grout strength based on compressive strength laboratory results. The Maturity Method results define the relationship between strength-time and age-time that may be utilized in the field for estimating strength after a given time of placement. Maturation curves were developed under the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin

  8. A study and analysis of spinal canal diseases in the Black Lion Hospital by Myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-seven lumber and thoracic myelographic examinations were performed during the period February 1987 to September 1988. Fourteen patients (21%) had normal myelography while 53 (79%) patients had pathological findings. Spinal canal tumours accounted for the majority of complete CSF blocks (76.7%). Seventy-five per cent of the intradural tumours showed no abnormality on plain films of the vertebral column, whereas 75% of the extradural tumours had pathological findings. Dorsal (central) disc herniation was more frequent (70%) than lateral harniation with almost equal distribution at L5 - S1 and L4 - L5 disc spaces. Central disc herniation was more common at L4 - L5 (71%). The measurement of the interpendicular distance on plain radiography was not found to be diagnostic in our single case of spinal stenosis

  9. Apogeotropic posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: some clinical and therapeutic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Vannucchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We lately reported the cases of patients complaining positional vertigo whose nystagmic pattern was that of a peripheral torsional vertical positional down beating nystagmus originating from a lithiasis of the non-ampullary arm of the posterior semicircular canal (PSC. We considered this particular pathological picture the apogeotropic variant of PSC benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. Since the description of the pilot cases we observed more than 150 patients showing the same clinical sign and course of symptoms. In this paper we describe, in detail, both nystagmus of apogeotropic PSC BPPV (A-PSC BPPV and symptoms reported by patients trying to give a reasonable explanation for these clinical features. Moreover we developed two specific physical therapies directed to cure A-PSC BPPV. Preliminary results of these techniques are related.

  10. Ascending central canal dilation and progressive ependymal disruption in a contusion model of rodent chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keirstead Hans S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI can lead to an insidious decline in motor and sensory function in individuals even years after the initial injury and is accompanied by a slow and progressive cytoarchitectural destruction. At present, no pathological mechanisms satisfactorily explain the ongoing degeneration. Methods Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized laminectomized at T10 and received spinal cord contusion injuries with a force of 250 kilodynes using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Animals were randomly distributed into 5 groups and killed 1 (n = 4, 28 (n = 4, 120 (n = 4, 450 (n = 5, or 540 (n = 5 days after injury. Morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were then performed on 1 mm block sections, 6 mm cranial and 6 mm caudal to the lesion epicenter. The SPSS 11.5 t test was used to determine differences between quantitative measures. Results Here, we document the first report of an ascending central canal dilation and progressive ependymal disruption cranial to the epicenter of injury in a contusion model of chronic SCI, which was characterized by extensive dural fibrosis and intraparenchymal cystic cavitation. Expansion of the central canal lumen beyond a critical diameter corresponded with ependymal cell ciliary loss, an empirically predictable thinning of the ependymal region, and a decrease in cell proliferation in the ependymal region. Large, aneurysmal dilations of the central canal were accompanied by disruptions in the ependymal layer, periependymal edema and gliosis, and destruction of the adjacent neuropil. Conclusion Cells of the ependymal region play an important role in CSF homeostasis, cellular signaling and wound repair in the spinal cord. The possible effects of this ascending pathology on ependymal function are discussed. Our studies suggest central canal dilation and ependymal region disruption as steps in the pathogenesis of chronic SCI, identify central canal dilation as a marker of

  11. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  12. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth. PMID:24474359

  13. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARAGUSHIKU, Gisele Aihara; BACK, Eduardo Donato Eing Engelke; TOMAZINHO, Paulo Henrique; BARATTO, Flares; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength. Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05). Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (ppost bonding. PMID:26398518

  14. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth.

  15. Incidence of Postoperative Pain after Single Visit and Two Visit Root Canal Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sonal B.; Bhagwat, S.V; Patil, Sanjana A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Root Canal Treatment (RCT) has become a mainstream procedure in dentistry. A successful RCT is presented by absence of clinical signs and symptoms in teeth without any radiographic evidence of periodontal involvement. Completing this procedure in one visit or multiple visits has long been a topic of discussion. Aim To evaluate the incidence of postoperative pain after root canal therapy performed in single visit and two visits. Material and Methods An unblinded/ open label randomized controlled trial was carried out in the endodontic department of the Dental Institute, where 78 patients were recruited from the regular pool of patients. A total of 66 maxillary central incisors requiring root canal therapy fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Using simple randomization by biased coin randomization method, the selected patients were assigned into two groups: group A (n=33) and group B (n=33). Single visit root canal treatment was performed for group A and two visit root canal treatment for group B. Independent sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results Thirty three patients were allotted to group A where endodontic treatment was completed in single visit while 33 patients were allotted to group B where endodontic treatment was completed in two visits. One patient dropped-out from Group A. Hence in Group A, 32 patients were analysed while in Group B, 33 patients were analysed. After 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours of obturation, pain was significantly higher in Group B as compared to Group A. However, there was no significant difference in the pain experienced by the patients 48 hours after treatment in both the groups. Conclusion Incidence of pain after endodontic treatment being performed in one-visit or two-visits is not significantly different. PMID:27437339

  16. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein expression by epoxy resin and zinc oxide-eugenol based root canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2003-05-01

    An ideal root canal sealer should be nonirritating to the surrounding tissues. Unfortunately, all histological investigation demonstrated that all types of root canal sealer can induce mild to severe inflammatory alternations. However, there is little information on the precise mechanisms about root canal sealers-induced inflammatory reaction. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme believed to be responsible for prostaglandin synthesis at site of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of epoxy resin (AH26) and zinc oxide-eugenol based (Endomethansone and N2) root canal sealers on the expression of COX-2 mRNA gene and protein in cultured human osteoblastic cells. Investigations of the time dependence of COX-2 mRNA expression in root canal sealer-treated human osteoblastic cells revealed a rapid accumulation of the transcript, a significant signal first detectable within 2h and diminished to control level after 24h. In addition, all root canal sealers also induced COX-2 protein expression in human osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, to elucidate whether induction of COX-2 is associated with cytotoxicity, NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor), was added to test its protective effects. NS-398 at non-cytotoxic dose is not able to prevent root canal sealers-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, the activation of COX-2 expression may be one of the pathogenesis of root canal sealers-induced periapical inflammation. In addition, root canal sealers-induced cytotoxicity is not directly via the induction of COX-2 expression.

  17. Controversy at Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  18. 75 FR 78163 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Annisquam River and Blynman Canal, Gloucester, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ..., Gloucester, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The... Blynman Canal at mile 0.7, at Gloucester, MA, has a vertical clearance in the closed position of 16...

  19. Management of mandibular first molar with four canals in mesial root

    OpenAIRE

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Kumar, Krishnamurthy Sathish; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Prakash, Venkatachalam

    2013-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on adequate cleaning, shaping, and filling of the root canal system. The presence of middle mesial (MM) root canal of mandibular molars has been reported by various authors. But incidence of four canals in mesial root of mandibular molar is very rare. The aim of this case report is to present and describe the identification and management of a mandibular first molar with four canals in the mesial root and single canal in the distal root.

  20. Fluidmechanics of semicircular canals revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Dominik

    2008-05-01

    In this work we find the exact solution for the flow field in a semicircular canal which is the main sensor for angular motion in the human body. When the head is rotated the inertia of the fluid in the semicircular canal leads to a deflection of sensory hair cells which are part of a gelatinous structure called cupula. A modal expansion of the governing equation shows that the semicircular organ can be understood as a dynamic system governed by duct modes and a single cupular mode. We use this result to derive an explicit expression for the displacement of the cupula as a function of the angular motion of the head. This result shows in a mathematically and physically clean way that the semicircular canal is a transducer for angular velocity.