WorldWideScience

Sample records for canaliculata caenogastropoda ampullariidae

  1. Immune Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae: Phagocytic Hemocytes in the Circulation and the Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Cueto

    Full Text Available Hemocytes in the circulation and kidney islets, as well as their phagocytic responses to microorganisms and fluorescent beads, have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, using flow cytometry, light microscopy (including confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Three circulating hemocyte types (hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes were distinguished by phase contrast microscopy of living cells and after light and electron microscopy of fixed material. Also, three different populations of circulating hemocytes were separated by flow cytometry, which corresponded to the three hemocyte types. Hyalinocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and no apparent granules in stained material, but showed granules of moderate electron density under TEM (L granules and at least some L granules appear acidic when labeled with LysoTracker Red. Both phagocytic and non-phagocytic hyalinocytes lose most (if not all L granules when exposed to microorganisms in vitro. The phagosomes formed differed whether hyalinocytes were exposed to yeasts or to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria. Agranulocytes showed a large nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few or no granules. Granulocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and numerous eosinophilic granules after staining. These granules are electron dense and rod-shaped under TEM (R granules. Granulocytes may show merging of R granules into gigantic ones, particularly when exposed to microorganisms. Fluorescent bead exposure of sorted hemocytes showed phagocytic activity in hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes, but the phagocytic index was significantly higher in hyalinocytes. Extensive hemocyte aggregates ('islets' occupy most renal hemocoelic spaces and hyalinocyte-like cells are the most frequent component in them. Presumptive glycogen deposits were observed in most hyalinocytes in renal islets (they also occur in the circulation but less frequently and may mean that

  2. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried

  3. First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

  4. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  5. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Yen-Tzu Fan; Tzu-Ting Wang

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feedin...

  6. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  7. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  8. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. W. Yam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  9. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-02-24

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  10. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  11. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

  13. Pengendalian Hama Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) Dengan Ekstrak Biji Pinang Pada Tanaman Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Yunidawati, Wiwik

    2012-01-01

    Wiwik Yunidawati, 2012. Pest Control of Golden Snails (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) by Areca Extract On Rice Plants. Application of Areca extract can be used to control Golden snail in rice planting. The purpose of this research is to obtain the suitable concentration of Areca extracts to control Golden snail. The research was conducted on December 2010 to April 2011 at the screen house of Observation Laboratory of Plant Disease and Biological Agents and “Balai Benih Induk Murni” Deli Se...

  14. Histopathological changes in snail, Pomacea canaliculata, exposed to sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummee, Vipawee; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Damrongphol, Praneet; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity test of Cu including range-finding and definitive test, was performed on golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu at exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 330, 223, 177 and 146 µg/L, respectively. P. canaliculata were exposed to Cu at 146 µg/L for 96 h to study bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in various organs. Snails accumulated elevated levels of Cu in gill, and lesser amounts in the digestive tract, muscle, and digestive gland. Histopathological investigation revealed several alterations in the epithelia of gill, digestive tract (esophagus, intestine, rectum), and digestive gland. The most striking changes were observed in the epithelium of the gill in which there was loss of cilia, an increase in number of mucus cells, and degeneration of columnar cells. Similar changes occurred in digestive tract epithelium. The digestive gland showed moderate alterations, vacuolization and degeneration of cells and an increase in the number of basophilic cells. We concluded that, P. canaliculata has a great potential as a bioindicator for Cu, and a biomarker for monitoring Cu contamination in aquatic environment.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Pomacea canaliculata isolates collected from rice fields in different origins of China by combined mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    To study the genetic relationships of Pomacea canaliculata collected from rice fields in China, the mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S of 9 P. canaliculata isolates from 5 southern provinces in China were sequenced and analyzed. The intra-specific sequence variations of P. canaliculata were 0-1.1% for 12S and 0--0.6% for 16S, while the inter-specific variations among common Pomacea species in mt 12S and 16S were 3.0-11.7% and 2.3-10.1%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S revealed complex genetic structure of P. canaliculata in China. Two phylogenetic groups of P. canaliculata were indicated in China with one group sistered to P. canaliculata isolates from USA, and two groups were even found in the same province. The phylogenetic relationships of Pomacea spp. also could be effectively inferred by combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S. These findings provided basic information for further study of population genetics and diffusion pattern of P. canaliculata in China as well as in the world.

  16. Biological Control of Yellow Nutsedge with the Indigenous Rust Fungus Puccinia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, S C; Sumner, D R; Wells, H D; Bell, D K; Glaze, N C

    1983-03-25

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a serious weed problem in the United States and other countries. An indigenous rust fungus [Puccinia canaliculata (Schw.) Lagerh.], pathogenic on yellow nutsedge, was released in early spring as a potential biological control agent. The fungus inhibited nutsedge flowering and new tuber formation. The fungus also dehydrated and killed nutsedge plants. The successful control of yellow nutsedge by a rust epiphytotic under experimental conditions demonstrates the potential use of the rust in an integrated weed management system. PMID:17735196

  17. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  18. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo MingMing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3. However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1 in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

  19. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  20. Lethal and non-lethal effects of multiple indigenous predators on the invasive golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Nils; Kestrup, A; Mårtensson, M.; Nyström, Per

    2004-01-01

    1. We investigated the individual and combined effects of two predators (the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, and the wetland crab, Esanthelphusa nimoafi) indigenous to wetlands in Laos, on the behaviour and survival of the invasive South American golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). The snail is considered a pest, consuming large amounts of rice and other aquatic vegetation in the region. 2. Snail avoidance reactions to released predator chemical cues were investigated in aquaria wh...

  1. Queue up, please! Spermathecal filling in the rove beetle Drusilla canaliculata (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Gack, Claudia; Speck, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Most studies on insect sperm motility have been conducted in vitro using artificial environments outside the animal’s body. Only little is known about the function of motile insect sperm at different sites within the male or female genital tracts. We dissected genital tracts of female rove beetles ( Drusilla canaliculata) to show that spermatozoa use their own motility to migrate from the spermatophore into the spermatheca. Our dissection method allowed direct observation and filming of the spermathecal filling process inside the female’s genital tract. Spermatozoa were found to enter the spermatheca individually, sometimes in groups of two or three. Although exhibiting only weak motility and no progressive motion in buffer solution, the spermatozoa inside the female show vigorous lashing and reach an average velocity of 47.5 μm s-1. To gain mobility and speed, the spermatozoa likely utilize the relatively small diameter of the spermathecal duct to push themselves off the duct walls, rather than swimming freely in seminal fluid. The spermatozoa (approximately 1,250 μm) are considerably longer than the distance they have to travel along the spermathecal duct (approximately 800 μm). Our study provides the first direct observation of active sperm migration within the female of an insect stressing the importance of the genital tract as a prerequisite for functional sperm motility.

  2. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  3. Development and characterization of 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the faucet snail, Bithynia tentaculata (Gastroposa: Caenogastropoda; Bithyniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Justin P.; Lance, Stacey L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Hagen, Chris; Laurila, Joshua; Cole, Rebecca A.; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), a snail native to Europe, was introduced into the US Great Lakes in the 1870's and has spread to rivers throughout the Northeastern US and Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Trematode parasites, for which B. tentaculata is a host, have also been introduced and are causing widespread waterfowl mortality in the UMR. Waterfowl mortality is caused by ingestion of trematode-infected B. tentaculata or insects infected with parasites released from the snails. We isolated and characterized 17 microsatellite loci from the invasive faucet snail, B. tentaculata (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Bithyniidae). Loci were screened in 24 individuals of B. tentaculata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 6, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.050 to 0.783, and the probability of identity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.91. These new loci provide tools for examining the origin and spread of invasive populations in the US and management activities to prevent waterfowl mortality.

  4. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-01

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

  5. Characteristics of Feeding Preference and Nutrients Utilization of Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata on Macrophytes in Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benliang Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Golden apple snail was a harmful invasive gastropod in Asian wetlands. In order to clarify the effect of Pomacea canaliculata on macrophytes in paddy fields, feeding preference and nutrients utilization of snail were studied. Feeding preference of snail was Alternanthera philoxenoides>Monochoria vaginalis>Oryza sativa L. Snail showed a higher approximate digestion coefficient on Oryza sativa L. than that on Monochoria vaginalis. Nitrogen utilization coefficient of snail on Alternanthera philoxenoides was significantly higher than that on Oryza sativa L. Snail exhibited a higher calcium utilization coefficient on Alternanthera philoxenoides and Monochoria vaginalis than that on Oryza sativa L. Oryza sativa L. was not preferred among three plants under the same available and exposure condition.

  6. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    OpenAIRE

    Shengzhang Dong; Guowan Zheng; Xiaoping Yu; Changhuan Fu

    2012-01-01

    The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field condi...

  7. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jabang; Wilson Novarino; Aadrean

    2011-01-01

    A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characterist...

  8. Relative warp and correlation analysis based on distances of the morphological shell shape patterns of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck from Japan and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Stephen O. Moneva; Mark Anthony J. Torres; Takashi Wada; Ravindra Joshi; Cesar G. Demayo

    2012-01-01

    The Golden Apple Snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is considered one of the serious agricultural pests of rice in Asia. Itis being argued that rapid invasion of this species in many variable habitats suggests genetic variability and differentiation which could be expressedat the level of the phenotype. It is therefore the major objective of the study to explore possible phenotypic differentiation in the organismespecially in the shape of the shell using geometric morphometric (GM) ana...

  9. Relative warp and correlation analysis based on distances of the morphological shell shape patterns of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck from Japan and the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Stephen O. Moneva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden Apple Snail (GAS, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is considered one of the serious agricultural pests of rice in Asia. Itis being argued that rapid invasion of this species in many variable habitats suggests genetic variability and differentiation which could be expressedat the level of the phenotype. It is therefore the major objective of the study to explore possible phenotypic differentiation in the organismespecially in the shape of the shell using geometric morphometric (GM analysis. Specifically, this study aimed to determine conchologicalvariation in populations of GAS in the Philippines and Japan. Three aspects of the shell shape were studied, which includes the ventral/aperture,dorsal and the top/whorl portion of the shell using correlation analysis based on distances (CORIANDIS. CORIANDIS was used in order tovisualize congruence of multivariate traits among P. canaliculata populations. The results showed that P. canaliculata shell varies in shape andvariability may signify distinctive genotypes or adaptation to varying environments exhibited by Japan and the Philippines.

  10. Comparison on main morphologic characters for different varieties of Pomacea canaliculata in China%中国不同品系福寿螺主要形态比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志坚; 曾清香; 张波; 彭东觉; 曲振宇; 杨潇; 詹希美; 吴瑜

    2011-01-01

    目的 描述我国广州地区福寿螺的形态差异,期望为广州管圆线虫病防治的研究及福寿螺蔓延控制的研究提供证据.方法 对广州地区黑色福寿螺、黄色福寿螺、灰色福寿螺的螺壳、软体部、呼吸管、足、齿舌进行观察,描述三类福寿螺的形态学差异.结果 对三类福寿螺的足及呼吸管进行HE染色分析,显示软体部颜色不同的原因主要是黑色颗粒的有无和沉积数量的多少.对福寿螺齿舌的观察显示,灰色福寿螺第一、第二突起与中央齿宽的比值明显大于黑色福寿螺和黄色福寿螺;在扫描电镜下,三类福寿螺的齿舌未见明显不同.结论 我国广州地区的福寿螺存在三种变异.%Based on the characteristics of Pomacea canaliculata's external shell and its soft part, they were divided into 3 types: black P. canaliculata, yellow P. canaliculata, and grey P. canaliculata. HE staining of their breathing tubes and feet proved that the different colors of the soft parts mainly resulted from the existence of melanin granules and the number of deposition. During the observation of the radula of P. canaliculata, the ratios of the first and second cusp to the centre radula of grey P. canaliculata largely exceeded that of the black and grey P. canaliculata. The differences of the three types were difficult to judge under scanning electron microscope. It's suggested that the analysis of the above differences of P. canaliculata would provide evidence in the researches about the treatment of angiostrongyliasis and the control of spread of P. canaliculata.

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) egg on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Liu-Lan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Shi-Yong; Du, Zong-Jun; Zhang, Jia-En

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. A total of 90 fish were divided into three treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Blood parrot were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 5 % (EP 5 %), and 15 % (EP 15 %) dry powder of golden apple snail egg for 60 days, and nine fish per group were sampled at 20, 40, and 60 days. No differences in survival of the fish among treatments were found throughout the experiment. The body coloration of Blood parrot was enhanced in the skin and caudal fin with increasing content of golden apple snail egg powder in the diet. At the end of the experiment, the carotenoid content in the caudal fin and the number of scale chromatophores of the fish fed dietary with EP were higher (P  0.05) in CAT activities. Results demonstrated that golden apple snail eggs can be used as a colorant to promote the pigmentation efficacy of Blood parrot. PMID:27652129

  12. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Udomkan; S. Meejoo; P. Limsuwan; P. Winotai; Y. Chaimanee

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received.The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 ℃ resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite → calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

  13. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characteristics of the shell remains and spraints are described.

  14. 莲田福寿螺发生规律及防控措施%Occurrence and control measures of Pomacea canaliculata in lotus seed fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江福祥; 陈传聪

    2011-01-01

    介绍了建宁县莲田福寿螺的形态特征及发生规律,通过实践探索防治方法,提出应以农业防治、物理防治为主,化学防治为辅的综合防治措施。%This paper introduced morphological characteristics and occurrence regularity of Pomacea canaliculata in lotus seed fields.Based on the practice of cultivation and management,integrated controlling measures that relied mainly on agronomic and physical control while chemical methods subsidiary,were put forward.

  15. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Perri Venturini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  16. Application of the Nernst-Planck approach to lead ion exchange in Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana F de Sá S; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; da Silva, Eduardo A B; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-07-01

    Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata biomass was used to remove Pb(2+) in aqueous solution from batch and continuous systems. The physicochemical characterization of algae Pelvetia particles by potentiometric titration and FTIR analysis has shown a gel structure with two major binding groups - carboxylic (2.8 mmol g(-1)) and hydroxyl (0.8 mmol g(-1)), with an affinity constant distribution for hydrogen ions well described by a Quasi-Gaussian distribution. Equilibrium adsorption (pH 3 and 5) and desorption (eluents: HNO(3) and CaCl(2)) experiments were performed, showing that the biosorption mechanism was attributed to ion exchange among calcium, lead and hydrogen ions with stoichiometry 1:1 (Ca:Pb) and 1:2 (Ca:H and Pb:H). The uptake capacity of lead ions decreased with pH, suggesting that there is a competition between H(+) and Pb(2+) for the same binding sites. A mass action law for the ternary mixture was able to predict the equilibrium data, with the selectivity constants alpha(Ca)(H)=9+/-1 and alpha(Ca)(Pb)=44+/-5, revealing a higher affinity of the biomass towards lead ions. Adsorption (initial solution pH 4.5 and 2.5) and desorption (0.3M HNO(3)) kinetics were performed in batch and continuous systems. A mass transfer model using the Nernst-Planck approximation for the ionic flux of each counter-ion was used for the prediction of the ions profiles in batch systems and packed bed columns. The intraparticle effective diffusion constants were determined as 3.73x10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for H(+), 7.56x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Pb(2+) and 6.37x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Ca(2+). PMID:20605620

  17. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  18. New approaches to the management of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck): An invasive alien pest species of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Golden apple snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) is native to South America. It was introduced to farmers in the Philippines in the 1980s from Argentina via Taiwan, and to other countries in Asia to increase their income and to enrich the protein intake in their diet, and also as an aquarium pet. The Global Invasive Species (IAS) FAO report that it causes 1.2 billion USD losses to aquatic crops particularly rice, taro and morning glory in Asian countries and the USA. Aside from being a serious agricultural pest, it is also an environmental pest. In an attempt to control GAS resource-poor-farmers resort to 'shot-gun approach' of using toxic and non specific agrochemicals thereby aggravating ecosystem pollution, risking their health and causing loss of aquatic biodiversity. GAS is expanding its distribution westwards in Asia and poses new threats of its invasion in Australia, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. At the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), my team focuses on two approaches. First we have to understand the field ecology of the GAS and identify weak-links in their life cycle. Then we use this basic information to manage GAS at the village level within the community in an ecologically sustainable socially acceptable and economically viable ways. I shall discuss how this LAS in transplanted lowland irrigated rice ecologies can be managed using locally available attractants during the vulnerable stage(s) of rice crop growth. New approaches will highlight the innovative and applied techniques on how to prevent the rampant abuse/misuse of agrochemicals, as well as GAS utilisation in weed management in rice fields and as aqua feed. In future, it is necessary to develop collaborative exploratory research with the IAEA and the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to develop an effective area-wide management of GAS in direct-seeded rice systems that will capitalise on an integrated approach and environment-friendly technologies

  19. Acute toxic effect of calcium cyanamide on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).%石灰氮对福寿螺的急性毒性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵本良; 章家恩; 代魏; 罗明珠; 宋春秀

    2011-01-01

    福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)是世界自然保护联盟认定的世界100种恶性外来入侵物种之一,在华南地区已对水稻生产造成严重危害.本研究将福寿螺按照壳高(H)分为小螺(5 mm≤H<15 mm)、中螺(15 mm≤H<25 mm)、大螺(25 mm≤H<35 mm)和超大螺(35 mm≤H<45 mm),通过室内毒性试验,探讨了化学肥料石灰氮(氰氨化钙)对不同体型福寿螺的毒性效应.结果表明:石灰氮对不同大小福寿螺毒性效应显著,尤其是对中小福寿螺具有很强的抑制和杀灭作用;石灰氮处理7 d后,最低浓度0.2 g·L-1处理造成71%死亡率,其他处理死亡率均在95%以上,其中3.0和5.0 g·L-1处理中福寿螺全部死亡;石灰氮对不同大小福寿螺的半抑制浓度(24 h)和半致死浓度(96 h)大小顺序均为小螺<中螺<大螺<超大螺;石灰氮对福寿螺的抑制效应显著,其对福寿螺的平均半抑制浓度为0.08~0.39 g·L-1;1.0和5.0 g·L-1浓度的石灰氮处理24 h后,福寿螺鳃组织SOD酶活性呈极显著下降,分别为对照的41%和60%.本研究表明,石灰氮在入侵生物福寿螺的防治方面有一定应用潜力,有望成为一种新型的"杀螺肥料".%Golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species cognized by World Conservation Union, and has been resulting in a mass loss of rice production in South China. In this study, the snails according to their shell height ( H) were divided in to four groups, i. e. , small size (5 mm ≤ H<15 mm), medium size (15 mm ≤ H<25 mm), large size (25 mm≤H<35 mm) , and extra large size (35 mm≤ H<45 mm) , and a laboratory toxicity test was conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chemical fertilizer calcium cyanamide ( CaCN2) in controlling different sizes P. canaliculata. Calcium cyanamide had signifi cant molluscicidal effect on different sizes, especially small and medium sizes P. canaliculata. After treated one week, 0. 2 g

  20. 不同生境福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)的营养成分及其利用价值%Nutritional components and utilization values of golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗渡; 牟希东; 宋红梅; 顾党恩; 杨叶欣; 汪学杰; 罗建仁; 胡隐昌; 章家恩

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the nutritional components and amino acids composition of black and white flesh-colored golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) collected from different habitats ( fish pond, ditch, and paddy field) , aimed to compare the differences in the nutritional components of these snails and explore the potential utilization values of the snails during the process of integrated control. The snails in fish pond had the highest contents of water and crude fat, those in ditch had the highest ash content, while those in paddy field had the lowest contents of water, crude fat, and crude protein. The crude protein content of the snails in ditch and pond was higher than 13% , and the snails in pond had the highest contents of total amino acids, essential amino acids, and flavor amino acids and the highest index of essential amino acids, but the proportion of essential amino acids was the lowest. The snails in paddy field had higher contents of essential amino acids and flavor amino acids than the snails in ditch, and the index of the essential amino acids of the snails in different habitats was in the order of fish pond > paddy field > ditch. Overall, white flesh snails had higher nutritional values than black flesh ones, and the nutritional composition of the snails essential amino acids was similar to that of fish meal ( CP 53. 5% ). It was suggested that in the utilization of golden apple snails, their flesh color and origin should be fully considered.%为比较不同生境和不同肉色福寿螺的营养成分组成差异以探讨其在综合防治中的潜在利用价值,分析了鱼塘、沟渠和水田3种生境福寿螺以及黑白肉色福寿螺的一般营养成分和氨基酸组成.结果表明:鱼塘福寿螺的水分和粗脂肪含量最高,沟渠福寿螺的灰分含量最高,水田福寿螺的水分、粗脂肪和粗蛋白含量最低,沟渠和鱼塘福寿螺的粗蛋白含量都高于13%,鱼塘福寿螺的总氨基酸、必需氨基酸、

  1. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  2. 入侵生物金苹果螺在滇池流域的首次记录%A Record of the Invasive Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽娜; Jonathan Davies; 陈小勇; 崔桂华; 杨君兴

    2007-01-01

    2004年10月,中国科学院昆明动物研究所首次发现金苹果螺(Pomacea canaliculata)入侵重要的水源保护区嵩明白邑黑龙潭.金苹果螺起源于中南美洲,在亚洲,它通过有意或无意的传播而逐渐扩散到菲律宾、越南、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、马来西亚、印尼、巴布几内亚、韩国、日本和中国的南部.金苹果螺已成为水稻产区的最大害虫,给农业生产带来巨大的损失.为防止金苹果螺在云南扩散,目前已经实施了严格的预防、控制措施,同时开展了公众保护教育宣传活动.%The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) was first recorded at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin, Baiyi Township, Songming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China, in October 2004. The water from the spring flows into the Songhuaba Reservoir, the major drinking water resource for Kunming City, and part of the Dianchi Lake basin. This is the first record of this invasive snail in the Dianchi Lake Basin. Pomacea canaliculata originates from Central and South America, and in Asia the snail has spread through deliberate and accidental introductions to the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Korea, Japan and South China. It has become a major pest in rice-growing areas, resulting in huge damage to crops. Strict prevention and control measures have to be implemented to prevent the spread of the snail in Yunnan, together with public awareness campaigns to inform the public of the dangers of this invasive snail.

  3. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  4. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3615 Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimate the acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  5. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0.66-0.75 (média 0.70. Testículo, espermiduto e bolsa do pênis como em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada e em forma de feijão. Próstata cilíndrica e estreita, de cor creme como o testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote, com espermiduto circular e fechado. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída da base para a extremidade, sendo esta última voltada para a direita; glândula basal extrema situada à esquerda; glândula mediana interna arredondada; glândula apical alongada e com sulcos. Ovário composto de túbulos brancos ramificados dispostos superficialmente sobre a glândula digestiva verde. Oviduto e receptáculo seminal como em P. lineata; glândula de albume de cor alaranjada; ovos prismáticos e calcáreos de cor alaranjada. Aparelho copulador masculino vestigial (pênis e sua bainha presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

  6. Occurrence and control technology of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in rice field in Sichuan%四川稻田福寿螺的发生与防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓娟; 何忠全; 郎冬梅; 汪世元; 毛建辉; 何树林

    2013-01-01

    采用问卷和实地调查相结合的方法调查了福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)在四川稻区的分布和危害,并就现有化学杀螺剂进行了药效评价和综合防控技术的效果评价.结果表明,福寿螺目前在四川省16个地区均有分布,以成都、乐山、泸州等地福寿螺的危害较为严重.田间药效试验发现,杀螺胺乙醇胺盐对稻田福寿螺防效最高,达86.74%,而杀螺胺、四聚乙醛等防效相对较差.综合防控措施的灭螺效果为89.73%~93.64%,保苗率56.13%~80.36%,每667m2挽回经济损失553.21元.福寿螺在四川省分布广,化学杀螺剂需交替使用,综合防治技术措施行之有效.

  7. 不同浓度下四种除草剂对福寿螺和坑螺的生态毒理效应%Eco-toxicological effects of four herbicides on typical aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata and Crown conchs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰; 骆世明; 黎华寿; 贺鸿志; 陈桂葵; 秦俊豪

    2011-01-01

    以化学除草剂应用为前提的水稻免耕抛秧栽培技术是近年来推广的节本栽培新技术.为更好地评价除草剂的环境风险,为防治除草剂的负效应提供科学依据,采用室内静水模拟实验研究了4种免耕稻田除草剂丁草胺、苄嘧N磺隆、丁苄混剂和氯酸钾的3种浓度梯度下对典型水生动物福寿螺、坑螺的影响.结果表明,各除草剂对水生动物的代谢都有不同程度的影响,氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆对2种水生动物的呼吸作用影响不大,而丁草胺和丁苄混剂对3种水生动物的呼吸作用的影响有显著的抑制作用,且呈现一定的剂量效应;在本实验染毒剂量下,丁草胺和丁苄混剂对2种水生动物的存活率影响很大,而氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆对其存活率影响较小.丁草胺和丁苄混剂处理对福寿螺的氮代谢影响远远大于氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆处理,而从水体总氮和总磷含量的影响来看,4种除草剂对其影响都较大.总之,从4种除草剂对实验用螺存活率和主要代谢生理指标的综合影响大小来看,丁草胺>丁苄混剂>苄嘧磺隆>氯酸钾.%There has been an increase in the use of other herbicides for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. The use of herbicides in China also has increased faster than that of insecticides and fungicides since last 30 years. The new technique of rice seedling-broadcasting with no-tillage ( RSB-NT) is widely used and it was based on the applition of herbicides. The increasing pollution of herbicides in soil and water has been of concerns. The effect of four herbicides including butachlor, bensulfuron-methyl, the mixture of bensulfuron and butachlor, potassium chlorate on typical aquatic animals (Pomacea canaliculata Spix, Tunnel snail) in rice paddy wetland were studied in laboratory. In the immersion experiment, both of the aquatic animals divided into four groups with three concentrations. The results showed that the

  8. Injury and Yield Loss by the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck in Rice%福寿螺对水稻的为害及其产量损失研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建人; 林贤文; 祝增荣

    2015-01-01

    为了明确不同螺口密度和为害始期福寿螺为害与水稻产量损失的关系,于2007—2009年分别在早稻、单季晚稻和连作晚稻田通过人工定量投放福寿螺进行为害损失试验。结果表明:投放的时间越早,危害损失越大;投放的数量越多,危害损失越重。所有这些损失率与福寿螺密度之间的关系,均可采用幂函数方程来描述,以5%产量损失作为经济允许水平计算,秧苗移栽后早稻田福寿螺密度宜控制在1只/m2以下,晚稻宜在3.5只/m2以下。福寿螺在早稻田的存活率在低密度下较高,而在晚稻田的存活率都不高,但是低密度下产卵量明显增多。建议要特别加强对水稻移栽后小苗期田间福寿螺的防控,最好能在移栽前对本田进行必要的防治,另外一旦断垄发生后要及时补苗,减少损失。%To investigate the relationship among rice yield loss, the golden apple snail (GAS) (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) density and damage beginning time, the GAS was added to early rice field, late hybrid rice field and single late rice field artificially from 2007 to 2009. The results showed that, the earlier GAS was added to field, the more damage GAS caused. It was also identified that the more GAS added to the field, the more damage GAS caused. The power function equations could be used to describe the relationship between GAS density and yield loss. There should be less than 1 per m2 in early rice and field or 3.5 per m2 in late rice field if the yield loss was expected blow 5%. In early rice field, lower density was beneficial for higher survival rate. Although the survival rate was low in late rice field, the oviposition capacity would be higher with low density. It was important to control GAS after rice transplant. And preventing GAS before rice transplant would be better. To reduce yield loss, rice seedling should be added in time if seedlingless ridges happened.

  9. 水旱轮作防控福寿螺的效果及对水稻产量的影响%Effects of paddy-upland rotation on control of Pomacea canaliculata and rice yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 罗颢; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To investigate the influence of paddy-upland rotation on controlling Pomacea canal-iculata and rice yield.[Method] Four farming measures including winter potato rotation system , winter ryegrass rotation system , and two winter fallow rice fields treatments with water cover or without any water cover ( two controls ) were employed .The field population structure of snails in the previous and subse-quent rice field , and early rice yield in the subsequent season were investigated .[Result and conclusion]The results showed that winter potato rotation treatment was helpful for snails control and rice yield in-crease in the subsequent farming season , but the snail population recovery accelerated in the early rice growing period because of this rotation treatment .Winter ryegrass rotation treatment was unsatisfactory for snails control while it was beneficial for the early rice output of the next season .Winter-planting rotation was negative for controlling snail eggs , while the eggs were relatively few and most of them were distribu-ted on weeds along field ridges .The eggs could be collected conveniently and efficiently at the beginning of the early rice growing season .%目的探索2种冬种作物水旱轮作对来年早稻田福寿螺的控制效果及对水稻产量的影响。方法对冬种马铃薯和冬种黑麦草这2种控螺方式下前后茬稻田中福寿螺种群和后茬水稻产量进行调查,并与冬闲干田和冬闲淹水处理的前后茬稻田进行对比。结果和结论冬种马铃薯能够有效减少来年早稻田福寿螺的发生量,且能提高来年早稻产量,但早稻生长后期福寿螺种群恢复速度加快。冬种黑麦草处理的控螺效果不理想,但有利于来年早稻增产。冬种水旱轮作模式下对福寿螺卵块的控制效果不明显,但在来年早稻种植的初期,绝大部分卵块产在田埂杂草上且数量较少,此时人工摘卵较为方便省时。

  10. Influence of drying-wetting alternation on feed and growth of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)%干湿交替对福寿螺摄食和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 章家恩; 罗颢; 刘文; 彭莉; 梁开明

    2013-01-01

    Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the black list of World Conservation Union, and has resulted in a mass loss of rice production in South China. In order to develop water regulation method for controlling golden apple snails, we investigated the influences of drying-wetting alternation on the feed and growth of golden apple snails. Our results showed that weight growth rate, feeding rate, food conversion ratio and specific growth rate of the snails were significantly inhibited by the alternative drying-wetting treatments, sometimes with even negative effects. The shell height of the snails increased with water, but this increase is slow once the water disappear. The snail exhibited a compensation effect during the alternative drying-wetting process within a short-term, and this effect may result from the increase of feeding amount after a period starvation of the snails and would not appear when the drought stress on snails exceeded a certain extent. To recap, the snails would fail to grow normally under drought stress and the degree of influence would be enhanced with prolonged drought period. Moreover, the snails would come out again generally when their habitat becomes rewetting after drought within 180 minutes, so we can control them in this special period (opportunity) to avoid the injure of aquatic plants by snails. The research results may provide a theoretical reference for an integrated control of golden apple snail and water utilization and management.%  福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)被世界自然保护联盟列入世界100种恶性外来入侵物种黑名单,在我国南方已对水稻生产造成严重危害。为了探索通过水分调控来防治福寿螺的方法,本研究模拟福寿螺野外生存条件,探讨不同干湿交替条件下福寿螺摄食和生长的情况,来分析干旱胁迫对其体重增长率(Weight growth rate,WGR)、摄食率(Feeding rate

  11. Control effects of garlic on Pomacea canaliculata and its influences on the growth of rice seedlings%大蒜对福寿螺的控制效果及其对水稻苗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬静华; 马伟; 钟裕; 胡飞

    2016-01-01

    在实验室和盆栽条件下研究了大蒜植株、蒜瓣(鳞茎)和大蒜素对福寿螺和水稻苗生长的影响。结果表明,大蒜植株、蒜瓣中的大蒜素对福寿螺均具有致死效果,大蒜素只是大蒜植株和蒜瓣中致福寿螺死亡的物质之一。福寿螺在大蒜素溶液中出现逃逸现象,在0.025和0.0125 g/mL 浓度下全部逃逸,而在0.05 g/mL 浓度下逃逸率仅为60%,死亡率达40%。福寿螺在大蒜种植密度为9、14、18株/盆时,含有大蒜根分泌物的盆中均出现逃逸现象,密度越大逃逸越快,数量越多,而在大蒜植株混入土壤的盆中,密度为9株/盆中的福寿螺全部逃逸,密度为14、18株/盆中则只有部分逃逸,没有逃逸的福寿螺出现死亡或失去取食能力。试验浓度下的大蒜素溶液对水稻生长影响较小,0.0125 g/mL 的大蒜素溶液对水稻还有促进作用。在种植不同密度大蒜的盆中,仅混合大蒜植株,密度为18株/盆的处理中水稻的分蘖数有显著的减少(P<0.05),其他无论是含有根分泌物还是混合大蒜植株的盆中,水稻生长均未受到不利的影响。表明大蒜植株和蒜瓣中的大蒜素对福寿螺具有抑制取食为害、甚至毒杀的效果,在对福寿螺有效的浓度下对水稻苗的生长没有不利影响。%The control effects of garlic plants,its bulbs and allicin on Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail, GAS)and their influences on the growth of rice seedlings were studied in the laboratory and pot culture.The re-sults showed that allicin in garlic plants and its bulblets were the main effective components for killing GAS,but not one component alone.All GASs escaped from pots filled with allicin solutions at the concentrations of 0.025 g/mL and 0.012 5 g/mL,but only 60% GASs escaped at 0.05 g/mL,while 40% were killed.GASs escaped from the pots with garlic planted at the density of 9,14,18 plants

  12. 剑麻提取物对福寿螺的毒理效应%Toxicological effect of Agave sisalana Perrine extract on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林峰; 徐武兵; 钟秋华; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良; 秦钟

    2012-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is an invasive alien species that is very harmful to the ecosystem and rice production in South China.To verify the toxicity and related mechanism of Agave sisalana Perrine to golden apple snail,the toxic effects of aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana were tested via the snail-immersed method.The effects of n-butanol (59 mg·L-1,96 mg·L-1) and ethanol (180 mg·L-1,325 mg·L-1) extracts on cholinesterase (ChE),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities in hepatic tissue of golden apple snails were also investigated.Based on the results,aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana had toxic effects on golden apple snail.Their semi-lethal concentrations (LC50) on golden apple snail for 72 h toxicity exposure were 35.3 g·L-1,93.3 mg·L-1 and 298.6 mg·L-1,respectively.The corresponding 95%confidence interval ranges were 32.9~37.7 g·L~1,87.6~99.7 mg·L~1 and 272.9~318.7 mg·L-1,respectively.When treated with n-butanol and ethanol extracts for 12 h,SOD activity in snail hepatic tissues showed no obvious change at low concentrations.SOD activity,however,increased significantly at high concentrations.After treatment for 48 h,SOD activity at high concentrations of n-butanol extract was significantly higher than that of the control.However,SOD activity did not show any obvious change in both low and high concentrations of ethanol extract.All A.Sisalana extracts somehow increased ChE activity,with n-butanol extract exhibiting higher effect on ChE activity.When treated with 96 mg·L-1 n-butanol extract for 48 h,ChE activity significantly exceededthat of the control (P < 0.05).Overall,n-butanol extract treatment enhanced ATPase activity at low concentrations and suppressed it at high concentrations.Irrespectively,no obvious pattern change was noted under ethanol extract treatment.In conclusion,A.Sisalana was somehow toxic to golden apple snail.A better mode of application was

  13. Spatial distribution pattern of egg masses of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, and a sampling plan for their detection invaded in subtropical transplanted rice fields%入侵移栽稻田的福寿螺卵块空间分布型及其抽样技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符明龙; 谢淑玲; 祝增荣; 陈辉珍; 王华弟

    2008-01-01

    福寿螺Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck是重要外来入侵有害生物,严重危害水稻苗期至分蘖期的秧苗植株.为明确福寿螺在水稻田的空间分布,以1、4丛水稻为取样单位(样方)调查了14块移栽稻、每块田300个样方的福寿螺卵块密度,并利用聚集度指标法、Taylor幂法则和Iwao的M-m回归法进行分析.结果表明,移栽稻田中的福寿螺卵块主要呈聚集分布,部分田块呈随机或均匀分布.根据福寿螺卵块的分布型,通过计算抽样时间和抽样准确率的关系、不同样方和误差条件下的理论抽样数,确定以准确估计田间卵块密度为目标的最佳抽样方法,以横(行)向平行线跳跃法间隔30~45行调查1行,共调查6行90个4丛水稻样方,即两人以常规速度按上述方法取样18min以上,可达85%以上的取样准确率.

  14. The radular morphology of Nassariidae (Gastropoda:Caenogastropoda) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingwen; ZHANG Suping

    2011-01-01

    The family Nassariidae includes a number of species that are distributed throughout the world.Each species has a characteristic shell shape,tooth shape,and behavior.However,the classification of species in this family of the Rhachiglossa is controversial.We describe the radulae of 22 species from China in detail using optical and scanning electron microscopy.These species are considered to be representatives of two subfamilies,two genera,and 10 subgenera.Our results suggest that the morphology of the central tooth and the pair of lateral teeth and the presence or absence of a pair of intermediate accessory lateral teeth could be used to distinguish among species.We found no support for the subgeneric differentiation of the species.However,the presence or absence of the intermediate lateral accessory plate was characteristic of species divisions.We noted sexual dimorphism in the shape of the teeth in some species,and considerable variability of the shape of teeth within a single species.Based on our results,the genus Nassarius cannot be split into subgenera using radula morphology.

  15. A new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida commensal of Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae from Misiones, Argentina Una especie nueva de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida comensal de Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Damborenea

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., a commensal of Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, is described herein from specimens collected at Arroyo Yabotí-Miní (Misiones province, Argentina. Juveniles and adults were removed from the mantle cavity by host relaxation. Distinctive characters of the new species are: non-partitioned intestine; conical cirrus with 1 face flat and another concave; distal area with spines, as evidenced by a strong, oblique sclerotized ring, and 2 rows of long spines, an internal one with long spines arising from base of introvert and an external one arising from distal end of the introvert. The closest species are T. iheringi, T. rochensis and T. haswelli, which are also commensals of mollusc species. The presence of this new species of Temnocephala, and its similarity to the other species that are commensals of molluscan species, suggest the existence of a morphologically homogeneous group.Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., comensal de Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, se describe para el arroyo Yabotí-Miní, provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se extrajeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos de la cavidad paleal, por relajación de los hospederos. Las características distintivas de la nueva especie son: intestino no septado, cirro de forma cónica, con una cara plana y otra cóncava, zona distal con espinas evidente por un fuerte anillo oblicuo esclerosado. Dos hileras de espinas se reconocen en el extremo distal, 1 interna de espinas largas, que surge desde la base del introverso, y 1 externa, que surge del extremo distal del mismo. Las especies más semejantes son T. iheringi, T. rochensis y T. haswelli, especies comensales de moluscos con las que es comparada. El hallazgo de esta nueva especie de Temnocephala y sus características semejantes a las restantes especies del género comensales de moluscos, sugieren que las especies conocidas hasta la fecha formen un grupo morfológicamente homogéneo.

  16. Embryonic development and organogenesis in the snail Marisa cornuarietis (Mesogastropoda: Ampullariidae). V. Development of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, E S; Yousif, F

    1975-01-01

    The nervous system is ectodermal in origin. All nerve ganglia arise separately by proliferation and later delamination from the ectoderm, not by invagination. They become secondarily connected to one another by commissures and connectives developing as extensions from the peripheral layer of ganglionic nerve cells. Rudiments of the cerebral, pedal, pleural and intestinal (parietal) ganglia arise almost simultaneously at a relatively early stage (Stage V). The cerebral ganglia develop from the ectoderm of the head plates. Rudiments of the pedal and pleural ganglia are separate at their inception. They later fuse (Stage VI) to form a pleuro-pedal ganglionic mass on each side. The 2 intestinal ganglia are symmetrical at the beginning, but they soon lose their symmetry as a result of torsion. The right ganglion crosses to the left over the gut and persists as the supraintestinal ganglion. The left or subintestinal ganglion shifts to the right and forward, and fuses with the right pleural ganglion (Stage VIII), thus obscuring the chiastoneury. The paired buccal and single visceral (abdominal) ganglia start differentiating in Stage VII. The former develop from the ectodermal wall of the stomodaeum, while the visceral ganglion delaminates from the right wall of the visceral sac, then shifts to the left during torsion. The statocysts develop early (Stage V) from 2 ectodermal invaginations on either side of the rudimentary foot. They later separate from the overlying ectoderm and statoconi appear in their lumina. Contrary to earlier reports on related ampullariids, the osphradium proved to be ontogenetically older than the mantle and mantle cavity. It starts differentiating as a thickened ectodermal plate in the right wall of the visceral sac (Stage V). During torsion, it becomes engulfed in the mantle cavity and shifts to the left side, then is carried forward as the mantlegrow. The eyes develop late (Stage IX) as ectodermal invaginations which rapidly separate from the ectoderm to form closed vesicles. Their cells start differentiating before hatching to form the retina, in which pigment is deposited, and the inner cornea. The lens is secreted in the lumen of the eye and grows by addition of concentric layers of secretion. PMID:1221226

  17. Embryonic development and organogenesis in the snail Marisa cornuarietis (Mesogastropoda: Ampullariidae). V. Development of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, E S; Yousif, F

    1975-01-01

    The nervous system is ectodermal in origin. All nerve ganglia arise separately by proliferation and later delamination from the ectoderm, not by invagination. They become secondarily connected to one another by commissures and connectives developing as extensions from the peripheral layer of ganglionic nerve cells. Rudiments of the cerebral, pedal, pleural and intestinal (parietal) ganglia arise almost simultaneously at a relatively early stage (Stage V). The cerebral ganglia develop from the ectoderm of the head plates. Rudiments of the pedal and pleural ganglia are separate at their inception. They later fuse (Stage VI) to form a pleuro-pedal ganglionic mass on each side. The 2 intestinal ganglia are symmetrical at the beginning, but they soon lose their symmetry as a result of torsion. The right ganglion crosses to the left over the gut and persists as the supraintestinal ganglion. The left or subintestinal ganglion shifts to the right and forward, and fuses with the right pleural ganglion (Stage VIII), thus obscuring the chiastoneury. The paired buccal and single visceral (abdominal) ganglia start differentiating in Stage VII. The former develop from the ectodermal wall of the stomodaeum, while the visceral ganglion delaminates from the right wall of the visceral sac, then shifts to the left during torsion. The statocysts develop early (Stage V) from 2 ectodermal invaginations on either side of the rudimentary foot. They later separate from the overlying ectoderm and statoconi appear in their lumina. Contrary to earlier reports on related ampullariids, the osphradium proved to be ontogenetically older than the mantle and mantle cavity. It starts differentiating as a thickened ectodermal plate in the right wall of the visceral sac (Stage V). During torsion, it becomes engulfed in the mantle cavity and shifts to the left side, then is carried forward as the mantlegrow. The eyes develop late (Stage IX) as ectodermal invaginations which rapidly separate from the ectoderm to form closed vesicles. Their cells start differentiating before hatching to form the retina, in which pigment is deposited, and the inner cornea. The lens is secreted in the lumen of the eye and grows by addition of concentric layers of secretion.

  18. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  19. Does the genetic structure of spring snail Bythinella (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in Bulgaria reflect geological history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikowski, Artur; Georgiev, Dilian; Hofman, Sebastian; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bythinella is a minute dioecious caenogastropod that inhabits springs in central and southern Europe. In the Balkans, previous studies have addressed its morphological and genetic differentiation within Greece and Romania while the Bulgarian species have remained poorly known. The aim of the present paper has been to expand the knowledge on the subject in Bulgaria. Shell morphology and anatomy of the reproductive organs were examined, and a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) were sequenced from 15 populations. Additional sequences from eight previously studied populations were included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five main mitochondrial DNA clades, which were partly confirmed by analyses of the ITS-1 sequences. The genetic differentiation between the clades was found to be in the range p=2.4-11.8%. Most of the populations belonged to clade I, representing Bythinella hansboetersi, and were distributed in SW Bulgaria. Clades II and III inhabit areas adjacent to clade I and were most closely related with the latter clade. Much more distinct were clade V, found at one locality in NW Bulgaria, and clade IV, found at one locality in SE Bulgaria, close to the sea. Four populations were found in caves, but only one of these represented a distinct clade. Considering the observed pattern of interpopulation differentiation of Bythinella in Bulgaria, we can suppose that isolation between clades I, II and III may have been caused by glaciations during the Pleistocene. The time of isolation between the above three clades and clade IV coincides with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, and the time of isolation between the clade V and the other four most probably reflects the isolation of the Rhodopes from western Balkan Mts by the seawater of the Dacic Basin. PMID:26448701

  20. A new species of Heleobia (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Chilean Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Gonzalo A; Valladares, Moisés A; Méndez, Marco A

    2016-07-11

    Cochliopidae Tryon, 1866 is a diverse family of caenogastropods that lives in a wide variety of aquatic habitats primarily in the New World (Hershler &Thompson 1992). In Chile, the species of the group have been traditionally assigned to the genus Littoridina Souleyet, 1852 using conchological characters (Biese 1944, 1947; Stuardo, 1961; Valdovinos 2006) but according to anatomical studies and phylogenetic analysis the majority of them have been reassigned to the genus Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Collado et al. 2011a; Kroll et al. 2012; Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016). Here we formally describe a new species of the genus Heleobia from Spring 1 in the Carcote saltpan, Chilean Altiplano, based on molecular and morphological characters. Snails from this locality were previously shown to be distinct based on DNA sequences (Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016).

  1. A new freshwater snail (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Atacama Desert, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Gonzalo A

    2015-03-02

    In the family Cochliopidae, Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 is the most speciose genus in South America, with about 90 species (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Cazzaniga 2011). A recent molecular and morphological analysis performed in northern Chile (Atacama Desert) showed that the previously undescribed springsnails from Aguada de Chorrillos belong to Heleobia (Collado et al. 2013). In this study I formally describe this new species. Although this paper does not treat morphology in detail, the anatomical characters, in combination with the previously published molecular data provides a strong basis for recognizing this population as a distinct species.

  2. [Imposex in Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae) from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ana Carolina; Miloslavich, Patricia; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2014-06-01

    Voluta musica is a dioecious marine gastropod endemic of the South Caribbean. Tributyltin (TBT) and copper (Cu) are potential inducers of imposex, an endocrine disorder by which females develop a penis and/or vas deferens. The goal of this work was to determine the imposex incidence in V. musica populations from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya. For this, we selected three sites (Isla Caribe, Isla Lobos and Bajo Cuspe) and made monthly samplings of 15 snails in each site, during one year, and determined: (1) sizes; (2) sex and imposex incidence and (3) the Relative Penis Length Index (RPLI). We also performed histological analysis of the gonads, and measured TBT and Cu concentrations in sediments from the studied localities. Our results showed that the total number of sampled females affected by imposex was 24.5% at Isla Caribe, 12% at Isla Lobos, and none at Bajo Cuspe. In sediments, Cu was detected mostly in Isla Lobos. The female gonads with imposex did not show any development of male cells in any of the sampled sites. The higher percentage of females with imposex matched with the higher boat traffic locality, and higher TBT level (Isla Caribe). No esterilization was evident in this work, nevertheless, the presence of TBT and Cu in the sediments and females with imposex were considered as a potential threat to V. musica populations in this region. In Venezuela there is no control over this particular issue, possibly because of the lack of information and research in this topic, but certainly, this information will be useful in biodiversity conservation policies. PMID:25102636

  3. [Imposex in Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae) from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ana Carolina; Miloslavich, Patricia; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2014-06-01

    Voluta musica is a dioecious marine gastropod endemic of the South Caribbean. Tributyltin (TBT) and copper (Cu) are potential inducers of imposex, an endocrine disorder by which females develop a penis and/or vas deferens. The goal of this work was to determine the imposex incidence in V. musica populations from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya. For this, we selected three sites (Isla Caribe, Isla Lobos and Bajo Cuspe) and made monthly samplings of 15 snails in each site, during one year, and determined: (1) sizes; (2) sex and imposex incidence and (3) the Relative Penis Length Index (RPLI). We also performed histological analysis of the gonads, and measured TBT and Cu concentrations in sediments from the studied localities. Our results showed that the total number of sampled females affected by imposex was 24.5% at Isla Caribe, 12% at Isla Lobos, and none at Bajo Cuspe. In sediments, Cu was detected mostly in Isla Lobos. The female gonads with imposex did not show any development of male cells in any of the sampled sites. The higher percentage of females with imposex matched with the higher boat traffic locality, and higher TBT level (Isla Caribe). No esterilization was evident in this work, nevertheless, the presence of TBT and Cu in the sediments and females with imposex were considered as a potential threat to V. musica populations in this region. In Venezuela there is no control over this particular issue, possibly because of the lack of information and research in this topic, but certainly, this information will be useful in biodiversity conservation policies.

  4. Relationships and origin of endemic Lake Baikal gastropods (Caenogastropoda: Rissooidea) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Röpstorf, Peter; Riedel, Frank

    2003-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships and the origin of two groups of rissooid freshwater snails endemic to Lake Baikal were investigated using partial mitochondrial COI, 12S rDNA, and 16S rDNA sequences. The Baikalian Benedictiinae proved to be closely related to the Lithoglyphinae. According to a molecular clock estimate the two groups diverged in the Paleogene. The Benedictiinae might have evolved autochthonously in precursors of Lake Baikal. The Baikalian Baicaliidae are probably most closely related to the Amnicolidae and the Bithyniidae. These groups diverged at the latest during the Cretaceous. Thus the origin of the Baicaliidae predates the origin of the Baikal rift zone. The Baicaliidae evolved probably in other Central Asian freshwater reservoirs. However, the radiation of the extant Baicaliidae only started in the Neogene and might have occurred autochthonously in Lake Baikal. The conchological similarity of the Baicaliidae and the Pyrgulidae is due to convergence. The Pyrgulidae diverged from the common stem lineage of the other hydrobiid families at the latest in the Jurassic. The Bithyniidae is derived from hydrobiids and is related to the Amnicolidae. PMID:12644402

  5. Unraveling a new lineage of Hydrobiidae genera (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea from the Ponto-Caspian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Delicado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses of the highly diverse (non-marine aquatic gastropod family Hydrobiidae Stimpson, 1865 have revealed seven main lineages, most of which represent subfamilies. The subfamily Pseudamnicolinae Radoman, 1977, and specifically the genus Pseudamnicola Paulucci, 1878 (mainly inhabiting western and central Mediterranean regions, contributes substantially to this hydrobiid richness. Most of its congeners have been described in terms of their shell and penis features, which are of limited diagnostic value. Hence, the taxonomic status of some Pseudamnicola species needs to be revised, particularly of those inhabiting marginal regions, such as the Ponto-Caspian domain, largely occupied by the subfamily Pyrgulinae Brusina, 1882. Here we present a molecular phylogeny including species of both subfamilies along with extended morphological descriptions to confirm assignments of the Iranian species Pseudamnicola zagrosensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009; Sarkia kermanshahensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009 (originally within Pseudamnicola and P. saboori Glöer & Pešić, 2009. Our COI-based tree rejects these assignments suggesting a new potential lineage, sister to the pyrgulinid species, and comprising three genera: Shadinia Akramowski, 1976, Intermaria gen. nov. and Persipyrgula gen. nov. These genera differ molecularly by 3.6%–8.5%, and are diagnosable by penis, female genitalia and radula features. Our findings evidence the high morphological variability of pyrgulinid species and provide insight into the origins and evolution of the freshwater Ponto-Caspian fauna.

  6. Arresting mantle formation and redirecting embryonic shell gland tissue by platinum2+ leads to body plan modifications in Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Leonie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the threat that anthropogenic substances pose to animals when they are emitted into the environment, tests like the invertebrate embryo toxicity test with the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis have been developed. These tests are used to investigate substances like the heavy metal platinum (Pt) that is used in catalytic converters and is gradually released in car exhausts. In 2010, our group reported that high Pt concentrations cause body plan alterations in snails and prevent the formation of an external shell during M. cornuarietis embryogenesis. Now, this study presents scanning-electron micrographs and histological sections of platinum(2+) (Pt(2+))-treated and untreated M. cornuarietis embryos and compares "normally" developing and "shell-less" embryos during embryogenesis, to reveal the exact course of events that lead to this body plan shift. Both groups showed similar development until the onset of torsion 70- to 82-h postfertilization. In the Pt(2+)-exposed embryos, the rudimentary shell gland (=anlage of both shell gland and mantle, which usually evaginates, grows, and eventually covers the visceral sac) does not spread across the visceral sac but remains on its ventral side. Without the excessive growth of the shell gland, a horizontal rotation of the visceral sac relative to head and foot does not occur, as being normal during the process of torsion.

  7. Living on the mountains: patterns and causes of diversification in the springsnail subgenus Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delicado, Diana; Machordom, Annie; Ramos, Marian A

    2013-09-01

    Hydrobiidae is one of the largest families of freshwater gastropods comprised of approximately 400 genera and 1000 species. Despite this high level of diversity, most hydrobiid species inhabit fragile ecosystems in restricted distribution areas. In this work, we analyze modes of speciation and causes of diversification in the hydrobiid springsnail subgenus Pseudamnicola (Corrosella). Species of this group typically live in nutrient poor springs and streams and are restricted to mountainous regions of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and Southern France. Previous morphological and molecular (based only on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene) studies revealed 11 nominal Corrosella species. In this study, we enhance published molecular results by generating new data from mitochondrial (16S rRNA and COI) and nuclear ribosomal regions (18S and 28S rRNA) from 50 Corrosella populations. As a result of this study we have identified one new species, making a total of twelve recognized species in the subgenus Corrosella. Our phylogenetic results also reveal the existence of three lineages within the subgenus, and the estimation of time divergence indicates the occurrence of three main speciation events during the upper Miocene to Pleistocene. We test the influence of several geographical and ecological variables and observe that diversification patterns are related to habitat fragmentation rather than environmental conditions. This result suggests that the high level of diversity observed within the subgenus may have resulted from a non-adaptive radiation. The formation of the Iberian Peninsula mountain ranges (the Pyrenees in the north and the Betic Cordillera in the south) and the configuration of the Iberian current hydrographic system played important roles in Corrosella speciation. Additionally, during the Miocene the Iberian Peninsula experienced a gradient of increasing temperature and dryness from north to south, which together with a high level of tectonic activity, may have caused the majority of the diversity found in the southern Iberian Peninsula. PMID:23660110

  8. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Miranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI and nuclear (28S DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named “A.” aff. capensis (Sowerby. These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  9. On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901 (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism’s ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell–Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal’s body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form.

  10. Ultrastructure and histochemistry of the digestive gland of the giant predator snail Adelomelon beckii (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae) from the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighetti, F; Teso, V; Penchaszadeh, P E

    2015-04-01

    This study deals with the structure of the digestive gland of the carnivorous gastropod Adelomelon beckii in Mar del Plata area (Argentina) and discusses the function of its cell types and compare with other gastropods. According to histological and transmission electron microscopy observations the epithelium is composed of two types of cells that are subject to cyclical changes, involving three phases: absorption, digestion and fragmentation. The majority of the cells, called digestive cells, have a basal nucleus with a cytoplasm filled by spherical digestive vesicles in different stages. The apical pole of the cell is covered with microvilli and cilia and shows evidence of endocytotic activity during the absorption phase. The intracellular digestive process passes through: (1) fusion of endocytotic vesicles; (2) transformation in heterolysososmes by fusion with enzyme-rich vesicles; (3) formation of residual bodies after digestion, which are pinched off to the lumen gland during fragmentation phase. The second type of cell in the acini are called vacuolated cells, which occur in clusters, the nucleus is in the mid-basal region and the cytoplasm is basophilic, filled with stacks of RER. During the absorption phase the vacuolated cells secrete neutral mucins that probably serve as lubrication to facilitate transport of food particles. During all phases, a large amount of lipofuscin, an insoluble pigment that is accumulated after lysosome digestion, is accumulated. The functional morphology of the different cell types found in this carnivorous gastropod is very similar to that found in herbivorous and deposit-feeding gastropods, which suggests that the feeding type does not influence the micro-morphology of the digestive gland. PMID:25656806

  11. Pedicularia vanderlandi spec. nov., a symbiotic snail (Caenogastropoda: Ovulidae) on the hydrocoral Distichopora vervoorti Cairns & Hoeksema, 1998 (Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae), from Bali, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of ovulid gastropod is described from Bali as Pedicularia vanderlandi spec. nov. It was predominantly found in shallow water on the stylasterid hydrocoral Distichopora vervoorti Cairns & Hoeksema, 1998. The snails are compared with type specimens of congeneric taxa and with material of

  12. A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae, from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database. We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P.mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

  13. Controlling golden apple snail,Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck for no-tillage cultivation in rice%免耕稻福寿螺防除技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金旺; 周海; 卢曦

    2004-01-01

    田间调查发现,每年4~6月和8~10月是福寿螺产卵和孵化高峰期,也是成螺和高龄幼螺集中危害的盛期,主要是吞食小苗稻叶,造成少苗缺株.不同杀螺剂防除试验表明,最经济、安全的方法是在免耕稻抛栽前,每hm2用45~75kg茶麸饼浸出液喷施田面,防效达90.49%左右,hm2用2.25kg85%五氯酚钠杀螺颗粒剂、0.75kg 70%贝螺杀、0.75kg 45%百螺敌可湿性粉剂喷施田面,防效也较好.

  14. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck), plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa) en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA) con cuatro tratamientos ...

  15. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA con cuatro tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados muestran el 100% de mortalidad por septicemia a las 96 horas de la inoculación, con relación al testigo.

  16. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes of Pomacea canaliculata%福寿螺18S rRNA和28S rRNA基因片段的克隆与进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘颖瑛; 董胜张; 俞晓平

    2009-01-01

    为从分子水平上明确入侵我国的福寿螺在分类学上的地位,采用分子克隆和序列比对的方法,对来自菲律宾及我国广东、广西、浙江等不同地理种群福寿螺的18S rRNA基因和28S rRNA基因片段进行扩增、克隆和序列测定,并同瓶螺科、田螺科和环口螺科相关物种进行系统发育分析.结果表明,获得的福寿螺18S rRNA基因和28S rRNA基园片段长度分别为602 bp、325 bp,且不同地理种群间碱基序列无差异.通过邻接法(NJ)和最大筒约法(MP)构建的系统树基本一致,证实福寿螺隶属于瓶螺科,与田螺科物种亲缘关系较近,而与环口螺科亲缘关系较远.

  17. Ús de la cianamida càlcica per al control del caragol poma (Pomacea sp.) en el cultiu de l'arròs al Delta de l'Ebre

    OpenAIRE

    Cugat Melich, Ignasi; Català Forner, Maria del Carme

    2014-01-01

    The apple snail is a freshwater aquatic gasteropod mollusc that belongs to the Ampullariidae family. It is considered one of the 100 more harmful invasive species in the world and it has caused ravage in numerous ricefields around the world. In 2009 the first individuals of the plague were starting to be seen was seen in the ricefields of Delta de l'Ebre, nowadays the plague has already colonized most of the part of the left hemidelta and a small part of the right hemidelta. The calcium cyana...

  18. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation ofCoxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani; Abbas Doosti; Asghar Arshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence ofCoxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in two species of snails consisted ofLymnaea palustris (L. palustris) andPomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata) by using nestedPCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods:A total of160 snail samples consisted of 100L. palustris and 60P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails'DNA was extracted by a genomicDNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence ofC. burnetii'sDNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1)-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37%) samples were found positive forC. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from theL. palustris and there were no positive samples fromP. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also,C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  19. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardoya Rafael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis, and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia. The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P

  20. Details of gastropod phylogeny inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnepenninckx, B; Steiner, G; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1998-02-01

    Some generally accepted viewpoints on the phylogenetic relationships within the molluscan class Gastropoda are reassessed by comparing complete 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The previously suggested basal position of Archaeogastropoda, including Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda, in the gastropod clade is confirmed. The present study also provides new molecular evidence for the monophyly of both Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura (Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia), making Prosobranchia paraphyletic. The relationships within Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura data turn out to be very unstable on the basis of the present 18S rRNA sequences. The present 18S rRNA data question, but are insufficient to decide on, muricacean (Neogastropoda), neotaenioglossan, pulmonate, or stylommatophoran monophyly. The analyses also focus on two systellommatophoran families, namely, Veronicellidae and Onchidiidae. It is suggested that Systellommatophora are not a monophyletic unit but, due to the lack of stability in the euthyneuran clade, their affinity to either Opisthobranchia or Pulmonata could not be determined. PMID:9479694

  1. Development of an Intelligent Robot for an Agricultural Production Ecosystem : New Concept of Robot and Dynamics of a Golden Apple Snail in Paddy

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Maldonado, Alejandro Isabel; Nakaji, Kei

    2008-01-01

    A new concept of an intelligent robot for agriculture was discussed from the viewpoint of agricultural production ecosystem. In the case of the paddy field in temperate and subtropical zones, a mollusk named golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) often causes serious damage to the rice plant seedlings, however, the snail is very useful in the control of weeds that cause also detriment of the production of rice, especially in organic agriculture. After the golden apple snails in...

  2. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  3. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seaweed extracts Avaliação de atividade antifúngica de extratos de macroalgas marinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Fernandes Peres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are subject to numerous biological interactions and sometimes to extreme abiotic conditions, so they have developed among other defense mechanisms, the ability to produce biologically active substances. Thus, these organisms produce mainly terpenes and phenols. Among others, the antifungal activity, due to its importance in human and animal health and the production of agricultural products, has been the subject of several studies. In the present work, this activity was investigated in ten seaweeds extracts, by direct bioautography assays, compared to Colletotrichum lagenarium and disk diffusion assay, compared to Aspergillus flavus. The organisms studied were: Stypopodium zonale, Laurencia dendroidea, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum muticum, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Sargassum filipendula, Sargassum stenophyllum, Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria edulis. S. zonale, L. dendroidea, P. canaliculata, S. muticum, A. nodosum and F. spiralis extracts significantly inhibited the C. lagenarium growth, but not inhibited significantly the A. flavus growth. The presence of terpenes in all of these extracts was confirmed by thin layer chromatography whereas the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed only in extracts of P. canaliculata, A. nodosum and S. muticum. In chemical study by column chromatography, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the terpenes neophytadiene, cartilagineol, obtusol elatol; and the ester ethyl hexadecanoate were identified in the L. dendroidea extract. This is the first report on the activity of seaweed extracts against C. lagenarium, a fungus bearing agricultural importance.As macroalgas marinhas, por estarem sujeitas a numerosas interações biológicas e, por vezes, a condições abióticas extremas, desenvolveram, entre outros mecanismos de defesa, a capacidade de produzir substâncias biologicamente ativas. Assim, esses organismos produzem, principalmente, terpenos e fen

  4. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  5. Understanding the regulation of estivation in a freshwater snail through iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater gastropod with a remarkable ability to withstand seasonal or unpredictable dry conditions by entering estivation. Studies of P. canaliculata using conventional biochemical and the individual gene approaches have revealed the expressional changes of several enzymes and antioxidative genes in response to estivation and arousal. In this study, we applied iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify the global protein expression during the estivation and arousal of P. canaliculata. A total of 1040 proteins were identified, among which 701 proteins were quantified and compared across four treatments (i.e., control, active snails; short-term estivation, 3 days of exposure to air; prolonged estivation, 30 days of exposure to air; and arousal, 6 h after resubmergence in water) revealing 53 differentially expressed proteins. A comparison of protein expression profiles across treatments indicated that the proteome of this species was very insensitive to initial estivation, with only 9 proteins differentially expressed as compared with the control. Among the 9 proteins, the up-regulations of two immune related proteins indicated the initial immune response to the detection of stress cues. Prolonged estivation resulted in many more differentially expressed proteins (47 compared with short-term estivation treatment), among which 16 were down-regulated and 31 were up-regulated. These differentially expressed proteins have provided the first global picture of a shift in energy usage from glucose to lipid, prevention of protein degradation and elevation of oxidative defense, and production of purine for uric acid production to remove toxic ammonia during prolonged estivation in a freshwater snail. From prolonged estivation to arousal, only 6 proteins changed their expression level, indicating that access to water and food alone is not a necessary condition to reactivate whole-sale protein expression. A

  6. Role of Golden Apple Snail in Organic Rice Cultivation and Weed Management

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Joshi; Martin, E. C.; Wada, T.; Sebastian, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Golden Apple Snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck), is a major pest of rice and other aquatic crops in many Asian farms. Farmers’ first line of defense is to use non-specific chemicals for “instant” kill of GAS, without considering its effect on their health, the environment, and non-target organisms. However, some organic rice farmers in Japan, Korea, and the Philippines do not kill GAS but manage them as bio-weeders in rice fields. We evaluated organic farmers’ innovation at the P...

  7. Assessment of the ability of seaweed extracts to protect against hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced cellular damage in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, A M; O'Callaghan, Y C; O'Grady, M N; Queguineur, B; Hanniffy, D; Troy, D J; Kerry, J P; O'Brien, N M

    2012-09-15

    The ability of brown seaweed extracts, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria hyperborea, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus to protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) induced stress in Caco-2 cells was investigated. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring alteration in the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutases (SOD) and cellular levels of glutathione (GSH). L. hyperborea, P. canaliculata and F. serratus significantly protected against tert-BOOH induced SOD reduction but did not protect against the reduction in CAT activity or the increased cellular levels of GSH. The ability of F. serratus and F. vesiculosus to protect against H(2)O(2) and tert-BOOH induced DNA damage was also assessed. The DNA protective effects of the two seaweed extracts was compared to those of three metal chelators; deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) and 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (BAPTA-AM). F. serratus and F. vesiculosus significantly protected (P<0.05) against H(2)O(2) (50 μM) induced DNA damage but not tert-BOOH induced damage. PMID:23107739

  8. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Gümüs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839 vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874 is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae, Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae, Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae, and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae. For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

  9. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n = 34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Ranking Population Structure and Sex Ratio of Pomacea canaficulata (Lamarck)in Different Control Approaches%不同控螺方式下稻田福寿螺种群的螺级结构及性比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦钟; 方丽; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to research population structure of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) and to provide a scientific basis not only for grasping the dynamics and developmental tendency of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck), but also for evaluating the performance of snail control measures. [Method] Twelve experimental plots for four treatments with three replicates were set in double cropping rice area of Guangdong province, each plot covered an area of 100 m2. Three control measures including raising ducks in the rice field, application of molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake, together with blank control plot were arranged randomly in the plots, in which information on ranking population structure of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) and sex ratio were collected and analyzed. [Result] Molluscicides application treatment was helpful for immature snails control but noneffective for mature ones. Camellia oleifera cake could be effectively used for control of immature snails, but not as effective as for medium and adult snails. Variation of population structure of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) over the time in both molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments exhibited greater instability when compared with the rice-duck integrated farming treatment and blank control plot, especially during the growth period of early rice. P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) in the rice-duck farming plot was comprised primarily of mature snails, making a descent style group from a whole during early rice-growing period. Sex ratio of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) under the same treatment changed over time, while differed considerably among four treatments at the same time. For molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments, sex ratios (female to male) of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) were relatively high, with greater fluctuations as time passed. [ Conclusion ] Rice-duck farming could provide a sustainable controlling on population of golden apple snails especially to the young and

  11. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we presented a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods. Nucleotide and amino acids composition was calculated and a comparative visual analysis of the start and termination codons was performed. The organization of the genome was compared calculating the number of intergenic sequences, the location of the genes and the number of reorganized genes (breakpoints) in comparison with the sequence that is presumed to be ancestral for the group. In order to calculate variations in the rates of molecular evolution within the group, the relative rate test was performed. In spite of the differences in the size of the genomes, the amino acids number is conserved. The nucleotide and amino acid composition is similar between Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda and Neritimorpha in comparison to Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda. The mitochondrial genomes of the group are very compact with few intergenic sequences, the only exception is the genome of Patellogastropoda with 26,828 bp. Start codons of the Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda are very variable and there is also an increase in genome rearrangements for these two groups. Generally, the hypothesis of constant rates of molecular evolution between the groups is rejected, except when the genomes of Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are compared.

  12. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  13. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  14. Contaminação por mercúrio em sedimento e em moluscos do Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brasil Mercury contamination in sediment and in molluscs of Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz M. Vieira

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The total level of mercury detected in the sediment and in the tissues of molluscs from the Bento Gomes basin, although low, have shown that the mercury used in the gold mining activities in the Poconé wetlands has contaminated those aquatic habitats in Pantanal. From 69 sediment samples analyzed, 26 % (N = 18 have shown levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.25µg.g-1 of mercury (moist weight. Mercury levels analyzed in 54 samples of mollusc tissues (Ampullaria scalaris Orbigny, 1835; A. canaliculata Lamarck, 1819 and Marisa planogyra Pilsbry, 1933 have shown that 30% (N = 16 were contaminated with levels ranging from 0.02 to 1.16µg.g-1 moist weight. This study shows that the mercury used in digs for gold mining and released into the environment has reached the habitats of Pantanal spread from the sediment into the molluscs living in the region.

  15. In What Form Does Global Capital Flow Leave Behind Memories? The Story of the Apple Snail Caught Between the Green Revolution and the Organic Food Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingling Wo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a study of Taiwan’s United News Daily archive and the shifting discourses of the Green Revolution and the organic food movement, the project analyzes the narrative frameworks produced on the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan. Apple snail has become invasive to many East Asian countries since the 1980s; it is considered among the world’s 100 most invasive species. During the era of the Green Revolution, the economy of killing the apple snail with pesticide was generated by a narrative of how greedy merchants imported invasive apple snail and led to the systematic disruption of Taiwan’s ecology. The paper explores how the organic food movement responded to and was shaped by such a narrative of innocence lost, and emphasizes the importance of going beyond the hyper-real narratives of irreparable ecological destructions by recognizing sites of memories left behind by global capital flow.

  16. Biomphalaria glabrata no Estado do Piauí Biomphalaria glabrata in the State of Piaui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available É registrado o primeiro encontro do molusco planorbideo Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni, no Estado do Piauí, coletado em vários criadouros na cidade de Parnaíba. O exame de 694 exemplares revelou a presença de formas evolutivas de algumas espécies de trematodeos, mas não de Schistosomatidea. Nenhum caso autoctone de xistosomose foi até agora identificado na população humana da cidade. A presença da B. glabrata em Parnaíba amplia em 20 km para leste a área de sua distribuição na Região Litoral Norte da Grande Região Nordeste do Brasil onde era conhecida até em Avaioses no extremo leste da parte maranhense da referida Região. Outros moluscos também coletados nos mesmos criadouros foram Biomphalaria straminea, Drepanotrema lucidum. D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Physidae e Ampullarriidae.The occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata is recorded for the first time in the state of Piauí, where it was collected from several breeding places in the city of Parnaíba. Examination of 694 specimens showed that a part of them were infected with trematodes other than Schistosomatidae. So far no autochthonous cases of schistosomiasis have been identified in the city. The presence of B. glabrata in Parnaíba extends by 20 Km eastward its range on the Northern Coastal region of the Great Northeastern region of Brazil, where it had been found as far as Araioses, on the eastern extreme of the state of Maranhão. Other snail species collected from the same breeding places were Biomphalaria straminea, Drepanotrema lucidum, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Physidae and Ampullariidae.

  17. Epidemiological situation and molecular identification of cercarial stage in freshwater snails in Chao-Phraya Basin, Central Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sothorn Anucherngchai; Thanawan Tejangkura; Thapana Chontananarth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of cercarial trematode infection in snails and to examine the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationship to explain the molecular system of cercarial stage trematodes to estimate the infection rate of in the definite host from the Chao-Phraya Basin. Methods: The snails were collected from 10 provinces of the Chao-Phraya Basin, Thailand by stratified sampling method. The snails were examined for cercarial infection by the crushing method. All DNA specimens were amplified with internal transcribed spacer 3 (ITS3) and ITS4 primer based on PCR technique. The sequence data were aligned and used to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree by unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means with 10 000 bootstraps. Results: The overall rate of cercarial infection was found to be 5.90%(122/2 067). Snails in the family Thiaridae were found to be in the highest prevalence followed by Lym-naeidae, Bithyniidae, Planorbidae, Viviparidae, and Ampullariidae, respectively, while the Buccinidae family (Clea helena) did not reveal any infections. The frequently found species of cercariae were parapleurolophocercous cercariae, cercariae and megarulous cercariae. The monophyletic tree separated the snails into five groups comprised of Heterophyidae, Strigeidae, Lecithodendriidae, Philophthalmidae and Echinostomatidae using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This study was the first to report on cercarial infection in the Chao-Phraya Basin, Thailand. This revealed that a high variety of freshwater snails were infected by cercariae stage trematodes with a high prevalence. The sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of trematodes at the family level and in each clade of different families separated by the definitive hosts.

  18. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Sevigny

    , Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterobranchia were all monophyletic, and thus appear to be better classifications for this diverse group.

  19. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Joseph L; Kirouac, Lauren E; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S; Lawlor, Kayla E; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A; Newcomb, James M

    2015-01-01

    , Caenogastropoda, and Heterobranchia) were all monophyletic, and thus appear to be better classifications for this diverse group. PMID:25996944

  20. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina Relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados y peces en un arroyo de la llanura pampeana (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.Se evaluó la dieta y las relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 y Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae y los peces Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae y Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae en un ecosistema lótico pampásico, sobre la base del contenido estomacal y el análisis de isótopos estables. La estrategia alimentaria fue analizada mediante el método de AMUNDSEN. La contribución relativa de cada categoría alimenticia para los taxa estudiados indicó que

  1. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  2. Brominating activity of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum: Impact on the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wever, R.; Tromp, M.G.M.; Krenn, B.E.; Marjani, A.; Van Tol, M. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-03-01

    Macroalgae are an important source of volatile halogenated organic compounds, such as bromoform and dibromomethane. The mechanism by which these compounds are formed is still elusive. The authors report that the brown seaweeds Laminaria saccharina, Laminaria digitata, Fucus vesiculosis, Pelvetia canaliculata, and Ascophyllum nodosum and the red seaweeds Chondrus crispus and Plocamium hamatum contain bromoperoxidases. The intact plants are able to brominate exogeneous organic compounds when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Br{sup {minus}} are added to seawater. Further, the authors show that the brominating activity of the brown macroalga A. nodosum, which contains a vanadium bromoperoxidase located on the thallus surface, occurs when the plant is exposed to light and not in the dark. The rate of bromination of exogenous organic compounds in seawater by this plant is 68 nmol (g of wet alga){sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1}. HOBr is a strong biocidal agent and the authors propose that the formation of HOBr by this seaweed is part of a host defense system.

  3. Enrichment of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Irish brown macroalgae using food-friendly techniques based on polarity and molecular size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Michelle S; Smyth, Thomas J; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna; Croft, Anna K; Brunton, Nigel

    2013-08-15

    An efficient, food-friendly process for the enrichment of macroalgal phlorotannins from solid-liquid extracts (SLE) of three brown macroalgae, namely Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) Decaisne & Thuret and Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, has been demonstrated. The initial utilisation of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) dialysis generated fractions of low molecular weight (LMW) (100 kDa) from cold water, hot water and aqueous ethanolic SLE extracts. An enhancement of the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging abilities (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in the HMW fractions of 3.5-100 kDa and/or >100 kDa from the cold water and aqueous ethanolic extracts was observed. The initial weak TPC, RSA and FRAP observed in the LMW fractions relative to the HMW fractions were substantially enhanced following a reverse-phase flash chromatography fractionation method. Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-Tof-MS) suggests that phlorotannins of varying degrees of phloroglucinol polymerisation are present in LMW fractions of the three brown macroalgal species. The development of a food-friendly process for the extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from Irish macroalgae is vital to facilitate the use of this valuable resource in future developments of macroalgal-based functional foods. PMID:23561170

  4. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  5. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  6. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

  7. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  8. A catalogue of Danian gastropods from the Baunekule facies, Faxe Formation, Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauridsen, B.W.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This catalogue of 194 gastropod taxa is based on the collection of Danian gastropods from the Baunekule facies, Faxe Formation in eastern Denmark. The gastropod fauna is extremely rich and well preserved. Most of the gastropods (106 species are referred to genus level only, 9 morphotypes to even higher taxonomical levels and 79 gastropods are referred to species level. The gastropods are classified following Bouchet & Rocroi (2005 as 4 different clades: Vetigastropoda (represented by 26 species and 10 superfamilies, Caenogastropoda (represented by 142 species and 17 superfamilies, Heterobranchia (represented by 23 species and 5 superfamilies and Opisthobranchia (represented by 1 species and 1 superfamily. The new species Zaclys? nuetzeli n. sp. is introduced. The Faxe Formation is recognised as a cold-water coral ecosystem with interfingering smaller bryozoan mounds. The Baunekule facies is found in the upper part of the coral mound complex of the Faxe Formation, where it forms isolated lensoidal bodies in the flanks of some of the coral mounds. It is characterised by a high diversity invertebrate fauna that occurs in weakly consolidated coraldominated floatstone to rudstone. The diagenesis of the Baunekule facies is of special significance because a high proportion of the originally aragonite-shelled fauna is preserved by recrystallization to calcite during early burial diagenesis. Most of the gastropods are not known from other parts of the Faxe Fm. The fauna is very important for comparative evolutionary studies of fossil and modern gastropods on cold-water coral mounds. Many of the genera have not previously been recorded from Danian strata. None of the gastropod species found in the Baunekule facies are known for certain to range below the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. The fauna is comparable to gastropods found on modern cold-water coral mounds in the North Atlantic. The gastropod fauna from the Baunekule facies is characterised by a

  9. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  10. Physiology of the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata: tolerance to low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Lewis E.; Schmidt, William; Leblanc, Brody; Carter, Jacoby; Mueck, Kristy; Merino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Apple snails of the genus Pomacea native to South America have invaded and become established in Europe, Asia, and the United States. Both the channeled apple snail Pomacea canaliculata and the island apple snail Pomacea maculata have been reported in the United States. The two species are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, leading to uncertainty about the identity of the animals from populations in the United States. Because the snails are subtropical, their tolerance of low temperatures is a critical factor in limiting the spread of the animals from present localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to more northern areas. The tolerance of P. maculata collected in Louisiana to temperatures as low as 0°C was examined. There was no mortality among animals maintained in water at temperatures of 20°C or 15°C for 10 days. Survival of animals during a 10-day exposure to water at temperatures 10°C and 5°C was 50%. The LD50 for a 10-day exposure was 7°C. Snails did not survive more than 5 days in liquid water at 0°C. Ammonia excretion by animals in temperatures of 20°C and 15°C was comparable to values reported for freshwater gastropods; at very low temperatures, excretion of ammonia was decreased. There was no difference in the mean values of the osmolality of the hemolymph of animals exposed to 20°C, 15°C and 10°C for 10 days. Sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 identified the animals in the Louisiana population used in this study as P. maculata.

  11. Diquat associated with copper sources for algae control: Efficacy and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Nathalia; Da Cruz, Claudinei; Da Silva, Adilson F; Carraschi, Silvia P; Malaspina, Igor C; Pitelli, Robinson A; Bianco, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of copper oxychloride (CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) and diquat (1.1'-ethylene-2.2'-bipyridyldiylium dibromide), isolated and in association with 0.1% of both copper sources, in the control of the unicellular algae Ankistrodesmus gracilis and the filamentous algae Pithophora kewesis, and to determine the acute toxicity of the tested chemicals in Hyphressobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata, Lemna minor and Azolla caroliniana. The efficacy was estimated by the methods of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a readings, changed into growth inhibition percentage. Both algae were exposed to the following concentrations: 0.2; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2 mg L(-1) of diquat and its association with the copper sources; and 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) in the isolated applications of copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride. An untreated control was kept. The acute toxicity was estimatedby 50% lethal concentration (LC50). The copper sources were effective for A. gracilis control, at rates as high as 0.1 mg L(-1) (>95% efficacy). Isolated diquat and its association with copper hydroxide were both effective at rates as high as 0.4 mg L(-1), with 95 and 88% control efficacy, respectively. The copper oxychloride was effective at 0.2 mg L(-1), with 93% efficacy. None of the tested chemicals and associations was effective on P. kewesis control. The most sensitive non target organism to the tested chemicals was L. minor; the less sensitive was H. eques.

  12. Diquat associated with copper sources for algae control: Efficacy and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Nathalia; Da Cruz, Claudinei; Da Silva, Adilson F; Carraschi, Silvia P; Malaspina, Igor C; Pitelli, Robinson A; Bianco, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of copper oxychloride (CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) and diquat (1.1'-ethylene-2.2'-bipyridyldiylium dibromide), isolated and in association with 0.1% of both copper sources, in the control of the unicellular algae Ankistrodesmus gracilis and the filamentous algae Pithophora kewesis, and to determine the acute toxicity of the tested chemicals in Hyphressobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata, Lemna minor and Azolla caroliniana. The efficacy was estimated by the methods of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a readings, changed into growth inhibition percentage. Both algae were exposed to the following concentrations: 0.2; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2 mg L(-1) of diquat and its association with the copper sources; and 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) in the isolated applications of copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride. An untreated control was kept. The acute toxicity was estimatedby 50% lethal concentration (LC50). The copper sources were effective for A. gracilis control, at rates as high as 0.1 mg L(-1) (>95% efficacy). Isolated diquat and its association with copper hydroxide were both effective at rates as high as 0.4 mg L(-1), with 95 and 88% control efficacy, respectively. The copper oxychloride was effective at 0.2 mg L(-1), with 93% efficacy. None of the tested chemicals and associations was effective on P. kewesis control. The most sensitive non target organism to the tested chemicals was L. minor; the less sensitive was H. eques. PMID:26766580

  13. Estructura y neotectónica de Las Lomas de Olmedo, zona de transición entre los Sistemas Subandino y de Santa Bárbara, provincia de Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra las evidencias de deformación neotectónica en la región del noroeste argentino de lomas de Olmedo, provincia de Salta. Esta región ubicada en el frente orogénico a los 24°S de latitud comprende la zona de transición entre las Sierras Subandinas al norte, de tipo epidérmico con vergencia al este, o Sistema Subandino sensu stricto, y un segmento austral correspondiente al Sistema de Santa Bárbara producido por inversión tectónica de fallas normales con vergencia al oeste. Entre estos dos segmentos con diferente comportamiento se ubican las lomas de Olmedo, que muestran un complejo diseño de fallas activas. Depósitos de edad paleógena que constituyen las facies de hundimiento térmico de las fases finales del rift del Grupo Salta y los depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos de la cuenca de antepaís subandina, se hallan plegados y corridos sobre depósitos cuaternarios en el anticlinal de lomas de Olmedo. Los sedimentos terciarios están corridos sobre los depósitos lacustres de la Formación El Chorro de edad cuaternaria. Las edades 14C en conchillas de gasterópodos de esta unidad pertenecientes a Pomacea canaliculata arrojaron una edad de 7.962 ± 45 BP años para estos depósitos. Las fallas inversas con vergencia al este indican para la mayor parte del Holoceno una tasa de acortamiento orogénico de 2,34 mm/a para el frente tectónico en la zona de transición entre los dos sistemas de la faja plegada y corrida subandina.

  14. Local adaptation along a continuous coastline: prey recruitment drives differentiation in a predatory snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Eric; Worth, David J

    2010-03-01

    Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, coastal topography, and other stable features of the coastline. Whereas the ecological effects of these oceanographic links are increasingly clear, the possibility that these same bottom-up forces might impose spatially varying selection on consumers has not been addressed. Here, we test the hypothesis that a carnivorous snail (Nucella canaliculata) with direct development is locally adapted to persistent differences in prey recruitment within two adjacent oceanographic regions (northern California and Oregon, USA). Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that snails from Oregon rarely drilled the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus californianus, whereas snails from California readily drilled this prey. To test whether these differences reflect local adaptation, snails from two populations in each region were raised through two laboratory generations to minimize the potential influence of nongenetic effects. We then reciprocally outplanted these F2 generation snails to field enclosures at each of the four sites and monitored their growth for 11 months. Recruitment and availability of preferred prey (the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula and blue mussel Mytilus trossulus) at the experimental sites were 1-3 orders of magnitude lower in California than in Oregon. At the California sites, snails that originated from Oregon sources failed to drill larger M. californianus, encountered few alternative prey, and showed almost no growth. In contrast, snails from California drilled M. californianus and showed substantial growth. These results strongly suggest that the capacity of California snails to drill M. californianus allows

  15. Novel Animal Defenses against Predation: A Snail Egg Neurotoxin Combining Lectin and Pore-Forming Chains That Resembles Plant Defense and Bacteria Attack Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceolín, Marcelo; Ituarte, Santiago; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Sun, Jin; Fernández, Patricia E.; Heras, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Although most eggs are intensely predated, the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata have only one reported predator due to unparalleled biochemical defenses. These include two storage-proteins: ovorubin that provides a conspicuous (presumably warning) coloration and has antinutritive and antidigestive properties, and PcPV2 a neurotoxin with lethal effect on rodents. We sequenced PcPV2 and studied whether it was able to withstand the gastrointestinal environment and reach circulation of a potential predator. Capacity to resist digestion was assayed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence spectroscopy and simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis. PcPV2 oligomer is antinutritive, withstanding proteinase digestion and displaying structural stability between pH 4.0–10.0. cDNA sequencing and protein domain search showed that its two subunits share homology with membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF)-like toxins and tachylectin-like lectins, a previously unknown structure that resembles plant Type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins and bacterial botulinum toxins. The protomer has therefore a novel AB toxin combination of a MACPF-like chain linked by disulfide bonds to a lectin-like chain, indicating a delivery system for the former. This was further supported by observing PcPV2 binding to glycocalix of enterocytes in vivo and in culture, and by its hemaggutinating, but not hemolytic activity, which suggested an interaction with surface oligosaccharides. PcPV2 is able to get into predator’s body as evidenced in rats and mice by the presence of circulating antibodies in response to sublethal oral doses. To our knowledge, a lectin-pore-forming toxin has not been reported before, providing the first evidence of a neurotoxic lectin in animals, and a novel function for ancient and widely distributed proteins. The acquisition of this unique neurotoxic/antinutritive/storage protein may confer the eggs a survival advantage, opening new

  16. Colonização de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 em localidade com esquistossomose mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brasil. (Prosobranchia, Pilidae Colonization of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 at localility with Schistosomiasis mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Na localidade de Baldim, MG, Brasil, foram introduzidos, em agosto de 1972, 5.421 exemplares de Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae em 5 córregos e 2 valas, nos quais predominavam Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 e, secundariamente, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848. Entre 1968 e 1971, os índices de infecção da espécie B. glabrata por Schistosoma mansoni oscilaram de 2,1% a 11,9%. Em nenhum momento foram capturados B. straminea liberando cercárias daquele trematódeo. Após a introdução do pilídeo, apenas uma única vez detectou-se 2 (0,8% B. glabrata positivas. Observou-se decréscimo populacional de planorbineos e aumento de densidade de pomácea até 20,0 e 121,6 exemplares/m² em córregos e valas, respectivamente. A estimativa da densidade de F. haustrum foi feita através do método dos "quadrats". Foram coletados, de junho de 1968 a julho de 1972, 65,2% (1.526 dos planorbíneos. Porém, após a introdução do predador-competidor, foram registrados os seguintes dados: 1976, 15% (352; em 1977, 16,1% (377 e, em 1978, apenas 3,7% (87 do total dos exemplares capturados. As pomáceas, transferidas do ambiente lenítico (Sete Lagoas, MG, adaptaram-se às coleções lóticas de Baldim e foram capazes de substituir as populações originais de B. glabrata em vários biótopos, ou tornaram-se, pelo menos, dominantes, sem danos visíveis para os novos ecossistemas. Acredita-se que em outras situações análogas, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1956 - e, por extensão, P. lineata (Spix, 1827, P. canaliculata (Lamark, 1822 e outras do mesmo táxon - poderão ser utilizadas, com sucesso, no controle biológico dos hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni.In the region of Baldim, MG (Brazil - a well-known Schistosoma mansoni endemic area where transmission control had already been unsuccessfully attempted through molluscicide, sanitary education and clinical treatment - 5,421 specimens of Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae were