WorldWideScience

Sample records for canaliculata architaenioglossa ampullariidae

  1. Immune Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae: Phagocytic Hemocytes in the Circulation and the Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Cueto

    Full Text Available Hemocytes in the circulation and kidney islets, as well as their phagocytic responses to microorganisms and fluorescent beads, have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, using flow cytometry, light microscopy (including confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Three circulating hemocyte types (hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes were distinguished by phase contrast microscopy of living cells and after light and electron microscopy of fixed material. Also, three different populations of circulating hemocytes were separated by flow cytometry, which corresponded to the three hemocyte types. Hyalinocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and no apparent granules in stained material, but showed granules of moderate electron density under TEM (L granules and at least some L granules appear acidic when labeled with LysoTracker Red. Both phagocytic and non-phagocytic hyalinocytes lose most (if not all L granules when exposed to microorganisms in vitro. The phagosomes formed differed whether hyalinocytes were exposed to yeasts or to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria. Agranulocytes showed a large nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few or no granules. Granulocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and numerous eosinophilic granules after staining. These granules are electron dense and rod-shaped under TEM (R granules. Granulocytes may show merging of R granules into gigantic ones, particularly when exposed to microorganisms. Fluorescent bead exposure of sorted hemocytes showed phagocytic activity in hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes, but the phagocytic index was significantly higher in hyalinocytes. Extensive hemocyte aggregates ('islets' occupy most renal hemocoelic spaces and hyalinocyte-like cells are the most frequent component in them. Presumptive glycogen deposits were observed in most hyalinocytes in renal islets (they also occur in the circulation but less frequently and may mean that

  2. Relación entre estructura y función de la perivitelina PV2 de Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Frassa, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    El caracol dulceacuícola Pomacea canaliculata es nativo de Sudamérica y, además de ser biológicamente muy interesante, presenta especial interés económico-sanitario por ser plaga en numerosos cultivos, especialmente arroz, y también presenta importancia epidemiológica porque es hospedador intermediario del nematode causante de la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica humana.\

  3. Relación entre estructura y función de la perivitelina PV2 de Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Frassa, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    El caracol dulceacuícola Pomacea canaliculata es nativo de Sudamérica y, además de ser biológicamente muy interesante, presenta especial interés económico-sanitario por ser plaga en numerosos cultivos, especialmente arroz, y también presenta importancia epidemiológica porque es hospedador intermediario del nematode causante de la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica humana. Las hembras oviponen fuera del agua y estas puestas aéreas quedan expuestas a un ambiente agresivo de alta radiación solar...

  4. Relación entre estructura y función de la perivitelina PV2 de Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Frassa, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    El caracol dulceacuícola Pomacea canaliculata es nativo de Sudamérica y, además de ser biológicamente muy interesante, presenta especial interés económico-sanitario por ser plaga en numerosos cultivos, especialmente arroz, y también presenta importancia epidemiológica porque es hospedador intermediario del nematode causante de la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica humana. Las hembras oviponen fuera del agua y estas puestas aéreas quedan expuestas a un ambiente agresivo de alta radiació...

  5. Bioindication of mercury, arsenic and uranium in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae): Bioconcentration and depuration in tissues and symbiotic corpuscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy-Diaz, Alejandra D; Arribére, María A; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Vega, Israel A

    2017-12-26

    Pomacea canaliculata is a mollusk potentially useful as a biomonitor species of freshwater quality. This work explores the ability of snail tissues and symbiotic corpuscles to bioconcentrate and depurate mercury, arsenic, and uranium. Adult snails cultured in metal-free reconstituted water were exposed for eight weeks (bioaccumulation phase) to water with Hg (2 μgL-1), As (10 μgL-1), and U (30 μgL-1) and then returned to the reconstituted water for other additional eight weeks (depuration phase). Elemental concentrations in digestive gland, kidney, symbiotic corpuscles and particulate excreta were determined by neutron activation analysis. The glandular symbiotic occupancy was measured by morphometric analysis. After exposure, the kidney showed the highest concentration of Hg, while the digestive gland accumulated mainly As and U. The subcellular distribution in symbiotic corpuscles was ∼71%, ∼48%, and ∼11% for U, Hg, and As, respectively. Tissue depuration between weeks 8 and 16 was variable amongst elements. At week 16, the tissue depuration of U was the highest (digestive gland = 92%; kidney = 80%), while it was lower for Hg (digestive gland = 51%; kidney = 53%). At week 16, arsenic showed a differential pattern of tissue depuration (digestive gland = 23%; kidney = 88%). The symbiotic detoxification of the three elements in excreta was fast between weeks 8 and 10 and it was slower after on. At the end of the depuration, each element distributed differentially in digestive gland and symbiotic corpuscles. Our findings show that symbiotic corpuscles, digestive gland and kidney P. canaliculata are sensitive places for biomonitoring of Hg, As and U. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

  7. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  8. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  9. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  10. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-02-24

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  11. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. W. Yam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  12. Molluscicidal saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Liao, Sin-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-08-13

    Extracts of soapnut, Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Sapindaceae) showed molluscicidal effects against the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck. (Ampullariidae) with LC(50) values of 85, 22, and 17 ppm after treating 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of S. mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (1), along with six known hederagenin saponins, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (3), hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (4), hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (5), hederagenin 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (6), and hederagenin 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (7). The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail.

  13. Comparing apples with apples: clarifying the identities of two highly invasive Neotropical Ampullariidae (Caenogastropoda)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HAYES, KENNETH A; COWIE, ROBERT H; THIENGO, SILVANA C; STRONG, ELLEN E

    2012-01-01

    ... to differentiate conchologically, Pomacea maculata Perry, 1810 and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Misidentification hampers efforts to manage their spread and impacts as invasives, and prevents meaningful comparative analyses of their biology...

  14. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  15. Field evaluation of plants molluscicide against Pomacea canaliculata.

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Martínez, Migdalia

    2016-01-01

    Two plants reported as molluscicides have been tested against the snail Pomacea canaliculata under field conditions. The molluscicide activity of the formulation Sapindus saponaria L. (100%) was compared with the mixture of Sapindus saponaria L. and Solanum mammosum L. (50:50, w/w) using different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg.L−1). LC50 and LC90 values were calculated using Probit Model. Sapindus saponaria L. (100%) showed higher molluscicide activity and reported a LC50 value o...

  16. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions.

  17. The biological control of Pomacea canaliculata population by rice-duck mutualism in paddy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang Liang; Jia-en Zhang; Li Fang; Benliang Zaho; Mingzhu Luo; Prem Parajuli; Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Duck has been used as a non-chemical control method against Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, but little is known about its principles that underlie the control of snail populations. An indoor experiment was initially used to observe the predation potential of ducks, followed by replicated field trials. In the indoor studies, ducks effectively preyed on...

  18. Activation of violaxanthin cycle in darkness is a common response to different abiotic stresses: a case study in Pelvetia canaliculata

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Míguez, Fátima; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    .... In this study, we used the highly stress-tolerant brown alga Pelvetia canaliculata as a model organism, due to its lack of lutein and its non-photochemical quenching independent of the transthylakoidal-Δ...

  19. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Arnaldo Campos dos Santos Coelho; Jefferson Andrade dos Santos

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with roun...

  20. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on survival, development and growth of invasive snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanggui; Li, Adela Jing; Li, Kaibin; Qin, Junhao; Li, Huashou

    2017-12-01

    This study tests the hypotheses that whether environmental relevance of glyphosate would help control spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata, or benefit its population growth worldwide. Our results showed that glyphosate induced acute toxicity to the snail only at high concentrations (96h LC50 at 175mg/L) unlikely to occur in the environment. Long-term exposures to glyphosate at sublethal levels (20 and 120mg/L) caused inhibition of food intake, limitation of growth performance and alterations in metabolic profiles of the snail. It is worth noting that glyphosate at 2mg/L benefited growth performance in P. canaliculata. Chronic exposures of glyphosate significantly enhanced overall metabolic rate and altered catabolism from protein to carbohydrate/lipid mode. Cellular responses in enzyme activities showed that the exposed snails could increase tolerance by their defense system against glyphosate-induced oxidative stress, and adjustment of metabolism to mitigate energy crisis. Our study displayed that sublethal concentrations of glyphosate might be helpful in control of the invasive species by food intake, growth performance and metabolic interruption; whether environmental relevance of glyphosate (≤2mg/L) benefits population growth of P. canaliculata is still inconclusive, which requires further field study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative profiling of hepatopancreas transcriptomes in satiated and starving Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Tian-Yin; Zhao, Fei-Yan

    2017-02-22

    Although Pomacea canaliculata is native to South and Central America, it has become one of the most abundant invasive species worldwide and causes extensive damage to agriculture and horticulture. Conventional physical and chemical techniques have been used to eliminate P. canaliculata, but the effects are not ideal. Therefore, it is important to devise a new method based on a greater understanding of the biology of P. canaliculata. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying digestion and absorption in P. canaliculata are not well understood due to the lack of available genomic information for this species, particularly for digestive enzyme genes. In the present study, hepatopancreas transcriptome sequencing produced over 223 million high-quality reads, and a global de novo assembly generated a total of 87,766 unique transcripts (unigenes), of which 19,942 (22.7%) had significant similarities to proteins in the UniProt database. In addition, 296,675 annotated sequences were associated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment was performed for the unique unigenes, and 262 pathways (p-value plant consumption and coarse fiber digestion and absorption. These transcripts were classified into four large categories: hydrolase, transferase, isomerase and cytochrome P450. The Reads Per Kilobase of transcript per Million mapped reads (RPKM) analysis showed that there were 523 down-regulated unigenes and 406 up-regulated unigenes in the starving apple snails compared with the satiated apple snails. Several important genes are associated with digestion and absorption in plants: endo-beta-1, 4-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, cellulase EGX1, cellulase EGX3 and G-type lysozyme genes were identified. The qRT-PCR results confirmed that the expression patterns of these genes (except for the longipain gene) were consistent with the RNA-Seq results. Our results provide a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular

  2. Molecular identification of Pomacea canaliculata and P. insularum from rice paddy in different origins in China using mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate subunit 6 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qing-Qing; Li, Xiao-Yan; Fang, Yan-Qin; Jia, Yan-Qing; Mu, Xi-Dong

    2015-02-01

    To identify Pomacea canaliculata and P. insularum using a molecular approach, the partial sequences of mitochondrial (mt) adenosine triphosphate subunit 6 (patp6) genes of two apple snails species from eight provinces of China were obtained. The intra-specific variations in mt patp6 within P. canaliculata were 0-4.5%, and no sequence difference in this region was observed within P. insularum. However, high inter-specific variations between P. canaliculata and P. insularum were detected, with sequence differences of 8.9-10.1%. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of mt patp6 revealed that P. canaliculata and P. insularum were grouped in different clades, but the genetic trees could not reveal geographically genetic relationships of P. canaliculata isolates from different origins. These findings will provide basic information for further study of molecular epidemiology and control of Pomacea invasion in China as well as in the world.

  3. A temperature-dependent physiologically based model for the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, Gianni; Pasquali, Sara; Martín, Pablo R.; Carlsson, Nils; Mariani, Luigi

    2017-11-01

    In order to set priorities in management of costly and ecosystem-damaging species, policymakers and managers need accurate predictions not only about where a specific invader may establish but also about its potential abundance at different geographical scales. This is because density or biomass per unit area of an invasive species is a key predictor of the magnitude of environmental and economic impact in the invaded habitat. Here, we present a physiologically based demographic model describing and explaining the population dynamics of a widespread freshwater invader, the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, which is causing severe environmental and economic impacts in invaded wetlands and rice fields in Southeastern Asia and has also been introduced to North America and Europe . The model is based on bio-demographic functions for mortality, development and fecundity rates that are driven by water temperature for the aquatic stages (juveniles and adults) and by air temperature for the aerial egg masses. Our model has been validated against data on the current distribution in South America and Japan, and produced consistent and realistic patterns of reproduction, growth, maturation and mortality under different scenarios in accordance to what is known from real P. canaliculata populations in different regions and climates. The model further shows that P. canaliculata will use two different reproductive strategies (semelparity and iteroparity) within the potential area of establishment, a plasticity that may explain the high invasiveness of this species across a wide range of habitats with different climates. Our results also suggest that densities, and thus the magnitude of environmental and agricultural damage, will be largely different in locations with distinct climatic regimes within the potential area of establishment. We suggest that physiologically based demographic modelling of invasive species will become a valuable tool for invasive species managers.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Pomacea canaliculata isolates collected from rice fields in different origins of China by combined mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    To study the genetic relationships of Pomacea canaliculata collected from rice fields in China, the mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S of 9 P. canaliculata isolates from 5 southern provinces in China were sequenced and analyzed. The intra-specific sequence variations of P. canaliculata were 0-1.1% for 12S and 0--0.6% for 16S, while the inter-specific variations among common Pomacea species in mt 12S and 16S were 3.0-11.7% and 2.3-10.1%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S revealed complex genetic structure of P. canaliculata in China. Two phylogenetic groups of P. canaliculata were indicated in China with one group sistered to P. canaliculata isolates from USA, and two groups were even found in the same province. The phylogenetic relationships of Pomacea spp. also could be effectively inferred by combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S. These findings provided basic information for further study of population genetics and diffusion pattern of P. canaliculata in China as well as in the world.

  5. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  6. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo MingMing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3. However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1 in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

  7. Karyotype description of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), with an assessment of the taxonomic status of Pomacea patula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diupotex-Chong, María Esther; Cazzaniga, Néstor J; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel

    2004-12-01

    Mitotic chromosomes of the freshwater snail Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) were analyzed on gill tissue of specimens from the type locality (Lake Catemaco, Mexico). The diploid number of chromosomes is 2n = 26, including nine metacentric and four submetacentric pairs; therefore, the fundamental number is FN = 52, No sex chromosomes could be identified. The same chromosome number and morphology were already reported for P. flagellata, i.e., the other species of the genus living in Mexico. The basic haploid number for family Ampullariidae was reported to be n = 14 in the literature; so, its reduction to n = 13 is probably an apomorphy of the Mexican Pomacea snails. Lanistes bolteni, from Egypt, also shows n = 13, but its karyotype is much more asymmetrical, and seems to have evolved independently from P. flagellata and P. patula catemacensis. The nominotypical subspecies, P. patula patula (Reeve 1856), is a poorly known taxon, whose original locality is unknown. A taxonomical account is presented here, and a Mexican origin postulated as the most parsimonious hypothesis.

  8. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the vector snails Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Langui; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Zi; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease induced by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been recognized as the main cause leading to human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans usually acquire infection by digestion of infected Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica, the most predominant intermediate hosts found in China. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among these two snails in China in the past 10 years. Data were systematically collected in electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, CSCD, and Wanfang from 2005 to 2015. Thirty-eight studies with a total of 41,299 P. canaliculata and 21,138 Ac. fulica were included in the present study. The overall infection rate of A. cantonensis in China was estimated to be 7.6 % (95 % confidential interval (CI) = 0.063 to 0.090) in P. canaliculata and 21.5 % in Ac. fulica (95 % CI = 0.184 to 0.245), respectively. No significant difference was observed in prevalence rates among publication year and sample size for both snails. Also, it was found that the prevalence in Ac. fulica is significantly higher than that in P. canaliculata (odds ratio (OR) = 3.946, 95 % CI = 3.070 to 5.073). The present study reveals that snail infection with A. cantonensis is clearly prevalent in China. Further studies are required to improve strategies for control of infections of snails, particularly those of Ac. fulica, and to detect further factors and conditions such as geographic region, temperatures, and diagnosis method.

  9. Using ensemble forecasting to examine how climate change promotes worldwide invasion of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Juncheng; Chen, Lian; Li, Hong

    2017-08-01

    The golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is one of the world's 100 most notorious invasive alien species. Knowledge about the critical climate variables that limit the global distribution range of the snail, as well as predictions of future species distributions under climate change, is very helpful for management of snail. In this study, the climatically suitable habitats for this kind of snail under current climate conditions were modeled by biomod2 and projected to eight future climate scenarios (2 time periods [2050s, 2080s] × 2 Representative Concentration Pathways [RCPs; RCP2.6, RCP8.5] × 2 atmospheric General Circulation Models [GCMs; Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)]). The results suggest that the lowest temperature of coldest month is the critical climate variable to restrict the global distribution range of P. canaliculata. It is predicted that the climatically suitable habitats for P. canaliculata will increase by an average of 3.3% in 2050s and 3.8% in 2080s for the RCP2.6 scenario, while they increase by an average of 8.7% in 2050s and 10.3% in 2080s for the RCP8.5 scenario. In general, climate change in the future may promote the global invasion of the invasive species. Therefore, it is necessary to take proactive measures to monitor and preclude the invasion of this species.

  10. Pengaruh beberapa Jenis Ekstrak Tanaman sebagai Moluskisida Nabati terhadap Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Kardinan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has been carried out at the Pest and Disease Laboratory, Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogar, in the 1997. Research consisted of three parts, those were; (I The toxicity of Dens elliptica, Blumea balsamifera, and methaldehyde, by determining the LC50 values, (2 Effect of the leaves of B.balsamifera, Euphorbia tirucalli and Tephrosia vogelii, (3 Effect of the most poisonous plant as ovicides. Result showed that D.elliptica was the most poisonous material to golden snail with its LC50 value was 400ppm, but it was still under the toxicity value of methaldehyde (11. 78 ppm. There was no significant difference among B.balsamifera, T.vogelii and E. canaliculata, but extract of B.balsarnifera tended to be better material among those plant extracts tested. The extract of D.elliptica did not affect egg hatching of golden snail.

  11. Ambrosia artemisiifolia as a potential resource for management of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenbing; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Zhongshi; He, Hualiang; Li, Youzhi

    2017-11-17

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive weed in Europe and Asia, is highly toxic to the golden apple snail (GAS; Pomacea canaliculata) in laboratory test. However, little is known about the chemical components of A. artemisiifolia associated with the molluscicidal activity or about its potential application for GAS control in rice fields. This study evaluated the molluscicidal activities of powders, methanol extracts, and individual compounds from A. artemisiifolia against GAS in rice fields and under laboratory conditions. A. artemisiifolia powders did not negatively effect the growth and development of rice but they reduced the damage of GAS to rice. Extracts had moderate acute toxicity but potent chronic toxicity. The 24 hr LC50 value of the extracts against GSA was 194.0 mg/L, while the weights, lengths and widths of GAS were significantly affected by exposure to a sublethal concentration (100 mg/mL). Psilostachyin, psilostachyin B, and axillaxin were identified as the most active molluscicide components in the aerial parts of A. artemisiifolia, and the 24 hr LC50 values of these purified compounds were 15.9, 27.0, and 97.0 mg/L, respectively. The results indicate that chemical compounds produced by A. artemisiifolia may be useful for population management of golden apple snails (GAS) in rice fields. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Queue up, please! Spermathecal filling in the rove beetle Drusilla canaliculata (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Gack, Claudia; Speck, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Most studies on insect sperm motility have been conducted in vitro using artificial environments outside the animal's body. Only little is known about the function of motile insect sperm at different sites within the male or female genital tracts. We dissected genital tracts of female rove beetles (Drusilla canaliculata) to show that spermatozoa use their own motility to migrate from the spermatophore into the spermatheca. Our dissection method allowed direct observation and filming of the spermathecal filling process inside the female's genital tract. Spermatozoa were found to enter the spermatheca individually, sometimes in groups of two or three. Although exhibiting only weak motility and no progressive motion in buffer solution, the spermatozoa inside the female show vigorous lashing and reach an average velocity of 47.5 microm s(-1). To gain mobility and speed, the spermatozoa likely utilize the relatively small diameter of the spermathecal duct to push themselves off the duct walls, rather than swimming freely in seminal fluid. The spermatozoa (approximately 1,250 microm) are considerably longer than the distance they have to travel along the spermathecal duct (approximately 800 microm). Our study provides the first direct observation of active sperm migration within the female of an insect stressing the importance of the genital tract as a prerequisite for functional sperm motility.

  13. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried

  14. Endosymbiotic and host proteases in the digestive tract of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata: diversity, origin and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín S Godoy

    Full Text Available Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1 a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2 a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3 two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen.

  15. Imposex and novel mechanisms of reproductive failure induced by tributyltin (TBT) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; Clément, María E; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    The effects of tributyltin (TBT) on mortality and reproduction were studied in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata. The nominal median lethal concentration (LC50) was 9 µg TBT/L, after 28 d. The nominal no-observed effect on lethality concentration (NOECL) was 6 µg TBT/L after the same period. Male-female couples and females that had been group-mated but were isolated from males during the experiment (isolated females) were exposed (for 28 d) to either 0 µg/L or 6 µg/L of TBT (nominal NOECL-exposed). Copulation and oviposition frequencies, egg clutch mass, and percentage of egg fertility were recorded. Gonads (both sexes) and the seminal receptacle (females) were studied histologically at the end of the experiment. A significant decrease in copulation frequency was observed in mated-exposed females. Exposure also decreased oviposition frequency of mated-exposed and isolated-exposed females, but only the latter reached significance. No differences in either egg clutch mass or percentage of fertility were observed at first oviposition, but both parameters were drastically reduced in subsequent egg clutches of exposed females. No histological alterations were observed in gonads of TBT-exposed animals; however, sperm storage in the seminal receptacle was drastically decreased in exposed females. Imposex but no oviductal obstruction was observed in all exposed females. It is concluded that TBT induces reproductive failure in P. canaliculata by decreasing copulation frequency and by severely affecting sperm storage by the female. © 2013 SETAC.

  16. Endosymbiotic and Host Proteases in the Digestive Tract of the Invasive Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Diversity, Origin and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Martín S.; Castro-Vasquez, Alfredo; Vega, Israel A.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1) a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2) a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3) two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen. PMID:23818959

  17. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    .... We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis...

  18. DAYA MAKAN, DIAPAUSE DAN MOBILITAS KEONG MAS (POMACEA CANALICULATA PADA BERBAGAI KEDALAMAN AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqualine Arriani Bunga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding rate, aestivation and mobility of golden snails (Pomacea canaliculata at different depths of water. The research was studied in Malaka District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, during the dry and the rainy season (October 2014 - March 2015. Studies on capacity of damage to the Ciherang rice seedlings were carried out for three weeks. The size of snails used in this experiment was 11-20; 21-30; and 31-40 mm. The numbers of seedlings that were planted were 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 seeds. The treatments were repeated 5 times. The numbers of seeds which are damaged by the snails then were tabulated and analyzed. Snails with the size of 11-20 mm damaged the seeds in 31.67%, followed by snails with the size of 21-30 mm and 31- 40 mm with potency of damaging were 64.76% and 97.38%, respectively. The size of snails affects the level of damage to rice seedlings when transplanting. Study about aestivation was conducted in five villages, namely Kamanasa, Wehali, Umakatahan, Harekakae and Kletek when the rice fields were fallow. The observation point was observed at the corner of the dike and along the dike, evaluated every 10 meters away. The results showed snails aestivate when the fields were dry. Studies on snail’s mobility conducted on the experiment arena on the mud in buckets, which planted with 20 paddy seedlings. The treatment depth of puddles in the experiment were without puddles, half, the same height and twice the height of snails shell. The treatments were repeated 10 times. Measurement of snail’s mobility was performed routinely every 2 hours, observed from the beginning when the snails were placed for 24 hours in advance. The results showed that the depth of the water significantly affected the mobility of snails. Without puddles, the mobility of snails was severely hampered in the mud. The mobility of the juvenile was significantly higher than the imago. The implication of this study was benefit to that the regulating the level

  19. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-09

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides.

  20. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Perri Venturini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  1. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  2. Application of the Nernst-Planck approach to lead ion exchange in Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana F de Sá S; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; da Silva, Eduardo A B; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-07-01

    Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata biomass was used to remove Pb(2+) in aqueous solution from batch and continuous systems. The physicochemical characterization of algae Pelvetia particles by potentiometric titration and FTIR analysis has shown a gel structure with two major binding groups - carboxylic (2.8 mmol g(-1)) and hydroxyl (0.8 mmol g(-1)), with an affinity constant distribution for hydrogen ions well described by a Quasi-Gaussian distribution. Equilibrium adsorption (pH 3 and 5) and desorption (eluents: HNO(3) and CaCl(2)) experiments were performed, showing that the biosorption mechanism was attributed to ion exchange among calcium, lead and hydrogen ions with stoichiometry 1:1 (Ca:Pb) and 1:2 (Ca:H and Pb:H). The uptake capacity of lead ions decreased with pH, suggesting that there is a competition between H(+) and Pb(2+) for the same binding sites. A mass action law for the ternary mixture was able to predict the equilibrium data, with the selectivity constants alpha(Ca)(H)=9+/-1 and alpha(Ca)(Pb)=44+/-5, revealing a higher affinity of the biomass towards lead ions. Adsorption (initial solution pH 4.5 and 2.5) and desorption (0.3M HNO(3)) kinetics were performed in batch and continuous systems. A mass transfer model using the Nernst-Planck approximation for the ionic flux of each counter-ion was used for the prediction of the ions profiles in batch systems and packed bed columns. The intraparticle effective diffusion constants were determined as 3.73x10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for H(+), 7.56x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Pb(2+) and 6.37x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Ca(2+). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  4. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C 10 and C 11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3615 Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimate the acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  6. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0.66-0.75 (média 0.70. Testículo, espermiduto e bolsa do pênis como em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada e em forma de feijão. Próstata cilíndrica e estreita, de cor creme como o testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote, com espermiduto circular e fechado. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída da base para a extremidade, sendo esta última voltada para a direita; glândula basal extrema situada à esquerda; glândula mediana interna arredondada; glândula apical alongada e com sulcos. Ovário composto de túbulos brancos ramificados dispostos superficialmente sobre a glândula digestiva verde. Oviduto e receptáculo seminal como em P. lineata; glândula de albume de cor alaranjada; ovos prismáticos e calcáreos de cor alaranjada. Aparelho copulador masculino vestigial (pênis e sua bainha presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

  7. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Colin H; Plantz, Allyson L; Shelton, Therese; Burks, Romi L

    2013-01-01

    Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea) provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number) of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and managers can quickly

  8. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  9. Freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of Thailand according to the water resource development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsoomboon, Jareemate; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Chusongsang, Yupa; Charoenjai, Prasasana; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Numnuan, Suthep; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2007-03-01

    The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively.

  10. A new alien snail species from the Eger stream, Hungary (Mollusca, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisóczki, B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our macrozoobenthon samplings carried out in the Eger stream during 2015–2016 resulted in recording an alien species Marisa cornuarietis (Linneaus, 1758 the giant ramshorn snail which has not been reported so far from outdoorwaters in Hungary. Here we report on collecting several specimens from the urban section of the stream close to the outflow of the Eger thermal spa.

  11. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  12. The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Kenneth A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snails have had on both natural habitats and agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, their introduction to the mainland U.S. is cause for concern. We combine phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences with examination of introduced populations and museum collections to clarify the identities, introduced distributions, geographical origins, and introduction histories of apple snails. Results Based on sampling to date, we conclude there are five species of non-native apple snails in the continental U.S. Most significantly, we recognize three species within what has been called the channeled apple snail: Pomacea canaliculata (California and Arizona, Pomacea insularum, (Florida, Texas, and Georgia and Pomacea haustrum (Florida. The first established populations of P. haustrum were discovered in the late 1970s in Palm Beach County Florida, and have not spread appreciably in 30 years. In contrast, populations of P. insularum were established in Texas by 1989, in Florida by the mid to late 1990s, and in Georgia by 2005, and this species continues to spread rapidly. Most introduced P. insularum haplotypes are a close match to haplotypes from the Río Uruguay near Buenos Aires, indicating cold tolerance, with the potential to spread from Florida, Georgia, and Texas through Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Pomacea canaliculata populations were first discovered in California in 1997. Haplotypes of introduced P. canaliculata match native-range haplotypes from near Buenos Aires, Argentina, also indicating cold tolerance and the potential to establish farther north. Conclusion The term "channeled apple snail" is descriptive of a morphology found in many apple snail species. It does not identify a single species or a

  13. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU; ESTHER URIA-GALICIA; FÉLIX ESPINOSA-CHÁVEZ; FERNANDO MARTÍNEZ-JERÓNIMO

    2003-01-01

    El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicame...

  14. A new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida commensal of Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae from Misiones, Argentina Una especie nueva de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida comensal de Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Damborenea

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., a commensal of Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, is described herein from specimens collected at Arroyo Yabotí-Miní (Misiones province, Argentina. Juveniles and adults were removed from the mantle cavity by host relaxation. Distinctive characters of the new species are: non-partitioned intestine; conical cirrus with 1 face flat and another concave; distal area with spines, as evidenced by a strong, oblique sclerotized ring, and 2 rows of long spines, an internal one with long spines arising from base of introvert and an external one arising from distal end of the introvert. The closest species are T. iheringi, T. rochensis and T. haswelli, which are also commensals of mollusc species. The presence of this new species of Temnocephala, and its similarity to the other species that are commensals of molluscan species, suggest the existence of a morphologically homogeneous group.Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., comensal de Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, se describe para el arroyo Yabotí-Miní, provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se extrajeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos de la cavidad paleal, por relajación de los hospederos. Las características distintivas de la nueva especie son: intestino no septado, cirro de forma cónica, con una cara plana y otra cóncava, zona distal con espinas evidente por un fuerte anillo oblicuo esclerosado. Dos hileras de espinas se reconocen en el extremo distal, 1 interna de espinas largas, que surge desde la base del introverso, y 1 externa, que surge del extremo distal del mismo. Las especies más semejantes son T. iheringi, T. rochensis y T. haswelli, especies comensales de moluscos con las que es comparada. El hallazgo de esta nueva especie de Temnocephala y sus características semejantes a las restantes especies del género comensales de moluscos, sugieren que las especies conocidas hasta la fecha formen un grupo morfológicamente homogéneo.

  15. Embryonic development and organogenesis in the snail Marisa cornuarietis (Mesogastropoda: Ampullariidae). V. Development of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, E S; Yousif, F

    1975-01-01

    The nervous system is ectodermal in origin. All nerve ganglia arise separately by proliferation and later delamination from the ectoderm, not by invagination. They become secondarily connected to one another by commissures and connectives developing as extensions from the peripheral layer of ganglionic nerve cells. Rudiments of the cerebral, pedal, pleural and intestinal (parietal) ganglia arise almost simultaneously at a relatively early stage (Stage V). The cerebral ganglia develop from the ectoderm of the head plates. Rudiments of the pedal and pleural ganglia are separate at their inception. They later fuse (Stage VI) to form a pleuro-pedal ganglionic mass on each side. The 2 intestinal ganglia are symmetrical at the beginning, but they soon lose their symmetry as a result of torsion. The right ganglion crosses to the left over the gut and persists as the supraintestinal ganglion. The left or subintestinal ganglion shifts to the right and forward, and fuses with the right pleural ganglion (Stage VIII), thus obscuring the chiastoneury. The paired buccal and single visceral (abdominal) ganglia start differentiating in Stage VII. The former develop from the ectodermal wall of the stomodaeum, while the visceral ganglion delaminates from the right wall of the visceral sac, then shifts to the left during torsion. The statocysts develop early (Stage V) from 2 ectodermal invaginations on either side of the rudimentary foot. They later separate from the overlying ectoderm and statoconi appear in their lumina. Contrary to earlier reports on related ampullariids, the osphradium proved to be ontogenetically older than the mantle and mantle cavity. It starts differentiating as a thickened ectodermal plate in the right wall of the visceral sac (Stage V). During torsion, it becomes engulfed in the mantle cavity and shifts to the left side, then is carried forward as the mantlegrow. The eyes develop late (Stage IX) as ectodermal invaginations which rapidly separate from the ectoderm to form closed vesicles. Their cells start differentiating before hatching to form the retina, in which pigment is deposited, and the inner cornea. The lens is secreted in the lumen of the eye and grows by addition of concentric layers of secretion.

  16. Arresting mantle formation and redirecting embryonic shell gland tissue by platinum2+ leads to body plan modifications in Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Leonie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the threat that anthropogenic substances pose to animals when they are emitted into the environment, tests like the invertebrate embryo toxicity test with the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis have been developed. These tests are used to investigate substances like the heavy metal platinum (Pt) that is used in catalytic converters and is gradually released in car exhausts. In 2010, our group reported that high Pt concentrations cause body plan alterations in snails and prevent the formation of an external shell during M. cornuarietis embryogenesis. Now, this study presents scanning-electron micrographs and histological sections of platinum(2+) (Pt(2+))-treated and untreated M. cornuarietis embryos and compares "normally" developing and "shell-less" embryos during embryogenesis, to reveal the exact course of events that lead to this body plan shift. Both groups showed similar development until the onset of torsion 70- to 82-h postfertilization. In the Pt(2+)-exposed embryos, the rudimentary shell gland (=anlage of both shell gland and mantle, which usually evaginates, grows, and eventually covers the visceral sac) does not spread across the visceral sac but remains on its ventral side. Without the excessive growth of the shell gland, a horizontal rotation of the visceral sac relative to head and foot does not occur, as being normal during the process of torsion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Use of Chitosan of Pomacea canaliculata Shell as Natural Preservation to Maintain Fruit Quality during Storage Process: Used as Audio Visual Media of Biotechnology Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurike Fransischa Trisnaningrum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan merupakan turunan kitin yang terbentuk dari proses deasetilasi yang bisa digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet alami yang efektif dan memiliki aktivitas antimikroba.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kandungan vitamin C, pH dan berat dalam buah jeruk, strowberi, dan pisang yang diawetkan dengan chitosan cangkang keong mas selama proses penyimpanan danuntuk mengetahui berapakah konsentrasi chitosan cangkang keong mas yang paling efektif sebagai bahan pengawet buah. Penelitian merupakan True Experimental Research yang dilaksanakan di Laboratorium KimiaUniversitas Muhammadiyah Malang. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan 6 perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan pada jeruk, strowberi dan pisang yaitu konsentrasi chitosan 1,5%, 2%, 2,5%, 3% dan 3,5%. Analisis data menggunakan analisis Blok Acak dan uji beda jarak nyata Duncan pada taraf signifikansi 0,05.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada pengaruh terhadap buah. Perubahan kandungan vitamin C dan berat paling kecil terjadi pada perlakuan 2,5% dan paling besar pada perlakuan kontrol. Pemberian konsentrasi chitosan cangkang keong mas2,5% yang paling efektif mempengaruhi kandungan vitamin C dan berat buah jeruk, strowberi dan pisang. Hasil penelitian diaplikasikan sebagai media audio visual dalam pembelajaran Bioteknologi

  18. The Apple Snail Pomacea maculata (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) as the intermediate host of Stomylotrema gratiosus (Trematoda: Stomylotrematidae) in Brazil: the first report of a mollusc host of a Stomylotrematid Trematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Cantanhede, Selma Patrícia D; Thiengo, Silvana C; de Melo, Alan L; Fernandez, Monica A

    2015-04-01

    Trematodes belonging to the family Stomylotrematidae are intestinal parasites of birds. Despite the worldwide distribution and diversity of host species, the first intermediate host remains unknown. For a survey of parasites of Pomacea maculata , snails were collected from the municipality of São Vicente Férrer, state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. In the present study, the xiphidiocercariae shed from these snails were used in the experimental infection of the water bug Belostoma plebejum. The insect mortality was observed 30 days post-infection, and the metacercariae recovered in the body cavity of B. plebejum were identified as Stomylotrema gratiosus. This is the first report of an ampullariid snail as intermediate host of stomylotrematid trematodes.

  19. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA con cuatro tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados muestran el 100% de mortalidad por septicemia a las 96 horas de la inoculación, con relación al testigo.

  20. Identity, reproductive potential, distribution, ecology and management of invasive Pomacea maculata in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Romi L.; Bernatis, Jennifer; Byers, James E.; Carter, Jacoby; Martin, Charles M.; McDowell, William G.; Van Dyke, Jess; Joshi, R. C.; Cowie, R. H.; Sebastian, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    Established populations of introduced Pomacea maculata, a highly fecund, large species of apple snail native to South America, now occur throughout southeast Asia, in Spain and extensively across the southern United States. Substantial research on nonnative apple snails takes place in Southeast Asia and has frequently identified apple snails as P. canaliculata. That these Asian populations represent at least two Pomacea species, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, has been confirmed through anatomical and genetic

  1. Kelimpahan Makrozoobentos di Perairan Situ Pamulang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Alfin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on the abundance of macrozoobenthos in Situ Pamulang waters conducted in August 2014. This study aims to determined the types of macrozoobenthos and abundance in the region. This study used survey method with sampling at three (3 points by using purposive random sampling in Situ Pamulang waters. The results were obtained nine types of macrozoobenthos that overall there in 4 orders are 5 types of orders Sorbeoconcha, 2 types of orders Viviparoidea and each one kind of order Architaenioglossa and Hygrophyila. The abundance of macrozoobenthos between 25-2225 individuals/m2. Macrozoobenthos including low diversity index was 1.48. Macrozoobenthos dominance index of 0.25 so that it can be said there was no type that dominates in the region.

  2. Evaluation of genetic diversity in the golden apple snail, Pomacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity of Pomacea canaliculata, collected from Los Banos (LB) in Philippines and Yuyao (YY), Taizhou (TZ), Fuzhou (FZ), Guangzhou (GZ), Nanning (NN), ... A relatively high level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on Nei's gene diversity analysis (Gst = 0.2001) and analysis of ...

  3. A new species of the genus Orchesia Latreille (Coleoptera: Melandryidae) from Baltic amber with a key to species described from fossil resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Vitalii I; Bukejs, Andris

    2015-04-17

    Orchesia (Orchestera) canaliculata sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber (Kaliningrad Region, Russia). New fossil records on O. turkini Alekseev & Bukejs and O. rasnitzyni Nikitsky are presented. A key to species of Orchesia Latreille, described from fossil resins, is provided.

  4. 1984-IJBCS-Article-Mariso Tiebre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Anthonotha macrophylla. 1. 1. 0. Funtumia elastica. 7. 2. 5. Diospyros canaliculata. 20. 1. 19. Griffonia simplicifolia. 6. 2. 4. Alchornea cordifolia. 4. 1. 3. Manotes longiflora. 4. 2. 2. Placodiscus oblongifolus. 16. 1. 15. Clerodendrum splendens. 3. 2. 1. Grewia malacocarpa. 6. 1. 5. Dalbergia oblongifolia. 5. 1. 4. Hopea odorata.

  5. Identification of twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci in the golden ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Invasive species are recognized as the second largest threat to biodiversity after habitat loss (Lowe et al. 2000). Of. South American origin (Argentina), the golden apple snail. Pomacea canaliculata was introduced in Taiwan as human food around 1980 and subsequently in other East Asian and. Southeast Asian countries ...

  6. Ocorrência de moluscos límnicos e crustáceo em macroaglomerados do mexilhão dourado, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 sobre sarandi no lago Guaíba (RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2008-01-01

    amostras; Potamolithus jacuhyensis Pilsbry, 1899 (35,71%, como espécie acessória e o crustáceo Hyalella curvispina Shoemaker, 1942 (26%, como espécie acessória. Os demais táxons foram acidentais (<25%: Ampullariidae (indivíduos jovens; Heleobia davisi (Silva & Thomé, 1985; Chilina parva (Martens, 1868 e Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774. As relações interespecíficas destes táxons são até o momento pouco conhecidas.

  7. [Four alien medical mollusk found in Dapeng Peninsula, Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi-Kui; Zhuang, Xin; Hu, Guan-Guan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the alien snails in Dapeng Peninsula, Shenzhen City. The survey on the snail diversity in Dapeng Peninsula was carried out from August 2012 to Jan 2013, and the species of the alien snails were identified according to the shell morphology. Four species of alien snails including Achatinafulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Physa acuta, and Biomphalaria straminea were found in Dapeng Peninsula, P. acuta was found in all of the collected sites, A. fulica and P. canaliculata were distributed in five regions except Yangmeikeng area, and B. straminea was just found in Dapeng Town. Four species of important alien snails invade widely in Dapeng Peninsula, Shenzhen City. As their potential risk to the disease transmission and agriculture production, the relative departments should strengthen the control and prevention.

  8. Genetic Basis of Differential Heat Resistance between Two Species of Congeneric Freshwater Snails: Insights from Quantitative Proteomics and Base Substitution Rate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Huawei; Sun, Jin; Fang, Ling; Luan, Tiangang; Williams, Gray A; Cheung, Siu Gin; Wong, Chris K C; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-10-02

    We compared the heat tolerance, proteomic responses to heat stress, and adaptive sequence divergence in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata and its noninvasive congener Pomacea diffusa. The LT50 of P. canaliculata was significantly higher than that of P. diffusa. More than 3350 proteins were identified from the hepatopancreas of the snails exposed to acute and chronic thermal stress using iTRAQ-coupled mass spectrometry. Acute exposure (3 h exposure at 37 °C with 25 °C as control) resulted in similar numbers (27 in P. canaliculata and 23 in P. diffusa) of differentially expressed proteins in the two species. Chronic exposure (3 weeks of exposure at 35 °C with 25 °C as control) caused differential expression of more proteins (58 in P. canaliculata and 118 in P. diffusa), with many of them related to restoration of damaged molecules, ubiquitinating dysfunctional molecules, and utilization of energy reserves in both species; but only in P. diffusa was there a shift from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism. Analysis of orthologous genes encoding the differentially expressed proteins revealed two genes having clear evidence of positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1) and seven candidates for more detailed analysis of positive selection (Ka/Ks between 0.5 and 1). These nine genes are related to energy metabolism, cellular oxidative homeostasis, signaling, and binding processes. Overall, the proteomic and base substitution rate analyses indicate genetic basis of differential resistance to heat stress between the two species, and such differences could affect their further range expansion in a warming climate.

  9. Replacement of species along altitude gradients: the role of branch architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Rubén; Giménez-Benavides, Luis; Montserrat-Martí, Gabriel

    2008-12-01

    Plant species typical of cold and warm habitats differ in a suite of morpho-physio-phenological traits, although their evolutionary routes have been poorly explored. Here, it is advocated that traits typical of different climate regimes can be largely driven by contrasting branch architectures. This is explored within Saxifraga. First, an investigation was carried out to determine whether series Ceratophyllae (lateral inflorescences) is segregated to lowlands compared with Pentadactylis (terminal inflorescences). Then, two altitudinal vicariants, S. trifurcata (lowland, with lateral inflorescences) and S. canaliculata (highland, with apical inflorescences), were selected. It was hypothesized that apical flowering of S. canaliculata constrains its growth period, bringing with it traits typical of short growth season plants, and conversely for S. trifurcata. The hypothesis was tested by measuring plant compactness and organ pre-formation in seven populations of these species along an altitude gradient. Most variables differed among species. Morphological variables at all scales support that the architecture of S. canaliculata generates a more compact habit. A higher number of primordia and earlier inflorescence pre-formation in S. canaliculata indicate that it begins organogenesis earlier. Data on organogenesis suggest that the different timing of inflorescence initiation may be the origin of the contrasting architectures. Within species, shoot compactness increased, and the length of lateral primordia decreased, as altitude increased. All other metrics were similar among locations of the same species at contrasting altitudes. The hypotheses linking elevational segregation of species, architecture and pheno-morphological traits were validated at broad (gen. Saxifraga) and local (altitudinal vicariants) scales. This supports the initial idea that shoot architecture may to a large extent condition high altitude adaptive syndrome.

  10. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  11. Notes on the Chilean geographic distribution of several vascular plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Pfanzelt, Simon; García, Carolina; Marticorena, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    New collections extend the Chilean geographic distributions of five native and one endemic vascular plant species: Coriaria ruscifolia L. (Coriariaceae), Fascicularia bicolor (Ruiz and Pav.) Mez subsp. canaliculata E.C. Nelson and Zizka (Bromeliaceae), Drapetes muscosus Lam. (Thymelaeaceae), Phyllachne uliginosa J.R. Forst. and G. Forst (Stylidiaceae), Saxifragella bicuspidata (Hook.f.) Engl., and Saxifragodes albowiana (Kurtz ex Albov) D.M. Moore (both Saxifragaceae). Species descriptions, d...

  12. Sensitivity of aquatic organisms to ethanol and its potential use as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility for the use of the organisms Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana, Hyphessobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata and Daphnia magna as exposure bioindicators for ethanol (lethal and effective concentration 50% - LC50(I/EC50(I. Thus, the following concentrations were used 5.0; 10.0; 20.0; 30.0; 40.0 and 50.0 mg L-1 ethanol on L. minor; 25.0; 50.0; 75.0; 100.0; 150.0 and 200.0 mg L-1 on A. caroliniana; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1 on H. eques; 0.05; 0.10; 0.20; 0.40 and 0.80 mg L-1 on P. canaliculata; and 40.0; 60.0; 80.0; 100.0; 120.0 and 140.0 mg L-1 on D. magna. An untreated control was also kept for all organisms, with three repetitions. The increase in the ethanol concentration elevated the electrical conductivity and decreased the water dissolved oxygen and pH. The ethanol LC50 for L. minor and A. caroliniana were 12.78 and 73.11 mg L-1, respectively, and was classified as slightly toxic; 1.22 mg L-1 for H. eques (moderately toxic; 0.39 mg L-1 for P. canaliculata (highly toxic and 98.85 mg L-1 for D. magna (slightly toxic. Thus, H. eques and P. canaliculata have showed good potential for the use as ethanol exposure bioindicators on water bodies.

  13. Ampullariid gastropods from the Palaeogene Hudi Chert Formation (Republic of the Sudan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Bussert, Robert; Eisawi, Ali A. M.

    2017-05-01

    The age of the Hudi Chert fauna is highly controversial and crucial for the reconstruction of the geological history of the Nile valley. Herein, six species of Ampullariidae (Gastropoda) are described from the Hudi Chert Formation in the Republic of the Sudan, documenting that alleged relations of the Hudi Chert fauna with Oligocene faunas from Egypt turned out to be based on misidentifications. Although an Oligocene age cannot be excluded, we propose an Eocene age for the Hudi Chert fauna based on the known stratigraphic range of the newly established genus Sudanistes. A Neogene age is clearly excluded based on the presence of the exclusively Palaeogene genus Pseudoceratodus. The Hudi Chert ampullariids lived in an extensive freshwater system of swamps and ponds, whereas riverine conditions and deep lake setting are unlikely depositional environments. Pila busserti Harzhauser & Neubauer is described as a new species and Sudanistes Harzhauser & Neubauer is introduced as a new genus.

  14. Occurrence of limnic molluscs and crustaceous on clusters of the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, formed on “sarandi” at Guaíba Lake (rs, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria de Fraga Alberto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the occurrence of invetebrates associated with macro clusters of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 formed on branches of “sarandi” (Chephalanthus glabratus (Spreng. K. Schum, quantitative samplings (N=28 were conducted for two years (2002 to 2004 at Veludo Beach on Guaíba Lake (municipality of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. From the results, the gastropod Heleobia piscium (Orbigny, 1835 was identified as a constant (78.57% species, while Potamolithus jacuyensis Pilsbry 1899 (35.71% and the crustaceous Hyalella curvispina Shoemaker 1942 (26% were indicated as accessory species. The other taxa were accidental (<25%: Ampullariidae (young individuals, Heleobia davisi (Silva & Thomé, 1985, Chilina parva (Martens, 1868 and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774. Currently, the interspecific relationships among these taxa are poorly known.

  15. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seaweed extracts Avaliação de atividade antifúngica de extratos de macroalgas marinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Fernandes Peres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are subject to numerous biological interactions and sometimes to extreme abiotic conditions, so they have developed among other defense mechanisms, the ability to produce biologically active substances. Thus, these organisms produce mainly terpenes and phenols. Among others, the antifungal activity, due to its importance in human and animal health and the production of agricultural products, has been the subject of several studies. In the present work, this activity was investigated in ten seaweeds extracts, by direct bioautography assays, compared to Colletotrichum lagenarium and disk diffusion assay, compared to Aspergillus flavus. The organisms studied were: Stypopodium zonale, Laurencia dendroidea, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum muticum, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Sargassum filipendula, Sargassum stenophyllum, Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria edulis. S. zonale, L. dendroidea, P. canaliculata, S. muticum, A. nodosum and F. spiralis extracts significantly inhibited the C. lagenarium growth, but not inhibited significantly the A. flavus growth. The presence of terpenes in all of these extracts was confirmed by thin layer chromatography whereas the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed only in extracts of P. canaliculata, A. nodosum and S. muticum. In chemical study by column chromatography, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the terpenes neophytadiene, cartilagineol, obtusol elatol; and the ester ethyl hexadecanoate were identified in the L. dendroidea extract. This is the first report on the activity of seaweed extracts against C. lagenarium, a fungus bearing agricultural importance.As macroalgas marinhas, por estarem sujeitas a numerosas interações biológicas e, por vezes, a condições abióticas extremas, desenvolveram, entre outros mecanismos de defesa, a capacidade de produzir substâncias biologicamente ativas. Assim, esses organismos produzem, principalmente, terpenos e fen

  16. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  17. Understanding the regulation of estivation in a freshwater snail through iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater gastropod with a remarkable ability to withstand seasonal or unpredictable dry conditions by entering estivation. Studies of P. canaliculata using conventional biochemical and the individual gene approaches have revealed the expressional changes of several enzymes and antioxidative genes in response to estivation and arousal. In this study, we applied iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify the global protein expression during the estivation and arousal of P. canaliculata. A total of 1040 proteins were identified, among which 701 proteins were quantified and compared across four treatments (i.e., control, active snails; short-term estivation, 3 days of exposure to air; prolonged estivation, 30 days of exposure to air; and arousal, 6 h after resubmergence in water) revealing 53 differentially expressed proteins. A comparison of protein expression profiles across treatments indicated that the proteome of this species was very insensitive to initial estivation, with only 9 proteins differentially expressed as compared with the control. Among the 9 proteins, the up-regulations of two immune related proteins indicated the initial immune response to the detection of stress cues. Prolonged estivation resulted in many more differentially expressed proteins (47 compared with short-term estivation treatment), among which 16 were down-regulated and 31 were up-regulated. These differentially expressed proteins have provided the first global picture of a shift in energy usage from glucose to lipid, prevention of protein degradation and elevation of oxidative defense, and production of purine for uric acid production to remove toxic ammonia during prolonged estivation in a freshwater snail. From prolonged estivation to arousal, only 6 proteins changed their expression level, indicating that access to water and food alone is not a necessary condition to reactivate whole-sale protein expression. A

  18. Vectors and Spatial Patterns of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Selected Rice-Farming Villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Angelica A. Tujan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Philippines, rats and snails abound in agricultural areas as pests and source of food for some of the local people which poses risks of parasite transmission to humans such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study was conducted to determine the extent of A. cantonensis infection among rats and snails collected from rice-farming villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija. A total of 209 rats, 781 freshwater snails, and 120 terrestrial snails were collected for the study. Heart and lungs of rats and snail tissues were examined and subjected to artificial digestion for parasite collection. Adult worms from rats were identified using SSU rDNA gene. Seven nematode sequences obtained matched A. cantonensis. Results revealed that 31% of the rats examined were positive with A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi showed prevalence of 46% and 29%, respectively. Furthermore, only Pomacea canaliculata (2% and Melanoides maculata (1% were found to be positive for A. cantonensis among the snails collected. Analysis of host distribution showed overlapping habitats of rats and snails as well as residential and agricultural areas indicating risks to public health. This study presents a possible route of human infection for A. cantonensis through handling and consumption of P. canaliculata and M. maculata or crops contaminated by these snails.

  19. Comparative germination ecology of two altitudinal vicariant Saxifraga species endemic to the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Benavides, L; Milla, R

    2013-05-01

    Seeds of high-mountain species are thought to germinate rapidly, synchronously and at high percentages after a cold period, with limited dependence on the external environment; yet, empirical evidence only partially supports this behaviour. We performed a comparative study of the germination response of two closely related taxa along an altitude gradient in northern Spain. Seeds from several maternal families of six populations of Saxifraga trifurcata (lowland species) and S. canaliculata (highland species) were subjected to temperature and stratification treatments. Germination percentages and germination rates were analysed using generalised linear mixed modelling and accelerated failure-time modelling. We found that germination percentages and germination rates were high and dependent on incubation temperature in both species. Within species, seeds from higher altitudes had higher germination percentages under all conditions. Cold-wet stratification negatively affected germination success, particularly in the lowland species. Overall, the highland species was less responsive to the experimental treatments and showed more synchronous germination patterns. We conclude that seeds from these two Saxifraga species germinate as efficiently as species from other habitats, but have a narrower germination response, probably due to the stronger selective pressures in their harsh environments. Finally, a cold, wet stratification period is not a prerequisite for the germination of high-mountain S. canaliculata, and its strong negative effect on the germination of its lowland relative S. trifurcata may contribute to the altitudinal segregation of these two species. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n = 34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Comparative proteomics and codon substitution analysis reveal mechanisms of differential resistance to hypoxia in congeneric snails

    KAUST Repository

    Mu, Huawei

    2017-11-06

    Although high-throughput proteomics has been widely applied to study mechanisms of environmental adaptation, the conclusions from studies that are based on one species can be confounded by phylogeny. We compare the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (a notorious invasive species) and its congener Pomacea diffusa (a non-invasive species) to understand the molecular mechanisms of their differential resistance to hypoxia. A 72-h acute exposure experiment showed that P. canaliculata is more tolerant to hypoxia than P. diffusa. The two species were then exposed to three levels of dissolved oxygen (6.7, 2.0 and 1.0mgL−1) for 8h, and their gill proteins were analyzed using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS. The two species showed striking differences in protein expression profiles, with the more hypoxia tolerant P. canaliculata having more up-regulated proteins in signal transduction and down-regulated proteins in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Evolutionary analysis revealed five orthologous genes encoding differentially expressed proteins having clear signal of positive selection, indicating selection has acted on some of the hypoxia responsive genes. Our case study has highlighted the potential of integrated proteomics and comparative evolutionary analysis for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to global environmental change in non-model species. SignificanceRapid globalization in recent decades has greatly facilitated species introduction around the world. Successfully established introduced species, so-called invasive species, have threatened the invaded ecosystems. There has been substantial interest in studying how invasive species respond to extreme environmental conditions because the results can help not only predict their range of expansion and manage their impact, but also may reveal the adaptive mechanisms underlying their invasiveness. Our study has adopted a comparative approach to study the differential physiological and proteomic

  2. In What Form Does Global Capital Flow Leave Behind Memories? The Story of the Apple Snail Caught Between the Green Revolution and the Organic Food Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingling Wo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a study of Taiwan’s United News Daily archive and the shifting discourses of the Green Revolution and the organic food movement, the project analyzes the narrative frameworks produced on the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan. Apple snail has become invasive to many East Asian countries since the 1980s; it is considered among the world’s 100 most invasive species. During the era of the Green Revolution, the economy of killing the apple snail with pesticide was generated by a narrative of how greedy merchants imported invasive apple snail and led to the systematic disruption of Taiwan’s ecology. The paper explores how the organic food movement responded to and was shaped by such a narrative of innocence lost, and emphasizes the importance of going beyond the hyper-real narratives of irreparable ecological destructions by recognizing sites of memories left behind by global capital flow.

  3. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    by collecting season (P = 0.208–0.341). The TEP values ranged from 1.46 to 50.3 mg/g dry matter (DM), and differed (P ... rate of 3.0% per h, ranged from 424 to 652 g/kg, the highest values were recorded for Mastocarpus stellatus and Porphyra sp. The lowest DMED values were registered for Pelvetia canaliculata and Acrosiphonia sp. In 24-h incubations (500 mg DM), Palmaria palmata had the highest (P ... methane production (P averaged value). The methane/total VFA ratio was not affected (P > 0.05) by either seaweed species or the collection season. Higher final pH (P

  4. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  5. Identification and Profiling of Active Compounds from Golden Apple Snail’s Egg Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadatun Abdullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata has been known as rice corps pest due to high adaptability and reproductive power. Utilization of Pomacea canaliculata’s eggs as raw materials in the food and health industry is one of the efforts to eradicate the pest snail. This study was aimed to identify the active compounds contained in the extract pigments of Pomacea canaliculata’s eggs. The methods of this study were extraction of pigments using acetone and methanol, analyzing the active compound (secondary metabolite qualitatively, TLC to determine pigment components and LC-MS/MS to identify active compounds semi quantitatively. The results showed that active compounds in the methanol extract contain 11 carotenoid pigments of xanthophyl group, two carotenoid pigments of carotene group, and 2 active compounds in nonpigmented form, whereas the acetone extract contain 11 pigmentcarotenoids of xanthophyl group and 2 compounds active in non-pigment form.

  6. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  7. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  8. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  9. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  10. The influence of a large SW Atlantic shelf-break frontal system on epibenthic community composition, trophic guilds, and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauna, A. Cecilia; Acha, E. Marcelo; Lasta, Mario L.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2011-08-01

    Productivity gradients (i.e., through bottom-up control) have an important influence on variability in species diversity and community composition in marine systems. At the SW Atlantic shelf-break front (SBF), we hypothesized that a high and stable food supply in areas under the core of a frontal influence (F) promotes a different benthic community structure (i.e., species diversity, taxa biomasses, and composition of feeding guilds) than in areas located under marginal influences of the front (M). In 2007, we sampled 34 trawling stations located across the SBF to evaluate this hypothesis. We compared epibenthic community composition, diversity indices, and species and trophic guild biomass in F and M areas. We observed differences in community composition, predator biomass, and the biomass of some taxa. However, we did not detect any changes in diversity indices, suspension feeder biomass, or grazer-omnivore biomass. The scallop, Zygochlamys patagonica, sponges, and the brittle star, Ophiacantha vivipara, together with the sea star Diplasterias brandtii characterized frontal areas. Marginal areas were characterized by the scallop, Z. patagonica, the parchment worm, Chaetopterus variopedatus, the basket star, Gorgonocephalus chilensis, the sea urchin, Austrocidaris canaliculata, and the sea star, Ctenodiscus australis. These shifts in taxa were not always reflected in biomass differences between areas. These results demonstrate that spatial variations in oceanographic structure, even over spatial scales of tens of kilometers, can affect composition and shift species dominance in benthic communities.

  11. Comparison of Freshwater Mollusc Assemblages between Dry and Rainy Season in Situ Gede System, Bogor, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priawandiputra, W.; Nasution, D. J.; Prawasti, T. S.

    2017-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities, which reduced and damaged natural situ (freshwater ponds), also reduced fauna diversity in its aquatic ecosystem. Freshwater molluscs in the situ, one of the largest numbers of animals group with documented extinction, may also be impacted. The aims of this study were to record and to compare the abundance and species composition of freshwater molluscs between dry and rainy season in three situ. The freshwater molluscs were determined by twelve sampling points in Situ Gede (SG), Situ Panjang (SP) and Situ Burung (SB). Samplings were conducted once during dry season (August 2015) and rainy season (February 2016). Total abundance of molluscs encountered was 4321 individuals, which was comprised of 76 bivalve individuals (1.75 %) and 4245 gastropods individuals (98.44%). The abundance of molluscs were generally higher in rainy season than in dry season in all situ, while species richness showed the contrary. The species composition was significantly different between dry and rainy season in SP and SB but no significant differences was found in SG. From eight dominant species, there were six dominant species such as Filopaludina javanica, Melanoides tuberculata, Thiara scabra, Sermyla requeti, Pila scutata (gastropods) and Pilsbryoconcha exilis (bivalve) which were found in high numbers during dry season while two gastropod species (Pomacea canaliculata and Wattebledia crosseana) was numbered higher in rainy season than dry season.

  12. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

  13. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  14. Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H‧ values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

  15. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed. Proteins ranged from 34 to 123 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58 g kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern. In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  17. THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT MOLLUSCS OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machfudz Djajasasmita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present in Indonesia 32 species of non-marine molluscs which belong to IS families have been known to be potentially of medicalor veterinary importance, since they are suspected to be capable in transmitting human and animal diseases. The brackish water family Potamididae comprises of 1 species; whereas the freshwater snails are : Viviparidae (3 sp., Ampullariidae (3 sp., Bythiniidae (1 sp.. Pomatiopsidae (1 sp., Thiaridae (7 sp., Lymnaeidae(l sp. and Planorbidae (5 sp.; freshwater bivalve are: Corbiculidae (4 sp.; land snails are: Subulinidae (2 sp., Achatinidae (1 sp. and Bradybaenidae (1 sp.; land slug: Veronicelidae (2 sp. Philomycidae (1 sp. and Limacidae (1 sp.. All are common species which can be found in the vicinity of human habitation (ponds, rice-field, ditches, gardens etc. The parasitological studies on these molluscs are rather limited, only 9 species have been studied and confirmed to be the intermediate host of parasitic nematodes and nematodes; i.e. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediate host of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonica in Central Sulawesi: Pila suctata, Achatina fulica and Laevicaulis alte from several places in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Flores have been found to be harbouring the larvae of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis; Bellamy a rudipelis, Gyraulus sarasinorum and Corbicula lindoensis were recorded as the intermediate host of the intestinal fluke Echinostoma lindoensis in Central Sulawesi; Lymnaea rubiginosa plays an important role in the life-cycle of the cattle liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and F.hepatica, which may reduce the national meat production; and Digoniostoma truncatum from Bali has been recorded naturally infected with radiae and cercariae of Paramphistoma sp., the causative agent of the fatal paramphistomiasis of cattle. Gyraulus convexiusculus is considered to be the most likely first intermediate host of

  18. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  19. Malacología Latinoamericana: Moluscos de agua dulce de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estado de situación y una lista actualizada y comentada sobre las especies de moluscos de agua dulce de la República Argentina. Se aborda en Gastropoda y Bivalvia la distribución a nivel de familias; las entidades endémicas, exóticas, invasoras y de importancia sanitaria. Los moluscos relacionados a la cuenca del Plata presentan la mayor riqueza específica. Base de datos: 4 500 registros relevados de las tres colecciones más importantes de la Argentina: MLP, MACN y FML. Además, se incluye información de recolecciones actuales y localidades citadas por otros autores. Hasta el presente han sido descritas 166 especies. De ellas 101 pertenecen a 10 familias de Gastropoda y 65 a 7 de Bivalvia. Las familias que presentan mayor riqueza específica son Lithoglyphidae (22 y Sphaeriidae (25, respectivamente. Sphaeriidae, Cochliopidae, Chilinidae y Lymnaeidae se distribuyen prácticamente en todo el país. Erodonidae y Solecurtidae se registran en ambientes mixohalinos de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Thiaridae y Glacidorbiidae presentan una distribución muy restringida. Especies endémicas de la Argentina: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1, Cochliopidae (10, Lithoglyphidae (11, Thiariidae (3, Chilinidae (11, Lymnaeidae (2 y Physidae (2?; Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?; Etheriidae (1? y Sphaeriidae (10. Especies de interés sanitario: propagadoras de: Esquistosomiasis, Biomphalaria peregrina, B. straminea y B. tenagophila (Planorbidae; Fasciolasis, Lymnaea viatrix y L. columnella (Lymnaeidae; y dermatitis esquistosómicas, Chilina gibbosa y C. fluminea (Chilinidae. Especies de origen asiático: Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae y Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae. Es prioritaria la formación de áreas protegidas para la conservación de especies endémicas, especialmente de la Mesopotamia Argentina.Latin American Malacology. Freshwater Mollusks from Argentina. A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of

  20. Composição das espécies de moluscos bentônicos nos reservatórios do baixo rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brasil com uma avaliação do impacto causado pelas espécies exóticas invasoras Species composition of benthic molluscs in the reservoirs of Low Tietê River (São Paulo, Brazil with an evaluation of the impact of exotic invader species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta S. França

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A composição taxonômica, a densidade e a distribuição espacial de moluscos bentônicos nos reservatórios do baixo rio Tietê (São Paulo foram analisadas. A amostragem dos moluscos foi realizada em novembro de 2002 e agosto de 2003. As características físicas e químicas dos reservatórios também foram avaliadas buscando-se correlacioná-las à composição taxonômica e à distribuição dos táxons através da Análise de Correspondência Canônica (ACC. A espécie exótica Melanoides tuberculata esteve distribuída em todas as porções amostradas e foi a espécie mais abundante, correspondendo a 65,9% ou mais da abundância total, sendo dominante em todos os reservatórios, com densidade máxima de 23753 ind.m-2 registrada na profundidade de 2 m da porção superior do reservatório de Nova Avanhandava. As demais espécies exóticas, Corbicula fluminea e Helisoma sp., foram bem menos abundantes e não foram registradas em todas as porções dos reservatórios. As espécies nativas foram Aylacostoma tenuilabris, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. intermedia, Physa cubensis e Pomacea canaliculata. Essas espécies representaram menos de 20% das espécies presentes nos reservatórios, ocorreram em abundância baixa e em densidades bem inferiores àquelas das espécies exóticas, principalmente em relação a M. tuberculata, podendo indicar o impacto das espécies exóticas invasoras sobre as populações nativas.The taxonomic composition, density and the spatial distribution of benthic molluscs in low Tietê, São Paulo reservoirs were analyzed in November 2002 and August 2003. The exotic species Melanoides tuberculata was distributed in all portions sampled and was the most abundant species, corresponding to 65.9% or more of the total abundance, being dominant in all reservoirs, with a maximum density of 23,753 ind.m-2 recorded in the depth of 2 m, at the superior portion of Nova Avanhandava reservoir.The other exotic species, Corbicula

  1. A malacofauna bentônica das represas do médio rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brasil e uma avaliação ecológica das espécies exóticas invasoras, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller e Corbicula fluminea (Müller Benthic malacofauna of the reservoirs of the Middle River Tietê (São Paulo, Brazil and an ecological evaluation of the invading exotic species, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller and Corbicula fluminea (Müller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Suriani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a composição de espécies, a densidade e a distribuição espacial e temporal da malacofauna bentônica em três represas do médio rio Tietê. As coletas foram realizadas em dois períodos climáticos, o chuvoso em novembro de 2002 e o seco em agosto de 2003, amostrando-se três porções em cada represa (superior, mediana e barragem e seguindo uma varredura com seis pontos amostrais em cada transecto. Os dados limnológicos obtidos evidenciaram que as represas do médio rio Tietê encontram-se eutrofizadas com elevadas concentrações de nutrientes (totais e dissolvidos. Foram registradas oito espécies de moluscos sendo seis nativas e duas exóticas. Destas, a espécie dominante foi o molusco exótico e invasor Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774, presente em todas as represas. A outra espécie exótica Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774, também esteve presente em todas as represas e em ambos os períodos de coleta (exceto na represa de Barra Bonita. Na represa de Barra Bonita só ocorreram as duas espécies exóticas, enquanto nas represas de Bariri e Ibitinga as espécies nativas Aylacostoma tenuilabris (Bernardi, 1856, Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, Biomphalaria intermedia (Paraense & Deslandes, 1962, Diplodon expansus (Küster, 1853, Physa cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 e Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 ocorreram em pelo menos um dos períodos amostrados. A ocupação generalizada de M. tuberculata e C. fluminea e as elevadas densidades destas espécies nas represas estudadas revelam o alto potencial invasor das mesmas e a provável competição com as espécies nativas.This study analyze the composition of species, the density and the spatial and temporal distribution of benthic malacofauna in three reservoirs of the Middle Tietê River. The samplings were carried out in two climatic periods, the rainy season in November 2002 and the dry season in August 2003, showing three portions in each reservoir (upper

  2. Physiology of the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata: tolerance to low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Lewis E.; Schmidt, William; Leblanc, Brody; Carter, Jacoby; Mueck, Kristy; Merino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Apple snails of the genus Pomacea native to South America have invaded and become established in Europe, Asia, and the United States. Both the channeled apple snail Pomacea canaliculata and the island apple snail Pomacea maculata have been reported in the United States. The two species are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, leading to uncertainty about the identity of the animals from populations in the United States. Because the snails are subtropical, their tolerance of low temperatures is a critical factor in limiting the spread of the animals from present localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to more northern areas. The tolerance of P. maculata collected in Louisiana to temperatures as low as 0°C was examined. There was no mortality among animals maintained in water at temperatures of 20°C or 15°C for 10 days. Survival of animals during a 10-day exposure to water at temperatures 10°C and 5°C was 50%. The LD50 for a 10-day exposure was 7°C. Snails did not survive more than 5 days in liquid water at 0°C. Ammonia excretion by animals in temperatures of 20°C and 15°C was comparable to values reported for freshwater gastropods; at very low temperatures, excretion of ammonia was decreased. There was no difference in the mean values of the osmolality of the hemolymph of animals exposed to 20°C, 15°C and 10°C for 10 days. Sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 identified the animals in the Louisiana population used in this study as P. maculata.

  3. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  4. Diquat associated with copper sources for algae control: Efficacy and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Nathalia; Da Cruz, Claudinei; Da Silva, Adilson F; Carraschi, Silvia P; Malaspina, Igor C; Pitelli, Robinson A; Bianco, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of copper oxychloride (CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) and diquat (1.1'-ethylene-2.2'-bipyridyldiylium dibromide), isolated and in association with 0.1% of both copper sources, in the control of the unicellular algae Ankistrodesmus gracilis and the filamentous algae Pithophora kewesis, and to determine the acute toxicity of the tested chemicals in Hyphressobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata, Lemna minor and Azolla caroliniana. The efficacy was estimated by the methods of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a readings, changed into growth inhibition percentage. Both algae were exposed to the following concentrations: 0.2; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2 mg L(-1) of diquat and its association with the copper sources; and 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) in the isolated applications of copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride. An untreated control was kept. The acute toxicity was estimatedby 50% lethal concentration (LC50). The copper sources were effective for A. gracilis control, at rates as high as 0.1 mg L(-1) (>95% efficacy). Isolated diquat and its association with copper hydroxide were both effective at rates as high as 0.4 mg L(-1), with 95 and 88% control efficacy, respectively. The copper oxychloride was effective at 0.2 mg L(-1), with 93% efficacy. None of the tested chemicals and associations was effective on P. kewesis control. The most sensitive non target organism to the tested chemicals was L. minor; the less sensitive was H. eques.

  5. Quantitative thin layer chromatographic analysis of the saponins in tea seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaicharoenpong, Chanya; Petsom, Amorn

    2009-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera Abel., which contains saponins, is used extensively in aquaculture to eliminate unwanted fish and harmful insects during the cultivation of prawns, and as a molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck. For the quality control of such tea seed meal products, a method for the determination of saponin content is required. To develop a simple, sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of saponins in tea seed meal using high-performance thin layer chromatography and densitometry. Powdered tea seed meal samples were extracted with methanol, filtered, evaporated to dryness and the residue taken up in methanol. Samples, together with methanolic solutions of saponin standard, were analysed by HPTLC on silica gel layers eluted with ethyl acetate:methanol:water (6:3:1.5, v/v/v) and detected at 214 nm. The amounts of saponins were determined from the respective calibration curves obtained by plotting the concentrations of saponin standard against peak area. Tea saponin peaks were detected at about R(f )0.40. Good linearity was observed in the range of 0.9-22.2 microg/spot with a correlation coefficient of 0.9978. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.87 and 2.90 microg/spot, respectively. The content of tea saponins in 10 tested samples was found to be between 13.1 and 21.1% w/w. The assay proved to be a specific, sensitive and inexpensive method for the quality control of saponins in tea seed meal. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. In Vivo Effects of Free Form Astaxanthin Powder on Anti-Oxidation and Lipid Metabolism with High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chi; Wu, Yi-Long; Liu, Li-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin extracted from Pomacea canaliculata eggs was made into free-form astaxanthin powder (FFAP) and its effects on lipid metabolism, liver function, antioxidants activities and astaxanthin absorption rate were investigated. 45 hamsters were split into 5 groups and fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol control (0.2% cholesterol), 1.6FFAP (control+1.6% FFAP), 3.2FFAP (control+3.2% FFAP) and 8.0FFAP (control+8.0% FFAP), respectively, for 6 weeks. FFAP diets significantly decreased the liver total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and increased liver fatty acids (C20:5n3; C22:6n3) compositions. It decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In terms of anti-oxidative activities, we found 8.0 FFAP diet significantly decreased plasma and liver malonaldehyde (4.96±1.96 μg TEP eq./mL and 1.56±0.38 μg TEP eq./g liver) and liver 8-isoprostane levels (41.48±13.69 μg 8-ISOP/g liver). On the other hand, it significantly increased liver catalase activity (149.10±10.76 μmol/min/g liver), Vitamin C (2082.97±142.23 μg/g liver), Vitamin E (411.32±81.67 μg/g liver) contents, and glutathione levels (2.13±0.42 mg GSH eq./g liver). Furthermore, 80% of astaxanthin absorption rates in all FFAP diet groups suggest FFAP is an effective form in astaxanthin absorption. Finally, astaxanthin was found to re-distribute to the liver and eyes in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggested that the appropriate addition of FFAP into high cholesterol diets increases liver anti-oxidative activity and reduces the concentration of lipid peroxidase and therefore, it may be beneficial as a material in developing healthy food.

  7. In Vivo Effects of Free Form Astaxanthin Powder on Anti-Oxidation and Lipid Metabolism with High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin extracted from Pomacea canaliculata eggs was made into free-form astaxanthin powder (FFAP and its effects on lipid metabolism, liver function, antioxidants activities and astaxanthin absorption rate were investigated. 45 hamsters were split into 5 groups and fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol control (0.2% cholesterol, 1.6FFAP (control+1.6% FFAP, 3.2FFAP (control+3.2% FFAP and 8.0FFAP (control+8.0% FFAP, respectively, for 6 weeks. FFAP diets significantly decreased the liver total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and increased liver fatty acids (C20:5n3; C22:6n3 compositions. It decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In terms of anti-oxidative activities, we found 8.0 FFAP diet significantly decreased plasma and liver malonaldehyde (4.96±1.96 μg TEP eq./mL and 1.56±0.38 μg TEP eq./g liver and liver 8-isoprostane levels (41.48±13.69 μg 8-ISOP/g liver. On the other hand, it significantly increased liver catalase activity (149.10±10.76 μmol/min/g liver, Vitamin C (2082.97±142.23 μg/g liver, Vitamin E (411.32±81.67 μg/g liver contents, and glutathione levels (2.13±0.42 mg GSH eq./g liver. Furthermore, 80% of astaxanthin absorption rates in all FFAP diet groups suggest FFAP is an effective form in astaxanthin absorption. Finally, astaxanthin was found to re-distribute to the liver and eyes in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggested that the appropriate addition of FFAP into high cholesterol diets increases liver anti-oxidative activity and reduces the concentration of lipid peroxidase and therefore, it may be beneficial as a material in developing healthy food.

  8. Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology Moluscos (Gastropoda e Bivalvia da Reserva Natural de Usos Múltiplos Ilha Martín García, Rio de La Plata: biodiversidade e ecologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    II César

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28% and P. buschii (9.50% showed the highest