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Sample records for canaliculata caenogastropoda ampullariidae

  1. Immune Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae: Phagocytic Hemocytes in the Circulation and the Kidney.

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    Juan A Cueto

    Full Text Available Hemocytes in the circulation and kidney islets, as well as their phagocytic responses to microorganisms and fluorescent beads, have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, using flow cytometry, light microscopy (including confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Three circulating hemocyte types (hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes were distinguished by phase contrast microscopy of living cells and after light and electron microscopy of fixed material. Also, three different populations of circulating hemocytes were separated by flow cytometry, which corresponded to the three hemocyte types. Hyalinocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and no apparent granules in stained material, but showed granules of moderate electron density under TEM (L granules and at least some L granules appear acidic when labeled with LysoTracker Red. Both phagocytic and non-phagocytic hyalinocytes lose most (if not all L granules when exposed to microorganisms in vitro. The phagosomes formed differed whether hyalinocytes were exposed to yeasts or to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria. Agranulocytes showed a large nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few or no granules. Granulocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and numerous eosinophilic granules after staining. These granules are electron dense and rod-shaped under TEM (R granules. Granulocytes may show merging of R granules into gigantic ones, particularly when exposed to microorganisms. Fluorescent bead exposure of sorted hemocytes showed phagocytic activity in hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes, but the phagocytic index was significantly higher in hyalinocytes. Extensive hemocyte aggregates ('islets' occupy most renal hemocoelic spaces and hyalinocyte-like cells are the most frequent component in them. Presumptive glycogen deposits were observed in most hyalinocytes in renal islets (they also occur in the circulation but less frequently and may mean that

  2. Geometric Morphometric Study of Two Homozygous Color Strains of the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda:Ampullariidae)%2个纯合体色品系大瓶螺的几何形态测量学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来益同; 沈华; 张奕祥; 吴岷

    2016-01-01

    为了探究大瓶螺(Pomacea canaliculata)体色、性别与贝壳形态之间的关系,运用几何形态测量学方法,对来自于人工繁育的F5纯合体色品系37只深褐色个体(26♀♀,11♂♂)、34只黄色个体(14♀♀,20♂♂)贝壳的正壳口观、壳口观、壳顶观进行地标标点,获得贝壳的形态信息。运用主成分分析和典型变量分析,检测出不同体色、性别个体间的差异。通过各个标点对于相对扭曲的贡献率,探究其形态变化趋势。主成分分析结果表明,不同体色个体的贝壳形态存在着明显差异,正壳口观较壳口观及壳顶观更能体现贝壳差异;而不同体色的贝壳差异均不及相同体色不同性别个体间贝壳的差异。典型变量分析结果通过普氏距离和马氏距离得以反映,所有组别间的马氏距离均有显著性差异,而普氏距离仅在壳顶观的深褐色和黄色雌螺间以及壳顶观的深褐色和黄色雄螺间无显著差异;对正壳口观各标点对相对扭曲的贡献率分析表明,贝壳形态的变化主要集中在壳口上半部,支持不同体色和性别的大瓶螺在贝壳形态上存在显著差异的结论。发掘大瓶螺中所存在的这些差异对探究不同体色个体的适应性差异提供了重要参考,也表明几何形态测量学可以作为贝壳形态研究的有效方法应用于贝类形态学和种群分析等研究中。%Pomacea canaliculata,an invasive freshwater gastropod,has become an increasingly serious pest snail in China.The shell shape of Pomacea canaliculata is thought to be determined by both genetic and environmental conditions.In this study,we performed geometric morphometric analysis to detect possible shape differentiations in shells of different colors and both sexes of the golden apple snail.Mature P.canaliculata individuals were used for this study,all homozygous at the loci associated to shell coloration.The snails

  3. Karyotype description of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), with an assessment of the taxonomic status of Pomacea patula.

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    Diupotex-Chong, María Esther; Cazzaniga, Néstor J; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel

    2004-12-01

    Mitotic chromosomes of the freshwater snail Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) were analyzed on gill tissue of specimens from the type locality (Lake Catemaco, Mexico). The diploid number of chromosomes is 2n = 26, including nine metacentric and four submetacentric pairs; therefore, the fundamental number is FN = 52, No sex chromosomes could be identified. The same chromosome number and morphology were already reported for P. flagellata, i.e., the other species of the genus living in Mexico. The basic haploid number for family Ampullariidae was reported to be n = 14 in the literature; so, its reduction to n = 13 is probably an apomorphy of the Mexican Pomacea snails. Lanistes bolteni, from Egypt, also shows n = 13, but its karyotype is much more asymmetrical, and seems to have evolved independently from P. flagellata and P. patula catemacensis. The nominotypical subspecies, P. patula patula (Reeve 1856), is a poorly known taxon, whose original locality is unknown. A taxonomical account is presented here, and a Mexican origin postulated as the most parsimonious hypothesis.

  4. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

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    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried

  5. Relación entre estructura y función de la perivitelina PV2 de Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El caracol dulceacuícola Pomacea canaliculata es nativo de Sudamérica y, además de ser biológicamente muy interesante, presenta especial interés económico-sanitario por ser plaga en numerosos cultivos, especialmente arroz, y también presenta importancia epidemiológica porque es hospedador intermediario del nematode causante de la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica humana.\

  6. Relación entre estructura y función de la perivitelina PV2 de Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El caracol dulceacuícola Pomacea canaliculata es nativo de Sudamérica y, además de ser biológicamente muy interesante, presenta especial interés económico-sanitario por ser plaga en numerosos cultivos, especialmente arroz, y también presenta importancia epidemiológica porque es hospedador intermediario del nematode causante de la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica humana. Las hembras oviponen fuera del agua y estas puestas aéreas quedan expuestas a un ambiente agresivo de alta radiació...

  7. First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

  8. First report of Temnocephala rochensis (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae outside Uruguay: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala rochensis Ponce de Léon, 1979, was the second of four species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 to be described as ectosymbiont of ampullariid apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. There have been no records of this Uruguayan species after its initial description. As part of the present study, 111 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected between 2003 and 2009. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. rochensis, occurring in single infestations, or concurrently with Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989. Specimens of T. rochensis showed a conspicuous red eye pigment which faded after ethanol fixation. Important taxonomic characters of the reproductive system were evidenced by several techniques, and documented photographically for the first time for this species: 1 the typical curved cirrus of the species showing very short and stout spines; 2 the vagina with the proximal portion dilated, forming a "vesicula intermedia"; and 3 the distal portion very muscular, as well as the large and symmetrical vaginal sphincter were documented in detail with Nomarski's DIC microscopy. Eggs were observed in the suture, in the spire, and in the umbilicus of the shell; they had a short peduncle or were sessile, always with short and curved, sometimes straight apical filaments. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had central nephridiopores. This is the first record of this species outside of Uruguay and in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Even with extended sampling efforts in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul, T. rochensis has not been found, showing a geographical distribution restricted to the southern region, close to its type locality of Laguna Negra, Uruguay.

  9. Primer registro del caracol manzano exótico Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) en México, con comentarios sobre su propagación en el bajo río Colorado

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    Ernesto Campos; Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos; José Delgadillo

    2013-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez para México el caracol manzano Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). La especie fue descubierta en varias localidades vecinas a la presa derivadora Matamoros-1950, Algodones, Baja California. La propagación de P. canaliculata en aguas mexicanas fue a través de los afluentes del río Colorado de la población inicialmente introducida en las vecindades de Yuma, Arizona, EUA en el 2005. Hasta el momento no han sido detectados efectos dañinos sobre los cultivos agrícolas...

  10. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  11. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

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    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  12. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

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    Rita S. W. Yam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  13. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

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    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-02-24

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  14. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

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    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).

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    Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H

    2008-09-01

    Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

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    Yan Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

  17. Histopathological changes in snail, Pomacea canaliculata, exposed to sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations.

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    Dummee, Vipawee; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Damrongphol, Praneet; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity test of Cu including range-finding and definitive test, was performed on golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu at exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 330, 223, 177 and 146 µg/L, respectively. P. canaliculata were exposed to Cu at 146 µg/L for 96 h to study bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in various organs. Snails accumulated elevated levels of Cu in gill, and lesser amounts in the digestive tract, muscle, and digestive gland. Histopathological investigation revealed several alterations in the epithelia of gill, digestive tract (esophagus, intestine, rectum), and digestive gland. The most striking changes were observed in the epithelium of the gill in which there was loss of cilia, an increase in number of mucus cells, and degeneration of columnar cells. Similar changes occurred in digestive tract epithelium. The digestive gland showed moderate alterations, vacuolization and degeneration of cells and an increase in the number of basophilic cells. We concluded that, P. canaliculata has a great potential as a bioindicator for Cu, and a biomarker for monitoring Cu contamination in aquatic environment.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Pomacea canaliculata isolates collected from rice fields in different origins of China by combined mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes.

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    Li, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    To study the genetic relationships of Pomacea canaliculata collected from rice fields in China, the mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S of 9 P. canaliculata isolates from 5 southern provinces in China were sequenced and analyzed. The intra-specific sequence variations of P. canaliculata were 0-1.1% for 12S and 0--0.6% for 16S, while the inter-specific variations among common Pomacea species in mt 12S and 16S were 3.0-11.7% and 2.3-10.1%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S revealed complex genetic structure of P. canaliculata in China. Two phylogenetic groups of P. canaliculata were indicated in China with one group sistered to P. canaliculata isolates from USA, and two groups were even found in the same province. The phylogenetic relationships of Pomacea spp. also could be effectively inferred by combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S. These findings provided basic information for further study of population genetics and diffusion pattern of P. canaliculata in China as well as in the world.

  19. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata

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    Zhuo MingMing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3. However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1 in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

  1. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  2. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the vector snails Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Langui; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Zi; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease induced by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been recognized as the main cause leading to human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans usually acquire infection by digestion of infected Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica, the most predominant intermediate hosts found in China. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among these two snails in China in the past 10 years. Data were systematically collected in electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, CSCD, and Wanfang from 2005 to 2015. Thirty-eight studies with a total of 41,299 P. canaliculata and 21,138 Ac. fulica were included in the present study. The overall infection rate of A. cantonensis in China was estimated to be 7.6 % (95 % confidential interval (CI) = 0.063 to 0.090) in P. canaliculata and 21.5 % in Ac. fulica (95 % CI = 0.184 to 0.245), respectively. No significant difference was observed in prevalence rates among publication year and sample size for both snails. Also, it was found that the prevalence in Ac. fulica is significantly higher than that in P. canaliculata (odds ratio (OR) = 3.946, 95 % CI = 3.070 to 5.073). The present study reveals that snail infection with A. cantonensis is clearly prevalent in China. Further studies are required to improve strategies for control of infections of snails, particularly those of Ac. fulica, and to detect further factors and conditions such as geographic region, temperatures, and diagnosis method.

  3. Queue up, please! Spermathecal filling in the rove beetle Drusilla canaliculata (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Gack, Claudia; Speck, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Most studies on insect sperm motility have been conducted in vitro using artificial environments outside the animal’s body. Only little is known about the function of motile insect sperm at different sites within the male or female genital tracts. We dissected genital tracts of female rove beetles ( Drusilla canaliculata) to show that spermatozoa use their own motility to migrate from the spermatophore into the spermatheca. Our dissection method allowed direct observation and filming of the spermathecal filling process inside the female’s genital tract. Spermatozoa were found to enter the spermatheca individually, sometimes in groups of two or three. Although exhibiting only weak motility and no progressive motion in buffer solution, the spermatozoa inside the female show vigorous lashing and reach an average velocity of 47.5 μm s-1. To gain mobility and speed, the spermatozoa likely utilize the relatively small diameter of the spermathecal duct to push themselves off the duct walls, rather than swimming freely in seminal fluid. The spermatozoa (approximately 1,250 μm) are considerably longer than the distance they have to travel along the spermathecal duct (approximately 800 μm). Our study provides the first direct observation of active sperm migration within the female of an insect stressing the importance of the genital tract as a prerequisite for functional sperm motility.

  4. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  5. Development and characterization of 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the faucet snail, Bithynia tentaculata (Gastroposa: Caenogastropoda; Bithyniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Justin P.; Lance, Stacey L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Hagen, Chris; Laurila, Joshua; Cole, Rebecca A.; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), a snail native to Europe, was introduced into the US Great Lakes in the 1870's and has spread to rivers throughout the Northeastern US and Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Trematode parasites, for which B. tentaculata is a host, have also been introduced and are causing widespread waterfowl mortality in the UMR. Waterfowl mortality is caused by ingestion of trematode-infected B. tentaculata or insects infected with parasites released from the snails. We isolated and characterized 17 microsatellite loci from the invasive faucet snail, B. tentaculata (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Bithyniidae). Loci were screened in 24 individuals of B. tentaculata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 6, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.050 to 0.783, and the probability of identity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.91. These new loci provide tools for examining the origin and spread of invasive populations in the US and management activities to prevent waterfowl mortality.

  6. Imposex and novel mechanisms of reproductive failure induced by tributyltin (TBT) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; Clément, María E; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    The effects of tributyltin (TBT) on mortality and reproduction were studied in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata. The nominal median lethal concentration (LC50) was 9 µg TBT/L, after 28 d. The nominal no-observed effect on lethality concentration (NOECL) was 6 µg TBT/L after the same period. Male-female couples and females that had been group-mated but were isolated from males during the experiment (isolated females) were exposed (for 28 d) to either 0 µg/L or 6 µg/L of TBT (nominal NOECL-exposed). Copulation and oviposition frequencies, egg clutch mass, and percentage of egg fertility were recorded. Gonads (both sexes) and the seminal receptacle (females) were studied histologically at the end of the experiment. A significant decrease in copulation frequency was observed in mated-exposed females. Exposure also decreased oviposition frequency of mated-exposed and isolated-exposed females, but only the latter reached significance. No differences in either egg clutch mass or percentage of fertility were observed at first oviposition, but both parameters were drastically reduced in subsequent egg clutches of exposed females. No histological alterations were observed in gonads of TBT-exposed animals; however, sperm storage in the seminal receptacle was drastically decreased in exposed females. Imposex but no oviductal obstruction was observed in all exposed females. It is concluded that TBT induces reproductive failure in P. canaliculata by decreasing copulation frequency and by severely affecting sperm storage by the female.

  7. Endosymbiotic and host proteases in the digestive tract of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata: diversity, origin and characterization.

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    Martín S Godoy

    Full Text Available Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1 a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2 a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3 two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen.

  8. Characteristics of Feeding Preference and Nutrients Utilization of Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata on Macrophytes in Paddy Fields

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    Benliang Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Golden apple snail was a harmful invasive gastropod in Asian wetlands. In order to clarify the effect of Pomacea canaliculata on macrophytes in paddy fields, feeding preference and nutrients utilization of snail were studied. Feeding preference of snail was Alternanthera philoxenoides>Monochoria vaginalis>Oryza sativa L. Snail showed a higher approximate digestion coefficient on Oryza sativa L. than that on Monochoria vaginalis. Nitrogen utilization coefficient of snail on Alternanthera philoxenoides was significantly higher than that on Oryza sativa L. Snail exhibited a higher calcium utilization coefficient on Alternanthera philoxenoides and Monochoria vaginalis than that on Oryza sativa L. Oryza sativa L. was not preferred among three plants under the same available and exposure condition.

  9. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jabang; Wilson Novarino; Aadrean

    2011-01-01

    A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characterist...

  10. 中国南方不同品系福寿螺对广州管圆线虫易感性的研究%Susceptibility for different varieties of Pomacea canaliculata to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾清香; 孙志坚; 张波; 彭东觉; 曲振宇; 杨萧; 吴忠道; 詹希美; 何蔼

    2011-01-01

    Our previous research showed based on the characteristics of its external shell and its soft part, P. canaliculata could be divided into 3 types: black P. canaliculata, yellow P. canaliculata, and grey P. canaliculata. This study was aimed to analyze the susceptibility for different varieties of P. canaliculata to A. cantonensis, expecting to provide evidence in the treatment of angiostrongyliasis. Low and high doses of A. cantonensis were used to infect the three kinds of P. canaliculata( 1000 and 4000 L1 per snail respectively). The results showed that in high dose infection group, the infection rate of yellow P. canaliculata was lower than that of grey ones(P<0.05). Yellow P. canaliculata showed lower susceptibility to A. cantonensis, which was possibly one of the reasons for their superior presence in many parts of China at present.%目的 本实验室前期的研究根据福寿螺外壳及软组织特点将其分为3类:黑色福寿螺、黄色福寿螺、灰色福寿螺.本实验通过对三类福寿螺对广州管圆线虫易感性进行研究,期望为广州管圆线虫病的防治提供证据.分别使用低剂量(1000条L1/只)和高剂量(4000条L1/只)的广州管圆线虫感染三类福寿螺以观察其易感性,结果发现高剂量感染组中,黄色福寿螺感染率低于灰色福寿螺(P<0.05).黄色福寿螺对广州管圆线虫的易感性相对较低,这可能是黄色福寿螺在中国多个省份占优势的一个原因.

  11. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Udomkan; S. Meejoo; P. Limsuwan; P. Winotai; Y. Chaimanee

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received.The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 ℃ resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite → calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

  12. Spatial variation in adult sex ratio across multiple scales in the invasive golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Fang, Miao; Yang, Yexin; Dick, Jaimie T A; Song, Hongmei; Luo, Du; Mu, Xidong; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-04-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) has critical effects on behavior and life history and has implications for population demography, including the invasiveness of introduced species. ASR exhibits immense variation in nature, yet the scale dependence of this variation is rarely analyzed. In this study, using the generalized multilevel models, we investigated the variation in ASR across multiple nested spatial scales and analyzed the underlying causes for an invasive species, the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. We partitioned the variance in ASR to describe the variations at different scales and then included the explanatory variables at the individual and group levels to analyze the potential causes driving the variation in ASR. We firstly determined there is a significant female-biased ASR for this species when accounting for the spatial and temporal autocorrelations of sampling. We found that, counter to nearly equal distributed variation at plot, habitat and region levels, ASR showed little variation at the town level. Temperature and precipitation at the region level were significantly positively associated with ASR, whereas the individual weight, the density characteristic, and sampling time were not significant factors influencing ASR. Our study suggests that offspring sex ratio of this species may shape the general pattern of ASR in the population level while the environmental variables at the region level translate the unbiased offspring sex ratio to the female-biased ASR. Future research should consider the implications of climate warming on the female-biased ASR of this invasive species and thus on invasion pattern.

  13. 莲田福寿螺发生规律及防控措施%Occurrence and control measures of Pomacea canaliculata in lotus seed fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江福祥; 陈传聪

    2011-01-01

    介绍了建宁县莲田福寿螺的形态特征及发生规律,通过实践探索防治方法,提出应以农业防治、物理防治为主,化学防治为辅的综合防治措施。%This paper introduced morphological characteristics and occurrence regularity of Pomacea canaliculata in lotus seed fields.Based on the practice of cultivation and management,integrated controlling measures that relied mainly on agronomic and physical control while chemical methods subsidiary,were put forward.

  14. Application of the Nernst-Planck approach to lead ion exchange in Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana F de Sá S; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; da Silva, Eduardo A B; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-07-01

    Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata biomass was used to remove Pb(2+) in aqueous solution from batch and continuous systems. The physicochemical characterization of algae Pelvetia particles by potentiometric titration and FTIR analysis has shown a gel structure with two major binding groups - carboxylic (2.8 mmol g(-1)) and hydroxyl (0.8 mmol g(-1)), with an affinity constant distribution for hydrogen ions well described by a Quasi-Gaussian distribution. Equilibrium adsorption (pH 3 and 5) and desorption (eluents: HNO(3) and CaCl(2)) experiments were performed, showing that the biosorption mechanism was attributed to ion exchange among calcium, lead and hydrogen ions with stoichiometry 1:1 (Ca:Pb) and 1:2 (Ca:H and Pb:H). The uptake capacity of lead ions decreased with pH, suggesting that there is a competition between H(+) and Pb(2+) for the same binding sites. A mass action law for the ternary mixture was able to predict the equilibrium data, with the selectivity constants alpha(Ca)(H)=9+/-1 and alpha(Ca)(Pb)=44+/-5, revealing a higher affinity of the biomass towards lead ions. Adsorption (initial solution pH 4.5 and 2.5) and desorption (0.3M HNO(3)) kinetics were performed in batch and continuous systems. A mass transfer model using the Nernst-Planck approximation for the ionic flux of each counter-ion was used for the prediction of the ions profiles in batch systems and packed bed columns. The intraparticle effective diffusion constants were determined as 3.73x10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for H(+), 7.56x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Pb(2+) and 6.37x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Ca(2+).

  15. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

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    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  16. Modeling of Efficient Hot Air Drying of Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata for Use as a Fishmeal Protein Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Luo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Snails are a kind of important aquatic products and dehydration is the main technique in production of snail meal. Apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata dehydration meets both the demand for a fishmeal substitute in aquaculture and invasive species control in agriculture. In this study, we investigated the percentage of the nutritive material, examined the drying characteristics at 60, 80, 100 and 120°C, respectively, established a drying kinetics model and explored the effect of body morphology on drying efficiency. The results showed that the wet weight percentage of the soft parts was 46.61±6.18%. The drying efficiency was significantly improved with an increase of drying temperature from 60 to 120°C. The drying time increased rapidly when the final moisture content approached its equilibrium value. The Hii et al. model was selected as the best model to describe the drying curves (R2>0.99. It provided a relatively accurate prediction between the requirements of moisture content and drying time. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 in the drying time at 10.0 and 1.0% moisture content level among the four temperature groups. The drying efficiency was significantly correlated to the mass of the soft parts. It was found that 100°C was an appropriate temperature to effectively dehydrate the fresh apple snails, whereas 60°C was not suitable when air velocity ≤0.5 m/s. This study explored an integrated approach to efficiently dehydrate snails for snail meal production, which will benefit both aquaculture and agriculture.

  17. Acute toxic effect of calcium cyanamide on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).%石灰氮对福寿螺的急性毒性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵本良; 章家恩; 代魏; 罗明珠; 宋春秀

    2011-01-01

    福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)是世界自然保护联盟认定的世界100种恶性外来入侵物种之一,在华南地区已对水稻生产造成严重危害.本研究将福寿螺按照壳高(H)分为小螺(5 mm≤H<15 mm)、中螺(15 mm≤H<25 mm)、大螺(25 mm≤H<35 mm)和超大螺(35 mm≤H<45 mm),通过室内毒性试验,探讨了化学肥料石灰氮(氰氨化钙)对不同体型福寿螺的毒性效应.结果表明:石灰氮对不同大小福寿螺毒性效应显著,尤其是对中小福寿螺具有很强的抑制和杀灭作用;石灰氮处理7 d后,最低浓度0.2 g·L-1处理造成71%死亡率,其他处理死亡率均在95%以上,其中3.0和5.0 g·L-1处理中福寿螺全部死亡;石灰氮对不同大小福寿螺的半抑制浓度(24 h)和半致死浓度(96 h)大小顺序均为小螺<中螺<大螺<超大螺;石灰氮对福寿螺的抑制效应显著,其对福寿螺的平均半抑制浓度为0.08~0.39 g·L-1;1.0和5.0 g·L-1浓度的石灰氮处理24 h后,福寿螺鳃组织SOD酶活性呈极显著下降,分别为对照的41%和60%.本研究表明,石灰氮在入侵生物福寿螺的防治方面有一定应用潜力,有望成为一种新型的"杀螺肥料".%Golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species cognized by World Conservation Union, and has been resulting in a mass loss of rice production in South China. In this study, the snails according to their shell height ( H) were divided in to four groups, i. e. , small size (5 mm ≤ H<15 mm), medium size (15 mm ≤ H<25 mm), large size (25 mm≤H<35 mm) , and extra large size (35 mm≤ H<45 mm) , and a laboratory toxicity test was conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chemical fertilizer calcium cyanamide ( CaCN2) in controlling different sizes P. canaliculata. Calcium cyanamide had signifi cant molluscicidal effect on different sizes, especially small and medium sizes P. canaliculata. After treated one week, 0. 2 g

  18. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C10 and C11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area.

  19. Effects of Pomacea canaliculata digestive juice on lycopene assisted extraction%福寿螺消化液辅助提取番茄红素的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇飞; 邱玉龙; 邓冬梅; 隆思远; 徐科

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of the Pomacea canaliculata digestive juice assisted extraction of lycopene, the stomach, intestine, esophagus and liver had been taken and the digestive juice of these ograns were extracted as a whole or independently. The cellulose activity and protein content of these organs were also detected. Results showed that the highest cellulase specific activity was found in stomach extract (1.2U/mg, represented by endo-β-1, 4-glucanase activity), Esophagus and liver extracts, however, possessed lower cellulase specific activity (0.6U/mg and 0.4U/mg, respectively). For lycopene extraction from a ten gram tomato jam, a protocol consisted of 3.3U enzyme dosage and preprocessing at 35℃for 3 hours was proved to be the optimal way. Employing this approach, the lycopene content reached 2.1-fold and 2.7-fold over the control set using a commercial cellulase and the P. canaliculata digestive juice respectively.%为研究福寿螺消化液对番茄红素的辅助提取效果,提取并比较福寿螺消化道各器官消化液的纤维素酶活力和蛋白质含量,其中胃提取液的比酶活最高(1.2 U/mg,以内切β-1,4葡聚糖酶活力计),肝脏和食道的提取液比酶活次之(0.6 U/mg及0.4 U/mg).使用福寿螺消化液辅助提取番茄红素实验表明:10 g番茄果泥在酶加入量3.3 U,35℃预处理3h的条件下提取效果最佳,其中商品纤维素酶和福寿螺消化液预处理分别可使提取液番茄红素含量达到对照组2.1倍和2.7倍.

  20. The recent apple snails of Africa and Asia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae: Afropomus, Forbesopomus, Lanistes, Pila, Saulea): a nomenclatural and type catalogue. The apple snails of the Americas: addenda and corrigenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Robert H

    2015-03-27

    Ampullariidae are freshwater snails predominantly distributed in humid tropical and sub-tropical habitats in Africa, South and Central America and Asia. This catalogue is concerned only with the non-fossil Old World species, the majority of which are placed in the genera Pila and Lanistes, with a few species in Afropomus, Forbesopomus and Saulea. Pila occurs in Africa and Asia, Lanistes, Afropomus and Saulea only in Africa and Forbesopomus only in Asia. New World taxa were catalogued in a previous publication. The taxonomy of the group is heavily based on shell morphology but the true number of valid taxa remains unknown, pending revisionary work. This catalogue provides the rigorous nomenclatural base for this future work by bringing together all the available and unavailable genus-group and species-group names that have been applied to Recent Asian and African ampullariids, indicating their current nomenclatural status (species, subspecies, synonyms, etc.). Fossil taxa are not included. The catalogue lists 21 published genus-group and 244 published species-group names of Old World ampullariids, excluding 25 names that are incertae sedis and cannot be definitively determined as Old or New World. Of these 265 Old World names, five genus-group and 104 species-group (including 30 infraspecific) names are currently valid. There are 16 genus-group synonyms, 118 species-group synonyms and four species-group homonyms that are not treated as junior synonyms. Also listed are five unavailable family-group, one unavailable genus-group and 18 unavailable species-group names, and a number of unpublished names from museum labels. The catalogue provides bibliographic details for all published names, locations of type material, details of type localities and geographic distributions as far as can be ascertained given the confused state of the taxonomy. The catalogue is a work of nomenclature; it is not a revisionary work of taxonomy. Additional details and corrections to the

  1. Predation and indirect interference effects of Trachemys scripta elegans on Pomacea canaliculata%巴西龟对福寿螺的直接捕食及间接干扰效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 张春霞; 章家恩; 项瑶; 江雪

    2016-01-01

    【目的】研究巴西龟Trachemys scripta elegans对福寿螺Pomacea canaliculata的直接捕食效应,为福寿螺的资源化利用提供参考,并探究巴西龟的间接干扰对福寿螺的影响。【方法】福寿螺与巴西龟共存养殖,定期调查福寿螺的存活和受损情况,确定巴西龟对不同大小福寿螺的控制效果;同时研究在不会被捕杀的情况下,福寿螺感知到同类在被捕食过程中释放的警戒信号后的摄食、生长、存活等方面的变化。【结果】福寿螺在巴西龟的直接捕食作用下,14 d后仅1/3的个体存活,其中,小螺(壳高5~15 mm)和中螺(壳高15~25 mm)的存活率分别降至0和40%,2/3的大螺(壳高25~35 mm)存活,但受损率达到存活个体的45%。而在间接干扰作用下,福寿螺摄食量明显下降,相应的个体生长受到抑制,但存活率不受影响。【结论】巴西龟对福寿螺有良好的捕食效果,且会抑制周边感知到捕食风险的其他福寿螺的摄食和生长,本研究可以为福寿螺入侵地和巴西龟原产地(美国)控制福寿螺提供新的思路,并对福寿螺的入侵机制和种群变化研究有一定的参考价值。%[Objective] To investigate the predatory effect of red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans on golden apple snail,Pomacea canaliculata so as to provide an effective way for resource utiliza-tion of P.canaliculata, and to explore its indirect interference effect on P.canaliculata.[Method]T. scripta elegans and P.canaliculata were put in a set of specially-designed plastic aquarium together, con-trol effects of the turtles on various sizes of snails were determined through regular surveys of the survival and damage of P.canaliculata.Meanwhile, the change of feeding, growth and survival of another group snails outside the cage net under indirect interference effect of T.scripta elegans were investigated, which means that the

  2. 入侵生物金苹果螺在滇池流域的首次记录%A Record of the Invasive Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽娜; Jonathan Davies; 陈小勇; 崔桂华; 杨君兴

    2007-01-01

    2004年10月,中国科学院昆明动物研究所首次发现金苹果螺(Pomacea canaliculata)入侵重要的水源保护区嵩明白邑黑龙潭.金苹果螺起源于中南美洲,在亚洲,它通过有意或无意的传播而逐渐扩散到菲律宾、越南、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、马来西亚、印尼、巴布几内亚、韩国、日本和中国的南部.金苹果螺已成为水稻产区的最大害虫,给农业生产带来巨大的损失.为防止金苹果螺在云南扩散,目前已经实施了严格的预防、控制措施,同时开展了公众保护教育宣传活动.%The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) was first recorded at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin, Baiyi Township, Songming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China, in October 2004. The water from the spring flows into the Songhuaba Reservoir, the major drinking water resource for Kunming City, and part of the Dianchi Lake basin. This is the first record of this invasive snail in the Dianchi Lake Basin. Pomacea canaliculata originates from Central and South America, and in Asia the snail has spread through deliberate and accidental introductions to the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Korea, Japan and South China. It has become a major pest in rice-growing areas, resulting in huge damage to crops. Strict prevention and control measures have to be implemented to prevent the spread of the snail in Yunnan, together with public awareness campaigns to inform the public of the dangers of this invasive snail.

  3. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  4. Evaluation of the controlling Pomacea canaliculata with calcium oxide, ammonium bicarbonate, Camellia oleifera powder and tea saponin%茶皂素、生石灰等防治稻田福寿螺的效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志高; 谭济才; 刘军; 王卫国

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) is one of the most serious pests to the rice production area in southern China. In order to solve the problem caused by synthetic chemical molluscicides which are extremely toxic to the environment and agricultural products, we studied the efficiency of controlling P. canaliculata with four kinds of substitutes, calcium oxide, ammonium bicarbonate, Camellia oleifera powder and tea saponin, in laboratory and plot. The results indicated that the better control efficiency achieved using tea saponin, C. oleifera powder and calcium oxide. The mortality of snails achieved to 100% when the concentration of tea saponin was 40 mg/L and 50 mg/L, and treated for 48 h in laborato- ry. In the plot, mortality of snails were 100% using tea saponin at 6.0 g/m^2 with 4 days or 1.5 g/m^2 lasted 16 days. The quick-acting and lasting effect were better than those of other substitutes. Control efficiencies of C. oleifera powder at 30 g/m^2 and 45 g/m^2 and calcium oxide treatment at 45 g/m^2 are over 80% after 15 days. In addition, these three kinds of substitutes can control the Echirtochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv effectively in the rice paddy. Ammonium bicarbonate was less effective on controlling P. canaliculata, and can promote the occurrence of E. crusgaUi. We concluded that tea saponin, C. oleifera powder and calcium oxide can be used as the substitutes of synthetic chemical molluscicides for contro- lling P. canaliculata in the rice paddy.%福寿螺已成为我国南方局部稻区严重危害水稻的有害生物,为解决常用的化学杀螺剂污染环境和农产品的问题,分别在室内和大田环境下研究了生石灰、碳酸氢铵、茶麸和茶皂素4种替代物质防治福寿螺的效果。茶皂素、茶麸和生石灰对稻田福寿螺有很好的防治作用。在室内试验中40 mg/L和50mg/L茶皂素处理在48h即达到了100%的防效;在大田试验中茶皂素6.0g/m^2的处理在第4天、1.5g/m^2

  5. Differences of female and male Pomacea canaliculata in foraging and heterosexual choice%雌雄福寿螺取食和对异性选择行为的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐武兵; 钟秋华; 李林峰; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良; 秦钟

    2011-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata is an invasive alien species very harmful to the rice production in South China. In this paper, an indoor incubation test was conducted to study the differences in the foraging rate and hepatic glycogen content of female and male P. Canaliculata, and the self-designed T-maze and three-room connected device were adopted to observe the food selection and heterosexual choice of the females and males. At both hungry and full states, the females had a significantly higher foraging rate than the males. At hungry state, the females spent a shorter time for food selection but the selection frequency was not significantly different from that of the males, and also, the females spent a shorter time and had a higher frequency for food selection than at full state whereas the males didn' t show any difference. In reproductive season ( August), the females stored more hepatic glycogen in their body, but did not in non-reproductive season (November) . The males more chose the rooms with females whereas the females had less choice for males, indicating that the females were attracted by the males, while the latter had less attraction to the females.%福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)是华南地区一种危害十分严重的外来入侵生物.通过室内培养,测定了雌雄福寿螺的摄食率和肝糖原含量的差异,并利用自制的“T形槽”和“三室连通器”分别观察了雌雄福寿螺对食物的灵敏程度和对异性的选择.结果表明:无论在饥饿状态和饱食状态下,雌螺摄食率都显著高于雄螺(P<0.01);在饥饿状态下,雌螺相对于雄螺在选择食物时的反应时间更短,它们对食物的选择频率没有显著差异;雌螺在饥饿状态下对食物的选择频率和选择食物时的反应时间较其饱食状态下分别得到了提高和缩短,而雄螺则无此现象;在繁殖季节(8月)雌螺的肝糖原含量显著高于雄螺(P<0.01),而在非繁殖季节(11月)无显著差异;在

  6. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0.66-0.75 (média 0.70. Testículo, espermiduto e bolsa do pênis como em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada e em forma de feijão. Próstata cilíndrica e estreita, de cor creme como o testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote, com espermiduto circular e fechado. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída da base para a extremidade, sendo esta última voltada para a direita; glândula basal extrema situada à esquerda; glândula mediana interna arredondada; glândula apical alongada e com sulcos. Ovário composto de túbulos brancos ramificados dispostos superficialmente sobre a glândula digestiva verde. Oviduto e receptáculo seminal como em P. lineata; glândula de albume de cor alaranjada; ovos prismáticos e calcáreos de cor alaranjada. Aparelho copulador masculino vestigial (pênis e sua bainha presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

  7. 水旱轮作防控福寿螺的效果及对水稻产量的影响%Effects of paddy-upland rotation on control of Pomacea canaliculata and rice yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 罗颢; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To investigate the influence of paddy-upland rotation on controlling Pomacea canal-iculata and rice yield.[Method] Four farming measures including winter potato rotation system , winter ryegrass rotation system , and two winter fallow rice fields treatments with water cover or without any water cover ( two controls ) were employed .The field population structure of snails in the previous and subse-quent rice field , and early rice yield in the subsequent season were investigated .[Result and conclusion]The results showed that winter potato rotation treatment was helpful for snails control and rice yield in-crease in the subsequent farming season , but the snail population recovery accelerated in the early rice growing period because of this rotation treatment .Winter ryegrass rotation treatment was unsatisfactory for snails control while it was beneficial for the early rice output of the next season .Winter-planting rotation was negative for controlling snail eggs , while the eggs were relatively few and most of them were distribu-ted on weeds along field ridges .The eggs could be collected conveniently and efficiently at the beginning of the early rice growing season .%目的探索2种冬种作物水旱轮作对来年早稻田福寿螺的控制效果及对水稻产量的影响。方法对冬种马铃薯和冬种黑麦草这2种控螺方式下前后茬稻田中福寿螺种群和后茬水稻产量进行调查,并与冬闲干田和冬闲淹水处理的前后茬稻田进行对比。结果和结论冬种马铃薯能够有效减少来年早稻田福寿螺的发生量,且能提高来年早稻产量,但早稻生长后期福寿螺种群恢复速度加快。冬种黑麦草处理的控螺效果不理想,但有利于来年早稻增产。冬种水旱轮作模式下对福寿螺卵块的控制效果不明显,但在来年早稻种植的初期,绝大部分卵块产在田埂杂草上且数量较少,此时人工摘卵较为方便省时。

  8. 剑麻提取物对福寿螺的毒理效应%Toxicological effect of Agave sisalana Perrine extract on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林峰; 徐武兵; 钟秋华; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良; 秦钟

    2012-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is an invasive alien species that is very harmful to the ecosystem and rice production in South China.To verify the toxicity and related mechanism of Agave sisalana Perrine to golden apple snail,the toxic effects of aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana were tested via the snail-immersed method.The effects of n-butanol (59 mg·L-1,96 mg·L-1) and ethanol (180 mg·L-1,325 mg·L-1) extracts on cholinesterase (ChE),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities in hepatic tissue of golden apple snails were also investigated.Based on the results,aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana had toxic effects on golden apple snail.Their semi-lethal concentrations (LC50) on golden apple snail for 72 h toxicity exposure were 35.3 g·L-1,93.3 mg·L-1 and 298.6 mg·L-1,respectively.The corresponding 95%confidence interval ranges were 32.9~37.7 g·L~1,87.6~99.7 mg·L~1 and 272.9~318.7 mg·L-1,respectively.When treated with n-butanol and ethanol extracts for 12 h,SOD activity in snail hepatic tissues showed no obvious change at low concentrations.SOD activity,however,increased significantly at high concentrations.After treatment for 48 h,SOD activity at high concentrations of n-butanol extract was significantly higher than that of the control.However,SOD activity did not show any obvious change in both low and high concentrations of ethanol extract.All A.Sisalana extracts somehow increased ChE activity,with n-butanol extract exhibiting higher effect on ChE activity.When treated with 96 mg·L-1 n-butanol extract for 48 h,ChE activity significantly exceededthat of the control (P < 0.05).Overall,n-butanol extract treatment enhanced ATPase activity at low concentrations and suppressed it at high concentrations.Irrespectively,no obvious pattern change was noted under ethanol extract treatment.In conclusion,A.Sisalana was somehow toxic to golden apple snail.A better mode of application was

  9. Influence of drying-wetting alternation on feed and growth of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)%干湿交替对福寿螺摄食和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 章家恩; 罗颢; 刘文; 彭莉; 梁开明

    2013-01-01

    Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the black list of World Conservation Union, and has resulted in a mass loss of rice production in South China. In order to develop water regulation method for controlling golden apple snails, we investigated the influences of drying-wetting alternation on the feed and growth of golden apple snails. Our results showed that weight growth rate, feeding rate, food conversion ratio and specific growth rate of the snails were significantly inhibited by the alternative drying-wetting treatments, sometimes with even negative effects. The shell height of the snails increased with water, but this increase is slow once the water disappear. The snail exhibited a compensation effect during the alternative drying-wetting process within a short-term, and this effect may result from the increase of feeding amount after a period starvation of the snails and would not appear when the drought stress on snails exceeded a certain extent. To recap, the snails would fail to grow normally under drought stress and the degree of influence would be enhanced with prolonged drought period. Moreover, the snails would come out again generally when their habitat becomes rewetting after drought within 180 minutes, so we can control them in this special period (opportunity) to avoid the injure of aquatic plants by snails. The research results may provide a theoretical reference for an integrated control of golden apple snail and water utilization and management.%  福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)被世界自然保护联盟列入世界100种恶性外来入侵物种黑名单,在我国南方已对水稻生产造成严重危害。为了探索通过水分调控来防治福寿螺的方法,本研究模拟福寿螺野外生存条件,探讨不同干湿交替条件下福寿螺摄食和生长的情况,来分析干旱胁迫对其体重增长率(Weight growth rate,WGR)、摄食率(Feeding rate

  10. Effects of sublethal dose of metaldehyde on the activities of AchE, GSTs and MFO in Pomacea canaliculata%四聚乙醛亚致死剂量对福寿螺AchE、GSTs 和MFO 活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文领; 牟希东; 韦慧; 杨叶欣; 徐猛; 罗渡; 胡隐昌

    2016-01-01

    为了解亚致死剂量四聚乙醛对福寿螺的主要靶标酶和解毒酶活性的影响,研究了0.50 mg/L 的四聚乙醛处理不同时间后福寿螺不同组织中乙酰胆碱酯酶(AchE)、谷胱甘肽 S-转移酶(GSTs)和多功能氧化酶(MFO)的活力变化。结果显示,四聚乙醛对福寿螺具有良好的杀灭效果,96 h LC50为3.856 mg/L,安全浓度为0.039 mg/L;在用0.50 mg/L 的四聚乙醛处理的24 h 内,福寿螺鳃和腹足内 AchE 酶活力分别升高到未处理时的1.565和1.481倍而后下降,肝和肠组织内AchE 酶活力分别下降为未处理时的0.132、0.282倍而后升高;不同组织中 GSTs 酶活力均呈现为“降低—升高—降低”的趋势;不同组织内 MFO 酶活力均为先下降后上升的趋势。研究表明0.50 mg/L 的四聚乙醛能诱导 AchE、MFO和 GST 活性不同程度的增加,解毒酶 MFO 和 GSTs 可能在四聚乙醛的代谢中起着一定作用。%To explore the sublethal effect of metaldehyde exposure on main target enzymes and detoxification en-zymes in Pomacea canaliculata ,the activity dynamics of AchE,GSTs and MFO were measured under sublethal concentrations of metaldehyde.The results showed that metaldehyde could significantly kill P .canaliculata ,and 96 h LC50 and the safe concentration were 3.856 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L,respectively.Under 0.50 mg/L metalde-hyde stress,AchE enzyme activity in gills and pleopod increased to 1.565 and 1.481 times as that of the control group,respectively,while the AchE activity in liver and intestine decreased to 0.132 and 0.282 times as that of the control group,respectively,but increased subsequently.GSTs activities were presented as a trend of “de-crease-increase-decrease”;MFO activities decreased at the beginning and then were induced to increase to differ-ent extents.The results indicated that the activities of AchE,MFO and GSTs were induced to enhance to some ex-tent during

  11. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

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    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  12. The radular morphology of Nassariidae (Gastropoda:Caenogastropoda) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingwen; ZHANG Suping

    2011-01-01

    The family Nassariidae includes a number of species that are distributed throughout the world.Each species has a characteristic shell shape,tooth shape,and behavior.However,the classification of species in this family of the Rhachiglossa is controversial.We describe the radulae of 22 species from China in detail using optical and scanning electron microscopy.These species are considered to be representatives of two subfamilies,two genera,and 10 subgenera.Our results suggest that the morphology of the central tooth and the pair of lateral teeth and the presence or absence of a pair of intermediate accessory lateral teeth could be used to distinguish among species.We found no support for the subgeneric differentiation of the species.However,the presence or absence of the intermediate lateral accessory plate was characteristic of species divisions.We noted sexual dimorphism in the shape of the teeth in some species,and considerable variability of the shape of teeth within a single species.Based on our results,the genus Nassarius cannot be split into subgenera using radula morphology.

  13. Freshwater snail Pomacea bridgesii (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae, life history traits and aquaculture potential

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    Ana R. A. Coelho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the reproductive biology, life cycle and feeding habits of Pomacea bridgesiihave been undertaken to assess its potential as a cultured species for the ornamental trade. The speciesis dioecious and, under optimal culture conditions of temperature and food supply, it can breed all yearround. The total developmental period at 23±1ºC varied from 15 to 24 days after oviposition. Hatchingcan last for up to 20 hours in the same egg cluster. Hatching success was very high (mean94.56±0.62% and no significant differences were observed in hatching rates between different clutchsizes. Development is direct and juveniles hatch at shell length (SL = 2.4±0.25 mm. Maturity is reached192±1.5 days after hatching and at SL = 32.80±2.03 mm. Two feeding experiments were undertaken toassess the impact of food type on juvenile survival during the first 8 days post-hatching and subsequentgrowth until 90 days post-hatching. Compatibility between other fish and plants fresh-water aquariumspecies were performed. A combination of environmental tolerance, moderately amphibious behavior,fast growth, short development and hatching at an advanced stage, compatibility with other aquariumspecies (fishes or other invertebrates, and simple low cost diet, make P. bridgesii highly suitable forintensive culture for the ornamental trade.

  14. A new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida commensal of Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae from Misiones, Argentina Una especie nueva de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida comensal de Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae de Misiones, Argentina

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    Cristina Damborenea

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., a commensal of Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, is described herein from specimens collected at Arroyo Yabotí-Miní (Misiones province, Argentina. Juveniles and adults were removed from the mantle cavity by host relaxation. Distinctive characters of the new species are: non-partitioned intestine; conical cirrus with 1 face flat and another concave; distal area with spines, as evidenced by a strong, oblique sclerotized ring, and 2 rows of long spines, an internal one with long spines arising from base of introvert and an external one arising from distal end of the introvert. The closest species are T. iheringi, T. rochensis and T. haswelli, which are also commensals of mollusc species. The presence of this new species of Temnocephala, and its similarity to the other species that are commensals of molluscan species, suggest the existence of a morphologically homogeneous group.Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., comensal de Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, se describe para el arroyo Yabotí-Miní, provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se extrajeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos de la cavidad paleal, por relajación de los hospederos. Las características distintivas de la nueva especie son: intestino no septado, cirro de forma cónica, con una cara plana y otra cóncava, zona distal con espinas evidente por un fuerte anillo oblicuo esclerosado. Dos hileras de espinas se reconocen en el extremo distal, 1 interna de espinas largas, que surge desde la base del introverso, y 1 externa, que surge del extremo distal del mismo. Las especies más semejantes son T. iheringi, T. rochensis y T. haswelli, especies comensales de moluscos con las que es comparada. El hallazgo de esta nueva especie de Temnocephala y sus características semejantes a las restantes especies del género comensales de moluscos, sugieren que las especies conocidas hasta la fecha formen un grupo morfológicamente homogéneo.

  15. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  16. Embryonic development and organogenesis in the snail Marisa cornuarietis (Mesogastropoda: Ampullariidae). V. Development of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, E S; Yousif, F

    1975-01-01

    The nervous system is ectodermal in origin. All nerve ganglia arise separately by proliferation and later delamination from the ectoderm, not by invagination. They become secondarily connected to one another by commissures and connectives developing as extensions from the peripheral layer of ganglionic nerve cells. Rudiments of the cerebral, pedal, pleural and intestinal (parietal) ganglia arise almost simultaneously at a relatively early stage (Stage V). The cerebral ganglia develop from the ectoderm of the head plates. Rudiments of the pedal and pleural ganglia are separate at their inception. They later fuse (Stage VI) to form a pleuro-pedal ganglionic mass on each side. The 2 intestinal ganglia are symmetrical at the beginning, but they soon lose their symmetry as a result of torsion. The right ganglion crosses to the left over the gut and persists as the supraintestinal ganglion. The left or subintestinal ganglion shifts to the right and forward, and fuses with the right pleural ganglion (Stage VIII), thus obscuring the chiastoneury. The paired buccal and single visceral (abdominal) ganglia start differentiating in Stage VII. The former develop from the ectodermal wall of the stomodaeum, while the visceral ganglion delaminates from the right wall of the visceral sac, then shifts to the left during torsion. The statocysts develop early (Stage V) from 2 ectodermal invaginations on either side of the rudimentary foot. They later separate from the overlying ectoderm and statoconi appear in their lumina. Contrary to earlier reports on related ampullariids, the osphradium proved to be ontogenetically older than the mantle and mantle cavity. It starts differentiating as a thickened ectodermal plate in the right wall of the visceral sac (Stage V). During torsion, it becomes engulfed in the mantle cavity and shifts to the left side, then is carried forward as the mantlegrow. The eyes develop late (Stage IX) as ectodermal invaginations which rapidly separate from the ectoderm to form closed vesicles. Their cells start differentiating before hatching to form the retina, in which pigment is deposited, and the inner cornea. The lens is secreted in the lumen of the eye and grows by addition of concentric layers of secretion.

  17. [Imposex in Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae) from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ana Carolina; Miloslavich, Patricia; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2014-06-01

    Voluta musica is a dioecious marine gastropod endemic of the South Caribbean. Tributyltin (TBT) and copper (Cu) are potential inducers of imposex, an endocrine disorder by which females develop a penis and/or vas deferens. The goal of this work was to determine the imposex incidence in V. musica populations from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya. For this, we selected three sites (Isla Caribe, Isla Lobos and Bajo Cuspe) and made monthly samplings of 15 snails in each site, during one year, and determined: (1) sizes; (2) sex and imposex incidence and (3) the Relative Penis Length Index (RPLI). We also performed histological analysis of the gonads, and measured TBT and Cu concentrations in sediments from the studied localities. Our results showed that the total number of sampled females affected by imposex was 24.5% at Isla Caribe, 12% at Isla Lobos, and none at Bajo Cuspe. In sediments, Cu was detected mostly in Isla Lobos. The female gonads with imposex did not show any development of male cells in any of the sampled sites. The higher percentage of females with imposex matched with the higher boat traffic locality, and higher TBT level (Isla Caribe). No esterilization was evident in this work, nevertheless, the presence of TBT and Cu in the sediments and females with imposex were considered as a potential threat to V. musica populations in this region. In Venezuela there is no control over this particular issue, possibly because of the lack of information and research in this topic, but certainly, this information will be useful in biodiversity conservation policies.

  18. A new freshwater snail (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Atacama Desert, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Gonzalo A

    2015-03-02

    In the family Cochliopidae, Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 is the most speciose genus in South America, with about 90 species (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Cazzaniga 2011). A recent molecular and morphological analysis performed in northern Chile (Atacama Desert) showed that the previously undescribed springsnails from Aguada de Chorrillos belong to Heleobia (Collado et al. 2013). In this study I formally describe this new species. Although this paper does not treat morphology in detail, the anatomical characters, in combination with the previously published molecular data provides a strong basis for recognizing this population as a distinct species.

  19. The Diplommatinidae of Fiji – a hotspot of Pacific land snail biodiversity (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea

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    Eike Neubert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The minute (adult size 1.3–4.8 mm land snail species of the family Diplommatinidae in the Fiji archipelago are revised based on historical material and modern (1998–99 collections targeting limestone outcrops on the largest island, Viti Levu, and several smaller islands in the Lau group. The forty-two species (including 30 new species belong to the genera Moussonia Semper, 1865, Palaina Semper, 1865 and Diancta Martens, 1867, which are briefly characterized and keyed. The diagnostic structure of the inner lamellar system of each species is illustrated. All species except one are endemic to Fiji. In Viti Levu, the 12 localities surveyed each had 1–13 (average 5 species of Diplommatinidae; ten species were each found at a single site only. In the Lau islands, five islands were visited, with 1–4 species per island; four species are known from single islands. The number of historically known species not recollected in 1998–99 (7 species, the number of single-site occurrences (14 species, and the numerous islands — including limestone islands — that have not been surveyed at all, indicate that the 42 species of Diplommatinidae currently known from Fiji represent perhaps only half of the Fiji diplommatinid fauna. Such numbers approach the diplommatinid diversity of Palau (39 described and more than 60 undescribed species, and surpasses by far the diversity of other South Pacific archipelagos of comparable land area (New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Samoa. Nomenclatural acts: Lectotypes designated: Diplommatina fuscula, D. fuscula var. vitiana, D. godeffroyana, D. godeffroyana var. latecostata, D. tuberosa, D. martensi var. macrostoma, all Mousson, 1870. Neotypes designated: Diplommatina subregularis, D. ascendens, D. quadrata, all Mousson, 1870. New species: Diancta aurea sp. n., Diancta aurita sp. n., Diancta basiplana sp. n., Diancta controversa sp. n., Diancta densecostulata sp. n., Diancta dextra sp. n., Diancta dilatata sp. n., Diancta distorta sp. n., Diancta pulchella sp. n., Diancta rotunda sp. n., Diancta subquadrata sp. n., Diancta trilamellata sp. n., Moussonia acuta sp. n., Moussonia barkeri sp. n., Moussonia brodieae sp. n., Moussonia longipalatalis sp. n., Moussonia minutissima sp. n., Moussonia obesa sp. n., Moussonia polita sp. n., Moussonia uncinata sp. n., Moussonia vitianoides sp. n., Palaina alberti sp. n., Palaina flammulata sp. n., Palaina glabella sp. n., Palaina kitteli sp. n., Palaina labeosa sp. n., Palaina parietalis sp. n., Palaina sulcata sp. n., Palaina truncata sp. n., Palaina tuberosissima sp. n.

  20. Morphological study on Littorina Flava (King & Broderip from Brazil (Caenogastropoda, Littorinidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed morphological study of the littorinid Littorina flava (King & Broderip, from Venezuelan and Brazilian coasts, is given and commented. a considerable degree of shell characters variation was found, mainly in color and sculpture. The pallial cavity presents normal fashion of mesogastropods, without any detectable morphological modification for the long air-exposure. The digestive system present odontophore muscles very similar to those of the cerithioideans and hydrobioideans; the radula, however, is enormously long; the stomach lacks differentiate style sac. The penis is characteristic in lacking annex glands. The pallial oviduct has no jelly gland, and has a well developed bursa copulatrix and vaginal tube.

  1. Ultrastructure of euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa in the volutid snail Adelomelon ancilla (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, S.; Hermida, G. N.; Giménez, J.

    2009-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the euspermatozoa and the paraspermatozoa is investigated in Adelomelon ancilla, through histological section observed by transmission electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of A. ancilla consists of: (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle (with a short basal invagination, constricted anteriorly) which is flattened at the apex and associated with an axial rod, a centrally perforated basal plate and a short accessory membrane, (2) a rod-shaped, solid and highly electron-dense nucleus (with a short basal fossa containing a centriolar complex and a initial portion of a 9 + 2 axoneme), (3) an elongate midpiece consisting of the axoneme sheathed by 5-6 helical mitochondrial elements each exhibiting a dense U-shaped outer layer, (4) an elongate glycogen piece (where the axoneme is sheathed by nine tracts of glycogen granules), (5) a dense annulus at the junction of the midpiece and glycogen piece, and (6) a short free tail region (where the axoneme is surrounded only by plasma membrane). We observed a parasperm in A. ancilla. This is vermiform in shape and is composed of multiple axonemes and extensive cytoplasm with numerous vesicles, and mitochondria are scattered inside the axonemes. Sperm of A. ancilla is characterized by the euspermatozoa type 2 and the paraspermatozoa morphology belongs to type 5. The U shaped electrodense mitochondrial element in the midpiece of the eusperm and the constriction in the acrosomal vesicle present in A. ancilla are exclusive. We suggest that these characteristics could have taxonomic importance, because these was observed in other volutids and have not been observed in the rest of caenogastropods studies. We consider that the morphology of paraspermatozoa in A. ancilla corresponds to the “lancet” type.

  2. Severnsia strombeulima n. gen. & sp. from Hawaii (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Daniel L

    2016-02-29

    The malacofauna of Hawaii is rather well-known, owing to Kay (1979) and Severns (2011). Both works stand out because they include a large number of the generally under-represented micromollusks (<5 mm). Here a striking new genus and species of a microsnail is reported from that region.

  3. Two new species of Tornidae (Caenogastropoda, Rissooidea from Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Luiz Ricardo Simone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of shallow water Tornidae are found in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, formally described herein. They belong to a complex group of tiny gastropods, in such the taxonomy is very confused. Cyclostremiscus mohicanus sp. n. is characterized by three well-developed spiral, equidistant carinas, working as base of three series of tall, aligned periostracal rods. Episcinia itanhuna sp. n. has as single sculpture a series of pustules in periphery, but the periostracum bears three series of peripheral fringes with irregular rods. The new species are compared with the allies, showing a close relation with Caribbean fauna, but possessing worthy differences. These similarities have raised misidentifications.

  4. Pushing short DNA fragments to the limit: Phylogenetic relationships of 'hydrobioid' gastropods (Caenogastropoda: Rissooidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Thomas; Haase, Martin; Hershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Misof, Bernhard; Ponder, Winston

    2013-03-01

    Although phylogenetic studies are increasingly utilizing multi-locus datasets, a review of GenBank data for the Gastropoda indicates a strong bias towards a few short gene fragments (most commonly COI, LSU rRNA, and SSU rRNA). This is particularly the case for the Rissooidea, one of the largest and most taxonomically difficult gastropod superfamilies. Here we analyze fragments of these three genes from 90 species to determine whether they can well resolve higher relationships within this superfamily, whether structurally aligned sequence datasets increase phylogenetic signal, and whether the inclusion of highly variable regions introduces noise. We also used the resulting phylogenetic data in combination with morphological/anatomical evidence to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of 'hydrobioid' family-level groups. Our results indicate that all three of the alignment strategies that were used resulted in phylogenies having similar signal levels. However, there was a slight advantage to using structural alignment for inferring family-level relationships. Moreover, the set of 'standard' gastropod genes supported recognition of many previously recognized families and provides new insight into the systematics of several problematic groups. However, some family-group taxa were unresolved and the relationships among families were also poorly supported, suggesting a need for more extensive sampling and inclusion of additional genes.

  5. [Length and structure of telomeric DNA in three species of Baikal gastropods (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobioidea: Benedictiidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, A G; Evtushenko, E V; Maximova, N V; Vershinin, A V; Sintnikova, T Y; Kirilchik, S V

    2015-03-01

    The structure of telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)n was determined and the length of telomeric DNA (tDNA) was measured in three species of gastropods from the family Benedictiidae that are endemic to Lake Baikal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the localization of a telomeric repeat at the chromosome ends. The sizes of tDNA in "giant" eurybathic, psammo-pelobiontic species Benedictia fragilis and shallow water litho-psammobiontic species B. baicalensis with medium shell sizes were similar (16 ± 2.9 and 15 ± 2.1 kb, respectively), but they had a greater length than that of the shallow water spongio-litobiontic species Kobeltocochlea martensiana with small shells (10.5 ± 1.5 kb). We discuss tendencies in age-related changes in tDNA length in snails and a possible mechanism for maintaining tDNA size in ontogeny.

  6. [Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Mario; Severeyn, Héctor; Machado, Nakary

    2011-09-01

    The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the estuary, indeed in the localities of the Gran Eneal lagoon (4 111 snails), Peonías lagoon (229 snails), Punta Capitán Chico (758 snails), San Francisco (2 517 snails), Curarire (240 snails), Apon River mouth (173 snails), Ojeda City (240 snails), Bachaquero (128 snails) and Tomoporo de Agua (385 snails). We performed a taxonomical analysis, and emphasized in ecological aspects, such as the distribution of the species and habitat features, as near vegetation and type of associated sediment. We found three morphotypes of the species, one smooth, another with spiral striations and the other with spines. Smooth morphotype was exclusive of the Gran Eneal lagoon, Peonías lagoon, Punta Capitan Chico and Apon River mouth localities, whereas the other two morphotypes were found together in the remaining localities. According to our detailed anatomical and taxonomical analysis we propose a synonymy between P. platyrachis and the other species described like Pyrgophorus parvulus and Pyrgophorus spinosus.

  7. A new species of Heleobia (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Chilean Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Gonzalo A; Valladares, Moisés A; Méndez, Marco A

    2016-07-11

    Cochliopidae Tryon, 1866 is a diverse family of caenogastropods that lives in a wide variety of aquatic habitats primarily in the New World (Hershler &Thompson 1992). In Chile, the species of the group have been traditionally assigned to the genus Littoridina Souleyet, 1852 using conchological characters (Biese 1944, 1947; Stuardo, 1961; Valdovinos 2006) but according to anatomical studies and phylogenetic analysis the majority of them have been reassigned to the genus Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Collado et al. 2011a; Kroll et al. 2012; Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016). Here we formally describe a new species of the genus Heleobia from Spring 1 in the Carcote saltpan, Chilean Altiplano, based on molecular and morphological characters. Snails from this locality were previously shown to be distinct based on DNA sequences (Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016).

  8. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Nelson A F; van Rooyen, Ryan; MacDonald, Angus; Ponder, Winston; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S) DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named "Assiminea" aff. capensis (Sowerby). These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  9. A new genus and species of cavernicolous Pomatiopsidae (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda in Bahia, Brazil

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiripockia punctatais a new genus and species of Pomatiopsidae found in a cave from Serra Ramalho, SW Bahia, Brazil. The taxon is troglobiont (restricted to subterranean realm, and is characterized by the shell weakly elongated, fragile, translucent, normally sculptured by pustules with periostracum hair on tip of pustules; peristome highly expanded; umbilicus opened; radular rachidian with 6 apical and 3 pairs of lateral cusps; osphradium short, arched; gill filaments with rounded tip; prostate flattened, with vas deferens inserting subterminally; penis duct narrow and weakly sinuous; pallial oviduct simple anteriorly, possessing convoluted bypass connecting base of bulged portion of transition between visceral and pallial oviducts with base of seminal receptacle; spermathecal duct complete, originated from albumen gland. The description of this endemic species may raise protective environmental actions to that cave and to the Serra Ramalho Karst area.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in shells of Cochlostoma septemspirale (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea, Diplommatinidae, Cochlostomatinae

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    Fabian Reichenbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphisms in shell-bearing snails expressed by characteristic traits of their respective shells would offer the possibility for a lot of studies about gender distribution in populations, species, etc. In this study, the seven main shell characters of the snail Cochlostoma septemspirale were measured in both sexes: (1 height and (2 width of the shell, (3 height and (4 width of the aperture, (5 width of the last whorl, (6 rib density on the last whorl, and (7 intensity of the reddish or brown pigments forming three bands over the shell. The variation of size and shape was explored with statistical methods adapted to principal components analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. In particular, we applied some multivariate morphometric tools for the analysis of ratios that have been developed only recently, that is, the PCA ratio spectrum, allometry ratio spectrum, and LDA ratio extractor. The overall separation of the two sexes was tested with LDA cross validation.The results show that there is a sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of shells. Females are more slender than males and are characterised by larger size, a slightly reduced aperture height but larger shell height and whorl width. Therefore they have a considerable larger shell volume (about one fifth in the part above the aperture. Furthermore, the last whorl of females is slightly less strongly pigmented and mean rib density slightly higher. All characters overlap quite considerably between sexes. However, by using cross validation based on the 5 continuous shell characters more than 90% of the shells can be correctly assigned to each sex.

  11. A new species of the operculate land snail genus Maizaniella from Liberia (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Maizaniella sapoensis spec. nov. from Liberia is described. The species is provisionally att ributed to the subgenus Spirulozania. It is by far the smallest known member of the genus, with an adult shell diameter of just over 2 mm.

  12. Unraveling a new lineage of Hydrobiidae genera (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea from the Ponto-Caspian region

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    Diana Delicado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses of the highly diverse (non-marine aquatic gastropod family Hydrobiidae Stimpson, 1865 have revealed seven main lineages, most of which represent subfamilies. The subfamily Pseudamnicolinae Radoman, 1977, and specifically the genus Pseudamnicola Paulucci, 1878 (mainly inhabiting western and central Mediterranean regions, contributes substantially to this hydrobiid richness. Most of its congeners have been described in terms of their shell and penis features, which are of limited diagnostic value. Hence, the taxonomic status of some Pseudamnicola species needs to be revised, particularly of those inhabiting marginal regions, such as the Ponto-Caspian domain, largely occupied by the subfamily Pyrgulinae Brusina, 1882. Here we present a molecular phylogeny including species of both subfamilies along with extended morphological descriptions to confirm assignments of the Iranian species Pseudamnicola zagrosensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009; Sarkia kermanshahensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009 (originally within Pseudamnicola and P. saboori Glöer & Pešić, 2009. Our COI-based tree rejects these assignments suggesting a new potential lineage, sister to the pyrgulinid species, and comprising three genera: Shadinia Akramowski, 1976, Intermaria gen. nov. and Persipyrgula gen. nov. These genera differ molecularly by 3.6%–8.5%, and are diagnosable by penis, female genitalia and radula features. Our findings evidence the high morphological variability of pyrgulinid species and provide insight into the origins and evolution of the freshwater Ponto-Caspian fauna.

  13. Molecular evidence for cryptic speciation in the Cyclophorus fulguratus (Pfeiffer, 1854) species complex (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae) with description of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantarat, Nattawadee; Wade, Christopher M; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    A high degree of intraspecific variation, both genetic and in shell morphology, of the operculate land snail Cyclophorus fulguratus (Pfeiffer, 1854) suggests that its classification as a single species warrants reconsideration. We sequenced two nuclear (18S and 28S) and two mitochondrial (16S and COI) genes of 46 C. fulguratus specimens and used them to estimate the phylogeny and to determine the validity of species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of three lineages corresponding to three geographically disjunctive populations of C. fulguratus in Thailand. Likelihood tests of topologies significantly supported the non-monophyly of the C. fulguratus-complex and Bayesian species delimitation analysis significantly supported the potential representation as distinct species of these three lineages. Discriminant function analysis based on geometric-morphometrics of shell shape allowed for significant distinction of these three candidate species, although they revealed a considerable degree of overlap of shell shape reflecting their crypsis morphologically. The diagnostic characters are provided by color pattern, pattern of protoconch and pattern of jaw. In conclusion, the results support that the C. fulguratus s.l., as currently recognized, consists of three distinct species in Thailand: C. fulguratus s.s., C. rangunensis and C. abditus sp.nov., which are described herein.

  14. Molecular phylogenetic investigations of the Viviparidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) in the lakes of the Rift Valley area of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Kristensen, Thomas K; Madsen, Henry; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2009-09-01

    The freshwater gastropod family Viviparidae is nearly cosmopolitan, but absent from South America. On the African continent, two genera are recognized; the widespread Bellamya and the monotypic Neothauma, which is confined to Lake Tanganyika. Most of the African Bellamya species are confined to the major lakes of the Rift Valley area in Africa, i.e. Lake Albert, Lake Malawi, Lake Mweru, and Lake Victoria. The phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (H3, 18S and 28S) DNA inferred three major lake-clades; i.e. Lake Victoria/Kyoga/Albert, Lake Malawi and Lake Mweru/Bangweulu. The endemic B. rubicunda from Lake Albert and B. unicolor from Lake Kyoga were inferred to be part of the Lake Victoria clade. Bellamya capillata as identified by shell characters was polyphyletic in gene trees. The monophyletic Bellamya species radiation in Lake Malawi was most nearly related to the Lake Victoria/Kyoga/Albert-clade. Taxa from the Zambian lakes, Mweru and Bangweulu, were inferred together and placed ancestral to the other lakes. Neothauma tanganyicense was inferred as the sister-group to the Zambian Bellamya. Within the lake-clades the endemic radiations show very low genetic diversities (0-4.1% in COI), suggesting much faster morphological divergence than molecular divergence. Alternatively, Bellamya in Africa constitutes only a few species with several sub-species or eco-phenotypic morphs. The African viviparids were inferred to be the sister-group to a clade comprising Asian species, and the relatively low genetic diversity between the clades (12.6-15.5% in COI) makes a recent Miocene dispersal event from Asia to Africa much more likely than an ancient Gondwana vicarience distribution.

  15. New ecological and taxonomical data on some Ptenoglossa (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda from the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea

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    Danilo Scuderi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ptenoglossans, well known as parasites of marine invertebrates, are one of the less common and less studiedgroups of caenogastropods. Most of the α-taxonomy of their Mediterranean representatives is still source ofdebate and very few data are known on their ecology. A considerable amount of fresh and living material ofseveral ptenoglossan from the Gulf of Catania was available for study. Based on this material we here provideinformation on the distribution and ecology (e.g. habitat and host preference of some relevant ptenoglossanspecies. In particular the distribution of Similiphora similior (Bouchet & Guillemot, 1978, Pogonodonpseudocanarica (Bouchet, 1985, Cerithiopsis ladae Prkic & Buzzurro, 2007, Epitonium pseudonanum Bouchet& Warén, 1986, Melanella lubrica Monterosato, 1890, and Pelseneeria minor Koehler & Vaney, 1908 wereextended to the Ionian Sea and the host is reported for: two triphorids, one cerithiopsid, one epitoniid, threeMelanella Bowdich, 1822 and other two eulimids. The particularly good conditions of the material studied alsoallowed some novel and important observations on the morphology to be made and provided the opportunity todiscuss the taxonomy of some groups. Descriptions of the head-foot colour pattern were provided for onetriphorid, three species of Cerithiopsis Forbes & Hanley, 1851, one epitoniid and three eulimids.

  16. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa

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    Nelson Miranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI and nuclear (28S DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named “A.” aff. capensis (Sowerby. These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  17. On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901 (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae

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    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism’s ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell–Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal’s body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form.

  18. On the occurrence of Theobaldius(? tristis (Blanford, 1869 (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae in the northern Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India

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    Amrut R. Bhosale

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Theobaldius(? tristis is the land operculate snail earlier localized from South Kanara and Tinnevelly i.e. central and Southern Western Ghats according to the previous scientific literature. Occurrence of the T. tristis is reported first time from Kolhapur District, southern Maharashtra and thus includes the distribution into the northern Western Ghats. The observations of the present study are discussed in the lite of distribution of snail in this region, shell and operculum characters of T. tristis.

  19. Arresting mantle formation and redirecting embryonic shell gland tissue by platinum2+ leads to body plan modifications in Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Leonie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the threat that anthropogenic substances pose to animals when they are emitted into the environment, tests like the invertebrate embryo toxicity test with the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis have been developed. These tests are used to investigate substances like the heavy metal platinum (Pt) that is used in catalytic converters and is gradually released in car exhausts. In 2010, our group reported that high Pt concentrations cause body plan alterations in snails and prevent the formation of an external shell during M. cornuarietis embryogenesis. Now, this study presents scanning-electron micrographs and histological sections of platinum(2+) (Pt(2+))-treated and untreated M. cornuarietis embryos and compares "normally" developing and "shell-less" embryos during embryogenesis, to reveal the exact course of events that lead to this body plan shift. Both groups showed similar development until the onset of torsion 70- to 82-h postfertilization. In the Pt(2+)-exposed embryos, the rudimentary shell gland (=anlage of both shell gland and mantle, which usually evaginates, grows, and eventually covers the visceral sac) does not spread across the visceral sac but remains on its ventral side. Without the excessive growth of the shell gland, a horizontal rotation of the visceral sac relative to head and foot does not occur, as being normal during the process of torsion.

  20. The phylogenetic position of Neritimorpha based on the mitochondrial genome of Nerita melanotragus (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda R; Colgan, D J

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report of the mitochondrial gene order and almost-complete DNA sequence of a representative of the Neritimorpha, the highest-ranking gastropod clade lacking such data. Mitochondrial gene order in Nerita is largely plesiomorphic. Its only difference from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is a tRNA transposition shared by Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Genome arrangements were not informative enough to resolve the evolutionary relationships of Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. The sister-group taxon of Neritimorpha varied in sequence-based analyses. Some suggested that Neritimorpha is the sister group of Caenogastropoda plus Heterobranchia and some that Neritimorpha and Caenogastropoda are sister groups. No analysis significantly supported the hypothesis that Vetigastroda is more closely related to Caenogastropoda than is Neritimorpha.

  1. A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae, from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database. We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P.mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

  2. An annotated catalogue of type specimens of the land snail genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoridae) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantarat, Nattawadee; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Ablett, Jonathan; Naggs, Fred; Panha, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    The collection of land caenogastropod snails in the genus Cyclophorus Monfort, 1810 housed in the Natural History Museum, London (NHM), includes 52 type lots. Lectotypes have been designated for 43 available species-level names to stabilize existing nomenclature, two previously designated lectotype, two holotypes, one paratype, one syntype, one possible syntype and two paralectotypes are also listed. A complete catalogue of the Cyclophorus types in NHM, London is provided for the first time.

  3. A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Natalia A; Gracheva, Yulia A; Backeljau, Thierry; Granovitch, Andrey I

    2009-12-01

    Three sister species of rough periwinkles, viz. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792), L. arcana (Hannaford Ellis 1978) and L. compressa (Jeffreys 1865) from the Barents Sea (Russia), the White Sea (Russia) and the Norwegian Sea (Norway) were studied. The identification of two sibling species L. saxatilis and L. arcana is often difficult as both species have extremely similar shell morphology and reproductive systems. Only mature females can be unambiguously distinguished, with a jelly gland present in female L. arcana, but which is replaced by a brood pouch containing developing embryos in L. saxatilis. No clear-cut diagnostic features have been found to discriminate between males or juveniles of the two species. The very first diagnostic DNA marker (DNA fragment A2.8, 271 bp length) for L. arcana and L. saxatilis separation was developed. The marker was derived from apparently species-specific L. arcana DNA fragments obtained via Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This fragment was cloned and sequenced, whereupon specific primers were designed and the amplification was surveyed in a large number of morphologically well-identified females of both species. Subsequently, the specific DNA marker was used for the identification of male L. arcana and partners in copulating pairs. In this way, we obtained evidence of possible interspecific hybridization between the sibling species L. arcana and L. saxatilis living in sympatry in natural populations: the presence of A2.8 fragment in 12% of morphologically well identified L. saxatilis females and its absence in 14% of morphologically well identified L. arcana females. The A2.8 fragment never amplified in L. saxatilis from sites without L. arcana. The A2.8 fragment did not amplify in L. compressa, not even in microsympatric populations, and we did not observe interspecific copulations between L. arcana and L. compressa.

  4. Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin domain-containing proteins in a dual-species transcriptome of caenogastropoda Littorina littorea and its trematode parasite Himasthla elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbushin, Alexander M

    2016-07-01

    The MACPF domain-containing proteins potentially able to build a transmembrane pore structure are found in the transcriptome of a common periwinkle kidney loaded with trematode rediae. Two homologs of mammalian Macrophage expressed gene 1 (Mpeg1), LlMpeg1-1 and LIMpeg1-2, share similar domain structure with the only difference such as LIMpeg1-2 transcript lacks of a C-terminal transmembrane helix. Expression of membrane-anchored protein LlMpeg1-1 is similar in kidneys of naturally infected with trematode Himasthla elongata and uninfected snails. The expression of the second soluble LIMpeg1-2 protein is 4-fold upregulated under infection. The third MACPF protein found in Littorina littorea kidney is homologous with Perivitellin - 2 67 kDa subunit named LlPV2-67 and the expression of the transcript is 3-fold upregulated in the kidney of infected snails. The last two molecules are candidate effectors that may participate in the immune response of common periwinkles to trematode infestation. A single parasite-expressed MACPF-like protein was recorded from the transcriptome of Himasthla elongata.

  5. Extensive mitochondrial genome rearrangements between Cerithioidea and Hypsogastropoda (Mollusca; Caenogastropoda) as determined from the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA of Cerithidea djadjariensis and Batillaria cumingi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shigeaki

    2010-06-01

    Partial nucleotide sequences ( approximately 8000 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA of two cerithioidean gastropod species-Cerithidea djadjariensis and Batillaria cumingi-were determined. The order of mitochondrial genes (eight protein genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and nine transfer RNA genes) was identical between these two species. and remarkably different from the previously reported order in other gastropods. The results indicate that the genome structure of the common ancestor of Cerithioidea and its sister group, Hypsogastropoda, is almost identical to that of the common ancestor of Gastropoda; moreover, independent mitochondrial genome rearrangements were identified between the lineages of Cerithioidea and Hypsogastropoda. The rearrangements within Cerithioidea can be explained by the inversion of a single tRNA gene, two translocations of a single tRNA gene, and three translocations of a genome fragment containing a tRNA gene and protein-coding gene(s).

  6. Molecular phylogeny and a modified approach of character-based barcoding refining the taxonomy of New Caledonian freshwater gastropods (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea, Tateidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielske, Susan; Haase, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The islands of New Caledonia represent one of the world's biodiversity hotspots with many endemic species including freshwater gastropods of the family Tateidae. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA and the nuclear ITS2 genes revealed two cryptic genera, Crosseana gen. n. and Novacaledonia gen. n. In order to provide character-based diagnoses we modified a DNA barcoding approach identifying strings of pairwise diagnostic characters, i.e. alignment positions, at which two genera are alternatively fixed for different nucleotides. The combination or string of all pairwise diagnostic characters was unique for each genus. Inconsistent mitochondrial and nuclear topologies suggest that Hemistomia cockerelli Haase and Bouchet, 1998 and H. fabrorum Haase and Bouchet, 1998, two morphologically well-defined species, hybridize. The age of the most recent common ancestor of the New Caledonian radiation of Tateidae was estimated at 24.6±9.5 MY. These findings are in line with the notion that New Caledonia is rather a Darwinian island that was colonized after an extended phase of submergence - in case of the tateids probably from Australia - despite being a fragment of Gondwanaland.

  7. The hydrobioid freshwater gastropods (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) of Greece: new records, taxonomic re-assessments using DNA sequence data and an update of the IUCN Red List Categories

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hydrobioid freshwater gastropods were collected from mainland and insular Greece. Several threatened taxa, such as Graecoanatolica vegorriticola, Pseudamnicola negropontina, Pseudamnicola pieperi, Pseudobithynia eubooensis and Pseudoislamia balcanica, were recorded from new localities. Trichonia trichonica, which has been considered extinct from its type locality for the last twenty eight years, was re-discovered, whereas the presence of Daphniola exigua, G. vegorriticola, Marstoniop...

  8. The hydrobioid freshwater gastropods (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea of Greece: new records, taxonomic re-assessments using DNA sequence data and an update of the IUCN Red List Categories

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    Canella Radea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrobioid freshwater gastropods were collected from mainland and insular Greece. Several threatened taxa, such as Graecoanatolica vegorriticola, Pseudamnicola negropontina, Pseudamnicola pieperi, Pseudobithynia eubooensis and Pseudoislamia balcanica, were recorded from new localities. Trichonia trichonica, which has been considered extinct from its type locality for the last twenty eight years, was re-discovered, whereas the presence of Daphniola exigua, G. vegorriticola, Marstoniopsis graeca, P. pieperi and Pseudobithynia trichonis in their type localities was verified. The taxonomic status of P. negropontina and the newly discovered populations of G. vegorriticola was elucidated using COI sequence data. The new data recorded during this survey indicate that the IUCN status of some Greek endemic hydrobioids needs to be updated.

  9. Confirmation of the identification and establishment of the South American slipper limpet Crepipatella dilatata (Lamark 1822) (Caenogastropoda: Calyptraeidae) in Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Calyptraeid gastropods have been introduced frequently in bays and ports around the world, and have become rampantly invasive in several cases. Here we confirm the identification and establishment of a recently-detected population of Crepipatella in northern Spain. Because their shells do not have many diagnostic features, introductions of calyptraeids are often accompanied by confusion about the identity and therefore origin of the species in question. We use DNA sequence data and developmen...

  10. Pedicularia vanderlandi spec. nov., a symbiotic snail (Caenogastropoda: Ovulidae) on the hydrocoral Distichopora vervoorti Cairns & Hoeksema, 1998 (Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae), from Bali, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of ovulid gastropod is described from Bali as Pedicularia vanderlandi spec. nov. It was predominantly found in shallow water on the stylasterid hydrocoral Distichopora vervoorti Cairns & Hoeksema, 1998. The snails are compared with type specimens of congeneric taxa and with material of

  11. Taxonomic revision of the Pyrgulopsis gilae (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae species complex, with descriptions of two new species from the Gila River basin, New Mexico

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    Robert Hershler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of springsnails (genus Pyrgulopsis for populations from the middle Fork and upper East Fork of the Gila River Basin (New Mexico that had been previously identified as P. gilae. We also restrict P. gilae to its originally circumscribed geographic range which consists of a short reach of the East Fork Gila River and a single spring along the Gila River (below the East Fork confluence. These three species form genetically distinct lineages that differ from each other by 3.9–6.3% for mtCOI and 3.7–8.7% for mtNDI (the latter data were newly obtained for this study, and are diagnosable by shell and penial characters. Collectively the three species form a strongly supported clade that is distinguished from other congeners by the unique presence of two glandular strips on the dorsal surface of the penial filament. These findings suggest that the conservation status of P. gilae, which was recently removed from the list of candidates for listing as endangered or threatened by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, should be revisited and that the two new species may also merit protective measures given their narrow geographic ranges.

  12. Complexo Littorina ziczac (Gmelin (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda no litoral fluminense: análise morfométrica, distribuição vertical e bioquímica The Littorina ziczac (Gmelin complex (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda in the Rio de Janeiro coast: morphometric analysis, vertical distribution and biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva Absalão

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Littorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791 species complex was studied in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The occurrence of three species was confirmed, through the analysis of penis morphology: L. ziczac (Gmelin, 1791, L. lineata d'Orbigny, 1841 and L. lineolata d'Orbigny, 1840. There is a correlation between the morphology of the penis and shell shape, thus it was possible to make a discrimination model based in conchologic data, with an efficiency of 75%. However, this model cannot be applied to others samples that weren't included in its formulation, due to phenotypic plasticity of the shell caused by biotic and abiotic factors. In the 9 areas studied L. lineolata was always the most abundam species. No vertical stratification in the distribution of the species was verified. From the nine enzymatic systems examined, only Pgi, Pgm e Mpi, presented identifiable patterns and no diagnostic locus was identified in any species. Nevertheless, S and I suggest the individualization of L. ziczac and L. lineata,respectively.

  13. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation of Coxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in two species of snails consisted of Lymnaea palustris (L. palustris) and Pomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata) by using nested PCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods: A total of 160 snail samples consisted of 100 L. palustris and 60 P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. S...

  14. The hydrobioid freshwater gastropods (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) of Greece: new records, taxonomic re-assessments using DNA sequence data and an update of the IUCN Red List Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radea, Canella; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Papadogiannis, Vassilis; Charou, Despoina; Triantis, Kostas A

    2013-01-01

    Hydrobioid freshwater gastropods were collected from mainland and insular Greece. Several threatened taxa, such as Graecoanatolica vegorriticola, Pseudamnicola negropontina, Pseudamnicola pieperi, Pseudobithynia eubooensis and Pseudoislamia balcanica, were recorded from new localities. Trichonia trichonica, which has been considered extinct from its type locality for the last twenty eight years, was re-discovered, whereas the presence of Daphniola exigua, G. vegorriticola, Marstoniopsis graeca, P. pieperi and Pseudobithynia trichonis in their type localities was verified. The taxonomic status of P. negropontina and the newly discovered populations of G. vegorriticola was elucidated using COI sequence data. The new data recorded during this survey indicate that the IUCN status of some Greek endemic hydrobioids needs to be updated.

  15. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA con cuatro tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados muestran el 100% de mortalidad por septicemia a las 96 horas de la inoculación, con relación al testigo.

  16. A comparison study on immune function characterization of two shell colours of golden apple snail(Pomacea canaliculata)%两种壳色福寿螺免疫功能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵柳兰; 蒲粟; 杨淞; 杨黎; 刘巧; 赵金全; 严太明; 章家恩

    2014-01-01

    为了解黑壳和黄壳福寿螺免疫功能的差异,本实验研究了氯硝柳胺对两种壳色福寿螺的急性毒性效应,并对四川地区黑壳福寿螺和黄壳福寿螺血细胞酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)、过氧化物酶(POX)、中性红(NRD)、脂类(PAS)和糖原(SBB)细胞化学染色的观察及中性红试验(NRRT)的差异进行了比较.结果显示,黑壳福寿螺对氯硝柳胺24 h和48 h的半致死浓度分别为0.77 mg/L和0.46 mg/L,均高于黄壳福寿螺.透明细胞和颗粒细胞的细胞化学染色阳性主要分布在细胞质,且颗粒细胞中的颗粒物质呈强烈阳性;黑壳福寿螺ACP、AKP、POX阳性比例均大于黄壳福寿螺,且前者AKP和POX阳性细胞比例显著大于后者,NRD和SBB着染程度和阳性比例均无显著差异,黑壳福寿螺PAS着染程度更为强烈.NRRT实验发现,黑壳福寿螺血细胞的中性红滞留时间(9.15 min)是黄壳福寿螺的1.8倍.研究表明,黑壳福寿螺对氯硝柳胺死亡率及血细胞AKP、POX、糖原成分及中性红滞留时间是影响其与黄壳福寿螺免疫功能差异的重要因素.

  17. A Comparative Study of Haemocytes from Different Shell Colours of Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata)%不同壳色福寿螺血细胞的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淞; 赵柳兰; 张爽; 钟娥; 刘巧; 章家恩; 严太明

    2013-01-01

    为探究不同壳色福寿螺在免疫学上的差异,通过瑞士染色法,比较了不同壳色螺的血细胞分类、血细胞形态、数目和比例的差异.结果表明:不同壳色福寿螺的血细胞均可分为透明细胞和颗粒细胞,根据其嗜性又将颗粒细胞分为嗜酸性和嗜碱性颗粒细胞.透明细胞多呈圆形或椭圆形,且黑壳福寿螺的细胞核及细胞形态较黄壳福寿螺更为多样;黑壳和黄壳福寿螺的血细胞总数(THC)分别为(1.31 ±0.29) ×106个/mL和(1.37±0.28) ×106个/mL,统计学上无显著性差异(P>0.05);血细胞的比例大小均为嗜碱性颗粒细胞>透明细胞>嗜酸性颗粒细胞;但黑壳福寿螺的嗜酸性颗粒细胞比例显著比黄壳福寿螺低3.08%(P<0.05);由此可以推测,黑壳福寿螺较黄壳福寿螺分布数量差异的免疫学上的原因之一,可能是由其血细胞核形态及比例的差异造成其免疫力强弱和存活能力的差异引起的.

  18. The relationship between morphological characters and body mass of different shell-colored apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in different shell-color%不同壳色福寿螺形态性状与体质量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玺洋; 罗渡; 顾党恩; 徐猛; 牟希东; 章家恩; 胡隐昌

    2012-01-01

    [背景]福寿螺因其食性杂、抗逆性和繁殖力强以及自然天敌少等不断扩散,侵害农作物,被列为我国首批外来入侵物种.国内外学者一直致力于研究对其的防治与监控.自然界中福寿螺存在2种壳色——黄色和黑色,壳色受遗传因素和环境因素的双重影响.广东省福寿螺多以黑色为主,福寿螺倾向于与不同壳色的螺交配.壳色在一定程度上影响其交配的选择性,但2种壳色的福寿螺繁殖力指标差异不显著.而关于这2种壳色的螺在形态学上的差异鲜有报道.[方法]利用生物统计软件和分析方法进行相关性分析、通径分析及多元回归分析,计算相关系数、通径系数和决定系数,研究2种壳色福寿螺形态性状与体质量的关系.[结果]2种壳色福寿螺的体质量、层高的变异系数较大,且黄色比黑色变异系数大.对黄色福寿螺体质量影响较大的依次为壳高、口宽;对黑色福寿螺体质量影响较大的依次为口宽、层高.[结论与意义]2种壳色福寿螺在形态性状方面差异显著,可以将壳色作为特征标记,为福寿螺的监测与灾害评估提供参考.

  19. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora) on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias; Sthefane D'ávila; Marta D'Agosto

    2006-01-01

    This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Ampullariidae). Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two ...

  20. Overseas Surveys (1981-1983) for Insects to Control Hydrilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    several treatments usually required during the growing season, only high priority waters can be effectively managed. Taxonomy Identification difficulties...11. Hydrilla has been recognized as a separate species of plant since the early days of taxonomy . According to Cook and Luond’s (1982) synonomy...Order Tanaidacea Tanaids Philippines 5 LUZ32Z1, LUZ832Z2 Total 105 Glass Mollusca Order Gastropoda (Snails) Ampullariidae Burma 3 BUR82204 Malaysia I

  1. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes of Pomacea canaliculata%福寿螺18S rRNA和28S rRNA基因片段的克隆与进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘颖瑛; 董胜张; 俞晓平

    2009-01-01

    为从分子水平上明确入侵我国的福寿螺在分类学上的地位,采用分子克隆和序列比对的方法,对来自菲律宾及我国广东、广西、浙江等不同地理种群福寿螺的18S rRNA基因和28S rRNA基因片段进行扩增、克隆和序列测定,并同瓶螺科、田螺科和环口螺科相关物种进行系统发育分析.结果表明,获得的福寿螺18S rRNA基因和28S rRNA基园片段长度分别为602 bp、325 bp,且不同地理种群间碱基序列无差异.通过邻接法(NJ)和最大筒约法(MP)构建的系统树基本一致,证实福寿螺隶属于瓶螺科,与田螺科物种亲缘关系较近,而与环口螺科亲缘关系较远.

  2. Ethanol extract of Ipomoea cairica toxic effects on Pomacea canaliculata and its effects on the growth of Orzya sativa seedling%五爪金龙乙醇提取物对福寿螺毒杀和水稻苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡飞; 曾坤玉; 张俊彦; 陈建军; 唐湘如

    2009-01-01

    福寿螺和五爪金龙是两种危害严重的入侵生物,利用五爪金龙防治稻田福寿螺是以害治害的方法.盆栽条件下研究了五爪金龙乙醇提取物毒杀福寿螺的效果,以及其对水稻苗生长的影响.在砂培条件下五爪金龙乙醇提取物及其分离得到的甲醇相、乙酸乙酯相、乙醚相水溶液不仅对福寿螺起到毒杀作用, 而且对水稻秧苗生长有促进作用, 毒杀和促进作用由强到弱的顺序均为:乙醇提取物>甲醇相>乙酸乙酯相>乙醚相.在实验浓度范围内五爪金龙乙醇提物对福寿螺的毒杀效果及其对水稻苗促进作用强度均随浓度的增大而增强,在水稻土盆栽条件下抑制福寿螺取食水稻苗的效果与密达差异不显著(p>0.05).五爪金龙乙醇提取物能毒杀福寿螺,对水稻苗的生长没有不利的影响.因此, 利用五爪金龙防治稻田福寿螺危害是环境友好的非化学防治措施,具有良好的应用前景.

  3. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardoya Rafael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis, and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia. The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P

  4. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation of Coxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii in two species of snails consisted of Lymnaea palustris (L. palustris and Pomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata by using nested PCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods: A total of 160 snail samples consisted of 100 L. palustris and 60 P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails' DNA was extracted by a genomic DNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence of C. burnetii's DNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37% samples were found positive for C. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from the L. palustris and there were no positive samples from P. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also, C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  5. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation ofCoxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani; Abbas Doosti; Asghar Arshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence ofCoxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in two species of snails consisted ofLymnaea palustris (L. palustris) andPomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata) by using nestedPCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods:A total of160 snail samples consisted of 100L. palustris and 60P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails'DNA was extracted by a genomicDNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence ofC. burnetii'sDNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1)-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37%) samples were found positive forC. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from theL. palustris and there were no positive samples fromP. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also,C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  6. Sensitivity of aquatic organisms to ethanol and its potential use as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility for the use of the organisms Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana, Hyphessobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata and Daphnia magna as exposure bioindicators for ethanol (lethal and effective concentration 50% - LC50(I/EC50(I. Thus, the following concentrations were used 5.0; 10.0; 20.0; 30.0; 40.0 and 50.0 mg L-1 ethanol on L. minor; 25.0; 50.0; 75.0; 100.0; 150.0 and 200.0 mg L-1 on A. caroliniana; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1 on H. eques; 0.05; 0.10; 0.20; 0.40 and 0.80 mg L-1 on P. canaliculata; and 40.0; 60.0; 80.0; 100.0; 120.0 and 140.0 mg L-1 on D. magna. An untreated control was also kept for all organisms, with three repetitions. The increase in the ethanol concentration elevated the electrical conductivity and decreased the water dissolved oxygen and pH. The ethanol LC50 for L. minor and A. caroliniana were 12.78 and 73.11 mg L-1, respectively, and was classified as slightly toxic; 1.22 mg L-1 for H. eques (moderately toxic; 0.39 mg L-1 for P. canaliculata (highly toxic and 98.85 mg L-1 for D. magna (slightly toxic. Thus, H. eques and P. canaliculata have showed good potential for the use as ethanol exposure bioindicators on water bodies.

  7. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  8. Genetic Basis of Differential Heat Resistance between Two Species of Congeneric Freshwater Snails: Insights from Quantitative Proteomics and Base Substitution Rate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Huawei; Sun, Jin; Fang, Ling; Luan, Tiangang; Williams, Gray A; Cheung, Siu Gin; Wong, Chris K C; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-10-02

    We compared the heat tolerance, proteomic responses to heat stress, and adaptive sequence divergence in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata and its noninvasive congener Pomacea diffusa. The LT50 of P. canaliculata was significantly higher than that of P. diffusa. More than 3350 proteins were identified from the hepatopancreas of the snails exposed to acute and chronic thermal stress using iTRAQ-coupled mass spectrometry. Acute exposure (3 h exposure at 37 °C with 25 °C as control) resulted in similar numbers (27 in P. canaliculata and 23 in P. diffusa) of differentially expressed proteins in the two species. Chronic exposure (3 weeks of exposure at 35 °C with 25 °C as control) caused differential expression of more proteins (58 in P. canaliculata and 118 in P. diffusa), with many of them related to restoration of damaged molecules, ubiquitinating dysfunctional molecules, and utilization of energy reserves in both species; but only in P. diffusa was there a shift from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism. Analysis of orthologous genes encoding the differentially expressed proteins revealed two genes having clear evidence of positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1) and seven candidates for more detailed analysis of positive selection (Ka/Ks between 0.5 and 1). These nine genes are related to energy metabolism, cellular oxidative homeostasis, signaling, and binding processes. Overall, the proteomic and base substitution rate analyses indicate genetic basis of differential resistance to heat stress between the two species, and such differences could affect their further range expansion in a warming climate.

  9. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae. The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas conchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889

  10. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seaweed extracts Avaliação de atividade antifúngica de extratos de macroalgas marinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Fernandes Peres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are subject to numerous biological interactions and sometimes to extreme abiotic conditions, so they have developed among other defense mechanisms, the ability to produce biologically active substances. Thus, these organisms produce mainly terpenes and phenols. Among others, the antifungal activity, due to its importance in human and animal health and the production of agricultural products, has been the subject of several studies. In the present work, this activity was investigated in ten seaweeds extracts, by direct bioautography assays, compared to Colletotrichum lagenarium and disk diffusion assay, compared to Aspergillus flavus. The organisms studied were: Stypopodium zonale, Laurencia dendroidea, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum muticum, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Sargassum filipendula, Sargassum stenophyllum, Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria edulis. S. zonale, L. dendroidea, P. canaliculata, S. muticum, A. nodosum and F. spiralis extracts significantly inhibited the C. lagenarium growth, but not inhibited significantly the A. flavus growth. The presence of terpenes in all of these extracts was confirmed by thin layer chromatography whereas the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed only in extracts of P. canaliculata, A. nodosum and S. muticum. In chemical study by column chromatography, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the terpenes neophytadiene, cartilagineol, obtusol elatol; and the ester ethyl hexadecanoate were identified in the L. dendroidea extract. This is the first report on the activity of seaweed extracts against C. lagenarium, a fungus bearing agricultural importance.As macroalgas marinhas, por estarem sujeitas a numerosas interações biológicas e, por vezes, a condições abióticas extremas, desenvolveram, entre outros mecanismos de defesa, a capacidade de produzir substâncias biologicamente ativas. Assim, esses organismos produzem, principalmente, terpenos e fen

  11. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the potential establishment of the apple snail in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available EFSA requested the PLH Panel to review the current state of the art of the biology and ecology of apple snails, reported in this opinion, and to perform an environmental risk assessment for validation of the Plant Health environment guidance document, which will be provided in a second opinion. The Panel presents in this opinion the current state of the art of the biology of apple snails, and develops and uses a population dynamics model to assess the potential establishment of apple snails in the EU. A thorough review of the literature on the biology of Pomacea canaliculata and P. maculata was performed to collect information and data on life history characteristics related to temperature, which was used in the population dynamics model. Although uncertainties on the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Pomacea remain, it is now acknowledged that Pomacea insularum is a synonym of P. maculata and can be undoubtedly differentiated from P. canaliculata. Natural spread occurs via rivers and canals, in which the snails crawl, drift, float and raft. Flooding increases spread. In addition, attachment to animals (e.g. birds, cattle, horses, deer and aquatic invertebrates results in spread. Human assistance results in spread through cultivation transport of rice seedlings, aquaculture, aquaria, boats, and agricultural field machinery. The potential distribution of P. canaliculata in Europe was obtained by calculating with the population dynamics model, the average snail abundance per year in each node of a grid of 0.25 ×  0.25 degrees covering Europe, which resulted in the following conclusions: (1 the area of potential establishment comprises wetlands of southern Europe (i.e. Spain, southern France, most of Italy and Greece and the Balkans up to the latitude of the Danube river, (2 the potential area of establishment includes the rice production areas in Europe.

  12. Understanding the regulation of estivation in a freshwater snail through iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater gastropod with a remarkable ability to withstand seasonal or unpredictable dry conditions by entering estivation. Studies of P. canaliculata using conventional biochemical and the individual gene approaches have revealed the expressional changes of several enzymes and antioxidative genes in response to estivation and arousal. In this study, we applied iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify the global protein expression during the estivation and arousal of P. canaliculata. A total of 1040 proteins were identified, among which 701 proteins were quantified and compared across four treatments (i.e., control, active snails; short-term estivation, 3 days of exposure to air; prolonged estivation, 30 days of exposure to air; and arousal, 6 h after resubmergence in water) revealing 53 differentially expressed proteins. A comparison of protein expression profiles across treatments indicated that the proteome of this species was very insensitive to initial estivation, with only 9 proteins differentially expressed as compared with the control. Among the 9 proteins, the up-regulations of two immune related proteins indicated the initial immune response to the detection of stress cues. Prolonged estivation resulted in many more differentially expressed proteins (47 compared with short-term estivation treatment), among which 16 were down-regulated and 31 were up-regulated. These differentially expressed proteins have provided the first global picture of a shift in energy usage from glucose to lipid, prevention of protein degradation and elevation of oxidative defense, and production of purine for uric acid production to remove toxic ammonia during prolonged estivation in a freshwater snail. From prolonged estivation to arousal, only 6 proteins changed their expression level, indicating that access to water and food alone is not a necessary condition to reactivate whole-sale protein expression. A

  13. MIDDLE TRIASSIC BRACHIOPODS FROM VAL PARINA, BERGAMASC ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA TORTI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Triassic Esino Limestone of Val Parina yields a rich brachiopod fauna associated with bivalves, gastropods, corals, and ammonoids. The brachiopod fauna of the Esino Limestone includes ubiquitous species (P. fragilis, A. aff. posterior, M. mentzeli, D. cf. dinarica, L. praepunctata and A. angustaeformis, species exclusive to the back reef (T. cf. intervallata, A. aff. ladina and A. aff. raxana and species exclusive to the shelf margin (C. aff. altaplecta, V. vivida, A. aff. dilatata, H. aff. ambitiosa, T. trigonella, M. ampla, A. aff. canaliculata. The age of the Val Parina brachiopods spans from latest Anisian to Late Ladinian.  

  14. Vectors and Spatial Patterns of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Selected Rice-Farming Villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Angelica A. Tujan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Philippines, rats and snails abound in agricultural areas as pests and source of food for some of the local people which poses risks of parasite transmission to humans such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study was conducted to determine the extent of A. cantonensis infection among rats and snails collected from rice-farming villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija. A total of 209 rats, 781 freshwater snails, and 120 terrestrial snails were collected for the study. Heart and lungs of rats and snail tissues were examined and subjected to artificial digestion for parasite collection. Adult worms from rats were identified using SSU rDNA gene. Seven nematode sequences obtained matched A. cantonensis. Results revealed that 31% of the rats examined were positive with A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi showed prevalence of 46% and 29%, respectively. Furthermore, only Pomacea canaliculata (2% and Melanoides maculata (1% were found to be positive for A. cantonensis among the snails collected. Analysis of host distribution showed overlapping habitats of rats and snails as well as residential and agricultural areas indicating risks to public health. This study presents a possible route of human infection for A. cantonensis through handling and consumption of P. canaliculata and M. maculata or crops contaminated by these snails.

  15. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae

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    Burçin Gümüs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839 vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874 is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae, Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae, Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae, and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae. For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

  16. Ranking Population Structure and Sex Ratio of Pomacea canaficulata (Lamarck)in Different Control Approaches%不同控螺方式下稻田福寿螺种群的螺级结构及性比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦钟; 方丽; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to research population structure of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) and to provide a scientific basis not only for grasping the dynamics and developmental tendency of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck), but also for evaluating the performance of snail control measures. [Method] Twelve experimental plots for four treatments with three replicates were set in double cropping rice area of Guangdong province, each plot covered an area of 100 m2. Three control measures including raising ducks in the rice field, application of molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake, together with blank control plot were arranged randomly in the plots, in which information on ranking population structure of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) and sex ratio were collected and analyzed. [Result] Molluscicides application treatment was helpful for immature snails control but noneffective for mature ones. Camellia oleifera cake could be effectively used for control of immature snails, but not as effective as for medium and adult snails. Variation of population structure of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) over the time in both molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments exhibited greater instability when compared with the rice-duck integrated farming treatment and blank control plot, especially during the growth period of early rice. P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) in the rice-duck farming plot was comprised primarily of mature snails, making a descent style group from a whole during early rice-growing period. Sex ratio of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) under the same treatment changed over time, while differed considerably among four treatments at the same time. For molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments, sex ratios (female to male) of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) were relatively high, with greater fluctuations as time passed. [ Conclusion ] Rice-duck farming could provide a sustainable controlling on population of golden apple snails especially to the young and

  17. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n = 34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. [Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca) in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María José; Cuezzo, María Gabriela

    2010-09-01

    Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas) and dry forest (Chaco) areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2) were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens), was higher than other published studies.

  19. Contaminação por mercúrio em sedimento e em moluscos do Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brasil Mercury contamination in sediment and in molluscs of Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz M. Vieira

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The total level of mercury detected in the sediment and in the tissues of molluscs from the Bento Gomes basin, although low, have shown that the mercury used in the gold mining activities in the Poconé wetlands has contaminated those aquatic habitats in Pantanal. From 69 sediment samples analyzed, 26 % (N = 18 have shown levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.25µg.g-1 of mercury (moist weight. Mercury levels analyzed in 54 samples of mollusc tissues (Ampullaria scalaris Orbigny, 1835; A. canaliculata Lamarck, 1819 and Marisa planogyra Pilsbry, 1933 have shown that 30% (N = 16 were contaminated with levels ranging from 0.02 to 1.16µg.g-1 moist weight. This study shows that the mercury used in digs for gold mining and released into the environment has reached the habitats of Pantanal spread from the sediment into the molluscs living in the region.

  20. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.......Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African...... ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis...

  1. 广西农田福寿螺发生现状及防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建文; 王华生; 谢茂昌

    2006-01-01

    福寿螺(Pornacea canaliculata (Lamarck))在国内又称大瓶螺、苹果螺、雪螺,是一种水生螺类,喜食植物。在分类上属软体动物门(Mollusca)、腹足纲(Gastropoda)、中腹足目(Mesogasropoda)、瓶螺科(Pilidae),原产于南美洲亚马逊河流域,属于热带和亚热带物种。在当地的自然生态环境中,水稻不是主要农作物,由于气候和天敌的共同作用,福寿螺不至于大面积危害成灾。

  2. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  3. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  4. In What Form Does Global Capital Flow Leave Behind Memories? The Story of the Apple Snail Caught Between the Green Revolution and the Organic Food Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingling Wo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a study of Taiwan’s United News Daily archive and the shifting discourses of the Green Revolution and the organic food movement, the project analyzes the narrative frameworks produced on the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan. Apple snail has become invasive to many East Asian countries since the 1980s; it is considered among the world’s 100 most invasive species. During the era of the Green Revolution, the economy of killing the apple snail with pesticide was generated by a narrative of how greedy merchants imported invasive apple snail and led to the systematic disruption of Taiwan’s ecology. The paper explores how the organic food movement responded to and was shaped by such a narrative of innocence lost, and emphasizes the importance of going beyond the hyper-real narratives of irreparable ecological destructions by recognizing sites of memories left behind by global capital flow.

  5. Human angiostrongyliasis outbreak in Dali, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several angiostrongyliasis outbreaks have been reported in recent years but the disease continues to be neglected in public health circles. We describe an outbreak in Dali, southwest China in order to highlight some key problems for the control of this helminth infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All available medical records of suspected angiostrongyliasis patients visiting hospitals in Dali in the period 1 October 2007-31 March 2008 were reviewed, and tentative diagnoses of varying strengths were reached according to given sets of criteria. Snails collected from local markets, restaurants and natural habitats were also screened for the presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. A total of 33 patients met criteria for infection, and 11 among them were classified as clinically confirmed. An additional eight patients were identified through a surveillance system put in operation in response to the outbreak. The epidemic lasted for 8 months with its peak in February 2008. Of the 33 patients, 97.0% complained of severe headache. 84.8% patients had high eosinophil cell counts either in the peripheral blood or in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Three-quarters of the patients were treated with a combination of albendazole and corticosteroids, resulting in significantly improved overall conditions. Twenty-two patients reported the consumption of raw or undercooked snails prior to the onset of the symptoms, and approximately 1.0% of the Pomacea canaliculata snails on sale were found to be infected with A. cantonensis. The snails were also found in certain habitats around Dali but no parasites were detected in these populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The import and sale of infected P. canaliculata is the likely trigger for this angiostrongyliasis outbreak. Awareness of angiostrongyliasis must be raised, and standardized diagnosis and treatment are needed in order to provide clinicians with a guide to address this disease. Health education

  6. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DEL GENOMA MITOCONDRIAL EN GASTRÓPODOS Comparative Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genomes in Gastropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISES ARQUEZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un análisis comparativo de los genomas mitocondriales en gastrópodos. Se calculó la composición de nucleótidos y de aminoácidos de todas las secuencias y se hizo un análisis visual comparativo de los codones de inicio y de parada. La organización del genoma se comparó calculando el número de secuencias intergénicas, la ubicación de los genes y el número de reorganizaciones génicas (breakpoints en comparación con la secuencia que se presume ancestral para el grupo. Para calcular si existen variaciones en las tasas de evolución molecular en el grupo, estas últimas se calcularon utilizando el relative rate test. A pesar de las diferencias en el tamaño de los genomas, el número de aminoácidos es más conservado. La composicion nucleotídica y aminoacídica es similar entre los Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda y Neritimorpha en comparacion con Heterobranchia y Patellogastropoda. Los genomas mitocondriales para el grupo son muy compactos con pocas secuencias intergenicas, la unica excepción es el genoma de Patellogastropoda con 26.828 pb. Existe una alta variabilidad en cuanto a codones de inicio para los grupos Heterobranchia y Patellogastropoda y un aumento en el número de genes reorganizados con respecto a la secuencia de O. vulgaris también para estos dos grupos. En general, se rechaza la hipótesis de tasas de evolución molecular constante entre los grupos, excepto cuando se comparan los genomas de Caenogastropoda y Vetigastropoda.In this work we presented a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods. Nucleotide and amino acids composition was calculated and a comparative visual analysis of the start and termination codons was performed. The organization of the genome was compared calculating the number of intergenic sequences, the location of the genes and the number of reorganized genes (breakpoints in comparison with the sequence that is presumed to be ancestral for the

  7. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DEL GENOMA MITOCONDRIAL EN GASTRÓPODOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISES ARQUEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un análisis comparativo de los genomas mitocondriales en gastrópodos. Se calculó la composición de nucleótidos y de aminoácidos de todas las secuencias y se hizo un análisis visual comparativo de los codones de inicio y de parada. La organización del genoma se comparó calculando el número de secuencias intergé- nicas, la ubicación de los genes y el número de reorganizaciones génicas (breakpoints en comparación con la secuencia que se presume ancestral para el grupo. Para calcular si existen variaciones en las tasas de evolución molecular en el grupo, estas últimas se cal- cularon utilizando el relative rate test. A pesar de las diferencias en el tamaño de los genomas, el número de aminoácidos es más conservado. La composicion nucleotídica y aminoacídica es similar entre los Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda y Neritimorpha en comparacion con Heterobranchia y Patellogastropoda. Los genomas mitocondriales para el grupo son muy compactos con pocas secuencias intergenicas, la unica excepción es el genoma de Patellogastropoda con 26.828 pb. Existe una alta variabilidad en cuanto a codones de inicio para los grupos Heterobranchia y Patellogastropoda y un aumento en el número de genes reorganizados con respecto a la secuencia de O. vulgaris también para estos dos grupos. En general, se rechaza la hipótesis de tasas de evolución molecular constante entre los grupos, excepto cuando se comparan los genomas de Caenogastropoda y Vetigastropoda

  8. Lectin-like molecules in transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbushin, Alexander M; Borisova, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    The common periwinkle Littorina littorea was introduced in the list of models for comparative immunobiology as a representative of phylogenetically important taxon Caenogastropoda. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes from 182 million mRNA-Seq pair-end 100 bp reads into a total of 15,526 contigs clustered in 4472 unigenes. The transcriptome profile was analyzed for presence of carbohydrate-binding molecules in a variety of architectural contexts. Hemocytes' repertoire of lectin-like proteins bearing conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) is highly diversified, including 11 of 15 lectin families earlier described in animals, as well as the novel members of lectin family found for the first time in mollusc species. The new molluscan lineage-specific domain combinations were confirmed by cloning and sequencing, including the fuco-lectin related molecules (FLReMs) composed of N-terminal region with no sequence homology to any known protein, a middle Fucolectin Tachylectin-4 Pentaxrin (FTP) domain, and a C-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat region. The repertoire of lectin-like molecules is discussed in terms of their potential participation in the receptor phase of immune response. In total, immune-associated functions may be attributed to 70 transcripts belonging to 6 lectin families. These lectin-like genes show low overlap between species of invertebrates, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of immune-associated genes in the group. The repertoire provides valuable candidates for further characterization of the gene functions in mollusc immunity.

  9. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Sevigny

    , Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterobranchia were all monophyletic, and thus appear to be better classifications for this diverse group.

  10. Biomphalaria glabrata no Estado do Piauí Biomphalaria glabrata in the State of Piaui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available É registrado o primeiro encontro do molusco planorbideo Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni, no Estado do Piauí, coletado em vários criadouros na cidade de Parnaíba. O exame de 694 exemplares revelou a presença de formas evolutivas de algumas espécies de trematodeos, mas não de Schistosomatidea. Nenhum caso autoctone de xistosomose foi até agora identificado na população humana da cidade. A presença da B. glabrata em Parnaíba amplia em 20 km para leste a área de sua distribuição na Região Litoral Norte da Grande Região Nordeste do Brasil onde era conhecida até em Avaioses no extremo leste da parte maranhense da referida Região. Outros moluscos também coletados nos mesmos criadouros foram Biomphalaria straminea, Drepanotrema lucidum. D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Physidae e Ampullarriidae.The occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata is recorded for the first time in the state of Piauí, where it was collected from several breeding places in the city of Parnaíba. Examination of 694 specimens showed that a part of them were infected with trematodes other than Schistosomatidae. So far no autochthonous cases of schistosomiasis have been identified in the city. The presence of B. glabrata in Parnaíba extends by 20 Km eastward its range on the Northern Coastal region of the Great Northeastern region of Brazil, where it had been found as far as Araioses, on the eastern extreme of the state of Maranhão. Other snail species collected from the same breeding places were Biomphalaria straminea, Drepanotrema lucidum, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Physidae and Ampullariidae.

  11. Epidemiological situation and molecular identification of cercarial stage in freshwater snails in Chao-Phraya Basin, Central Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sothorn Anucherngchai; Thanawan Tejangkura; Thapana Chontananarth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of cercarial trematode infection in snails and to examine the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationship to explain the molecular system of cercarial stage trematodes to estimate the infection rate of in the definite host from the Chao-Phraya Basin.Methods: The snails were collected from 10 provinces of the Chao-Phraya Basin,Thailand by stratified sampling method. The snails were examined for cercarial infection by the crushing method. All DNA specimens were amplified with internal transcribed spacer 3(ITS3) and ITS4 primer based on PCR technique. The sequence data were aligned and used to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree by unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means with 10 000 bootstraps.Results: The overall rate of cercarial infection was found to be 5.90%(122/2 067). Snails in the family Thiaridae were found to be in the highest prevalence followed by Lymnaeidae, Bithyniidae, Planorbidae, Viviparidae, and Ampullariidae, respectively, while the Buccinidae family(Clea helena) did not reveal any infections. The frequently found species of cercariae were parapleurolophocercous cercariae, cercariae and megarulous cercariae. The monophyletic tree separated the snails into five groups comprised of Heterophyidae, Strigeidae, Lecithodendriidae, Philophthalmidae and Echinostomatidae using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group.Conclusions: This study was the first to report on cercarial infection in the Chao-Phraya Basin, Thailand. This revealed that a high variety of freshwater snails were infected by cercariae stage trematodes with a high prevalence. The sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of trematodes at the family level and in each clade of different families separated by the definitive hosts.

  12. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina Relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados y peces en un arroyo de la llanura pampeana (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.Se evaluó la dieta y las relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 y Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae y los peces Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae y Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae en un ecosistema lótico pampásico, sobre la base del contenido estomacal y el análisis de isótopos estables. La estrategia alimentaria fue analizada mediante el método de AMUNDSEN. La contribución relativa de cada categoría alimenticia para los taxa estudiados indicó que

  13. A catalogue of Danian gastropods from the Baunekule facies, Faxe Formation, Denmark

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    Lauridsen, B.W.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This catalogue of 194 gastropod taxa is based on the collection of Danian gastropods from the Baunekule facies, Faxe Formation in eastern Denmark. The gastropod fauna is extremely rich and well preserved. Most of the gastropods (106 species are referred to genus level only, 9 morphotypes to even higher taxonomical levels and 79 gastropods are referred to species level. The gastropods are classified following Bouchet & Rocroi (2005 as 4 different clades: Vetigastropoda (represented by 26 species and 10 superfamilies, Caenogastropoda (represented by 142 species and 17 superfamilies, Heterobranchia (represented by 23 species and 5 superfamilies and Opisthobranchia (represented by 1 species and 1 superfamily. The new species Zaclys? nuetzeli n. sp. is introduced. The Faxe Formation is recognised as a cold-water coral ecosystem with interfingering smaller bryozoan mounds. The Baunekule facies is found in the upper part of the coral mound complex of the Faxe Formation, where it forms isolated lensoidal bodies in the flanks of some of the coral mounds. It is characterised by a high diversity invertebrate fauna that occurs in weakly consolidated coraldominated floatstone to rudstone. The diagenesis of the Baunekule facies is of special significance because a high proportion of the originally aragonite-shelled fauna is preserved by recrystallization to calcite during early burial diagenesis. Most of the gastropods are not known from other parts of the Faxe Fm. The fauna is very important for comparative evolutionary studies of fossil and modern gastropods on cold-water coral mounds. Many of the genera have not previously been recorded from Danian strata. None of the gastropod species found in the Baunekule facies are known for certain to range below the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. The fauna is comparable to gastropods found on modern cold-water coral mounds in the North Atlantic. The gastropod fauna from the Baunekule facies is characterised by a

  14. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio.

  15. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  16. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

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    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  17. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  18. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-07-23

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.

  19. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

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    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  20. De novo assembly of the transcriptome of an invasive snail and its multiple ecological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Wang, M; Wang, H; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Thiyagarajan, V; Qian, P Y; Qiu, J W

    2012-11-01

    Studying how invasive species respond to environmental stress at the molecular level can help us assess their impact and predict their range expansion. Development of markers of genetic polymorphism can help us reconstruct their invasive route. However, to conduct such studies requires the presence of substantial amount of genomic resources. This study aimed to generate and characterize genomic resources using high throughput transcriptome sequencing for Pomacea canaliculata, a nonmodel gastropod indigenous to Argentina that has invaded Asia, Hawaii and southern United States. De novo assembly of the transcriptome resulted in 128,436 unigenes with an average length of 419 bp (range: 150-8556 bp). Many of the unigenes (2439) contained transposable elements, showing the existence of a source of genetic variability in response to stressful conditions. A total of 3196 microsatellites were detected in the transcriptome; among 20 of the randomly tested microsatellites, 10 were validated to exhibit polymorphism. A total of 15,412 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the ORFs. LC-MS/MS analysis of the proteome of juveniles revealed 878 proteins, of which many are stress related. This study has demonstrated the great potential of high throughput DNA sequencing for rapid development of genomic resources for a nonmodel organism. Such resources can facilitate various molecular ecological studies, such as stress physiology and range expansion.

  1. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

  2. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  3. Diquat associated with copper sources for algae control: Efficacy and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Nathalia; Da Cruz, Claudinei; Da Silva, Adilson F; Carraschi, Silvia P; Malaspina, Igor C; Pitelli, Robinson A; Bianco, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of copper oxychloride (CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) and diquat (1.1'-ethylene-2.2'-bipyridyldiylium dibromide), isolated and in association with 0.1% of both copper sources, in the control of the unicellular algae Ankistrodesmus gracilis and the filamentous algae Pithophora kewesis, and to determine the acute toxicity of the tested chemicals in Hyphressobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata, Lemna minor and Azolla caroliniana. The efficacy was estimated by the methods of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a readings, changed into growth inhibition percentage. Both algae were exposed to the following concentrations: 0.2; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2 mg L(-1) of diquat and its association with the copper sources; and 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) in the isolated applications of copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride. An untreated control was kept. The acute toxicity was estimatedby 50% lethal concentration (LC50). The copper sources were effective for A. gracilis control, at rates as high as 0.1 mg L(-1) (>95% efficacy). Isolated diquat and its association with copper hydroxide were both effective at rates as high as 0.4 mg L(-1), with 95 and 88% control efficacy, respectively. The copper oxychloride was effective at 0.2 mg L(-1), with 93% efficacy. None of the tested chemicals and associations was effective on P. kewesis control. The most sensitive non target organism to the tested chemicals was L. minor; the less sensitive was H. eques.

  4. Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, I I; Martín, S M; Rumi, A; Tassara, M

    2012-02-01

    The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28%) and P. buschii (9.50%) showed the highest relative

  5. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  6. Astronomical relevance of materials from Earth and space: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Kani Mustafa

    The present study used scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-Visible and fluorescence) to examine terrestrial materials of possible astronomical significance (Oedogonium sp., Enteromopha intestinalis, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus vesiculosus, Bacillus cereus, Staphyllococcus aureus, poppy seed, chlorophylls 'a' and 'b', Panicum maximum, anthracite, bituminous coal, naphthalene), the Tagish lake and Carancas meteorites, a Kerala red rain sample and stratospheric air particles collected at altitudes of 38-41 km. The study was designed to determine if any of the terrestrial samples could be proposed as an effective model for the interpretation of astronomical spectroscopic observations. The study also set out to search for evidence to shed light on the origin of these meteorites, red rain and stratospheric air particles. The spectra of all the terrestrial samples (including the meteorites) exhibited absorptions in the Mid-IR region, similar to astronomical features displayed by a variety of galactic sources. Algae (Odeogonium sp.) in particular produced the largest number of absorption peaks, most of which matched those of the astronomical emission spectra of PPNe and also the UIBs. Based on these observations, algae could be defended as a biological model for the interpretation of UIBs and PPNe, and a potential candidate for interstellar material. Coal and semi anthracite, that can be regarded as steps in the degradation of biomaterial, preserve the UIB-PPNe spectral features to varying degrees. The results are consistent with the panspermia theory of Hoyle and Wickramasinghe. UV-Visible studies were also conducted on all these materials. The main absorption feature was one close to 217.5 nm (2175 A). The normalized (averaged) spectrum of the whole sequence of biological materials and their degradation products absorption feature at 217.5 nm (2175 A) further support the contention that

  7. Physiology of the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata: tolerance to low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Lewis E.; Schmidt, William; Leblanc, Brody; Carter, Jacoby; Mueck, Kristy; Merino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Apple snails of the genus Pomacea native to South America have invaded and become established in Europe, Asia, and the United States. Both the channeled apple snail Pomacea canaliculata and the island apple snail Pomacea maculata have been reported in the United States. The two species are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, leading to uncertainty about the identity of the animals from populations in the United States. Because the snails are subtropical, their tolerance of low temperatures is a critical factor in limiting the spread of the animals from present localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to more northern areas. The tolerance of P. maculata collected in Louisiana to temperatures as low as 0°C was examined. There was no mortality among animals maintained in water at temperatures of 20°C or 15°C for 10 days. Survival of animals during a 10-day exposure to water at temperatures 10°C and 5°C was 50%. The LD50 for a 10-day exposure was 7°C. Snails did not survive more than 5 days in liquid water at 0°C. Ammonia excretion by animals in temperatures of 20°C and 15°C was comparable to values reported for freshwater gastropods; at very low temperatures, excretion of ammonia was decreased. There was no difference in the mean values of the osmolality of the hemolymph of animals exposed to 20°C, 15°C and 10°C for 10 days. Sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 identified the animals in the Louisiana population used in this study as P. maculata.

  8. Estructura y neotectónica de Las Lomas de Olmedo, zona de transición entre los Sistemas Subandino y de Santa Bárbara, provincia de Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra las evidencias de deformación neotectónica en la región del noroeste argentino de lomas de Olmedo, provincia de Salta. Esta región ubicada en el frente orogénico a los 24°S de latitud comprende la zona de transición entre las Sierras Subandinas al norte, de tipo epidérmico con vergencia al este, o Sistema Subandino sensu stricto, y un segmento austral correspondiente al Sistema de Santa Bárbara producido por inversión tectónica de fallas normales con vergencia al oeste. Entre estos dos segmentos con diferente comportamiento se ubican las lomas de Olmedo, que muestran un complejo diseño de fallas activas. Depósitos de edad paleógena que constituyen las facies de hundimiento térmico de las fases finales del rift del Grupo Salta y los depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos de la cuenca de antepaís subandina, se hallan plegados y corridos sobre depósitos cuaternarios en el anticlinal de lomas de Olmedo. Los sedimentos terciarios están corridos sobre los depósitos lacustres de la Formación El Chorro de edad cuaternaria. Las edades 14C en conchillas de gasterópodos de esta unidad pertenecientes a Pomacea canaliculata arrojaron una edad de 7.962 ± 45 BP años para estos depósitos. Las fallas inversas con vergencia al este indican para la mayor parte del Holoceno una tasa de acortamiento orogénico de 2,34 mm/a para el frente tectónico en la zona de transición entre los dos sistemas de la faja plegada y corrida subandina.

  9. Local adaptation along a continuous coastline: prey recruitment drives differentiation in a predatory snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Eric; Worth, David J

    2010-03-01

    Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, coastal topography, and other stable features of the coastline. Whereas the ecological effects of these oceanographic links are increasingly clear, the possibility that these same bottom-up forces might impose spatially varying selection on consumers has not been addressed. Here, we test the hypothesis that a carnivorous snail (Nucella canaliculata) with direct development is locally adapted to persistent differences in prey recruitment within two adjacent oceanographic regions (northern California and Oregon, USA). Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that snails from Oregon rarely drilled the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus californianus, whereas snails from California readily drilled this prey. To test whether these differences reflect local adaptation, snails from two populations in each region were raised through two laboratory generations to minimize the potential influence of nongenetic effects. We then reciprocally outplanted these F2 generation snails to field enclosures at each of the four sites and monitored their growth for 11 months. Recruitment and availability of preferred prey (the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula and blue mussel Mytilus trossulus) at the experimental sites were 1-3 orders of magnitude lower in California than in Oregon. At the California sites, snails that originated from Oregon sources failed to drill larger M. californianus, encountered few alternative prey, and showed almost no growth. In contrast, snails from California drilled M. californianus and showed substantial growth. These results strongly suggest that the capacity of California snails to drill M. californianus allows

  10. In Vivo Effects of Free Form Astaxanthin Powder on Anti-Oxidation and Lipid Metabolism with High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chi; Wu, Yi-Long; Liu, Li-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin extracted from Pomacea canaliculata eggs was made into free-form astaxanthin powder (FFAP) and its effects on lipid metabolism, liver function, antioxidants activities and astaxanthin absorption rate were investigated. 45 hamsters were split into 5 groups and fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol control (0.2% cholesterol), 1.6FFAP (control+1.6% FFAP), 3.2FFAP (control+3.2% FFAP) and 8.0FFAP (control+8.0% FFAP), respectively, for 6 weeks. FFAP diets significantly decreased the liver total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and increased liver fatty acids (C20:5n3; C22:6n3) compositions. It decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In terms of anti-oxidative activities, we found 8.0 FFAP diet significantly decreased plasma and liver malonaldehyde (4.96±1.96 μg TEP eq./mL and 1.56±0.38 μg TEP eq./g liver) and liver 8-isoprostane levels (41.48±13.69 μg 8-ISOP/g liver). On the other hand, it significantly increased liver catalase activity (149.10±10.76 μmol/min/g liver), Vitamin C (2082.97±142.23 μg/g liver), Vitamin E (411.32±81.67 μg/g liver) contents, and glutathione levels (2.13±0.42 mg GSH eq./g liver). Furthermore, 80% of astaxanthin absorption rates in all FFAP diet groups suggest FFAP is an effective form in astaxanthin absorption. Finally, astaxanthin was found to re-distribute to the liver and eyes in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggested that the appropriate addition of FFAP into high cholesterol diets increases liver anti-oxidative activity and reduces the concentration of lipid peroxidase and therefore, it may be beneficial as a material in developing healthy food.

  11. In Vivo Effects of Free Form Astaxanthin Powder on Anti-Oxidation and Lipid Metabolism with High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin extracted from Pomacea canaliculata eggs was made into free-form astaxanthin powder (FFAP and its effects on lipid metabolism, liver function, antioxidants activities and astaxanthin absorption rate were investigated. 45 hamsters were split into 5 groups and fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol control (0.2% cholesterol, 1.6FFAP (control+1.6% FFAP, 3.2FFAP (control+3.2% FFAP and 8.0FFAP (control+8.0% FFAP, respectively, for 6 weeks. FFAP diets significantly decreased the liver total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and increased liver fatty acids (C20:5n3; C22:6n3 compositions. It decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In terms of anti-oxidative activities, we found 8.0 FFAP diet significantly decreased plasma and liver malonaldehyde (4.96±1.96 μg TEP eq./mL and 1.56±0.38 μg TEP eq./g liver and liver 8-isoprostane levels (41.48±13.69 μg 8-ISOP/g liver. On the other hand, it significantly increased liver catalase activity (149.10±10.76 μmol/min/g liver, Vitamin C (2082.97±142.23 μg/g liver, Vitamin E (411.32±81.67 μg/g liver contents, and glutathione levels (2.13±0.42 mg GSH eq./g liver. Furthermore, 80% of astaxanthin absorption rates in all FFAP diet groups suggest FFAP is an effective form in astaxanthin absorption. Finally, astaxanthin was found to re-distribute to the liver and eyes in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggested that the appropriate addition of FFAP into high cholesterol diets increases liver anti-oxidative activity and reduces the concentration of lipid peroxidase and therefore, it may be beneficial as a material in developing healthy food.

  12. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    is advisable. Vaccination is recommended annually and should be carried out regularly . In these days, the farmers concern about the availability of the grass in the Danau Panggang area . The primary feed grass (Oryza sativa forma spontanea L, of the swamp buffalo were not sufficient in the low-tide season. The over population of Pamocea canaliculata (golden snail, a pest for lake vegetations, was thought to be responsible for this phenomena . Growing forages as the source of animal feed may be an option to improve the current performance of the swamp buffalo in the area.

  13. Four alien medical mollusk found in Dapeng Peninsula,Shenzhen City%深圳大鹏半岛4种入侵医学贝类的发现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹世奎; 庄馨; 胡观冠

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the alien snails in Dapeng Peninsula Shenzhen City. Methods The survey on the snail diversity in Dapeng Peninsula was carried out from August 2012 to Jan 2013 and the species of the alien snails were iden⁃tified according to the shell morphology. Results Four species of alien snails including Achatina fulica Pomacea canalicula⁃ta Physa acuta and Biomphalaria straminea were found in Dapeng Peninsula P. acuta was found in all of the collected sites A. fulica and P. canaliculata were distributed in five regions except Yangmeikeng area and B. straminea was just found in Dapeng Town. Conclusion Four species of important alien snails invade widely in Dapeng Peninsula Shenzhen City. As their potential risk to the disease transmission and agriculture production the relative departments should strengthen the control and prevention.%目的:了解深圳大鹏半岛入侵螺类物种。方法于2012年8月至2013年1月对深圳大鹏半岛进行软体动物资源调查,通过贝壳形态学观察等鉴定入侵螺种。结果大鹏半岛境内发现4种入侵螺类,均为医学贝类,分别为褐云玛瑙螺(Achatina fulica)、小管福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)、尖膀胱螺(Physa acuta)和藁杆双脐螺(Biomphalaria stra⁃minea)。其中尖膀胱螺在全部采集地点均有发现,褐云玛瑙螺和小管福寿螺在除杨梅坑外的调查点均有分布,藁杆双脐螺仅分布于大鹏镇。结论4种重要外来螺类在深圳大鹏半岛广泛入侵,鉴于其在疾病传播和农业生产上具有的潜在危害,需加强预防控制。

  14. Species composition and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City%上海市医学贝类物种组成及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云海; 吕山; 顾文彪; 刘和香; 吴缨; 张仪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species diversity and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City. Methods From August 2012 to October 2013,all kinds of habitats in 8 districts and counties in Shanghai City,namely Jiading,Qingpu, Baoshan,Minhang,Songjiang,Jinshan,Chongming,Pudong,were selected for the field survey according to the distribution characteristics of the river system,and all the specimens of medical mollusca in the investigation sites were collected and classi⁃fied by morphological identification. Meanwhile,the species composition,habitats as well as the fauna of the medical mollusca collected were analyzed. Results A total of 5 211 specimens were collected,which belonged to 2 classes,14 families,18 gen⁃era and 25 species,including Oncomelania hupensis hupensis,Pomacea canaliculata,Parafossarulus striatulus,Alocinma longicornis,Physa acuta,Galba pervia,Hippeutis cantori,etc. The species numbers of medical mollusca in Chongming,Jin⁃shan,Pudong new area and Qingpu districts(counties)were 22,22,21 and 20,respectively,which were more than those of other areas. The habitat analysis suggested that the species numbers in the river and wetland were the most,both of which were 14 species. The main faunas of the medical mollusca in Shanghai were the cosmopolitan and oriental species. Conclusions The freshwater gastropod species are paucity in Shanghai City,but almost of them can be served as the intermediate hosts of certain parasites to transmit snail⁃related parasitic diseases,so the surveillance of medical mollusca should be strengthened.%目的:调查上海市医学贝类物种多样性及其分布。方法于2012年8月至2013年10月,根据水系分布特点,对上海市嘉定、青浦、宝山、闵行、松江、金山、崇明岛和浦东新区等8个区(县)各类生境进行现场抽样调查,采集医学贝类标本。所获标本经形态学鉴定分类,并对物种组成、生境及区系分布等进行